Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Glutathione Synthase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 184.108.40.206.PicratesHydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 220.127.116.11.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Methionine SulfoximineSpin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Biphenyl CompoundsMaleatesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Peroxidasestert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tiopronin: Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.AmidinesCystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Ribonucleotide ReductasesNitroso CompoundsModels, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Pulse Radiolysis: Use of a pulse of X-rays or fast electrons to generate free radicals for spectroscopic examination.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Benzene DerivativesCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Glutaredoxins: A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.S-Nitrosoglutathione: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 18.104.22.168.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dehydroascorbic Acid: The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).MethemoglobinMass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.HydrazinesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Diamide: A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Azo CompoundsPhytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Bepridil: A long-acting calcium-blocking agent with significant anti-anginal activity. The drug produces significant coronary vasodilation and modest peripheral effects. It has antihypertensive and selective anti-arrhythmia activities and acts as a calmodulin antagonist.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ethacrynic Acid: A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 126.96.36.199), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 188.8.131.52.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.HydroquinonesNAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Skin UlcerReducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Ditiocarb: A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of humans and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Rats, Inbred F344Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Lu J, Holmgren A (Jan 2014). "The thioredoxin antioxidant system". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 66: 75-87. doi:10.1016/j. ... Estrela JM, Ortega A, Obrador E (2006-01-01). "Glutathione in cancer biology and therapy". Critical Reviews in Clinical ... Veech RL, Eggleston LV, Krebs HA (Dec 1969). "The redox state of free nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate in the ...
"Regulation of 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated signaling by glutathione S-transferases". Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 37 (5): ... Glutathione S-transferases hGSTA4-4 and hGST5.8 catalyze the conjugation of glutathione peptides to 4-hydroxynonenal through a ... Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 11 (1): 81-128. doi:10.1016/0891-5849(91)90192-6. PMID 1937131. The August 2003 number of ... Free Radical Research. 44 (10): 1125-1171. doi:10.3109/10715762.2010.498478. PMID 20836660. Surh, J.; Lee, S.; Kwon, H. (2007 ...
In the cystic fibrosis lung, intracellular pyocyanin converts molecular oxygen to the superoxide free radical by oxidizing ... Muller M (2002). "Pyocyanin inducesoxidative stress in human endothelialcells and modulates the glutathione redox cycle". Free ... Secondly, the superoxide radical generated can inhibit cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ which usually upregulate NADPH ... Glutathione is an important antioxidant modulated by pyocyanin. In particular the pool of the reduced form is depleted while ...
... which is responsible for regenerating glutathione, a scavenger of free radicals and peroxides. Myricetin is also effective in ... Hollman PC, Katan MB (Dec 1999). "Health effects and bioavailability of dietary flavonols". Free Radical Research. 31 Suppl: ... GST has been suggested to protect cells against oxidative stress by protecting cells against free-radicals. In vitro studies ... The resulting hydroxy radicals are often linked to DNA degradation, however, there are doubts as to whether or not this damage ...
Important examples include; oxygen free radicals such as the highly-dangerous superoxide O2−, and the less harmful hydrogen ... Glutathione peroxidase and similar enzymes then convert the H2O2 to water and dioxygen. Parts of the immune system of higher ... In nature, free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis. Green algae and ... Free oxygen is produced in the biosphere through photolysis (light-driven oxidation and splitting) of water during ...
The role of erythrocytes as oxygen carriers puts them at risk of being damaged by oxidizing free radicals. The reduction of ... The NADPH pathway (both 6PGD and G6PD reactions) is the only source of reductant to reduce glutathione in red blood cells. ... such as hemoglobin are subsequently damaged by the free radicals, leading to electrolyte imbalance, cross-bonding and protein ... When all remaining reduced glutathione is consumed, enzymes and other proteins, ...
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 91: 45-57. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.12.005. PMID 26677805. Friling RS, Bensimon A, ... Tichauer Y, Daniel V (Aug 1990). "Xenobiotic-inducible expression of murine glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene is ...
Free Radical Bio. 91: 45-57. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.12.005. PMID 26677805. Friling, RS (1990). "Xenobiotic-inducible ... expression of murine glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene is controlled by an electrophile-responsive element". Proc. Natl ... Mimura, J (2015). "Role of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 88 (Pt B): 221-32. doi:10.1016/ ... Suzuki, T (2015). "Molecular basis of the Keap1-Nrf2 system". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 88 (Pt B): 93-100. doi:10.1016/j. ...
If absent, the H2O2 would be converted to hydroxyl free radicals by Fenton chemistry, which can attack the cell. Erythrocytes, ... It reduces glutathione via glutathione reductase, which converts reactive H2O2 into H2O by glutathione peroxidase. ... for example, generate a large amount of NADPH through the pentose phosphate pathway to use in the reduction of glutathione. ...
Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Elsevier, Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1999. 27: 1114-1121. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(99) ... "Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: part I: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. ( ... This catalyzes the production of very reactive radical ions, such as hydroxyl radical in a manner similar to Fenton chemistry. ... such as with the superoxide radical through Cu-Zn dependent superoxide dismutase.[not in citation given] Excessive free copper ...
It is trapped therein by reduction back to ascorbate by glutathione and other thiols. The (free) chemical radical ... Vitamin C accumulates in mitochondria, where most of the free radicals are produced, by entering as DHA through the glucose ...
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 21 (4): 521-5. doi:10.1016/0891-5849(96)00160-8. PMID 8886803. Katsuoka F, Motohashi H, Engel ... Friling RS, Bensimon A, Tichauer Y, Daniel V (Aug 1990). "Xenobiotic-inducible expression of murine glutathione S-transferase ... Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 91: 45-57. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.12.005. PMID 26677805. ...
Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 75: 95-104. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.07.019. PMID 25064324. Nakagawa Y (2005). "Role ... The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) belongs to the family of glutathione peroxidases, which consists of 8 ... The oxidized form of glutathione (glutathione disulfide), which is generated during the reduction of hydroperoxides by GPx4, is ... GPx4 catalyzes the following reaction: 2 glutathione + lipid-hydroperoxide → glutathione disulfide + lipid-alcohol + H2O This ...
