One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.

Freeze-fracture studies of the developing cell surface. II. Particle-free membrane blisters on glutaraldehyde-fixed corneal fibroblasts are artefacts. (1/776)

We describe, in sections and by freeze-fracture, four classes of intramembrane particle (IMP)-free membrane blebs or "blisters" associated with glutaraldehyde-fixed embryonic corneal fibroblasts: (a) Single blisters attached to the cell membrane; (b) free (detached) vesicles; (c) myelin figures; (d) multivesicular protrusions which resemble the "mounds" described by others on nerve growth cones. The IMP-free, membrane-bounded blisters contain no ground cytoplasm or organelles, in contrast to blebs on trypsin-isolated fibroblasts, which we show here do contain cytoplasm and IMP-rich membranes. That the IMP-free membrane blisters in embryonic corneas are artefacts of fixation is demonstrated by (a) their absence in replicas of fibroblasts frozen and fractured without prior aldehyde fixation and (b) their absence in sections of fibroblasts fixed in a combination of glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide. We suggest that the addition of osmium prevents postfixation movement of membrane lipids, especially the negatively charged "fluid" lipids which others have shown are capable of considerable mobility after aldehyde fixation alone. Recent literature has implicated membrane blistering in secretory processes and in growth of nerves, but before the functional significance of such IMP-free blisters is assessed, membrane mobility of the type shown here should be taken into consideration.  (+info)

Role of glutaraldehyde in calcification of porcine aortic valve fibroblasts. (2/776)

Glutaraldehyde-treated porcine aortic valve xenografts frequently fail due to calcification. Calcification in the prostheses begins intracellularly. In a previous study, various types of cell injury to canine valvular fibroblasts, including glutaraldehyde treatment, led to calcification. An influx of extracellular Ca2+ into the phosphate-rich cytosol was theorized to be the mechanism of calcification. To test the Ca2+ influx theory, cytosolic Ca2+ and Pi concentrations were assessed in glutaraldehyde-treated porcine aortic valve fibroblasts, and their relationship to a subsequent calcification was studied. Glutaraldehyde caused an immediate and sustained massive cytosolic Ca2+ increase that was dose dependent and a several-fold increase in Pi. Calcification of cells followed within a week. The earliest calcification was observed in blebs formed on glutaraldehyde-treated cells. Live control cells or cells fixed with glutaraldehyde in Ca2+-free solution did not calcify under the same conditions. Concomitant increases in Ca2+ and Pi in glutaraldehyde-treated cells appear to underlie the mechanism of calcification, and the presence of extracellular Ca2+ during glutaraldehyde fixation promotes calcification.  (+info)

Mitochondrial telomere-binding protein from Candida parapsilosis suggests an evolutionary adaptation of a nonspecific single-stranded DNA-binding protein. (3/776)

The mitochondrial genome in a number of organisms is represented by linear DNA molecules with defined terminal structures. The telomeres of linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of yeast Candida parapsilosis consist of tandem arrays of large repetitive units possessing single-stranded 5' extension of about 110 nucleotides. Recently we identified the first mitochondrial telomere-binding protein (mtTBP) that specifically binds a sequence derived from the extreme end of C. parapsilosis linear mtDNA and protects it from attack by various DNA-modifying enzymes (Tomaska, L'., Nosek, J., and Fukuhara, H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 3049-3059). Here we report the isolation of MTP1, the gene encoding mtTBP of C. parapsilosis. Sequence analysis revealed that mtTBP shares homology with several bacterial and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins that nonspecifically bind to single-stranded DNA with high affinity. Recombinant mtTBP displays a preference for the telomeric 5' overhang of C. parapsilosis mtDNA. The heterologous expression of a mtTBP-GFP fusion protein resulted in its localization to the mitochondria but was unable to functionally substitute for the loss of the S. cerevisiae homologue Rimlp. Analysis of the MTP1 gene and its translation product mtTBP may provide an insight into the evolutionary origin of linear mitochondrial genomes and the role it plays in their replication and maintenance.  (+info)

