A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (1/4138)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (2/4138)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Improved antibody detection by the use of range expansion and longer filter wavelength in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate Auto-Analyzer system. (3/4138)

Range expansion, achieved by insertion of a variable resistance between the colorimeter and the recorder together with the use of 550 nm colorimeter filters, has resulted in markedly improved sensitivity for antibody detection, and improved sample identification, in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate (LISPS) system. Range expansion also permits a lower concentration of red cells to be used, thus economizing on fully typed cells. Glycerol stored frozen cells were found to be only slightly less sensitive than fresh cells in this system.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (4/4138)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/4138)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (6/4138)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Characterization of the exopolygalacturonate lyase PelX of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. (7/4138)

Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes several pectinolytic enzymes, among which eight isoenzymes of pectate lyases with an endo-cleaving mode (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelI, PelL, and PelZ) have been identified. Two exo-cleaving enzymes, the exopolygalacturonate lyase, PelX, and an exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase, PehX, have been previously identified in other E. chrysanthemi strains. Using a genomic bank of a 3937 mutant with the major pel genes deleted, we cloned a pectinase gene identified as pelX, encoding the exopolygalacturonate lyase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 3937 PelX is very similar to the PelX of another E. chrysanthemi strain, EC16, except in the 43 C-terminal amino acids. PelX also has homology to the endo-pectate lyase PelL of E. chrysanthemi but has a N-terminal extension of 324 residues. The transcription of pelX, analyzed by gene fusions, is dependent on several environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelX expression is dependent on the KdgR repressor, which controls almost all the steps of pectin catabolism, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. In contrast, PecS and PecT, two repressors of the transcription of most pectate lyase genes, are not involved in pelX expression. The pelX mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants did not appear to be affected. The purified PelX protein has no maceration activity on plant tissues. Tetragalacturonate is the best substrate of PelX, but PelX also has good activity on longer oligomers. Therefore, the estimated number of binding subsites for PelX is 4, extending from subsites -2 to +2. PelX and PehX were shown to be localized in the periplasm of E. chrysanthemi 3937. PelX catalyzed the formation of unsaturated digalacturonates by attack from the reducing end of the substrate, while PehX released digalacturonates by attack from the nonreducing end of the substrate. Thus, the two types of exo-degrading enzymes appeared complementary in the degradation of pectic polymers, since they act on both extremities of the polymeric chain.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (8/4138)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

A total of 1,160 barrows (PIC, initially 68.4 lb) were used in a 70-d study to determine the influence of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and glycerol on pork loin quality attributes. The pigs were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 7 replications per treatment. Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets with the addition of DDGS, glycerol, or a combination of these. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of DDGS (0 or 20%) and glycerol (0, 2.5, or 5%). Pork loins from the 2 heaviest barrows from each pen were utilized for analysis. There were no DDGS × glycerol interac-tions for purge loss, instrumental color (L*a*b*), visual color, marbling score, drip loss, visual color, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cook loss, and most sensory characteristics. However, there was a DDGS × glycerol interaction (P , 0.03) for off-flavor intensity. Specifically, pigs fed 20% DDGS without added glycerol had more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dependence of the shape of the plasma fibronectin molecule on solvent composition. Ionic strength and glycerol content. AU - Rocco, M.. AU - Carson, M.. AU - Hantgan, R.. AU - McDonagh, J.. AU - Hermans, J.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Fibronectin has been purified to apparent homogeneity according to measurements of molecular weight and diffusion constant from light scattering and sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge. This gives two estimates of molecular weight close to 500,000. (The difference with the gel electrophoretic value of 440,000 may indicate the presence of some material of molecular weight higher than that of the monomer). The (corrected) diffusion constant is found to decrease with ionic strength, much more rapidly in 30% glycerol than in water. A corresponding change occurs when the glycerol content is varied from 0 to 30% at moderate ionic strength, but at very low ionic strength the diffusion constant does not depend on glycerol content. It is ...
The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. The mole fraction dependence of all these thermodynamic functions was used to elucidate the effect of glycerol on the molecular organization of H2O. The glycerol molecules do not exert a hydrophobic effect on H2O. Rather, the hydroxyl groups of glycerol, perhaps by forming clusters via its alkyl backbone with hydroxyl groups pointing outward, interact with H2O so as to reduce the characteristics of liquid H2O. The global hydrogen bond probability and, hence, the percolation nature of the hydrogen bond network is reduced. In addition, the degree of fluctuation inherent in liquid H2O is reduced by glycerol perhaps by participating in the hydrogen bond network via OH groups. At infinite dilution, the pair interaction coefficients in enthalpy were evaluated and these data suggest a possibility that the interaction is mediated through H2O ...
The tight junction regulates passage of molecules throuth the paracellular spaces. Occludin and claudins are the specific trancmembrance protains present at the tight junction and are believed to regulate the cell barrier functions. To examine the response of the tight junction to hyperosmotic solutions, Ⅰinvestigated the effects of hyperosmotic glycerol on function and protein expression of the tight junction in ECV304 cells. Cell cytotoxicity analysis showed that the high (10%) concentration of glcerol damaged 64.1% of the ECV304 cells (p<0.001), and this was confirmed morphologically. Treatment with 1%, 2% or 5% glyserol increased the paracellular permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -labeled dextran by 4.7%, 18.7% and 29.4% (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, exposure to glycerol at any concentration strongly reduced the expression of occludin, whereas enpression of claudin-1 was affected very slightly. These results suggest that hyperosmotic glycerol would certainly ...
The effect of glycerol on nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs - Volume 1 Issue 1 - M E E McCann, E Magowan, K J McCracken, V E Beattie, F J Gordon, M D Scott, A Thompson, R Bradford
Crude glycerol is a main by-product from biodiesel production, and efficient utilization of crude glycerol will bring significant economic and environmental benefits. However, the complex compositions of crude glycerol may impair the cellular growth and inhibit the crude glycerol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to find a simple method to treat the crude glycerol and release the inhibition on cell metabolism. The simply purified crude glycerol by activated carbon can be used as the carbon source to produce succinate in two-stage fermentation by the engineered Escherichia coli strain, MLB (ldhA−, pflB−) expressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. In the flask experiments, succinate production from crude glycerol without treatment was less than that from pure glycerol. However, in the experiments of 1.5-L bioreactor, little succinate was produced in crude glycerol. The simply purified crude glycerol was used as carbon source for succinate production, and the glycerol consumption and succinate
In starvation, glycerol is released from adipose tissue and serves as an important precursor for hepatic gluconeogenesis. By unknown gender-specific mechanisms, women suppress the endogenous glucose production better than men and respond to metabolic stress with higher plasma glycerol levels. Hepatic glycerol uptake is facilitated by aquaporin-9 (AQP9), a broad-selectivity neutral solute channel, and represents an insulin-regulated step in supplying gluconeogenesis with glycerol. In the current study, hepatic AQP9 abundance was increased 2.6-fold in starved male rats as assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. By contrast, starvation had no significant effect on hepatic AQP9 expression in female rats. Coordinately, plasma glycerol levels remained unchanged upon starvation in male rats whereas it was increased in female rats. The different responses to starvation were paralleled by higher glycerol permeability in basolateral hepatocyte membranes from starved male rats as compared to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of groove width and depth and urethane coating on slip resistance of vinyl flooring sheet in glycerol solution. AU - Shibata, Kei. AU - Warita, Iori. AU - Yamaguchi, Takeshi. AU - Hinoshita, Mamoru. AU - Sakauchi, Koichi. AU - Matsukawa, Seiko. AU - Hokkirigawa, Kazuo. PY - 2019/7. Y1 - 2019/7. N2 - Sheet-type resin floors possess a risk of slipping during rains or liquid spills. We investigated the friction properties of vinyl flooring sheets using shoes and glycerol solution, and clarified the combined effect of the grooves depth and width and a urethane coating on the coefficient of friction (COF). According to the analysis, the static COF could be expressed using the spreading coefficient. All the dynamic COFs could be expressed using the spreading coefficient and aspect ratio of the grooves. All the COFs were significantly affected by the interfacial tension at the triple line but were relatively unaffected by the groove shape.. AB - Sheet-type resin floors possess a ...
Crude glycerol represents ca. 10 % of the product output in biodiesel production. As the biodiesel production increases exponentially, the amount of resulting crude glycerol is extensively high. The problem of its disposal or effective utilization is of increasing importance. In this work, the composities of poly(vinyl alcohol), horn meal and crude glycerol with the mass ratios of crude glycerol and poly(vinyl alcohol) 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25 were prepared and used for the formation of mulching coatings. The influence of the addition of crude glycerol to the composites on the mechanical, viscoelastic properties, swelling and dimensional stability in water of the composite films was examined. The increase of the amount of glycerol resulted in the increase of elasticity and dimensional stability of the composite films. The effect of the mulch films containing the different amount crude glycerol on evaporation of water from the substrate, vegetation of plants, soil properties and weeds (wild mustard and ...
Aquaglyceroporins-aquaporin membrane channels (AQP) that conduct glycerol and other small neutral solutes in addition to water-play major roles in obesity. In adipocytes, aquaglyceroporins mediate glycerol uptake and release across the plasma membrane, which are two key steps for triacylglycerols (TAGs) synthesis (lipogenesis) and hydrolysis (lipolysis). The aim of this study was to assess both glycerol permeability and metabolism in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells (UDCs) as well as in untreated (CTL-DCs) versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS-DCs)-treated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol release, TAGs content and whole membrane glycerol permeability were significantly increased in DCs as compared to UDCs. Moreover, in DCs, LPS treatment significantly increased TAGs content and decreased glycerol permeability. In addition, a significant reduction in whole membrane glycerol permeability was observed in LPS-DCs as compared to CTL-DCs. The relative contributions of AQP3, AQP7 and AQP9 (facilitated
Porphyran is a sulfate galactan in the cell wall of Porphyra. Its acid hydrolysis product, oligo-porphyran (OP), was prepared and the structure studied by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). This oligosaccharide was mainly composed of monosulfate-oligo-galactan, disufate-oligo-galactan, trisulfate-oligo-galactan, trisulfate oligo-methyl-galactan, and 3,6-anhydrogalactose with the degree of polymerization ranging from 1 to 8. The effects of OP were investigated in the glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) model. Compared with the normal group, rats from the glycerol-induced group exhibited collecting duct and medullary ascending limb dilation and casts. The OP-treated group exerted a protective effect against glycerol-induced changes. The results showed that the administration of OP markedly decreased mortality in female ARF rats. For male ARF rats, all of which survived, OP significantly decreased the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Ion levels in
Citation: Boyd, J.A., West, J.W., Bernard, J.K. 2013. Effects of feeding different amounts of supplemental glycerol on ruminal environment and digestibility of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 96:470-476. Interpretive Summary: Glycerol can be used to replace corn in a dairy cows diet, but feeding glycerol to dairy cattle has been cost prohibitive because of its value in other fields. However, feeding glycerol became more feasible when it became a byproduct of biodiesel production. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of dietary glycerol on rumen environment, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Results indicated that the inclusion of dietary glycerol in the ration of high producing dairy cows may reduce intake, and alter milk yield and composition because of changes in ruminal fermentation. This trial was one step in determining optimal inclusion rates for glycerol in dairy cattle diets. Technical Abstract: A study was conducted to ...
