Methionine SulfoximineGlutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.GlutaminasePubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.TennesseeDirectories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Libraries, MedicalRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
... methionine sulfoximine) is an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. Sulfonediimines (also called sulfodiimines, sulfodiimides or ... Sulfoximides (also called sulfoximines) are tetracoordinate sulfur-nitrogen compounds, isoelectronic with sulfones, in which ... Much of the interest in this class of compounds is derived from the discovery that methionine sulfoximide ( ... Of the 20 common amino acids, two (cysteine and methionine) are organosulfur compounds, and the antibiotics penicillin ( ...
... a proposed spacraft to be sent to Mars Methionine sulfoximine, a chemical compound that inhibits glutamine synthetase ...
Inhibitors: Methionine Sulfoximine (MSO): MSO is an inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Bound to GS, MSO is ... Glutamine + ADP + phosphate Glutamine Synthetase uses ammonia produced by nitrate reduction, amino acid degradation, and ... influences glutamine synthesis and glutamine hydrolysis. Glutamine is formed if an ammonium ion attacks the acyl-phosphate ... Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC 6.3.1.2) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing ...
... methionine sulfoximine) is an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase.[8] Sulfonediimines (also called sulfodiimines, sulfodiimides ... Of the 20 common amino acids, two (cysteine and methionine) are organosulfur compounds, and the antibiotics penicillin ( ... Sulfoximides (also called sulfoximines) are tetracoordinate sulfur-nitrogen compounds, isoelectronic with sulfones, in which ... Much of the interest in this class of compounds is derived from the discovery that methionine sulfoximide ( ...
... is a modified amino acid and a well characterized irreversible inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS) enzyme. Glutamine is ... Also, MSO might have targets other than glutamine synthetase. These results show a novel use for MSO in attenuating the overall ... Glutamine is required by immune cells for generation, propagation and maintenance of an immune response. To induce acute liver ... Thus, it seems that inhibiting GS during stress conditions such that low levels of plasma glutamine are maintained can lead to ...
We show that the glutamine synthetase inhibitor l-methionine sulfoximine (MSX) specifically provokes glutamine depletion in ... glutamine synthetase;. MSX,. l-methionine sulfoximine;. SD,. synthetic minimal medium;. TCA,. tricarboxylic acid. ... synthesis of glutamine is catalyzed exclusively by glutamine synthetase (GS) (Fig. 1A), encoded by the GLN1 gene (13). Cells ... l-methionine sulfoximine (MSX) was obtained from Sigma and used at a final concentration of 2 mM. Cells treated with MSX were ...
Inhibitors: Methionine Sulfoximine (MSO): MSO is an inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Bound to GS, MSO is ... Glutamine + ADP + phosphate Glutamine Synthetase uses ammonia produced by nitrate reduction, amino acid degradation, and ... influences glutamine synthesis and glutamine hydrolysis. Glutamine is formed if an ammonium ion attacks the acyl-phosphate ... Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC 6.3.1.2) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing ...
Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with the resulting hydrolysis of ATP. ... Methionine Sulfoximine / metabolism. Models, Molecular*. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / enzymology*. Protein Conformation. ... Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with the resulting hydrolysis of ATP. ... The procedure allowed the structure of a complex with a phosphorylated form of the inhibitor methionine sulfoximine, magnesium ...
Independently of its glutamine synthetase activity, required for endothelial cell migration during vascular development: acts ... it regulates the levels of toxic ammonia and converts neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine, whereas in the liver, it is ... Glutamine synthetase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine (By similarity). Its ... Glutamine synthetase activity is inhibited by methionine sulfoximine (MSO).By similarity. Manual assertion inferred from ...
Chronic h1-antihistamine treatment increases seizure susceptibility after withdrawal by impairing glutamine synthetase. - Wei- ... Comparable inhibition of GS activity by methionine sulfoximine was also sufficient to increase the susceptibility, while ... Chronic h1-antihistamine treatment increases seizure susceptibility after withdrawal by impairing glutamine synthetase.. ... The glutamine, glutamate, and GABA contents were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. ...
Therapeutic effects of methionine sulfoximine in multiple diseases include and extend beyond inhibition of glutamine synthetase ...
Methionine Sulfoximine acting as an inhibitor to the glutamate binding site.]] Inhibitors: * [[Methionine sulfoximine]] (MSO): ... Glutamine_synthetase_reaction.svg,center,alt=Glutamine Synthetase reaction. ,Glutamine Synthetase Catalyzed Reaction.]] ... Glutamine synthetase - 12 subunits.,ref name="pmid11329256"/>]] Glutamine Synthetase can be composed of 8, 10, or 12 identical ... Regulation of glutamine synthetase through covalent modification.jpg,alt=,left,thumb,Glutamine Synthetase activity influenced ...
... methionine sulfoximine) is an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. Sulfonediimines (also called sulfodiimines, sulfodiimides or ... Sulfoximides (also called sulfoximines) are tetracoordinate sulfur-nitrogen compounds, isoelectronic with sulfones, in which ... Much of the interest in this class of compounds is derived from the discovery that methionine sulfoximide ( ... Of the 20 common amino acids, two (cysteine and methionine) are organosulfur compounds, and the antibiotics penicillin ( ...