Ligand binding properties of the very low density lipoprotein receptor. Absence of the third complement-type repeat encoded by exon 4 is associated with reduced binding of Mr 40,000 receptor-associated protein. (4/776)

The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) binds, among other ligands, the Mr 40,000 receptor-associated protein (RAP) and a variety of serine proteinase-serpin complexes, including complexes of the proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) with the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and protease nexin-1 (PN-1). We have analyzed the binding of RAP, uPA.PAI-1, and uPA.PN-1 to two naturally occurring VLDLR variants, VLDLR-I, containing all eight complement-type repeats, and VLDLR-III, lacking the third complement-type repeat, encoded by exon 4. VLDLR-III displayed approximately 4-fold lower binding of RAP than VLDLR-I and approximately 10-fold lower binding of the most C-terminal one of the three domains of RAP. In contrast, the binding of uPA.PAI-1 and uPA.PN-1 to the two VLDLR variants was indistinguishable. Surprisingly, uPA.PN-1, but not uPA.PAI-1, competed RAP binding to both VLDLR variants. These observations show that the third complement-type repeat plays a crucial role in maintaining the contact sites needed for optimal recognition of RAP, but does not affect the proteinase-serpin complex contact sites, and that two ligands can show full cross-competition without sharing the same contacts with the receptor. These results elucidate the mechanisms of molecular recognition of ligands by receptors of the low density lipoprotein receptor family.  (+info)

Functional domain structure of human heterochromatin protein HP1(Hsalpha): involvement of internal DNA-binding and C-terminal self-association domains in the formation of discrete dots in interphase nuclei. (5/776)

Human heterochromatin protein HP1(Hsalpha) possesses two evolutionarily conserved regions in the N- and C-terminal halves, so-called chromo and chromo-shadow domains, and DNA-binding domain in the internal non-conserved region. Here, to examine its in vivo properties, we expressed HP1(Hsalpha) as a fusion product with green fluorescent protein in human cells. HP1(Hsalpha) was observed to form discrete dots in interphase nuclei and to localize in the centromeric region of metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, this dot-forming activity was also found in the N-terminal half retaining the chromo and DNA-binding domains and in the C-terminal chromo-shadow domain. However, the chromo domain alone stained nuclei homogeneously. To correlate this dot-forming activity with self-associating activity in vitro, the chromo and chromo-shadow domain peptides were independently expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In a SDS-polyacrylamide gel, the former mainly produced a dimer, while the latter produced a ladder of bands up to a tetramer. When passed through a gel filtration column in a native state, these peptides were exclusively separated as a dimer and a tetramer, respectively. These results suggested that the internal DNA-binding and C-terminal chromo-shadow domains are both involved in heterochromatin formation in vivo.  (+info)

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde. (6/776)

There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units.  (+info)

Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. (7/776)

The antigenicity of orally administered glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid was investigated in healthy volunteers. Fourteen volunteers ingested two or three 2-mg doses of toxoid with saline, with the doses spaced at 28-day intervals. Thirteen other volunteers received comparable toxoid doses with NaHCO3 and milk to neutralize gastric acid. Increments in circulating antitoxin levels were used to assay the antigenicity of oral toxoid. Antitoxin was measured by adrenal cell, rabbit skin permeability factor, and passive hemagglutination assays in sera collected on days 0, 28, 35, 56, 63, and 84 after primary immunization. Adrenal cell and rabbit skin assays exhibited identical sensitivity in detecting antitoxin rises in the 27 vaccinees (19/27) and were significantly more sensitive than passive hemagglutination (11/27) (P less than 0.03). Volunteers who ingested toxoid with NaHCO3 and milk had a higher rate of seroconversion (77%) than those who received toxoid with saline (64%); they also had earlier rises in antitoxin titer and consistently higher geometric mean titers on all days tested. These studies demonstrate that purified cholera toxoid is antigenic in humans after oral administration. The possible role of oral toxoid in enhancing the protective effect of killed whole-cell vaccines can now be investigated.  (+info)