The apparent DE and ME values of crude glycerol for growing pigs were determined in 5 experiments using crude glycerol (86.95% glycerol) from a biodiesel production facility, which used soybean oil as the initial feedstock. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, or 10% glycerol addition to basal diets in Exp. 1; 0, 5, 10, or 20% glycerol addition to basal diets in Exp. 2; and 0 and 10% crude glycerol addition to the basal diets in Exp. 3, 4, and 5. Each diet was fed twice daily to pigs in individual metabolism crates. After a 10-d adjustment period, a 5-d balance trial was conducted. During the collection period, feces and urine were collected separately after each meal and stored at 0°C until analyses. The GE of each dietary treatment and samples of urine and feces from each pig were determined by isoperibol bomb calorimetry. Digestible energy of the diet was calculated by subtracting fecal energy from the GE in the feed, whereas ME was calculated by subtracting the urinary energy from DE. The DE and ...
Glycerol is one humectant commonly employed due to its high hygroscopic and hyperosmotic properties. It is used in cosmetics as a moisturizer and in pharmaceutical formulations as an active compound. Being naturally present in the skin, glycerol was quickly identified for its role in skin hydration, similar to natural moisturizing factors (NMF).
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important central orexigenic hormone predominantly produced by the hypothalamus, and recently found to be secreted in adipose tissue (AT). Acipimox (Aci) inhibits lipolysis in AT and reduces plasma glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Exercise and Aci are enhancers of growth hormone (GH) and NPY secretion and exercise may alter leptin levels. We expect to find abnormal neuropeptidergic response in plasma and AT in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). We hypothesize that Aci influences these peptides via a FFA-independent mechanism and that Aci inhibits lipolysis through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. Dysregulations of the AT-brain axis peptides might be involved in binge eating as is the case in BN. The objective of this study was to determine the responses of plasma NPY, GH, leptin, FFA and glycerol levels to exercise in BN patients and healthy women (C) given the anti-lipolytic drug Aci or placebo. The secondary objective of this study was to
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The effect of three types of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on in vivo antilipolysis was investigated in healthy subjects using a 2-h euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic (40 mU · m-2·min) clamp together with microdialysis of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. During hyperinsulinemia (∼330 pmol/l), the circulating glycerol concentration was reduced to ∼50% of the basal level of 53.2 ± 3.6 μmol/l, indicating an antilipolytic effect. The decrease in adipose tissue dialysate glycerol, which mirrors the change in interstitial glycerol concentration, was about 40% during hyperinsulinemia when Ringers solution alone was perfused. Local perfusion with a selective PDE IV inhibitor, rolipram (10−4) mol/l), did not influence the insulin-induced decrease in dialysate glycerol (F = 0.8 vs. perfusion with Ringers solution by two-factor analysis of variance [ANOVA]), although rolipram increased the dialysate glycerol level by 144 ± 7% of the baseline value. However, local perfusion with a ...
Glycerol is by-product of transeterfication process of vegetable oil to produce biodiesel. Theproduction of glycerol increases as the number of biodiesel industries grows. The incrementof glycerol is not proportional with its application in industries which cause a drop in crudeglycerol price and problem to environment. Overcome this condition, an initial experiment ofglycerol characterization as a potential base drilling fluid was performed.This research covered the formulation of glycerol and quality assessment of glycerol, bothcrude and purified glycerol, by comparing the characteristic glycerol with former oil basefluids. The characterization of glycerol compound was conducted by Nuclear MagneticResonance (NMR) spectrometry, and fluid testing which cover the testing of specific gravity,flash point, pour and cloud point also kinematic viscosity.The fluid testing result showed that purified glycerol has better physical characterization thanthe crude glycerol. In addition, purified glycerol
1. The effective volume of distribution of labelled glycerol was studied in conscious young adult rabbits provided with in-dwelling cannulae in the femoral blood vessels. This could be estimated after sampling arterial blood throughout an intravenous infusion of [2-3H]glycerol. The volume was calculated by using an algebraic method of graphical area analysis over 100 min of equilibration, and is symbolized 100V e or 100V e%. It occupied 34.1 +/- 2.2% (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 13) of the body weight. The pool of endogenous glycerol occupying this space is distinguished in the present paper by calling it the transit pool, symbolized 100Me. 2. The median time of transit of glycerol through this pool was approx. 6 min in these conscious rabbits with normal (less than 0.2 mM) blood glycerol concentrations. 3. The metabolism of glycerol was also studied in rabbits while anaesthetized with urethane or while conscious. On average, half of the change in glycerol concentration that occurred on overnight ...
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Hydrogen is a clean source of energy with no harmful byproducts produced during its combustion. Bioconversion of different organic waste materials to hydrogen is a sustainable technology for hydrogen production and it has been investigated by several researchers. Crude glycerol generated during biodiesel manufacturing process can also be used as a feedstock for hydrogen production using microbial processes. The possibility of using crude glycerol as a feedstock for biohydrogen production has been reviewed in this article. A review of recent global biodiesel and crude glycerol production and their future market potential has also been carried out. Similarly, different technical constraints of crude glycerol bioconversion have been elaborately discussed and some strategies for improved hydrogen yield have also been proposed. It has been underlined that use of crude glycerol from biodiesel processing plants for hydrogen production has many advantages over the use of other organic wastes as ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) ethanol-based handrub (EBHR) formulation contains 1.45% glycerol as an emollient to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) skin against dryness and dermatitis. However, glycerol seems to negatively affect the antimicrobial efficacy of alcohols. In addition, the minimal concentration of glycerol required to protect hands remain unknown. We aim to evaluate the tolerance of HCWs to the WHO EBHR formulation using different concentrations of glycerol in a tropical climate healthcare setting. We conducted a cluster-randomized, double-blind, crossover study among 40 HCWs from an intensive care unit of a tertiary-care hospital in Brazil, from June 1st to September 30, 2017. We tested the WHO EBHR original formulation containing 1.45% glycerol against three other concentrations (0, 0.5, and 0.75%). HCWs used one formulation at a time for seven working days during their routine practice and then had their hands evaluated by an external observer using the WHO scale for visual
Biomass as a source of hydrogen production has gained great cognizance amongst researchers. The growing trend of energy is geared towards renewable energy sources for which crude glycerol serves as a viable source for hydrogen production. The most widely studied feedstock for hydrogen production is methane (CH4). In this work, crude glycerol which is a bi product in biodiesel production is considered because it produces higher number of moles of hydrogen than methane and also, adds up to the effective use of crude glycerol as a source of hydrogen. The kinetics for this system was studied over S/C ratio of 2.6 and O2/C 0.125 using 5% Ni/CeZrCa. Both power law and mechanistic kinetic models were studied. The overall power law model for crude glycerol autothermal reforming process was investigated with a pre-exponential factor of 4.3×1010 mol/gcat.min and activation energy of 8.78×104 J/mol. The reaction orders with respect to crude glycerol, water and oxygen are 1.04, 0.54 and 1.78 respectively. ...
article{877c87ba-990d-4d23-aaaf-30f37c47b19c, abstract = {The antilipolytic effect of insulin on human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle during local inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterases (PDEs) was investigated in vivo, by combining microdialysis with a euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp. During hyperinsulinaemia, the glycerol concentration decreased by 40% in fat and by 33% in muscle. Addition of the selective PDE3-inhibitor amrinone abolished the insulin-induced decrease in adipose glycerol concentration, but did not influence the glycerol concentration in skeletal muscle. Nor did the PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram or the PDE5-selective inhibitor dipyridamole influence the insulin-induced decrease in muscle tissue glycerol. However, the non-selective PDE-inhibitor theophylline counteracted the antilipolytic action of insulin at both sites. The specific activity of PDEs was also determined in both tissues. PDE3-activity was 36.8+/-6.4 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) in ...