These enzymes are all closely affiliated with the defense of free radicals and the metabolism of pyruvate. Thus, exposure to ... The formation of these arsenite-sulfur bonds impairs the functionality of certain enzymes such as glutathione reductase, ... potassium arsenite and other arsenite containing compounds results in the production of damaging oxygen free radicals and the ... glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductase, and thioredoxin peroxidase. ...
Extract of the fruit protects against oxidative stress, by free radical scavenging, higher glutathione concentrations in the ...
... seed peptide fractions have less ability to scavenge free radicals than glutathione, but greater ability to chelate metals ... and in severe cases the released circulating free hemoglobin causes acute kidney injury. Peas, like many legumes, contain ...
Like other antioxidants, it functions by ridding the body of harmful free radicals that can cause damage to tissues and organs ... intracellular glutathione, and nerve-growth factors. Animal research has also uncovered the ability of ALA to improve nerve ... or using sialogogues such as chewing sugar-free gum or sour-tasting drops that stimulate the productivity of saliva. When taste ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, are strong oxidizing agents that can decompose into free radicals and ... One potential strategy to combat prophage induction is through the use of glutathione, a strong antioxidant that can remove ... free radical intermediates. Another approach could be to cause an overexpression of CI repressor since prophage induction only ...
The thiol (sulfhydryl) group confers antioxidant effects and is able to reduce free radicals. N-acetyl-L-cysteine is soluble in ... Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores. - Glutathione, along with oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ... It is normally conjugated by glutathione, but when taken in excess, the body's glutathione reserves are not sufficient to ... Glutathione also modulates the NMDA receptor by acting at the redox site. L-cysteine also serves as a precursor to cystine ...
The presence of free radicals, another result of excessive intracellular calcium concentrations, can also cause the MPT pore to ... MPT can allow antioxidant molecules such as glutathione to exit mitochondria, reducing the organelles' ability to neutralize ... In addition, the electron transport chain (ETC) may produce more free radicals due to loss of components of the ETC, such as ... Loss of ETC components can lead to escape of electrons from the chain, which can then reduce molecules and form free radicals. ...
Dröge W (January 2002). "Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function". Physiological Reviews. 82 (1): 47-95. ... "Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and glutathione: key players in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis". Journal of Experimental ... Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 25 (4-5): 392-403. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00095-1. PMID 9741578. ... as well as other types of chemically reactive free radicals. Important reactions involving RNS include: ONOO− + H+ → ONOOH ( ...
The NADPH system is also responsible for generating free radicals in immune cells. These radicals are used to destroy pathogens ... allowing the regeneration of glutathione (GSH). NADPH is also used for anabolic pathways, such as lipid synthesis, cholesterol ...
Endogenous sulfur dioxide lowered lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, oxidative stress and inflammation during an ... Conversely, adding acetylcysteine or glutathione to the rat diet increased the amount of endogenous SO2 produced and decreased ... the free radical formation, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. It is considered that endogenous sulfur dioxide plays ... free radical formation, oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, blockade of an enzyme that produces endogenous SO2 ...
Oxidative stress can be caused by hydroxyl free radicals and hydrogen peroxide, both of which are byproducts of XO activity. ... including glutathione oxidation and lipid peroxidation, when xanthine oxidase was inhibited using allopurinol. ... Harrison R (September 2002). "Structure and function of xanthine oxidoreductase: where are we now?". Free Radical Biology & ... XO has also been found to produce the strong one-electron oxidant carbonate radical anion from oxidation with acetaldehyde in ...
Some scientists believe that the treatment of Down syndrome neurons with free radical scavengers can substantially prevent ... glutathione peroxidase), the cells will suffer from a peroxide damage. ... SOD converts oxygen radicals to hydrogen peroxide and water. Oxygen radicals produced in cells can be damaging to cellular ...
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 13 (5): 557-80. doi:10.1016/0891-5849(92)90150-F. PMID 1334030.. ... the components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the NADP-dehydrogenases of the pentose-phosphate pathway. It has been ... del Río LA, Sandalio LM, Palma JM, Bueno P, Corpas FJ (Nov 1992). "Metabolism of oxygen radicals in peroxisomes and cellular ... demonstrated that peroxisomes generate superoxide (O2•−) and nitric oxide (•NO) radicals. ...
Alpha lipoic acid increases the formation of glutathione.. Antioxidants are substances that work by attacking "free radicals," ... alpha lipoic acid can neutralize free radicals, which can damage cells. Free radical damage is thought to contribute to aging ... Free radicals cause harmful chemical reactions that can damage cells in the body, making it harder for the body to fight off ... Alpha lipoic acid is an antioxidant; a substance that neutralizes potentially harmful chemicals called free radicals. What ...
... as oxidation produced free radicals which are the precursors to cancer... Since neither Alpha Lipoic Acid or Low Dose ... Inhaled Glutathione for Lung Inflammation, Pneumonia... (http://blog.listentoyourgut.com/inhaled-glutathione -for-lung- ... By Ordering Today you get 2 FREE Bonuses. FREE Bonus # 1 - - Lifetime Online Weight Loss Program Membership! FREE With any ... A daily dose of ACF228 unleashes an effective free radical scavenger to help you reduce risk of cancer and combat factors which ...
... a substance that neutralizes potentially harmful chemicals called free radicals. What makes alpha lipoic acid powder unique is ... 5. Alpha lipoic acid powder appears to be able to recycle antioxidants such as vitamin C and glutathione after they have been ... Q: Can I get free samples?. A: Yes, we can provide you free samples like 5-50g accordingly but the delivery cost is a must.. Q ...
which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals.. Alpha Lipoic Acid contributes to and is important ... glutathione. As an aside following Stephans post here Ive been looking at butyrate and glutathione and it looks like it does ... Free radicals promote inflammatory reactions, which antioxidants have been. successful at diminishing.. Scientists recently ... physical stamina, reducing muscle fatigue and neutralizes free radicals. Alpha. Lipoic Acid recycles and enhances the effects ...
... has been referred to as the master antioxidant by preventing free radical damage. The glutathione benefits are seemingly ... Fighting free radicals with glutathione. Terry Lemerond June 2, 2016. Glutathione (GSH) has been referred to as the "master ... Thats because glutathione enhances detoxification and neutralizes harmful toxins, while stopping free radical damage that ... Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;62:13-25.. 4 Schmitt B, Vicenzi M, Garrel C, Denis FM. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione ...