... methionine sulfoximine (MSX; Rees, 1987) were examined; MSX inhibits glutamine synthetase, which has been detected in S. ... The activity of glutamine synthetase enzyme, content of ammonia and phytometrical indexes of spring wheat planting depending on ... the use of ammonia (or ammonium ions) in the net synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules, for example, glutamine synthetase. ...
is depicted and a methionine-S-sulfoximine molecule is shown in space-filling representation, as found in the complex with Z. ... is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the ... Glutamine synthetase is a fascinating, complex and highly regulated enzyme found in all living organisms (Kumada et al., 1993. ... Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) is a vital enzyme in the nitrogen metabolism of all living systems. GS catalyzes the ...
Under conditions in which glutamine synthetase was inactivated, it was found that only glutamine could repress nitrate ... In a mutant of Neurospora, gln-1b, which requires glutamine for growth, only glutamine could repress nitrate reductase. These ... an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, on the formation of nitrate reductase in the wild-type strain of Neurospora in the ... results suggest a direct role for glutamine as corepressor of nitrate reductase in Neurospora. ...
We investigated the effect of methionine sulfoximine (MetSox), a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, on Mycobacterium ... Transcriptional profiling revealed that glutamate synthetase (gltB) and a type II glutamine synthetase (glnA3) were induced ... Methionine sulfoximine resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is due to a single nucleotide deletion resulting in increased ... M. tuberculosis encodes four glutamine synthetases, of which MetSox targets the type I enzyme encoded by glnA1. ...
We used a precise dosage of L-methionine-sulfoximine (MSX) which inhibits the glutamine synthetase mimicking the metabolic ...
PCC 7120 Glutamine Synthetase Activity in a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Derivative Strain Bearing the Anabaena Glna Gene and a ... D51e Mutation Confers Resistance to the Active Site Inhibitors L-Methionine-Dl-Sulfoximine and Phosphinothricin. En: European ... Glutamine Synthetase Inactivation by Protein-Protein Interaction. En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Transcription of Glutamine Synthetase Genes (Glna and Glnn) from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 is ...
Inhibition of glutamine synthetase by methionine sulfoximine. Studies on methionine sulfoximine phosphate. Biochemistry 8, 2674 ... 1D and table S1). Exposing wild-type homogenate to the glutamine synthetase inhibitor l-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (44) ... Phenotypic differences between fast and slow methionine sulfoximine-inbred mice: Seizures, anxiety, and glutamine synthetase. ... The partial loss of glutamine synthetase activity in nNOS−/− brain would hinder glutamate conversion to glutamine (an important ...
The glutamine synthetase gene expression system (Lonza Biologics) was used for production. A combined glutamine synthetase ... After selection in l-methionine sulphoximine (Fisher Scientific), transfectomas were subcloned before expansion for production ...
Glutamine. Glutamine synthetase. Methionine sulfoximine. MK801. Mudskipper. NMDA receptors. Issue Date: May-2005. ... Brain ammonia and glutamine contents, and effects of methionine sulfoximine and MK801. Journal of Experimental Biology 208 (10 ... Brain ammonia and glutamine contents, and effects of methionine sulfoximine and MK801. ... an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)] or MK801 [an antagonist of N-methyl D-aspartate type glutamate (NMDA) receptors]. ...
Glutamine can be transported in and out of neurons and astrocytes utilizing different glutamine carriers. The neurotransmitter ... Glutamine is a common precursor for the biosynthesis of both glutamate and GABA. ... glutamate can be synthesized from glutamine by the action of phosphate-activated glutaminase. ... Glutamine synthetase (G1270). ATP (A2383). NH4+ (221228). L-Glutamate (G1626, G1251). Methionine sulfoximine (M5379). ...
Rowe WB Ronzio RA Meister A . Inhibition of glutamine synthetase by methionine sulfoximine: studies on methionine sulfoximine ... Karasawa Y Nakata C . Effects of varying doses of methionine sulfoximine on liver glutamine synthetase activity and time ... Rowe WB Meister A . Identification of L-methionine-S-sulfoximine as the convulsant isomer of methionine sulfoximine. Proc Natl ... MSO irreversibly inhibits glutamine synthetase by binding to the active site of glutamate synthetase as methionine sulfoximide ...
... exposure to 200 µM glutamate for 24 hours with or without methionine sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor; and (2) ... Regardless of the presence or absence of glutamate, methionine sulfoximine inhibited the protective effect of TR-MUL ... in addition to glutamate detoxification via glutamine synthesis. ...
Mechanism of Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase by Methionine Sulphoximine / A. Meister, R. A. Ronzio, W. B. Rowe, J. D. Gass, ...
has been shown to be capable of growth in the presence of methionine sulphoximine concentrations at least two orders of ... magnitude higher than that required for the complete inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity. Neither the specific growth ... the glutamate dehydrogenase pathway during growth in the presence of methionine sulphoximine. This suggests that. Rhizobium ... nor the nutritional requirements of the organism were affected by methionine sulphoximine in the medium.. Rhizobium meliloti. ...