3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform for the production of C3 chemicals, including acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, and acrylamide. Microbial production of 3-HP is mainly due to glycerol metabolism. In this study, in order to improve microbial 3-HP production, we applied a metabolic toggle switch for controlling the glycerol metabolism to redirect the excess metabolic flux of central metabolic pathway toward an exogenous 3-HP producing pathway in Escherichia coli. The metabolic toggle switch enables conditional repression of the expression of a target gene during the fermentation. We individually performed conditional repression of glpK, tpiA, and gapA, which are involved in glycerol metabolism. The conditional repression of glpK and tpiA was not effective for 3-HP production under our experimental conditions. However, gapA conditional repression contributed to improve 3-HP production (titer, 54.2 ± 1.5 mM; yield, 32.1 ± 1.3 %) compared with that for the wild type strain. Additional
The chitosan-starch (high amylose) blend film (1;1), via microfluidization, was prepared by casting with different glycerol concentration (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%). The films were characterized for their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. The addition of glycerol at 5% (w/w) and higher concentrations resulted in decrease in tensile strength, increase in elongation at break due to plasticization. The wellknown antiplasticization was observed in the polymer films with 2.5% of glycerol. The addition of glycerol promoted the interactions among chitosan, starch and glycerol through hydrogen bonding as reflected on the shifting of main peaks of the glycerol-free film to higher wavenumbers as shown by FTIR spectra. The decrease in intensity of glycerol-related peaks in starch-chitosan-glycerol films in both 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra proved the strong interactions (decrease in glycerol mobility) occurring among starch, chitosan and glycerol in glycerol-plasticized films. © 2012 Elsevier ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The MAP kinase Hog 1p differentially regulates stress-induced production and accumulation of glycerol and D-arabitol in Candida albicans. AU - Kayingo, Gerald. AU - Wong, Brian. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Candida albicans produces and accumulates large amounts of the polyols D-arabitol and glycerol in culture, and/or in infected mammalian tissues. However, the effects of environmental stresses on production and accumulation of these polyols, and the means by which polyol production and accumulation are regulated have not been studied. C. albicans grown in glucose at 30 °C (i) produced maximal amounts of glycerol within 6 h, (ii) produced maximal amounts of D-arabitol and ribitol within 12 h, and (iii) released most of these polyols into the extracellular environment. C. albicans responded to osmotic and citric acid stress by producing and accumulating more glycerol, and to temperature and oxidative stresses by producing more D-arabitol. The increase in intracellular glycerol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - More insights into support and preparation method effects in gold catalyzed glycerol oxidation. AU - Bogdanchikova, Nina. AU - Tuzovskaya, Inga. AU - Prati, Laura. AU - Villa, Alberto. AU - Pestryakov, Alexey. AU - Farías, Mario. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. KW - Active sites. KW - Catalysts. KW - Glycerol. KW - Gold. KW - Nanoparticles. KW - Oxidation. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85017685400&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85017685400&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.2174/1570179413666161031114833. DO - 10.2174/1570179413666161031114833. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 377. EP - 382. JO - Current Organic Synthesis. JF - Current Organic Synthesis. SN - 1570-1794. IS - 3. ER - ...
Global glycerol market size is likely to exceed USD 3 billion by 2022, as per a new research report by Radiant Insights, Inc. Regulatory push for promoting bio-diesel production is expected to boost glycerol demand over the forecast period, with expected decline of synthetic products such as DEG and propylene glycol paving the way for glycerol to gain market penetration. Moreover, new developments by Ohio Soybean Council for the development of new glycerol products from soybean are expected to tap new applications over the next six years. However, surging food demand is expected to impact oilseed supply as a raw material for glycerol production.. Increasing diabetes prevalence and changing food habits are expected to augment the use of glycerol as a low-calorie source of lecithin and carbohydrate. Glycerol demand for food & beverage applications is expected to reach USD 417.9 million by 2022, growing at over 8%. Additionally, its sustainable nature is expected to augment glycerol market demand ...
A total of 360 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were placed in 12 pens (30 birds per pen) and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (four replicates per treatment). All broilers were fed a starter diet (0-21 days of age) and a finisher diet (22-42 days of age). The experimental treatments consisted of either 0% (GLYC-0), 4% (GLYC-4) or 8% (GLYC-8) crude glycerol added to the diet. The crude glycerol was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility that used sunflower, corn and soybean oil in the production of biodiesel.. The crude glycerol was analyzed to contain 82.6% glycerol, 0.03% methanol, 11.8% moisture, 0.64% crude protein, 0.1% ether extract and 4.81% ash. The metabolizable energy (ME) of the glycerol had previously been measured at 3,527 kcal/kg.. The composition of the experimental diets is shown in Table 1. The diets were formulated to provide nearly equal nutrient contents associated with the three levels of glycerol. The glycerol primarily replaced corn ...
Import Data And Price Of Crude Glycerol , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of Crude Glycerol Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this Crude Glycerol import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for Crude Glycerol import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian ...
The high sugar concentration in Icewine juice exerts hyperosmotic stress in the wine yeast causing water loss and cell shrinkage. To counteract the dehydration, yeast synthesize and accumulate glycerol as an internal osmolyte. In a laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae, STLl encodes for Stllp, an H+ /glycerol symporter that is glucose inactivated, but induced upon hyperosmotic stress. STLl, was found to be a highly upregulated gene in Icewine fermenting cells and its expression was 25-fold greater than in yeast cells fermenting diluted Icewine juice, making it one of the most differentially expressed genes between the two fermentation conditions. In addition, Icewine fermenting cells showed a two-fold higher glycerol production in the wine compared to yeast fermenting diluted Icewine juice. We proposed that Stllp is (1) active during Icewine fermentation and is not glucose inactivated and (2) its activity contributes to the limited cell growth observed during Icewine fermentation as a result of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic analysis of glycerol dry reforming for hydrogen and synthesis gas production. AU - Wang, Xiaodong. AU - Li, Maoshuai. AU - Wang, Meihua. AU - Wang, Hao. AU - Li, Shuirong. AU - Wang, Shengping. AU - Ma, Xinbin. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - A thermodynamic analysis of glycerol dry reforming has been performed by the Gibbs free energy minimization method as a function of CO2 to glycerol ratio, temperature, and pressure. Hydrogen and synthesis gas can be produced by the glycerol dry reforming. The carbon neutral glycerol reforming with greenhouse gas CO2 could convert CO2 into synthesis gas or high value-added inner carbon. Atmospheric pressure is preferable for this system and glycerol conversion keeps 100%. Various of H2/CO ratios can be generated from a flexible operational range. Optimized conditions for hydrogen production are temperatures over 975 K and CO2 to glycerol ratios of 0-1. With a temperature of 1000 K and CO2 to glycerol ratio of 1, the production ...
In Italy, Bio-on and Greenergy International Limited have signed an agreement to begin a technical collaboration, the first in the United Kingdom, to look at the possibility of producing PHAs bioplastic from Glycerol, a biodiesel production co-product. The two companies will work together to establish the feasibility of building in the United Kingdom a 5,000 ton per year plant expandable to 10 thousand tons per year. Greenergys technical collaboration with Bio-on will investigate the potential to manufacture PHAs biopolymers from glycerol on an industrial scale in the UK. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of prior glycerol loading on competitive Olympic distance triathlon performance (ODT) in high ambient temperatures. Ten (3 female and 7 male) well-trained triathletes (VO2max = 58.4 ±2.4 ml-kg−1 min−1; best ODT time = 131.5 ± 2.6 min) completed 2 ODTs (1.5-km swim, 40-km bicycle, 10-km run) in a randomly assigned (placebo/ glycerol) double-blind study conducted 2 weeks apart. The wet-bulb globe temperature (outdoors) was 30.5 + 0.5 °C (relative humidity: 46.3 ± 1.1%; hot) and 25.4 + 0.2 °C (relative humidity: 51.7 ± 2.4%; warm) for day 1 and day 2, respectively. The glycerol solution consisted of 1.2 g of glycerol per kilogram of body mass (BM) and 25 ml of a 0.75 g · kg−1 BM carbohydrate solution (Gatorade®) and was consumed over a 60-min period, 2 hours prior to each ODT. Measures of performance (ODT time), fluid retention, urine output, blood plasma volume changes, and sweat loss were obtained prior to and during the ODT in ...
INTRODUCTION. Crude glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel production, which consists of glycerol, water, fat, and minerals, has been studied as a potential energy source for poultry and pigs. The gross energy value of this byproduct, depending on its percentage of residual oil, is approximately 3600 kcal/kg (Lammers et al., 2008; Cerrate et al., 2006).. In order to use glycerol as an energy source for non-ruminant animals, it is essential to understand how this substance is metabolized. Glycerol utilization depends on the enzymes glycerol kinase and dehydroxiacetone phosphate dehydrogenase (Lin et al., 1976). When the capacity of these two enzymes is exceeded, glycerol is no longer used, and consequently, it is excreted from the body. It was observed in fasting animals that fatty acid and glycerol blood concentrations are similar, and therefore, it is assumed that both have similar distribution (Bergman, 1968). The dietary addition of glycerol favors the synthesis of glucose (Emmanuel & Robblee, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - [2‐3H]GLYCEROL AS A PRECURSOR OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN RAT BRAIN. T2 - EVIDENCE FOR LACK OF RECYCLING. AU - Benjamins, Joyce A.. AU - McKhann, G. M.. PY - 1973/4. Y1 - 1973/4. N2 - Abstract- When [2‐3H]glycerol was injected intracranially into young rats, it was presented as a pulse label, leaving the brain rapidly and giving up much of its labelled hydrogen to water. [2‐3H]glycerol was efficiently incorporated into brain lipids, especially into choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. Following injection of a mixture of [3H]‐ and [14C]‐labelled glycerol, the ratio of 3H to 14C in the phospholipids of both whole brain and the microsomal fraction decreased as a function of time after injection. This finding indicated less recycling of the tritium label. This lack of recycling was further indicated by the finding that 94 per cent of the tritium label of phosphatidyl choline was in the glycerol portion of the molecule rather than in the fatty acids. At 2 weeks following ...
Hydrogen production by photocatalytic reforming of aqueous solutions of ethanol and glycerol was studied with the use of impregnated and embedded CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts. Embedded [email protected] was prepared by a water-in-oil microemulsion method, which consists in the formation of Cu nanoparticles in the microemulsion followed by controlled hydrolysis and condensation of tetraisopropyl orthotitanate with the aim of covering the protected metal particles with a surrounding layer of porous titanium oxyhydroxide. Mild calcination leads to the complete removal of the organic residues, the crystallization of TiO2, and an unavoidable oxidation of copper. Two reference samples were prepared by classical wet impregnation of preformed TiO2 with different ratios of anatase, rutile, and brookite polymorphs. The two supports were prepared by sol−gel (TiO2−SG) and microemulsion (TiO2−ME) methods. Superior performances have been observed for the embedded system, which shows higher hydrogen production rates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Competition of glycerol with other oxidizable substrates in rat brain. AU - McKenna, M. C.. AU - Bezold, L. I.. AU - Kimatian, S. J.. AU - Tildon, J. T.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - The rate of conversion of [1,3-14C]glycerol into 14CO2 was measured in the presence and absence of unlabelled alternative substrates in whole homogenates from the brains of young (4-6 and 18-20 days old) and adult rats. Unlabelled glucose decreased 14CO2 production from [1,3-14C]glycerol by about 40% at all ages studied. Unlabelled 3-hydroxybutyrate significantly decreased the 14CO2 production from both low (0.2 mM) and high (2.0 mM) concentrations of glycerol in 4-6- and 18-20-day-old rat pups. However, the addition of 3-hydroxybutyrate had no effect on the rate of 14CO2 production from 2.0 mM-glycerol in adult rats, suggesting that the interaction of 3-hydroxybutyrate with glycerol in adult rat brain is complex and may be related to the biphasic kinetics previously reported for glycerol ...