Slices have more synapses than perfusion-fixed hippocampus from both young and mature rats. (8/776)

Hippocampal slices have long been used to investigate properties of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, for the first time, synapses in slices have been compared quantitatively with synapses occurring in perfusion-fixed hippocampus, which is presumed to represent the natural in vivo state. Relative to perfusion-fixed hippocampus, a remarkable 40-50% increase in spine number occurs in adult hippocampal slices, and a 90% increase occurs in slices from postnatal day 21 rats. Serial EM shows that all of the dendritic spines have normal synapses with presynaptic and postsynaptic elements; however, not all spine types are affected uniformly. Stubby and mushroom spines increase in the adult slices, and thin, mushroom, and branched spines increase in the immature slices. More axonal boutons with multiple synapses occur in the slices, suggesting that the new synapses form on preexisting axonal boutons. The increase in spine and synapse number is evident within a couple of hours after preparing the slices. Once the initial spine induction has occurred, no further change occurs for up to 13 hr in vitro, the longest time investigated. Thus, the spine increase is occurring during a period when there is little or no synaptic activity during the first hour, and the subsequent stabilization in spine synapse numbers is occurring after synaptic activity returns in the slice. These findings suggest that spines form in response to the loss of synaptic activity when slices are removed from the rest of the brain and during the subsequent 1 hr recovery period.  (+info)

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

It is sold under the brandname Cidex and Glutaral. As a disinfectant, it is used to sterilize surgical instruments. ...
... glutaral (INN) glutaurine (INN) glutethimide (INN) glyburide, known also as Diabeta (Sanofi-Aventis) and sulfonylurea ...
Meglumine iotroxateα Chlorhexidine Ethanol Povidone iodine Alcohol based hand rub Chlorine base compound Chloroxylenol Glutaral ...
Barium sulfateα Chlorhexidine Ethanol Povidone iodine Alcohol based hand rub Chlorine base compound Chloroxylenol Glutaral ...
  • Glutaral and Deciquam Solution [Main ingredients] Glutaraldehyde, decamethonium bromide [Properties] This product is a colorless to yellowish clear liquid with irritating odor. (xinanranpharmacy.com)
  • Anmol Chemicals is a manufacturer supplier exporter of Glutaraldehyde or Glutaral Concentrate or Glutaric Acid Dialdehyde and it offers materials as per IP BP EP Ph Eur USP NF JP FCC Food Grade as per the the latest monograph at best prices. (anmol.org)
  • Glutaral Concentrate is a solution of glutaraldehyde in Purified Water. (anmol.org)
  • However, all those Fabuloso products that contain Glutaral and citric acid may be able to kill bacteria, fungi, and mildew to some extent. (wowsoclean.com)
  • All these versions can be used to disinfect to some extent as they all contain Glutaral, citric acid, and Hydrogen Peroxide. (wowsoclean.com)
  • Advantages of using glutaral- dehyde cover (1) minimizes vacuolation of the corneal epithelium Plain 1 Cheap ocular fixatives Fixative elucidation Essay Purpose/characteristics 10 % Formalin, non-belligerent buffered (NBF) Formaldehyde (37-40 %) Distilled water Disodium diphosphate Monosodium phosphate 10 % 90 % 6. (wgc2010.sk)
  • It is sold under the brandname Cidex and Glutaral. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACSTER-Z has sterilizing power equivalent to glutaral noted for its extremely high sterilizing power, and at the same time, achieve remarkable cost reduction. (jimdofree.com)
  • The figure represents a comparative display of costs with reference to glutaral. (jimdofree.com)
  • 327,5 g/kg] oraz glutaral (aldehyd glutarowy) [CAS 111-30-8, WE 203-856-5, zaw. (clearchem.pl)
  • The most worrisome preservatives in fabric softeners include methylisothiazolinone, a potent skin allergen and glutaral, known to trigger asthma and skin allergies. (solefoodkitchen.com)