Renal work, glutathione and susceptibility to free radical-mediated postischemic injury.. Paller MS1. ... Studies were performed to determine whether renal glutathione (GSH) is an important free-radical scavenger following ischemia ...
Its free radical scavenging activity towards radicals of different nature (·OH, ·OOH, ·OCH3, ·OOCH3, ·OOCHCH2 and ·OOCCl3) have ... Glutathione, which is the most abundant cytosolic thiol, plays important roles in the non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system ... glutathione. is an excellent free radical scavenger. , able of efficiently scavenging a wide variety of free radicals. It ... Glutathione. : mechanism and kinetics of its non-enzymatic defense action against free radicals A. Galano and J. R. Alvarez- ...
The free radical scavenging activity of glutathione has been studied in aqueous solution. Its reactions with a set of radicals ... Glutathione: mechanism and kinetics of its non-enzymatic defense action against free radicals. Annia Galano *a and J. Raúl ... Therefore it can be stated that glutathione is an excellent free radical scavenger due to its versatility, i.e. its capability ... Its free radical scavenging activity towards radicals of different nature (·OH, ·OOH, ·OCH3, ·OOCH3, ·OOCHCH2 and ·OOCCl3) have ...
The resulting free radicals are initiated free radical processes in the biological system. Recombination of radicals leads to ... Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in ... Free radical (FR) processes play an extremely important role in cell activity. However, the intensification of free radical ... N. Fedorova, State of the system of glutathione peroxidase-glutathione reductase in the stimulated to regenerate body and its ...
Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in ... "Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in ...
Correlation of protection with preservation of glutathione levels.. I T Mak, P Boehme, W B Weglicki ... Preincubation of the cells with each of the calcium blockers (5 and 20 microM) before free radical addition resulted in various ... The effects of four calcium channel blockers (nicardipine, nifedipine, verapamil, and diltiazem) on free radical injury in ... Antioxidant effects of calcium channel blockers against free radical injury in endothelial cells. Correlation of protection ...
... what coincided with the maximum of free radical oxidation processes. Using a combination of reverse transcription and real-time ... and changes of glutathione peroxidase (GP, EC 184.108.40.206) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 220.127.116.11) activities at rats liver ... expression of the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes (Gpx1 and Gsr) was analyzed by the determination of ... Correlation between intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters, content of lipoperoxidation ...
Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Diseases. Edited by: Rizvan Ahmad. ISBN 978-1-78923-564-7, eISBN 978-1-78923-565-4, Published ... Glutathione in Health and Disease. Edited by Pinar Erkekoglu. Glutathione in Health and Disease. Edited by Pinar Erkekoglu ... The current book entitled Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer ... Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Diseases. Edited by Rizwan Ahmad. Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University ...
Scavenge Free Radicals Glutathione Enriched Yeast Extracts FOB Price: US $ 35-70 / kg. Min. Order: 25 kg ... Anti-Radiation Damage Glutathione Enriched Yeast Extracts FOB Price: US $ 110-112 / kg. Min. Order: 1 kg ... Best Quality L-Glutathione Enriched Yeast Extracts FOB Price: US $ 35-70 / kg. Min. Order: 25 kg ... Nutrition Enhancer Glutathione Enriched Yeast Extracts FOB Price: US $ 35-70 / kg. Min. Order: 25 kg ...
... Hair. Hearing. home electrical smog pollution testing kit. Hormones. Immune System. Joints. LessEMF. Mens ... Within the contiguous U.S. FREE standard shipping is available for orders totaling $99 or more. Outside the contiguous U.S. ...
Glutathione in Health and Disease. Edited by: Pinar Erkekoglu and Belma Kocer-Gumusel. ISBN 978-1-78984-275-3, eISBN 978-1- ... Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Diseases. Edited by Rizwan Ahmad. Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Diseases. Edited by Rizwan ... 1. Introductory Chapter: A General Overview of Glutathione, Glutathione Transport, and Glutathione Applications. By Pinar ... It is the key component of antioxidant system and serves as a free radical scavenger. There is a cycle of GSH in biological ...
Anti Free Radical from GMP Certified Glutathione Whitening Capsule - Guangzhou Boan Health Product Co., Ltd. ... China GMP Certified Glutathione Whitening Capsule, Find details about China Antioxidant, ... preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides&period ... Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide that contains an unusual peptide linkage between the amine group of cysteine ( ...
Free radical damage has been implicated in a wide variety of age related chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, ... Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) Glutathione reductase (GR) Catalase (CAT) Glutathione (GSH) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ... Free radicals and reactive oxygen s... by Deepa Devkota 4878 views * Free radicals in human diseases and... by Mohammed Sakr ... Free radicals & antioxidants by Prashant Vishwanath 11493 views * 13. free radicals and antioxidants by Madhumita Sen 25422 ...
Glutathione measurements.. To measure glutathione concentration ([GSH]), cells were incubated with 50 μm monochlorobimane (MCB ... 1995) Substrate control of free radical generation from xanthine oxidase in the postischemic heart. J Biol Chem 11:18797-18803. ... It is clear from this work that hypoxia and reoxygenation cause profound changes in the rate of free radical generation in ... 1995) Source of oxygen free radicals produced by rat hepatocytes during postanoxic reoxygenation. Biochim Biophys Acta 21:249- ...
Muller FL, Lustgarten MS, Jang Y, Richardson A, Van Remmen H (Aug 2007). "Trends in oxidative aging theories". Free Radical ... Glutathione peroxidase was discovered in 1957 by Gordon C. Mills. It has been shown that low levels of glutathione peroxidase ... Glutathione peroxidase 2 is an intestinal and extracellular enzyme, while glutathione peroxidase 3 is extracellular, especially ... RSeH Glutathione reductase then reduces the oxidized glutathione to complete the cycle: GS-SG + NADPH + H+ → 2 GSH + NADP+. ...
As such it is able to maintain their health and performance and resist disease by neutralizing free radicals and keeping other ... Glutathione is the only intracellular antioxidant found, which means it acts inside the cells. ... because it can regenerate itself after each fill-up of free radicals and go back to work. Free radicals are often the by- ... As such it is able to maintain their health and performance and resist disease by neutralizing free radicals and keeping other ...