Global Glycerol Market is expected to reach USD 2.52 billion by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. Biodiesel emerged as the leading source of glycerol, accounting for over 1,400 kilo tons of glycerol production in 2013. Growing application market coupled with increased production of oleochemicals in Asia Pacific is expected to augment glycerol demand over the forecast period.. Personal care and pharmaceuticals were the largest application segment, with glycerol consumption exceeding 870 kilo tons in 2013. However, food & beverage is expected to be the fastest growing application segment at an estimated CAGR of 8.4% from 2014 to 2020, owing to improving lifestyle in emerging economies leading to increased consumption of processed and packed foods.. Full Research Report on Global Glycerol Market Analysis ...
My recollection is that the formation of a phospholipid normally involves acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a glycolytic intermediate, and so there is no actual phosphorylation of a glycerol; the phosphate on the glycerol will have come from the phosphorylation of glucose or of fructose 6-phosphate.. In a kinase reaction the oxygen of the -OH in the acceptor acts as a nucleophile at the P of the phosphate, so in terms of your question the O atom comes from the acceptor, not the donor. Presumably if there was a glycerol kinase (I expect there is) it would have the same mechanism so the O would come from the glycerol.. ...
A novel approach in the production of protein based films and composites were performed, using the bovine milk protein casein and regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell). The films were prepared by first dissolving the casein protein in an aqueous alkaline solution in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer. Further the composite films were prepared by the addition of fibres on aqueous alkaline solution with casein. The casein films and composites were thereafter prepared by casting the solution mixture on Teflon coated glass plate and drying for 48 hr. The effects of glycerol content and lyocell fibre reinforcements on the mechanical, thermal and physiological properties of the casein films were characterized. The results revealed that the increase in the addition of glycerol content decreases the tensile strength, youngs modulus, thermal stability of the film and increases the elongation percentage. Tensile property and thermal stability of the films was improved by the increase in the ...
During set up and the first ramp of thermal cycling, the enzyme is not active and misprimed primers are not extended. Once the PCR reaction reaches the optimal activation temperature, the chemical moiety is cleaved releasing the active TEMPase Hot Start DNA Polymerase, resulting in higher specificity, sensitivity and yield compared to standard Ampliqon Taq DNA polymerase.. Glycerol is normally a major part of the storage buffer of enzymes and acts as a cryoprotectant. Glycerol disrupts the water structure and makes the buffer more cell like, hence stabilising the polymerase. Glycerol is a highly viscous liquid and is therefore difficult and time-consuming to pipet accurately, especially in smaller volumes. As a consequence, pipetting glycerol in fast, robot-aided automation processes is almost an unsolvable challenge. Furthermore, the presence of glycerol in the enzyme buffer makes freeze drying impossible.. GLYCEROL FREE FOR AUTOMATION AND FREEZE DRYING. ...
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Define Diphosphatidyl glycerol. Diphosphatidyl glycerol synonyms, Diphosphatidyl glycerol pronunciation, Diphosphatidyl glycerol translation, English dictionary definition of Diphosphatidyl glycerol. n. A phospholipid usually obtained from beef heart, used in combination with phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol as an antigen to diagnose syphilis
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Teknova offers custom molecular biology media such as buffers and reagents, pre-poured agar plates, dry culture media, liquid culture media, and media supplements.
Glycerol information & features Our glycerol can be widely used in many industries including food, chemical and cosmetic industry and et.We can offer not only sebacic acid but also glycerol. Glycerol is also called glycerin. The annual output
Comparison with glycerol[edit]. Because they feel similar when applied to human skin, there is a common misconception that ... Glycerol is an alcohol that is strongly hydrophilic (water-attracting): by continuously absorbing moisture from the air ( ... petroleum jelly and glycerol (glycerine) are physically similar. Petroleum jelly is a non-polar hydrophobic (water-repelling) ...
Glycerol 0.6 4.3 0.56 180% 3 HSH 0.4-0.9 3.0 0.52-1.2 83-190% 35 ...
Glycerols. Hidden categories: *Use dmy dates from November 2010. *Template:drugs.com link with non-standard subpage ...
Glycerol C4H6(OH)4 Butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol Erythritol,. Threitol ...
... when it was synthesized from ethylene dichloride in Germany and used as a substitute for glycerol in the explosives industry. ...
Glycerol. 20. 63.00 n-Hexane. 20. 18.40 Hydrochloric acid 17.7 M aqueous solution. 20. 65.95 ...
Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride (C55H98O6). Left part: glycerol; right part, from top to bottom: palmitic acid, ... Glycerolipids are composed of mono-, di-, and tri-substituted glycerols,[28] the best-known being the fatty acid triesters of ... The hydrolysis of the ester bonds of triglycerides and the release of glycerol and fatty acids from adipose tissue are the ... For a century, chemists regarded "fats" as only simple lipids made of fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides), but new forms were ...
... has about the same sweetness as sucrose,[8] but more sweetness than similar compounds like sorbitol and mannitol.[5] It has a glycemic index of 7 (100 for glucose).[10] Because xylitol and other polyols are heat stable, they do not caramelise as sugars do, and they also lower the freezing point of mixtures in which they are used.[11] No health risk exists for normal levels of consumption, and the European Food Safety Authority has not set a limit on daily intake of xylitol. Due to the adverse laxative effect that all polyols have on the digestive system in high doses, xylitol is banned from soft drinks in the EU. Similarly due to a 1985 report, by the EU Scientific Committee on Food, stating that "ingesting 50 g a day of xylitol can cause diarrhea", tabletop sweeteners containing xylitol are required to display the warning: "excessive consumption may induce laxative effects".[12] Chewing gum containing xylitol is permitted.[13] ...
Glycerol. 41.2, 47, 42.5 (0, 20, 25 °C) Water. 87.9, 80.2, 55.5. (0, 20, 100 °C)[8]. for visible light: 1.77 ...
... is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties. It has little to no impact on blood sugar levels, and does not stimulate the release of insulin.[1] It also does not promote tooth decay, i.e. is tooth-friendly. Its energy value is 2 kcal/g, half that of sugars.[2] However, like most sugar alcohols, it carries a risk of gastric distress, including flatulence and diarrhea, when consumed in large quantities (above about 20-30 g per day).[1] Isomalt may prove upsetting to the intestinal tract because it is incompletely absorbed in the small intestine, and when polyols pass into the large intestine, they can cause osmotically induced diarrhea[3] and stimulate the gut flora, causing flatulence.[1] As with other dietary fibers, regular consumption of isomalt can lead to desensitisation, decreasing the risk of intestinal upset.[1] Isomalt can be blended with high-intensity sweeteners such as sucralose, giving a mixture that has the same ...
glycerol. 47.95. 200.62. formic acid. 66.05. 276.35. acetic acid. 45.90. 192.09. acetone. 23.42. 97.99. ...
PA is a unique phospholipid in that it has a small highly charged head group that is very close to the glycerol backbone. PA is ... Phosphatidic acid consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in general, a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, an unsaturated ... Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule each of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two ... In mammalian and yeast cells, two different pathways are known for the de novo synthesis of PA, the glycerol 3-phosphate ...
Shown in red - choline and phosphate group; black - glycerol; green - monounsaturated fatty acid; blue - saturated fatty acid. ...
from glycerol:. *Glycerol kinase. *Glycerol dehydrogenase. Regulatory. *Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase * ...
from glycerol:. *Glycerol kinase. *Glycerol dehydrogenase. Regulatory. *Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase * ...
After saponification was completed, the resulting glycerol was left in the batch. Batches were made not in huge pans, but in ... During production at Port Sunlight the glycerol (glycerine) content was a result of not removing that formed during the ...
... and glycerol from lipolysis.[7] ...
glycerol tritbdms. 82112-23-0 See also[edit]. *List of compounds with carbon number 20 ...
A16AX09 Glycerol phenylbutyrate. A16AX10 Eliglustat. A16AX11 Sodium benzoate. A16AX12 Trientine. A16AX13 Uridine triacetate. ... QA16QA03 Glycerol. QA16QA04 Ammonium lactate. QA16QA05 Clanobutin. QA16QA06 Monensin. QA16QA52 Sodium propionate, combinations ...
One initiative in the UK is The Glycerol Challenge.[79] Usually this crude glycerol has to be purified, typically by performing ... in order to separate the fatty acids from the glycerol by replacing the glycerol with short linear alcohols. This appears to be ... "Biofuels and Glycerol". theglycerolchallenge.org. Archived from the original on 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2008-07-09.. ... The refined glycerol (98%+ purity) can then be utilised directly, or converted into other products. The following announcements ...
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol ... Synthesis of diacylglycerol begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which is derived primarily from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a ... Type of fat derived from glycerol and two fatty acids. .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column ... it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position on the glycerol moiety and an unsaturated fatty acid at the ...
Freely soluble in water ; soluble in glycerol ; sparingly soluble in ethanol (96%); practically insoluble in chloroform, in ...
It is the triester of glycerol and acetylating agents, such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride.[6] It is a colorless, viscous ... Gupta, Mayank; Kumar, Naveen "Scope and opportunities of using glycerol as an energy source" Renewable & Sustainable Energy ... "Catalytic role of solid acid catalysts in glycerol acetylation for the production of bio-additives: a review". RSC Advances. 6 ...
Tin-Glycerol 3-fosfaat + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. Glycerone fosfaat + NADH + H+ Glycerol-3- ... Glycerol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. Glycerone + NADH + H+ Glyceroldehydrogenase Propaan-1,2-diol 1- ...
... and the glycerol left in acts as a moisturizing agent. However, the glycerine also makes the soap softer. Addition of glycerol ... Glycerol (glycerin) is liberated. The glycerin can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, although it is sometimes ... The glycerol is left during the hot-process method, but at the high temperature employed, the reaction is practically completed ... A variety of methods are available for hobbyists to make soap.[35] Most soapmakers use processes where the glycerol remains in ...
CDP-diacylglycerol-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase. *CDP-diacylglycerol-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase ...
0.92, (0.90 in 30% glycerol). [9] Bacillus subtilis. 0.91. [7] Staphylococcus aureus. 0.86. [10] ...
d-erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate. After, His3 forms imidazole acetol-phosphate releasing water. His5 then makes l- ...