It was shown that inhibiting GS activity during chlorosis by the addition of l-methionine sulfoximine almost immediately stops ... 1997) Purification and characterization of a new type of glutamine synthetase form cyanobacteria. Eur. J. Biochem. 244:258-264. ... The Synechococcus Strain PCC 7942glnN Product (Glutamine Synthetase III) Helps Recovery from Prolonged Nitrogen Chlorosis. Jörg ... 1998) Nitrogen control of the glnN gene that codes for GS type III, the only glutamine synthetase in the cyanobacterium ...
5,013,659); a gene encoding a mutant glutamine synthetase (GS) resistant to inhibition by herbicides that are known to inhibit ... phosphinothricin and methionine sulfoximine (U.S. Pat. No. 4,975,374); and a Streptomyces bar gene encoding aphosphinothricin ...
  • In order to better understand the role of PA we have measured ODC activity and the effect of methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a molecule able to stimulate ODC, on a model of transient cerebral ischemia. (utmb.edu)
  • Of the 20 common amino acids, two (cysteine and methionine) are organosulfur compounds, and the antibiotics penicillin (pictured below) and sulfa drugs both contain sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postembedding immunohistochemistry and silver intensification were used to quantify the relative distributions of glutamate, glutamine, and related amino acids (aspartate, alanine, GABA, and glycine) in the pigmented (PE) and nonpigmented (NPE) epithelial cells of the ciliary body. (arvojournals.org)
  • This differential distribution of amino acids was abolished by a single injection of MSO that caused a decrease in glutamine and an increase in glutamate levels in NPE compared with PE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Not only are the levels of glutamine in standard tissue culture media at least ten‐fold higher than other amino acids, but glutamine is also the most abundant amino acid in the human bloodstream, where it is assiduously maintained at approximately 0.5 mM through a combination of dietary uptake, de novo synthesis, and muscle protein catabolism. (cloudfront.net)
  • Along with the rest of the proteinogenic amino acids, glutamine is incorporated into proteins. (cloudfront.net)
  • Notably, the biosynthesis of the rest of the amino acids, which are regarded to as nonessential, is heavily dependent on glutamine. (cloudfront.net)
  • Glutamate, aspartate, arginine and glutamine can represent a third to half of the protein content in food and are the most amino acids rapidly cleared from plasma after IV administration. (supplementdirect.com)
  • Methionine or a branch-chain amino acid (leucine, isoleucine or valine) also acted in combination with cystine to increase α1(I) collagen mRNA expression, whereas other amino acids were not effective. (biochemj.org)
  • Glucose and amino acids, especially glutamine, are highly demanded nutrient in cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In still another invention, mammals are treated for protozoal infections by systemic administration of L-buthionine-S-sulfoximine and agent that increases nitrosative stress. (google.com)
  • GSS (glutathione synthetase) was not differentially expressed, but higher levels were linked to poor progression free survival. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Meanwhile, GS activity and expression in the cortex or hippocampus decreased simultaneously with a marked decline of glutamine and GABA content. (curehunter.com)
  • Recent studies have suggested that a deficiency in glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus is implicated in the generation of seizures in MTLE (Eid et al. (grantome.com)
  • The hypothesis is that restoration of glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus leads to cessation of seizures even in the presence of extensive brain pathology. (grantome.com)
  • For example, GluCEST was identified in the past to be a potential in vivo biomarker of Huntington's disease when applied in a knock-in mouse model using UHF , and has recently been used in a mouse epilepsy model, in which chronically methionine sulfoximine (MSO)-seizure-inducing treated mice showed reduced GluCEST contrast in the hippocampus . (bruker.com)
  • Biochemistry textbooks and cell culture experiments seem to be telling us two different things about the significance of external glutamine supply for mammalian cell growth and proliferation. (cloudfront.net)
  • Many studies of animal models of hyperammonemia, and, more recently, nuclear magnetic resonance studies of liver disease patients, have shown that cerebral glutamine is elevated in hyperammonemia, contributing to the edema and encephalopathy. (docphin.com)
  • Its role depends on tissue localization: in the brain, it regulates the levels of toxic ammonia and converts neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine, whereas in the liver, it is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of ammonia (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • It appears that glutamate formed from glutamine may be metabolized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle prior to its conversion to GABA, which may allow new alternative regulatory mechanisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase makes it a prime target for herbicidal compounds, but also a suitable intervention point for the improvement of crop yields. (iucr.org)
  • MSX-induced glutamine starvation caused nuclear localization and activation of the TOR-inhibited transcription factors GLN3, RTG1, and RTG3, all of which mediate glutamine synthesis. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, as glutamine starvation affects only a subset of TOR-controlled transcription factors, TOR appears to discriminate between different nutrient conditions to elicit a response appropriate to a given condition. (pnas.org)
  • Although the majority of crop plants are dicotyledonous, little is known about the structural organization of glutamine synthetase in these organisms and about the functional differences between the different isoforms. (iucr.org)