For instance, glutathione peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by reducing free radicals ... Cai J, Chen Y, Seth S, Furukawa S, Compans RW, Jones DP (Apr 2003). "Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione". Free ... Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G (Oct 2002). "Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition". Nutrition. 18 (10): 872-9. doi:10.1016/S0899- ... Glutathione synthetase (GSS) (EC 18.104.22.168) is the second enzyme in the glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis pathway. It catalyses the ...
2. Free-Radical Neutralization. Glutathione neutralizes free radicals - and at the same time bolsters the immune system and ... Archvillain: Free Radicals. Like all superheroes, glutathione has a nemesis - namely, free radicals. These unstable oxygen ... heres an area thats being damaged by free radicals, thats low in glutathione, and therefore is at more risk for free-radical ... Glutathione works in tandem with other antioxidants to battle free radicals, but functions as more than just a good teammate. ...
Free Radicals and Antioxidants. Do the words free radicals, oxidative damage, detox, antioxidants, etc. sound familiar to you? ... Glutathione 4 *Rutin 3 *Free Radicals 5 *Alpha Lipoic Acid 4 *Lycopene 3 ... Antioxidants refer to substances that act against the free radicals, which are reactive substances that can cause damage to ... Olive leaf extract contains strong antioxidants that help in scavenging free radicals and protecting from disease-causing ...
Brigelius-Flohé R (November 1999). "Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases". Free Radical Biology & ... The glutathione system includes glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, and glutathione S-transferases.[ ... and free radicals" (PDF). Free Radical Research. 40 (12): 1230-8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.476.9259 . doi:10.1080/10715760600911303. ... and free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the superoxide anion (O2−). The hydroxyl radical is particularly ...
AntioxidantsNeutralize freeImportant antioxidantCoenzymeLipoicDamageAntioxidantsAmino acidsProduction of free radicalsOxidative damageScavengerNeutralizeHydroxyl radicalToxinsCellularWays to increase your glutathione levelsTripeptideEffects of free radicalsGenerate free radicalsMoleculeMoleculesEnzymeIntracellular glutathioneMalondialdehydeProteinPeroxidasesNeutralizes free radicalsMaster antioxidantH2O2Taken orallyMechanismMechanismsOral glutathione supplementsThiolRedoxBiologyElectronDepletionDefenseOxygen-Centered Free RadicalsOrallyTypes of Free RadicalsHumansSignificantlyCysteine and glutathioneSubstancesElectronsBoost glutathione
- What makes alpha lipoic acid unique is that it functions in water and fat, unlike the more common antioxidants vitamins C and E, and it appears to be able to recycle antioxidants such as vitamin C and glutathione after they have been used up. (healthstudio.com)
- Antioxidants are substances that work by attacking "free radicals," waste products created when the body turns food into energy. (healthstudio.com)
- 5. Alpha lipoic acid powder appears to be able to recycle antioxidants such as vitamin C and glutathione after they have been used up. (cnherb.cc)
- Free radicals promote inflammatory reactions, which antioxidants have been successful at diminishing. (natmedtalk.com)
- Age-Related Conditions - As an antioxidant, alpha lipoic acid can neutralize free radicals, which can damage cells. (healthstudio.com)
- Unlike Vitamin C, which is water soluble and Vitamin E, which is fat soluble, Alpha Lipoic Acid is a unique antioxidant that is both water and fat soluble, which allows it to enter all parts of the cell to neutralize free radicals. (natmedtalk.com)
- Lester Packer, Ph.D., of the University of California, Berkeley, published a lengthy review article on alpha-lipoic acid in Free Radical Biology & Medicine. (healthstudio.com)
- Alpha lipoic acid increases the formation of glutathione. (healthstudio.com)
- 4.Alpha lipoic acid powder is also an antioxidant, a substance that neutralizes potentially harmful chemicals called free radicals. (cnherb.cc)
- Alpha Lipoic Acid contributes to and is important for the production of energy inside the cell by utilizing sugar to produce energy contributing to mental and physical stamina, reducing muscle fatigue and neutralizes free radicals. (natmedtalk.com)
- An explanation for this finding may lie in the complexing of heavy metals with glutathione and lipoic acid. (natmedtalk.com)
- Recently, researchers have been testing glutathione's bioavailability with a process that combines it with protective antioxidants in a slow-dissolving sublingual tablet.4 Because the of the capillary-rich environment under the tongue, the glutathione is absorbed directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive tract, and facing minimal oxidative damage. (chiroeco.com)
- The current book entitled Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer techniques and provides insights into the roles played by various antioxidants in combating diseases caused by oxidative stress. (intechopen.com)
- As such it is able to maintain their health and performance and resist disease by neutralizing free radicals and keeping other antioxidants, including Vitamin C and E, in their active form. (lifesourcevitamins.com)
- If biochemistry were the stuff of comic books, antioxidants would be superheroes - with glutathione saving the day. (experiencelife.com)
- Most antioxidants have a short lifespan, sacrificing themselves whenever they wipe out a free radical. (experiencelife.com)
- Glutathione is different: It carries enough zip to not only recharge itself but also to resuscitate other spent antioxidants, including vitamins C and E, explains Leslie Fuller, ND, associate dean at the National College of Natural Medicine in Portland, Ore. (experiencelife.com)
- Glutathione works in tandem with other antioxidants to battle free radicals, but functions as more than just a good teammate. (experiencelife.com)
- The so-called mother of all antioxidants, it also helps recharge fellow fighters, including vitamins C and E. This recharging superpower makes glutathione extra important in the body's fight against oxidization. (experiencelife.com)
- Olive leaf extract contains strong antioxidants that help in scavenging free radicals and protecting from disease-causing pathogens. (buzzle.com)
- Antioxidants refer to substances that act against the free radicals, which are reactive substances that can cause damage to cells, thereby making one susceptible to medical conditions. (buzzle.com)
- To balance the oxidative state , plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase ), produced internally, or the dietary antioxidants vitamin C, and vitamin E . (wikipedia.org)
- Severity of illness at admission (APACHE II score) was correlated with admission levels of superoxide radicals and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase). (biomedsearch.com)
- Antioxidants are chemicals that neutralize free radicals. (prezi.com)
- Glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) are antioxidants which are quite popular for their ability to minimize oxidative stress and the downstream negative effects thought to be associated with oxidative stress. (biomedcentral.com)
- with free radical scavengers and antioxidants. (booktopia.com.au)
- Some antioxidants come from the diet, whereas others (such as glutathione and the superoxide dismutase enzymes) are made in vivo . (els.net)
- Glutathione has been described as "the mother of all antioxidants" and this is true, but it does much more. (prohealth.com)