Free glycerol, % by mass, max 0.02 ASTM D 6584 - xvi Total glycerol, % by mass, max 0.25 ASTM D 6584 - ...
The α subunits catalyze the reversible formation of indole and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) from indole-3-glycerol ...
Glycerol monostearate exists as three stereoisomers, the enantiomeric pair of 1-glycerol monostearate and 2-glycerol ... Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is a monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods.[3] It takes the form ... Glycerol monostearate Cheminfo *^ The British Pharmacopoeia Secretariat (2009). "Index, BP 2009" (PDF). Archived from the ... Glycerol monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a product of the breakdown of fats by pancreatic lipase. It is present at ...
Glycerol-1-phosphatase removes the phosphate group of glycerol 3-phosphate to generate glycerol, allowing glycerol fermentation ... Glycerol 1-phosphate, sometimes called as D-glycerol 3-phosphate, is an enantiomer of glycerol 3-phosphate. Most organisms use ... sn-Glycerol 3-phosphate[1] is a phosphoric ester of glycerol, which is a component of glycerophospholipids. Equally appropriate ... Main article: Glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases are located both in the cytosol and the ...
... glycerol (CHEBI:17754). glycerol monomycolate (C85) (CHEBI:90345) has functional parent glycerol (CHEBI:17754). glycerol ... glycerol (CHEBI:17754). glycerol ether (CHEBI:24353) has functional parent glycerol (CHEBI:17754). glycerol mono(keto- ... glycerol (CHEBI:17754) has role solvent (CHEBI:46787) glycerol (CHEBI:17754) is a alditol (CHEBI:17522) glycerol (CHEBI:17754) ... glycerol (CHEBI:17754) has role algal metabolite (CHEBI:84735) glycerol (CHEBI:17754) has role detergent (CHEBI:27780) glycerol ...
... glycerol and fatty acids, atkins recipes for pork chops, extreme weight loss diet meal plan, weight training routine for ... Glycerol and fatty acids,what healthy foods are high in carbs,juice diet book recipes,eat this not that restaurant salads - For ... Triacylglycerols are synthesized from three fatty acids joined together by one glycerol molecule.. We also have Bitesize study ...
Glycerol kinase (EC: is a bacterial sugar kinase which catalyzes the Mg-ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glycerol to ... X-Ray structure of glycerol kinase complexed with an ATP analog implies a novel mechanism for the ATP-dependent glycerol ... studies suggest a nucleophilic in-line transfer mechanism for the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glycerol by glycerol kinase ... yield glycerol 3-phosphate. The enzyme from Escherichia coli is an allosteric regulatory enzyme whose activity is inhibited by ...
The glycerol stock consists of a mixture of the bacteria in broth with glycerol at an 80 percent to 20 percent ratio. The stock ... This is because of the glycerol, which prevents the water in the broth from forming ice crystals that can puncture and kill the ... When a scientist requires more plasmid DNA, they simply scrape a bit of the glycerol stock into fresh broth, let the bacteria ... Glycerol stocks can be stored in the freezer for years if not decades without affecting the bacteria. ...
Other names: Tricaprylin; Octanoin, tri-; Caprylic acid triglyceride; Caprylin; Glycerol trioctanoate; Glyceryl trioctanoate; ...
Glycerol vzniká pri saponifikácii alebo transesterifikácii. Saponifikácia[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Hlavným zdrojom glycerolu ... Glycerol, alebo glycerín, systematickým názvom propán-1,2,3-triol, je hygroskopická bezfarebná viskózna kvapalina bez zápachu, ... Glycerol sa používa o. i. v kozmetických výrobkoch, hlavne ako prísada v hydratačných krémoch a mydlách, ako prísada do zubných ... Glycerol je slabo jedovatý. V menších dávkach spôsobuje bolesti hlavy, žalúdočné problémy a zvracanie. Vo väčších dávkach môže ...
How glycerol works is not totally clear; we know that the kidneys dont excrete glycerol rapidly, so the glycerol stays in the ... How to Ingest Glycerol. There is minimal research and no consensus on the best strategy for glycerol ingestion. The greatest ... Glycerol intake increased pre-exercise body water by 730 ml and decreased urine volume by 670 ml. During the glycerol trial, ... So what is glycerol, and how does it work?. Glycerol is a three-carbon molecule similar to alcohol. It occurs naturally in the ...
Glycerol 3-palmitate; Glyceryl palmitate; Palmitic acid «alpha»-monoglyceride; 1-Monopalmitin; Glycerol «alpha»-palmitate; 1- ... Other names: Hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester; Palmitin, 1-mono-; «alpha»-Monopalmitin; Glycerol 1-monopalmitate; ...
Learn more about Glycerol uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that ... Some people apply glycerol to the skin as a moisturizer.. Eye doctors sometimes put a solution that contains glycerol in the ... Rectally, glycerol is used as a laxative.. How does it work?. Glycerol attracts water into the gut, softening stools and ... Glycerol seems to be safe for most adults. When taken by mouth, glycerol can cause side effects including headaches, dizziness ...
... on a glycerol substrate. The method requires culturing bacteria hav ... In one embodiment, glycerol fermentation was optimized by culturing E. coli with 10 g/L glycerol at pH 6.3 with 0.6 mM ... Incorporation of glycerol into proteinogenic biomass was assessed by fermenting 50% U-13C-labeled glycerol in E. coli. After 3 ... Glycerol Fermentation and Effect of Medium Composition. Although it is believed that glycerol metabolism in E. coli is ...
... Charles Kosan kosanc at caelab1.cae.wisc.edu Tue Jun 21 10:24:28 EST 1994 *Previous ... I would really appreciate it if you could inform me where I can find a similar method for glycerol, or any other methods you ... Hi everyone! I am looking for a rapid method to screen glycerol-producing microorganisms. There are about 12000 candidates I ...
An oxidation of glycerol affords mesoxalic acid.[31]. Vibration dampingEdit. Glycerol is used as fill for pressure gauges to ... Glycerol has also been incorporated as a component of bio-ink formulations in the field of bioprinting.[22] The glycerol ... Synthetic glycerolEdit. Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene. The ... For human consumption, glycerol is classified by the U.S. FDA among the sugar alcohols as a caloric macronutrient. Glycerol is ...
Glycerol Glycerol kinase ATP ADP Glycerol-3-phosphate Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase NAD+ NADH NAD+ NADH Dihydroxyacetone ... An oxidation of glycerol affords mesoxalic acid. Dehydrating glycerol affords hydroxyacetone. Glycerol is used as fill for ... Glycerol is mainly metabolized in the liver. Glycerol injections can be used as a simple test for liver damage, as its rate of ... Glycerol is also used in blood banking to preserve red blood cells prior to freezing. Glycerol is a component of glycerin soap ...
Make research projects and school reports about glycerol easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... glycerol (glycerine; propane-1,2,3,-triol) A trihydric alcohol, HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH. Glycerol is a colourless sweet-tasting ... Glycerol can also be obtained during the fermentation of sugars if sodium bisulfite is added with the yeast. Glycerol is widely ... Glycerol itself is used as an antifreeze molecule by certain organisms.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the ...
Check with your doctor right away if you have burning, tingling, numbness or pain in the hands, arms, feet, or legs, headache, lightheadedness, confusion, memory problems, sleepiness or unusual drowsiness, change or loss of taste, hearing loss, or unusual tiredness or weakness. These maybe symptoms of more serious problems. Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements. ...
Find Complete Details about Glycerol,Glycerol from Alcohol & Hydroxybenzene & Ether Supplier or Manufacturer-FSSH Chemicals Co ... China mono glycerol China glycerol powder China glycerol chemicals China glycerol india China refined glycerol China glycerol ... 1,2,3-propanetriol; 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane; D-glycerol; glycyl alcohol; Glycerin mist; glyceritol; Glycerol; L-glycerol; ... 1.Name: Glycerol 2.Appearance: colorless, transparent, odorless and viscose liquid with sweet taste; can absorb moisture ...
Solvent. Humectant. Plasticizer. Emollient. In manufacture of nitroglycerol, cosmetics, soaps, medication, liqueurs, confectioneries, blacking, printing, inks, glues, lubricants. Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.. ...
Glycerol phenylbutyrate binds with other substances in the liver and kidneys to help eliminate nitrogen from the body. Excess ... Glycerol phenylbutyrate will not treat hyperammonemia.. Glycerol phenylbutyrate is usually given together with a low-protein ... What is glycerol phenylbutyrate?. Glycerol phenylbutyrate binds with other substances in the liver and kidneys to help ... What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking glycerol phenylbutyrate?. You should not use glycerol ...
Glycerol kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate from ATP to glycerol thus forming glycerol 3-phosphate: ATP + glycerol ... sn-glycerol 3-phosphate Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase so they cannot metabolize the glycerol produced during triacyl glycerol ... This glycerol is instead shuttled to the liver via the blood where it is: Phosphorylated by glycerol kinase to glycerol 3- ... Glycerol Kinase Glycerol+Kinase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Selwood T, Jaffe EK ( ...
Diphosphatidyl glycerol synonyms, Diphosphatidyl glycerol pronunciation, Diphosphatidyl glycerol translation, English ... dictionary definition of Diphosphatidyl glycerol. n. A phospholipid usually obtained from beef heart, used in combination with ... redirected from Diphosphatidyl glycerol). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia. car·di·o·lip·in. (kär′dē-ō-lĭp′ĭn). n.. A ... Diphosphatidyl glycerol - definition of Diphosphatidyl glycerol by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Use of glycerol phenylbutyrate is not indicated in children younger than 2 months of age. ... Liver disease, moderate to severe-Higher blood levels of glycerol phenylbutyrate may result and increase the risk of side ... which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving glycerol phenylbutyrate. ... studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of glycerol ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between Dvorah and glycerol phenylbutyrate. View detailed information regarding this drug ... acetaminophen glycerol phenylbutyrate Applies to: Dvorah (acetaminophen / caffeine / dihydrocodeine) and glycerol ... dihydrocodeine glycerol phenylbutyrate Applies to: Dvorah (acetaminophen / caffeine / dihydrocodeine) and glycerol ... Glycerol phenylbutyrate may increase the blood levels and effects of acetaminophen. You may need a dose adjustment or more ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Glycerol Phenylbutyrate. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, ... Glycerol Phenylbutyrate. Generic Name: Glycerol Phenylbutyrate (GLI ser ole fen il BYOO ti rate). Brand Name: Ravicti ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Glycerol Phenylbutyrate?. *If you have an allergy to glycerol phenylbutyrate or ... Those who have feeding tubes may use glycerol phenylbutyrate. Use as you have been told. Flush the feeding tube after glycerol ...
A process for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to produce propylene glycol as the major product comprising contacting the ... glycerol with hydrogen in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst under conditi ... glycerol. -. final. ⁢. ⁢. moles. ⁢. ⁢. of. ⁢. ⁢. glycerol. ). Initial. ⁢. ⁢. moles. ⁢. ⁢. of. ⁢. ⁢. ⁢. glycerol. ×. 100. (. 1. ... glycerol. -. final. ⁢. ⁢. moles. ⁢. ⁢. of. ⁢. ⁢. glycerol. ). Initial. ⁢. ⁢. moles. ⁢. ⁢. of. ⁢. ⁢. ⁢. glycerol. ×. 100. (. 1. ...
Glycerol kinase is an enzyme that is important in the process of lipolysis, or the breakdown of proteins. Without glycerol ... The glycerol targeted by glycerol kinase usually comes from the breakdown of triglycerides for energy. Glycerol kinase is ... Although glycerol cannot be used directly in the glycolysis pathway, glycerol phosphate can, and is an essential intermediate ... which makes a compound called glycerol phosphate. Since glycerol kinase catalyzes this phosphate group transfer, it is part of ...
Assay measures glycerol using the enzymes glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in a coupled reaction scheme ... Glycerol Release from Adipocytes The Glycerol-Glo™ Assay can be used with cultured cells, including 3D cell culture models, ... Rapid and Sensitive Glycerol Detection in Biological Samples The Glycerol-Glo™ Assay is a bioluminescent assay for rapid and ... The Glycerol-Glo™ Assay measures glycerol in a coupled reaction scheme that links the production of NADH to the activation of a ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Glycerol Injections at PatientsLikeMe. 2 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently have Glycerol Injections. ...
  • Glycerol, also referred to as glycerin, glycyl alcohol or 1,2,3-propanetriol, features three hydroxyl groups in its structure, each one of these groups being attached to one of the three carbon atoms. (reference.com)
  • What Is the Difference Between Glycerin and Glycerol? (reference.com)
  • Glycerin and glycerol are two different products although they can be confused as being one and the same. (reference.com)
  • In its raw state, glycerol can be converted into vegetable glycerin. (reference.com)
  • Glycerol is a clear, colorless, and sweet-tasting, viscous liquid also frequently referred to as glycerin or glycerine. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Glycerol is a chemical compound also commonly called glycerin or glycerine . (wikidoc.org)
  • This paper presents results from thermal analysis of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) plasticized with glycerin, where effects from the high purity glycerin (glycerol) and other additives to glycol were studied. (scielo.br)
  • The actual amount of glycerol in crude glycerin may range from 75 percent to 90 percent. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Glycerol (or glycerine, glycerin) is a polyol compound. (thomassci.com)
  • Despite the interest in the effects of glycerol on athletic performance, to date there are only six published studies on the effects of glycerol on exercise, and two published studies on the effects of glycerol ingestion on body fluids. (sportsci.org)
  • Bjorvell H, Hylander B, Rossner S. Effects of glycerol addition to diet in weight-reducing clubs. (webmd.com)
  • This is to track the outcome of the pregnancy and to evaluate any effects of glycerol phenylbutyrate on the baby. (cigna.com)
  • The effects of glycerol on total body water when used during rehydration are less well defined, due to the limited studies conducted. (springer.com)
  • In order to test this rationale, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of glycerol hyperhydration on plasma volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit in comparison to administration of fluid only. (nih.gov)
  • The Panel concluded that glycerol has low acute toxicity and that local irritating effects of glycerol in the gastrointestinal tract reported in some gavage studies was likely due to hygroscopic and osmotic effects of glycerol. (europa.eu)
  • 11. The method of claim 10, wherein a native glycerol dehydrogenase-dihydroxyacetone kinase pathway is overexpressed, a pta and a frdA are inactivated, the glycerol is crude glycerol and the medium further comprises corn steep liquor, but not tryptone. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • For every pound of biodiesel, approximately 0.1 pounds of crude glycerol is produced as a byproduct. (uidaho.edu)
  • Dealing with the excessive crude glycerol from biodiesel production is now becoming a dilemma to the industry. (uidaho.edu)
  • The crude glycerol possesses is very low value due to the impurities present. (uidaho.edu)
  • Once considered a valuable co-product, crude glycerol is rapidly becoming a waste product with an attached disposal cost. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Crude glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, was evaluated as a potential green inhibitor for steel corrosion in an acidic environment. (mdpi.com)
  • The study was conducted using steel specimens placed in hydrochloric acid solutions (0.5 M) at a constant room temperature (25 °C) and crude glycerol concentrations in the range 0.1%-1.0% w/w. (mdpi.com)
  • Ibrahim, H. Crude Glycerol as an Innovative Corrosion Inhibitor. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, in 2007, the refined glycerol price was painfully low, approximately 30 cents/lb. (compared to 70 cents/lb. before the expansion of biodiesel production) in the U.S. Accordingly, the price of crude glycerol decreased from about 25 cents/lb. to 5 cents/lb. (feedstuffs.com)
  • There is a great deal of interest in developing new markets for crude glycerol, and the animal feed industry is one potential large-volume market. (feedstuffs.com)
  • The experimental treatments consisted of either 0% (GLYC-0), 4% (GLYC-4) or 8% (GLYC-8) crude glycerol added to the diet. (feedstuffs.com)
  • The crude glycerol was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility that used sunflower, corn and soybean oil in the production of biodiesel. (feedstuffs.com)
  • The crude glycerol was analyzed to contain 82.6% glycerol, 0.03% methanol, 11.8% moisture, 0.64% crude protein, 0.1% ether extract and 4.81% ash. (feedstuffs.com)
  • This has led to a glut of crude glycerol in the market, making the epichlorohydrin process no longer economical. (wikidoc.org)
  • Every gallon of biodiesel produced will general about 0.75 pounds of crude glycerol. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Crude glycerol from biodiesel production will contain unused catalyst (e.g. sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide), methanol and salts. (farmanddairy.com)
  • So, additional research is needed to determine the variation in composition of crude glycerol, including the concentration of contaminates that are of particular risk to animal health. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Once these are better identified, more defined feeding guidelines for crude glycerol can be established based on not only the nutritional value of the ingredient, but also the limitations due to the impurities that may cause some risks. (farmanddairy.com)
  • glycerol A trihydric alcohol, chemically 1,2,3‐propane triol (CH 2 OHCHOHCH 2 OH), also known as glycerine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But glycerol / vegetable glycerine is also hygroscopic. (physicsforums.com)
  • Thus, in the interest of maintaining glycerine value, glycerol ethers, which are the reaction product of isobutylene and glycerine, have been suggested as components in diesel fuel. (sae.org)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking glycerol phenylbutyrate? (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol monostearate , commonly known as GMS , is a monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol monostearate exists as three stereoisomers, the enantiomeric pair of 1-glycerol monostearate and 2-glycerol monostearate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol monostearate occurs naturally in the body as a product of the breakdown of fats by pancreatic lipase . (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the most important information I should know about glycerol phenylbutyrate? (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate should not be given to a child under 2 months old. (cigna.com)
  • What is glycerol phenylbutyrate? (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate binds with other substances in the liver and kidneys to help eliminate nitrogen from the body. (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate helps prevent a build-up of ammonia in the blood in people with urea cycle disorder. (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate will not treat hyperammonemia. (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate is usually given together with a low-protein diet and sometimes dietary supplements. (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • You should not use glycerol phenylbutyrate if you are allergic to it. (cigna.com)
  • It is not known whether glycerol phenylbutyrate passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (cigna.com)
  • How should I take glycerol phenylbutyrate? (cigna.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate is usually taken 3 times per day. (cigna.com)
  • If you are unable to swallow, you may take glycerol phenylbutyrate through a nasogastric (NG) or gastric feeding tube as follows: After measuring the correct dose in the oral syringe, attach it to the feeding tube and push the plunger down to empty the syringe into the tube. (cigna.com)
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of glycerol phenylbutyrate in children. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Use of glycerol phenylbutyrate is not indicated in children younger than 2 months of age. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to have kidney or liver problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving glycerol phenylbutyrate. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Liver disease, moderate to severe-Higher blood levels of glycerol phenylbutyrate may result and increase the risk of side effects. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate may increase the blood levels and effects of acetaminophen. (drugs.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate may increase the blood levels and effects of dihydrocodeine. (drugs.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate can affect your nervous system. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate can affect other drugs you take, which may increase side effects or make those medications less effective. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Certain other drugs can affect your blood levels of ammonia, making glycerol phenylbutyrate less effective or causing hyperammonemia. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Glycerol is the byproduct of the manufacture of biodiesel, which is made from animal fat or soybeans. (reference.com)
  • Glycerol which is a byproduct of biodiesel production is considered as a potential feedstock for syngas production with the increase of biodiesel demand. (aiche.org)
  • GLYCEROL is the primary byproduct generated in the conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel. (feedstuffs.com)
  • The fatty acids are the integral part of the fuel, but the glycerol is a byproduct from the process. (farmanddairy.com)
  • So, with the increased availability of glycerol as a byproduct of biodiesel production, it is being investigated as a feed ingredient for dairy cattle. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Triacylglycerols are synthesized from three fatty acids joined together by one glycerol molecule. (amazonaws.com)
  • Glycerol is a three-carbon molecule similar to alcohol. (sportsci.org)
  • It works by transferring a phosphate group from ATP, which is the main molecule the human body uses for energy, to a glycerol molecule, which makes a compound called glycerol phosphate. (wisegeek.com)
  • The increase of glycerol content causes a depletion of clusters leading to smaller 3-5 molecule clusters domination. (diva-portal.org)
  • Commercial material used in foods is produced industrially by a glycerolysis reaction between triglycerides (from either vegetable or animal fats) and glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol is generally obtained from plant and animal sources where it occurs in triglycerides , esters of glycerol with long-chain carboxylic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triglycerides can be saponified with sodium hydroxide to give glycerol and fatty sodium salt or soap . (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple or neutral fats are esters of glycerol with three molecules of fatty acid , i.e. triacylglycerols, sometimes known as triglycerides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglyceride 3 NaOH / H 2O Δ 3 × soap 3 × glycerol Triglycerides can be saponified with sodium hydroxide to give glycerol and fatty sodium salt or soap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol kinase, encoded by the gene GK, is a phosphotransferase enzyme involved in triglycerides and glycerophospholipids synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycerol targeted by glycerol kinase usually comes from the breakdown of triglycerides for energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • On question 145, the graph depicts a steady increase in plasma glycerol over time, which is attributed to the action of beta oxidation of triglycerides occurring steadily over time. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Since glycerol forms the backbone of triglycerides , it is produced on saponification or transesterification . (wikidoc.org)