- It is a natural antioxidant with free radical scavenging abilities and has the ability to regenerate oxidized antioxidants like Vitamin C and E and helps to make them more potent. (wikihow.com)
- Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects. (burningissues.org)
- Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, [[glutathione peroxidase]], and glutathione reductase, as well as antioxidants such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and polyphenols play important roles in protecting the body from free radical damage. (burningissues.org)
- Once antioxidants such as tocopherols (vitamin E), vitamin C, and flavonoids react with free radicals, these antioxidants are themselves converted into free radicals. (prohealth.com)
- Other antioxidants are then needed to neutralize those newly formed free radicals. (prohealth.com)
- Anthocyanidins, which are found in purple plants, lower inflammatory activity, act as potent chain-breaking antioxidants, and regenerate other chain-breaking antioxidants after they have been converted to free radicals. (prohealth.com)
- Free Radical Biology and Medicine is an international, interdisciplinary journal that publishes original contributions and reviews on a broad range of topics relating to redox biology , signaling , biological chemistry and medical implications of free radicals , reactive species , oxidants and antioxidants . (elsevier.com)
- Antioxidants can neutralize free radicals and prevent them from being destructive. (livescience.com)
- Murphy and colleagues created a mixture of three antioxidants, vitamin C, glutathione and uric acid. (livescience.com)
- In these situations, the formula stimulates the body's production of Glutathione to compensate for the body's accelerated use of it, thereby strengthening your natural defences, markedly decreasing your risk of illness, increasing the body's ability to utilise whole food antioxidants, whilst guarding against the effects of free radicals on the body's aging process. (health-report.co.uk)
- Antioxidants not only prevent the oxidation of various free radical reactions in the body but can also help to reduce damage caused by the active reactions of free radicals. (shapefit.com)
- Antioxidants usually have the capacity to change the active free radicals which are responsible for causing damage to the human body into a neutral molecule before they come into contact with cells and vital organs. (shapefit.com)
- Absence of sufficient amounts of antioxidants in the body can affect these vital organs which can result in either cardiovascular diseases such as Alzheimer's or other issues like cataracts or muscle degeneration depending upon which part of the body was affected by the free radicals. (shapefit.com)
- That is the reason we must take in antioxidants in order to minimize the harmful effects of free radicals whenever they come into contact with any area of our body. (shapefit.com)
- So the balancing of both free radicals and antioxidants is very crucial in human body. (shapefit.com)
- Under normal conditions, antioxidants step in to neutralize a free radical by using up its unpaired electron. (scienceline.org)
- To protect the cell against damage caused by free radicals, GSH replenishes the cell with new antioxidants and regenerates used antioxidants so they can continue rounding up free radicals. (scienceline.org)
- But before you buy that expensive blueberry beverage you should know that recent studies show that the cancer fighting benefit of a diet high in antioxidants may be small - our cells' natural free radical defenses end up doing the majority of the work. (scienceline.org)
- Carlson Glutathione Booster delivers a powerful blend of antioxidants to defend the body against free radicals. (swansonvitamins.com)
- One of the ways your body achieves this is by using antioxidants to limit free radical damage that can undermine your health. (amazonaws.com)
- Glutathione is one of the body's most important and powerful antioxidants & helps to detoxify xenobiotics and other free radicals. (priceplow.com)
- Supplemental antioxidants such as GLUTATHIONE can exhibit a variety of benefits to its user. (priceplow.com)
- Free radical-fighting antioxidants defend skin from environmental stress that can cause inflammation and damage to collagen and elastin. (cosmedix.com)
- Most glutathione is made inside the body from three amino acids: glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. (experiencelife.com)
- GOLD STANDARD CHINA-FREE SETRIA GLUTATHIONE - Setria Glutathione is a tri-peptide consisting of amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, found to varying degrees in all cells, tissues, body fluids, and organs. (amazon.com)
- Glutathione, when taken orally, is immediately broken down into its constituent amino acids, of which cysteine is the only one to be essential. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Glutathione is composed of three amino acids - cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. (wikihow.com)
- These amino acids are present in high quality lean protein sources, so eating high quality lean protein will help your body to make more glutathione. (wikihow.com)
- Glutathione is a small tripeptide molecule that's made up of three amino acids: glutamate (aka glutamic acid), cysteine and glycine. (mercola.com)
- Whey protein powder - Whey protein provides the amino acids that your body needs to produce glutathione. (mercola.com)
- Allium and cruciferous vegetables - Allium vegetables, like garlic, onions, leeks and chives, as well as cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage and Brussels sprouts , have high amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids that are essential for glutathione production. (mercola.com)
- Erythrocyte glutathione has a rapid turnover rate (∼60-100% per day) ( 2 - 6 ) and arises from de novo synthesis from its constituent amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The difference between cysteine and glutathione is that cysteine is a single amino acid and glutathione is a protein made up of three amino acids, one of which is cysteine. (wisegeek.com)
- The body uses amino acids like cysteine to form larger protein molecules such as glutathione. (wisegeek.com)
- Glutathione in oral supplements would most likely be broken down into its amino acids by the digestive system, before it could be used by the body. (wisegeek.com)
- Certain foods, such as raw milk products, raw eggs, and meat, contain high concentrations of the precursor amino acids that your body uses to make glutathione. (amazonaws.com)
- Quality whey provides all the key amino acids for glutathione production (cysteine, glycine and glutamate) and contains a unique cysteine residue (glutamylcysteine) that is highly bioactive in its affinity for converting to glutathione. (amazonaws.com)
- Glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is a peptide molecule synthesized in the body from the three amino acids L-glutamic acid, L-cysteine and glycine. (priceplow.com)
- Results obtained at the end of the study indicate that zinc supplementation prevents production of free radicals by activating the antioxidant system. (nih.gov)
- This study was aimed at analysing the dynamic of the cell populations present in peritoneal liquid and the production of free radicals by the peritoneal leukocytes in infected and vaccinated sheep with recombinant cathepsin L1 of F. hepatica (rFhCL1) in early stages of the infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Saez G, Thornalley PJ, Hill HAO, Hems R, Bannister JV: The production of free radicals during the autoxidation of cysteine and their effect on isolated rat hepatocytes. (springer.com)
- Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC 22.214.171.124) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Flavonoids also act as chelators for free iron, protecting cells from oxidative damage. (prohealth.com)
- Instead, in the liver, markers of oxidative damage (malonaldehyde, protein thiols and the proportion of glutathione in the oxidized form) indicated lower oxidative stress in reproducing females when compared with non-reproductive controls. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Studies were performed to determine whether renal glutathione (GSH) is an important free-radical scavenger following ischemia and reperfusion, whether alterations in renal transport work affect renal GSH levels, and whether a decrease in renal work decreases susceptibility to postischemic renal injury via the first two effects. (nih.gov)
- Therefore it can be stated that glutathione is an excellent free radical scavenger , able of efficiently scavenging a wide variety of free radicals. (rsc.org)
- Glutathione was found to be exceptionally good as a OOH radical scavenger , comparable to 2-propenesulfenic acid . (rsc.org)
- It is the key component of antioxidant system and serves as a free radical scavenger. (intechopen.com)
- The free radical scavenger N -acetyl cysteine abolished the potentiating effect of arsenic trioxide. (aacrjournals.org)
- Ahnfelt-Ronne I, Nielsen OH, Christensen A, Langholz E, Binder V, Riis P (1990) Clinical evidence supporting the radical scavenger mechanism of 5-aminosalicylic acid. (springer.com)
- Selenium, by itself is a scavenger of free radicals. (hubpages.com)
- When the cultured cells were exposed to a superoxide and hydroxyl radical generating system for up to 60 minutes, lipid peroxidation occurred, and cellular viability decreased by 60% at 30 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
- The ozone radical anion then reacts with a proton to form the hydroxyl radical and dioxygen: O3. (nih.gov)
- Using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, the spin adduct of the hydroxyl radical is detected. (nih.gov)
- T. Ozawa and A. Hanaki, Hydroxyl radical produced by the reaction of superoxide ion with hydrogen peroxide: electron spin resonance detection by spin trapping, Chem. (springer.com)
- The most important oxygen-based free radicals are superoxide and the hydroxyl radical, produced from the reduction of molecular oxygen. (burningissues.org)
- The most common ROS include: the superoxide anion (O2-), the hydroxyl radical (OH ·), singlet oxygen (1O2 ), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Superoxide anions are formed when oxygen (O2) acquires an additional electron, leaving the molecule with only one unpaired electron. (exrx.net)
- Hydrogen peroxide is unique in that, it can be converted to the highly damaging hydroxyl radical or be catalyzed and excreted harmlessly as water. (exrx.net)
- One of these is the hydroxyl radical, which reacts strongly with DNA molecules and damages their double-helix structure. (scienceline.org)
- In response to the threat of superoxide and its dangerous sidekick the hydroxyl radical, the body uses its antioxidant system to keep them from accumulating in the cell. (scienceline.org)
- Yes, just because levels don't begin to drop dramatically until, after age 20, our modern environment bombards the body with toxins and depletes glutathione levels in everyone. (lifesourcevitamins.com)
- That's because glutathione is a triple threat to toxins: It neutralizes free radicals, enhances the immune system, and detoxifies the liver. (experiencelife.com)
- Found in every cell in our bodies, glutathione protects our cells' energy-producing factories - the mitochondria - from bacteria, viruses, and toxins. (experiencelife.com)
- But when bombarded with toxins and free-radical damage from the sun, pollution, poor nutrition, or chronic stress , our bodies can't keep up. (experiencelife.com)
- This master antioxidant amino acid helps protect cells in the body from free radicals, toxins and heavy metals. (amazon.com)
- Glutathione is an antioxidant protein made by the body and is one its main defenses against toxins and free radicals . (wisegeek.com)
- Levels of Glutathione are further reduced by continual stress upon the immune system such as illness, infection, and environmental toxins. (health-report.co.uk)
- Concomitantly, total cellular glutathione decreased by 40%, whereas total protein thiols changed minimally. (ahajournals.org)
- 5. The presence of low concentrations of free radicals is important for normal cellular redox status, immune function and intracellular signaling. (slideshare.net)
- As the integrity of the cellular and subcellular membranes depends heavily on glutathione peroxidase, its antioxidative protective system itself depends heavily on the presence of selenium. (wikipedia.org)
- Cardiac depression and cellular injury in hemorrhagic shock and reinfusion: role of free radicals. (biomedsearch.com)
- To identify proteins undergoing glutathionylation (formation of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides) in human T cell blasts, we radiolabeled the glutathione pool with 35 S, exposed cells to the oxidant diamide, and analyzed cellular proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis. (pnas.org)
- Glutathione is largely known to minimize the lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and other such targets that is known to occur with oxidative stress. (biomedcentral.com)
- Note: Free radicals in the human body can accelerate aging and induce cellular damage. (burningissues.org)
- In turn, the newly formed radical then looks to return to its ground state by stealing electrons with antiparallel spins from cellular structures or molecules. (exrx.net)
- Glutathione is important for the body's cellular defense. (swansonvitamins.com)
- The variety of nutrients within Glutathione Booster encourages healthy cellular metabolism, helps maintain optimal health and promotes peak performance. (swansonvitamins.com)
- however, there are some ways to increase your glutathione levels. (wikihow.com)
- One of the best ways to increase your glutathione levels is by eating foods that help boost its production in your body, particularly those that contain high amounts of sulfur, like high-quality whey powder. (mercola.com)
- Collectively, these findings demonstrate that MDA-7 protein, in combination with agents that generate free radicals, may have potential in the treatment of RCC. (aacrjournals.org)
- Gliotoxins generate free radicals. (bodyecology.com)
- The findings demonstrate that titanium particles generate free radicals and induce plasma membrane peroxidation and NSmase activation. (elsevier.com)
- Historically, the term radical has also been used for bound parts of the molecule, especially when they remain unchanged in reactions. (slideshare.net)
- 8. As a rule, a radical needs to pair its unpaired electron with another, and will react with another molecule in order to obtain this missing electron. (slideshare.net)
- If a radical achieves this by 'stealing' an electron from another molecule, that other molecule itself becomes a radical (Reaction 1), and a self propagating chain reaction is begun (Reaction 2). (slideshare.net)
- A free radical is a molecule that contains at least one unpaired electron in its outer spin orbits. (biomedcentral.com)
- Selenium elevates the levels of glutathione peroxidase - the cysteine molecule appearing in the process of digestion of plants grown in selenium-rich soil contributes to GSH production. (wikihow.com)