  • These problems can include, but are not limited to, abnormally high blood pH and high levels of glycerol in blood and urine . (wisegeek.com)
  • The diets were formulated to provide nearly equal nutrient contents associated with the three levels of glycerol. (feedstuffs.com)
  • Current levels of glycerol production are running at about 350,000 tons per annum in the USA, and 600,000 tpa in Europe. (wikidoc.org)
  • Glycerol kinase is important in metabolism because it allows glycerol to be used in the glycolysis pathway, the body's main pathway for deriving energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glycerol is an intermediate compound that plays an important part in the metabolism of carbohydrates. (reference.com)
  • Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism. (abcam.com)
  • Editorial overview: Molecular and genetic basis of [metabolic] disease: Genes, glucose, glycerol and girth: metabolism in our DNA. (harvard.edu)
  • Comparative transcriptome analyses of L. monocytogenes showed high-level transcriptional upregulation of the genes known to be involved in glycerol uptake and metabolism ( glpFK and glpD ) in the presence of glycerol (compared to that in the presence of glucose and/or cellobiose). (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional downregulation in the presence of glycerol (compared to those in the presence glucose and cellobiose) was observed for several genes and operons that are positively regulated by glucose, including genes involved in glycolysis, N metabolism, and the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. (asm.org)
  • It is also synthesized by phosphorylating glycerol generated upon hydrolyzing fats with glycerol kinase , and can feed into glycolysis or glyconeogenesis pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various glycerol pathways. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Glycerol Kinase. (novusbio.com)
  • Glycerol generally appears as a clear, colorless and syrupy liquid, but it can also appear in solid state when the temperature is lower than 17 degrees Celsius. (reference.com)
  • Glycerol is an odorless, colorless and sweet-tasting viscous liquid, even at low environmental temperatures. (farmanddairy.com)
  • a small amount is also present in body fluids as free glycerol. (sportsci.org)
  • DHAP and thus glycerol 3-phosphate is also possible to be synthesized from amino acids and citric acid cycle intermediates via glyceroneogenesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growing demand for glycerol esters as effective alternatives to conventional petroleum based products from cosmetics & personal care industry is expected to be one of the key factors that fuelling the growth of global glycerol esters market. (openpr.com)
  • Furthermore, increasing demand for glycerol esters from lubricant industry which in turn is related to growing automotive industry is expected to set positive outlook for the global glycerol esters market over the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • With the growing consumption of glycerol esters in antifogging agents as well as textile chemicals are the other factors driving the growth of global glycerol esters market. (openpr.com)
  • However, relatively more complex production process coupled with corresponding relatively higher production cost is expected to be one of the major restraining factors for the growth of global glycerol esters market over the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • Global glycerol esters market can be segmented based on end-use industry and region. (openpr.com)
  • On the basis of end-use industry, global glycerol esters market can be segmented as cosmetic & personal care, lubricant & greases, metal working, plastics & polymers, textile, and other miscellaneous industries. (openpr.com)
  • On the basis of region, global glycerol esters market can be segmented as North America, Latin America, Middle East & Africa, Asia Pacific, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe. (openpr.com)
  • Together, these two regions account for a major share in global glycerol esters market. (openpr.com)
  • Also, Middle East & Africa and Latin America, accounting for a relatively smaller share in overall global glycerol esters market, are expected to register steady growth in glycerol esters consumption over the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • Global glycerol esters market is highly fragmented with a large number of small scale participants in developing countries. (openpr.com)
  • Examples of some of the market participants in the global glycerol esters market include Oleon NV, Stepan Company, BASF SE, Croda International Plc. (openpr.com)
  • In eukaryotes , it is first acylated on its sn -1 position by an ER- or mitochondrial membrane enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase , and another acyl group is then added on the sn -2 position making phosphatidic acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme from Escherichia coli is an allosteric regulatory enzyme whose activity is inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and the glucose-specific phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system, IIA(Glc), structural studies suggest a nucleophilic in-line transfer mechanism for the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glycerol by glycerol kinase [ PMID: 10364471 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Glycerol kinase is an enzyme that is important in lipolysis , or the breakdown of proteins. (wisegeek.com)
  • Bacteria also have a version of glycerol kinase, and a deficiency in the enzyme results in the same pattern as that observed in humans, where the bacteria are unable to use glycerol. (wisegeek.com)
  • It is readily absorbed and is converted to glucose for energy production in the liver of animals by the enzyme glycerol kinase. (feedstuffs.com)
  • Glycerol is used to prevent freezing during enzyme and bacterial preparations. (thomassci.com)
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate is synthesized by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a glycolysis intermediate, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Converted from glycerol 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyzes the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-glycerol-3-phosphate. (rcsb.org)
  • Glycerol is a common component of solvents for enzymatic reagents stored at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius due to the depression of the freezing temperature of solutions with high concentrations of glycerol. (wikidoc.org)
  • Because of the large-scale production of biodiesel from fats, where glycerol is a waste product, the market for glycerol is depressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol is present in the form of its esters (glycerides) in all animal and vegetable fats and oils. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. (novusbio.com)
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) are molecules so small that they can permeate the mitochondrial outer membrane through porins and shuttle between two dehydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to the presence of three hydroxyl groups, glycerol is miscible with water and is hygroscopic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate is a starting material for de novo synthesis of glycerolipids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine-free processes from propylene include the synthesis of glycerol from acrolein and propylene oxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dante Simonetti from the University of Wisconsin described work that puts glycerol through a two-step process involving low-temperature catalytic conversion to a syngas (H 2 and CO) and subsequent Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Refined glycerol has an established market for thousands of uses that vary from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals to the starting point for the synthesis of other chemicals. (feedstuffs.com)
  • In organic synthesis , glycerol is used as a readily available prochiral building block. (wikidoc.org)
  • Four homologous isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), each the product of a separate gene, catalyze the synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid from glycerol-3-phosphate and long-chain acyl-CoA. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple isoforms catalyze each step in the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway of TAG synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • I think you would be better off to recover your methanol from the glycerol, you could easily build a solar still for that purpose, you live in an area where it is mostly warm. (infopop.cc)
  • Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. (usda.gov)
  • We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. (usda.gov)
  • A non-alkoxide sol-gel route to highly active and selective Cu-Cr catalysts for glycerol conversion", J. Mater. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Biodiesel derived glycerol hydrogenolysis to 1,2-propanediol on Cu/MgO catalysts", Bioresour. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Glycerol hydrogenolysis on heterogenous catalysts", Green. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol over copper catalysts both in liquid and vapour phase: Correlation between the copper surface area and the catalyst's activity", Appl. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Surface and structural properties of titania-suported Ru catalysts for hydrogenolysis of glycerol", Appl. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The group found that gas mixtures of H 2 and CO can be produced at high rates and selectivities from glycerol over platinum-based bi-metallic catalysts at temperatures (e.g., 500 K to 620 K) that are significantly lower compared to conventional gasification of biomass. (greencarcongress.com)
  • A team from Spain presented experimental results indicating the catalysts they tested are all able to convert the glycerol completely with values very close to the theoretical results predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Glycerol has been selectively converted into 1,2-propandiol in the presence of dihydrogen and heterogeneous Pt-based catalysts. (nsti.org)
  • In fact, the catalysts were more active using pure glycerol instead of the one obtained from rapeseed, where strong deactivation phenomena were present. (mdpi.com)
  • Glycerol Kinase (alternative name, ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase or Glycerokinase) adopts a ribonuclease H-like fold consisting of an alpha-beta 2-layer sandwich of CATH family 3.30.420.40. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As a food additive, glycerol is labeled as E number E422. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of glycerol (E 422) used as a food additive. (europa.eu)
  • The Panel concluded that there is no need for a numerical ADI and no safety concern regarding the use of glycerol (E 422) as a food additive at the refined exposure assessment for the reported uses. (europa.eu)
  • The Panel also concluded that the manufacturing process of glycerol should not allow the production of a food additive, which contains genotoxic and carcinogenic residuals at a level which would result in a margin of exposure below 10,000. (europa.eu)
  • Most laboratories get around this problem by creating "glycerol stocks" of the initial transformed bacteria. (everything2.com)
  • The glycerol stock consists of a mixture of the bacteria in broth with glycerol at an 80 percent to 20 percent ratio. (everything2.com)
  • When a scientist requires more plasmid DNA, they simply scrape a bit of the glycerol stock into fresh broth, let the bacteria divide, and isolate the plasmid DNA from the resulting population. (everything2.com)
  • Glycerol stocks can be stored in the freezer for years if not decades without affecting the bacteria. (everything2.com)
  • The invention relates to the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for a bacteria to grow anaerobically (fermentatively) on a glycerol substrate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Monocaprin (glycerol monocaprate) is used in the development of antimicrobial disinfectants active against enveloped viruses, and certain yeast and bacteria such as candida albicans and campylobacter. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It was my understanding that glycerol is added to a culture prior to freezing to help prevent ice crystal formation, therefore there is no need to have glycerol added to refrigerated stocks, however I do agree with tsng that long term storage of bacteria at 4C is unadvisable. (protocol-online.org)
  • The bacteria in the rumen (first stomach compartment) can use glycerol to primarily produce propionate and the propionate will be converted to glucose by the liver of the cow. (farmanddairy.com)
  • As an adult laxative for constipation: The common dose of glycerol is a 2-3 grams in suppository form or a 5-15 mL enema. (webmd.com)
  • The Panel conservatively estimated the lowest oral dose of glycerol required for therapeutic effect to be 125 mg/kg bw per hour and noted that infants and toddlers can be exposed to that dose by drinking less than the volume of one can (330 mL) of a flavoured drink. (europa.eu)
  • The rapid increase in global biodiesel production is resulting in a worldwide surplus of glycerol, which is generated as a by-product of transesterification. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so the new commercial uses of this co-product are being sought. (astm.org)
  • Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at high heating rate (90 °C/min) and inert atmosphere, we observed a decrease in the melting temperature of PAN (from 290 °C to 217 °C) owing to the presence of glycerol. (scielo.br)
  • In a defined minimal medium, the growth rate (during balanced growth) in the presence of glycerol is similar to that in the presence of glucose or cellobiose. (asm.org)
  • Additional genes whose transcription levels were higher in the presence of glycerol than in the presence of glucose and cellobiose included those for two dihydroxyacetone (Dha) kinases and many genes that are under carbon catabolite repression control. (asm.org)
  • Similarly, a combination of biodiesel and glycerol ethers has been suggested as an additive to diesel fuel. (sae.org)
  • The highly anticipated 2nd Edition is essential reading for anyone interested in understanding whether biodiesel and glycerol refineries are convenient and economically sound. (rsc.org)
  • In this book, the authors present topical research in the study of the production, structure and applications of glycerol. (novapublishers.com)
  • To study the effects of water on conformational dynamics of polyalcohols, Molecular Dynamics simulations of glycerol water liquid mixtures have been carried out at different concentrations: 42.9 and 60.0 wt 96 of glycerol, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were lower with diets containing glycerol and cows consuming 10 percent or 15 percent glycerol gained more weight than cows not fed glycerol. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Glycerol Hyperhydration to Beat the Heat? (sportsci.org)
  • investigated whether glycerol hyperhydration altered sweating, regulation of body temperature, and cardiovascular function during exercise in a hot environment (42°C and 25% relative humidity). (sportsci.org)
  • These findings indicated that glycerol hyperhydration could improve evaporative cooling of the body during exercise in a hot environment. (sportsci.org)
  • Glycerol-containing beverages create an osmotic gradient in the circulation favouring fluid retention, thereby facilitating hyperhydration and protecting against dehydration. (springer.com)
  • Many studies have shown that increases in body water by 1L or more are achievable through glycerol hyperhydration. (springer.com)
  • This article analyses the evidence for glycerol use in facilitating hyperhydration and rehydration, and provides guidelines for athletes wishing to use this compound. (springer.com)
  • Hyperhydration with glycerol solutions. (springer.com)
  • Because glycerol hyperhydration may also be misused to mask the effects of blood doping on doping-relevant parameters, namely haemoglobin and haematocrit, glycerol has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency since 2010. (nih.gov)
  • In comparison with other plasma-volume expanding agents, glycerol hyperhydration has a very limited potential in increasing plasma volume and altering doping-relevant blood parameters. (nih.gov)
  • Glycerol-1-phosphatase removes the phosphate group of glycerol 3-phosphate to generate glycerol , allowing glycerol fermentation to produce glycerol from glucose through glycolysis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since glycerol kinase catalyzes this phosphate group transfer, it is part of a class of enzymes called phosphotransferase enzymes. (wisegeek.com)
  • These are compounds containing a glycerol linked to a phosphate group. (drugbank.ca)
  • Global Info Research offers a latest published report on Glycerol Esters Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report. (openpr.com)
  • This epichlorohydrin is then hydrolyzed to give glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since glycerol is so hard to pipet, my protocol was to make a sterile stock of "freezing medium," which was 30% warmed-up sterile glycerol (50 degrees C, makes it flow better) in sterile broth. (protocol-online.org)
  • Owing to oversupply, efforts are being made to convert glycerol to synthetic precursors, such as acrolein and epichlorohydrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors report and comment on employable, practical avenues applicable to convert glycerol into value added products of mass consumption. (rsc.org)
  • When glycerol is ingested, it is absorbed and increases the concentration (technical term: osmolarity or tonicity) of the fluid in the blood and tissues. (sportsci.org)
  • Because glycerol does not easily penetrate the brain and eyes, the increased concentration of glycerol in the blood following glycerol ingestion helps to remove excess fluid from these organs by a process known as osmosis. (sportsci.org)
  • The two-step process can also serve as an energy-efficient alternative to processes used to convert starch-based materials to fuel-grade ethanol, because glycerol can be produced in high concentration (e.g., 30 wt%) by fermentation of glucose. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The typical glycerol H-bond network still exists even at the lower concentration of 40 wt % of glycerol. (diva-portal.org)
  • The parameter that has the largest impact on the process profitability is the glycerol concentration in the feed. (scribd.com)
  • Values from parametric study showed that the utility-use significantly decreased when the concentration of glycerol in the feed was increased. (scribd.com)
  • a body with one or more non-metallic surfaces, wherein at least one of the one or more non-metallic surfaces has been treated with a solution comprising an effective concentration of antimicrobial agent, acid solution, wherein said acid solution is comprised of short chain monocarboxylic acid and ortho-phosphoric acid, and glycerol. (google.com)
  • I think the standard glycerol concentration for freezing is 15%, and I usually froze my stocks in LB or nutrient broth rather than PBS. (protocol-online.org)
  • Under accelerated aging studies, with 1 : 9 molar ratio of glycerol to water, 3 mg carbon g −1 cat h −1 was generated in 20 cycles, whereas 1 : 18 feed produced only 1.5 mg carbon g −1 cat h −1 during the same cycles of operation. (hindawi.com)
  • Allows microorganisms to utilize glycerol as a source of carbon under anaerobic conditions. (uniprot.org)
  • To achieve high carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency in the microwave plasma gasification of glycerol, O 2 /fuel ratio should be kept at 0-0.4. (aiche.org)
  • Deletion of this gene from P. falciparum had no effect on asexual parasite growth, but surprisingly also had no effect on gametocyte development or exflagellation, suggesting that these life cycle stages do not utilize host-derived glycerol as a carbon source. (rcsb.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is able to efficiently utilize glycerol as a carbon source. (asm.org)
  • Glycerol is a trihydric alcohol . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glycerol belongs to the alcohol family in organic compounds and contains three hydroxyl groups (-OH). (hypertextbook.com)
  • Glycerol is a sugar alcohol , and is sweet-tasting and of low toxicity. (wikidoc.org)
  • Glycerol kinase ( EC: ) is a bacterial sugar kinase which catalyzes the Mg-ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glycerol to yield glycerol 3-phosphate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Catalyzes the NAD-dependent oxidation of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone (glycerone). (uniprot.org)
  • Catalyzes the phosphorylation of glycerol to yield sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • Glycerol kinase catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3 phosphate from ATP and glycerol. (novusbio.com)
  • were first to document that ingestion of a glycerol solution can increase the water content of the body. (sportsci.org)
  • At 2.5 hours, glycerol ingestion had resulted in 500 ml less urine and 700 ml more total body water compared to the no glycerol trial. (sportsci.org)
  • Glycerol ingestion did not significantly reduce exercise heart rate. (sportsci.org)
  • Failure to reduce body water loss in cold-water immersion by glycerol ingestion. (webmd.com)
  • Side effects from glycerol ingestion are rare, but include nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort and light-headedness. (springer.com)
  • In summary, glycerol ingestion before, during or following exercise is likely to improve the hydration state of the endurance athlete. (springer.com)
  • A process for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to produce propylene glycol as the major product comprising contacting the glycerol with hydrogen in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst under conditions for the formation of propylene glycol is disclosed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Conversion of glycerol to ethylene glycol over Pt modified Ni catalyst", Chem. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The glycerol backbone is found in many lipids which are known as glycerides . (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycerol backbone is found in those lipids known as glycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of the analysis of backbone conformer distributions, it is found that the surrounding water molecules have a large impact on the populations of the glycerol conformers. (diva-portal.org)
  • Glycerol esters, also known as glycerides, or acylglycerols have three hydroxyl groups. (openpr.com)
  • Glycerol is also used to manufacture mono- and di-glycerides for use as emulsifiers , as well as polyglycerol esters going into shortenings and margarine . (wikidoc.org)
  • Some of the glycerol esters of fatty acids include glycerol acetic acid fatty acid ester, glycerol lactic acid fatty acid ester and glycerol succinic acid fatty acid ester, among the others. (openpr.com)
  • A fatty acid glycerol that has been isolated from S. chinensis roots, inhibits PAF-AH with an IC50 value of 45 µM. (thomassci.com)
  • X-Ray structure of glycerol kinase complexed with an ATP analog implies a novel mechanism for the ATP-dependent glycerol phosphorylation by glycerol kinase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation of glycerol by GK is the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization. (rcsb.org)
  • Although glycerol cannot be used directly in the glycolysis pathway, glycerol phosphate can, and is an essential intermediate in the pathway. (wisegeek.com)
  • The group analyzed the steam reforming process of glycerol over the following variable ranges: pressure 1 atm, temperature 600-1000 K and water-to-glycerol feed ratio 1:1-9:1. (greencarcongress.com)
  • 900 K and a molar ratio of water to glycerol of 9:1. (greencarcongress.com)
  • 3. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the ratio of formic acid to potassium chloride to phosphoric acid to Glycerol is about 30 ml:400 mg: 3 ml:5 ml. (google.com)
  • accept glycerol as a sweetener compatible with low-carbohydrate diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol is generally used as a solvent, sweetener and emollient in the pharmaceutical industry and is also used therapeutically for constipation relief and ophthalmic lubrication. (reference.com)
  • BUT, since the hydroxyl groups are all in such close proximity with one another, wouldn't they simply H-bond intramoleculary, limiting their ability to H-bond with other glycerol molecules? (studentdoctor.net)
  • At 40 wt % of glycerol, the cluster sizes from 3 to 10 water molecules are observed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Translational diffusion coefficients have been calculated to study the dynamical behavior of both glycerol and water molecules. (diva-portal.org)
  • Glycerol is used in medical and pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as a humectant . (wikidoc.org)
  • This thesis will present and evaluate a new process developed by Biofuel-solutions for production of propionaldehyde from glycerol via acrolein. (scribd.com)
  • The conversion of glycerol into acrolein has been known for long, but for economic reasons the reaction has not been applied industrially. (scribd.com)