- Persistent radicals are also relatively stable due to steric hindrance near the radical center, making it more difficult for the radical to react with another molecule. (burningissues.org)
- When free radicals steal an electron from a surrounding compound or molecule, a new free radical is formed in its place. (exrx.net)
- The proxy radical steals an electron from another lipid molecule in a process called propagation. (exrx.net)
- One of the most important places to find sulfur in the human body is in the glutathione molecule. (greenmedinfo.com)
- A molecule that is missing an electron from one or more of its pairs is called a free radical . (scienceline.org)
- Ebselen is a small molecule mimic and inducer of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 10. Certain non-radical molecules have been included in this definition. (slideshare.net)
- These are oxidizing agents or molecules that can be easily converted into radicals. (slideshare.net)
- These unstable oxygen molecules are missing an electron, so they rip electrons from their neighbors, creating more free radicals. (experiencelife.com)
- Ozone is not itself a radical, and we have asked: With what molecules does ozone react in the lung and how are radicals produced? (nih.gov)
- It helps prevent damage caused by destructive free radical molecules. (abc.net.au)
- Free radicals are molecules or atoms with unpaired electrons. (burningissues.org)
- Generally, free radicals react with other molecules, damaging them. (burningissues.org)
- When X-rays crash into water molecules, they produce free radicals, which are molecules with extra electrons that can damage components of cells, including their DNA. (livescience.com)
- Free radicals are atoms, ions or molecules that have one or more unpaired electrons. (shapefit.com)
- When superoxide reacts with nearby molecules, it sets off a chain reaction that results in the creation of more free radicals. (scienceline.org)
- Glutathione peroxidase 2 is an intestinal and extracellular enzyme, while glutathione peroxidase 3 is extracellular, especially abundant in plasma. (wikipedia.org)
- Mice genetically engineered to lack glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1−/− mice) are grossly phenotypically normal and have normal lifespans, indicating this enzyme is not critical for life. (wikipedia.org)
- Glutathione synthetase (GSS) (EC 126.96.36.199) is the second enzyme in the glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- Research has shown that this herb, traditionally used in Chinese Medicine to build yang energetic force in the body, also protects cells by engaging the glutathione enzyme cycle! (bodyecology.com)
- It combines with other elements to form part of the enzyme antioxidant system of glutathione. (hubpages.com)
- These data suggest that the intracellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio, an indicator of the redox state of the cell, can regulate Trx functions reversibly through thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. (pnas.org)
- Once transported into the cell, it is converted to glutamate and available for intracellular glutathione synthesis. (bodyecology.com)
- Dramatic neuroprotection was obtained by coexpressing the calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k but not by increasing intracellular glutathione levels or treatment with the free radical spin trap agent, N -tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone. (jneurosci.org)
- The contribution of generalized free radical generation was tested by increasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels using glutathione ethyl ester or by treatment with the free radical binding agent N -tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN). (jneurosci.org)
- The blood samples collected were analyzed to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum glutathione (GSH), serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (ELISA colorimetric method) and zinc (colorimetric method). (nih.gov)
- When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p (keephopealive.org)
- On the 4th day, rats were decapitated and distal colon was removed for the macroscopic and microscopic damage scoring, for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and collagen levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescences (CL) and DNA fragmentation. (springer.com)
- Additional studies were performed using purified preparations of bacterially synthesized glutathione S -transferase (GST)-MDA-7 protein. (aacrjournals.org)
- HIV infection is associated the development of increased oxidative stress and deficiency of glutathione (GSH), the dominant endogenous antioxidant protein, but the underlying mechanisms contributing to GSH deficiency are hitherto unknown. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- These reactions may mimic the reactions of protein-derived radicals with DNA. (springer.com)
- Also in contrast to Sed muscles, Exer muscles displayed no reductions in glutathione or protein thiol levels in response to contraction. (nih.gov)
- When buying whey protein powder, make sure that you choose a cold-pressed product that's derived from grass fed cows to guarantee that it's free from harmful chemicals, hormones and sugar. (mercola.com)
- To boost the protein content even further, I sometimes add two organic, free-range eggs that I purchase from a local farmer. (amazonaws.com)
- Glutathione (GSH) has been referred to as the "master antioxidant. (chiroeco.com)
- LifeSource Vitamins-L-Glutathione, The Master Antioxidant. (lifesourcevitamins.com)
- It is called the Master Antioxidant, because it can regenerate itself after each fill-up of free radicals and go back to work. (lifesourcevitamins.com)
- Let me back up a second and talk about glutathione, our body's master antioxidant. (ericcressey.com)
- Glutathione is the most powerful and prevalent antioxidant in your body and is often referred to as the master antioxidant. (health-report.co.uk)
- Glutathione is the body's master antioxidant and without adequate levels in the body, the body cannot utilise antioxidant rich whole foods as efficiently as it should. (health-report.co.uk)
- Did you know Glutathione is the body's master antioxidant and is vital to good health? (health-report.co.uk)
- Supplementing with Glutathione in the past has been difficult and remains difficult, as scientific research shows that Glutathione taken orally is NOT well absorbed across the GI tract. (health-report.co.uk)
- Research shows that it is effective when applied topically through soap or creams, but glutathione taken orally has a very low absorption rate. (wisegeek.com)
- It is generally accepted that glutathione taken orally is likely not effective, but many argue that soaps, creams, and gels are just as ineffective. (wisegeek.com)
- The first mechanism splits an R radical out of an olefin with the structure R-CH = CH2. (nih.gov)
- The second mechanism for radical production involves the reaction of ozone with electron donors. (nih.gov)
- Depletion of glutathione, an important antioxidant present in red cells, has been reported in type 1 diabetes, but the mechanism of this depletion has not been fully characterized. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The free radical theory of aging postulates that free radical damage is the primary mechanism of aging. (burningissues.org)
- Glutathione offers one mechanism for scavenging toxic free radicals. (emtexas.com)
- Because none of the agents affected the level of hydroxyl radicals generated in the aqueous phase, the data suggest that the protective mechanisms were mediated by their lipid antiperoxidative activities, which also prevented the glutathione decrease caused by inhibition of peroxide generation. (ahajournals.org)
- Special attention is focused on the mechanisms of the generation of free radicals and peroxy products in biosystems and on the adverse effects of these radicals and products in humans. (springer.com)
- The book also explores the mechanisms of agents that protect against free radicals and peroxy products in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
- 11. Alterations in Membrane Phospholipids, Mechanisms of Free Radical Damage and Antioxidant Protection during Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion. (booktopia.com.au)
- Dizdaroglu M and Jaruga P (2012) Mechanisms of free radical‐induced damage to DNA. (els.net)
- Structure and Reaction Mechanisms in Sulphur-Radical Chemistry Revealed by E.S.R. Spectroscopy. (worldcat.org)
- Although glutathione depletion has been observed in diabetes, the mechanisms responsible for this depletion are not fully understood. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The body has developed a number of mechanisms to minimize free radical damage and even repair damage. (burningissues.org)
- Glutathione , which is the most abundant cytosolic thiol , plays important roles in the non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system. (rsc.org)
- Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most important thiol in living organisms. (intechopen.com)
- Glutathione (GSH) is the main intracellular thiol antioxidant. (bodyecology.com)
- As the demand and subsequent flux for this process increases so does the chance that redox uncoupling will occur and increase the accumulation of free radicals throughout the cell. (biomedcentral.com)
- Photocatalytic Formation of Sulfur-Centered Radicals by One-Electron Redox Processes on Semiconductor Surfaces. (worldcat.org)
- In erythrocytes, glutathione is the main "redox buffer" in charge of the maintenance of iron in its reduced form, a prerequisite for hemoglobin's function. (diabetesjournals.org)
- 10 proposed for the ·OH + GSH reaction that in addition to the sulfur-centered radical formed by electron transfer or H abstraction from glytathione, at least one carbon-centered radical is formed in a pH dependent way. (rsc.org)
- one involves an ozone-olefin reaction and the other a reaction with electron donors such as glutathione (GSH). (nih.gov)
- The R then reacts with dioxygen to become a peroxyl radical (ROO), and both carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals can be detected by the electron spin resonance spin trap method. (nih.gov)
- If the electron donor is, for example, GSH or its ion (GS-), this reaction produces the thiyl radical GS. (nih.gov)
- Glutathione is present in cells at rather high concentrations and is expected to act as an H- or electron-donor in repairing radiation-induced DNA damage (chemical repair). (springer.com)
- When a single unpaired electron is present, the resultant compound has a number of novel chemical and biological properties: such compounds are called free radicals. (springer.com)
- Sulfur-Centered Three-Electron Bonded Radical Species. (worldcat.org)
- By definition, a free radical is any atom (e.g. oxygen, nitrogen) with at least one unpaired electron in the outermost shell, and is capable of independent existence (13). (exrx.net)
- A free radical is easily formed when a covalent bond between entities is broken and one electron remains with each newly formed atom (13). (exrx.net)
- Oxygen acts as the terminal electron acceptor within the ETC. The literature suggests that anywhere from 2 to 5% (14) of the total oxygen intake during both rest and exercise have the ability to form the highly damaging superoxide radical via electron escape. (exrx.net)
- In turn, this leaves the carbon with an unpaired electron and hence, becomes a free radical. (exrx.net)
- Garlick PB, Davies MJ, Hearse DJ, Slater TF: Direct detection of free radicals in the reperfused rat heart using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. (springer.com)
- An increase in oxidative stress or free radicals from the microwave radiation of cell phones and especially cell phone towers would cause a depletion in glutathione reserves as the body reacts to defend itself. (keephopealive.org)
- However, a significant depletion of glutathione means that the person subjected to microwave radiation would have little or no defense free radicals that steal electrons from cells leading to the destruction of cells in a process known as a free radical cascade. (keephopealive.org)
- These findings suggest that in diabetic adolescents, poor control is associated with a significant depletion of blood glutathione and cysteine, due to increased rates of glutathione utilization. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Depletion of blood glutathione has been documented in many clinical situations such as malnutrition ( 3 ), severe burn injury ( 4 ), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection ( 5 ), and diabetes, both type 1 and type 2 ( 7 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Glutathione depletion may have adverse consequences in diabetic patients, independent of glycemic control, and it may weaken the defense against oxidative stress. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, glutathione depletion may adversely affect insulin sensitivity, since oxidative stress impairs insulin-sensitive glucose transport in adipocytes ( 12 ), potentially through activation of nuclear factor κB ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Preincubation of the cells with each of the calcium blockers (5 and 20 microM) before free radical addition resulted in various degrees of significant protection against cell death, and losses of glutathione correlated significantly (r = 0.89, p less than 0.001). (ahajournals.org)
- In addition, TNF-a significantly depleted glutathione as compared to saline. (cogprints.org)
- While it cannot completely rid the skin of imperfections, it can significantly reduce their visibility if glutathione is used over a long period of time. (wisegeek.com)
- What Is the Difference between Cysteine and Glutathione? (wisegeek.com)
- Cysteine and glutathione are important in preventing this damage and eliminating toxic substances from the body. (wisegeek.com)
- Most healthy people people are unlikely to be deficient in cysteine and glutathione. (wisegeek.com)
- It remains unclear how effective supplements with cysteine and glutathione are. (wisegeek.com)
- Meister A, Anderson ME, Hwang O: Intracellular cysteine and glutathione delivery systems. (springer.com)
- NO TASTE, NO SWEETENER & NO REFRIGERATION NEEDED - Glutathione controls the types of bonds formed between proteins and other substances in your body. (amazon.com)
- It helps to destroy free radicals and remove harmful substances from the body. (wikihow.com)
- Free radicals are substances that are naturally produced by bodily processes but also enter the body from the environment. (wisegeek.com)
- Glutathione also helps to change environmental substances like harmful chemicals that can then be safely excreted. (wisegeek.com)
- Active free radicals can wreck the substances they touch first. (shapefit.com)
- 2. A free radical is any species capable of independent existence that contains one or more unpaired electrons. (slideshare.net)
- A free radical prefers to steal electrons from the lipid membrane of a cell, initiating a free radical attack on the cell known as lipid peroxidation. (exrx.net)
- About one to three percent of all electrons involved in energy production actually "leak" and become a free radical called superoxide. (scienceline.org)