Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
A metallocarboxypeptidase that is predominantly expressed as a membrane-bound enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of an unsubstituted, C-terminal glutamyl residue, typically from PTEROYLPOLYGLUTAMIC ACIDS. It was formerly classified as EC
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in the RETINA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.

Combination of theanine with doxorubicin inhibits hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma. (1/3625)

Theanine is a peculiar amino acid existing in green tea leaves, which was previously indicated to enhance the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. In the present study, the effect of combination of theanine with doxorubicin against hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma was investigated. The primary tumor was significantly reduced by the combined treatment on M5076 transplanted (s.c.) mice. The liver weight of control mice increased to twice the normal level because of hepatic metastasis of M5076. In contrast, the injection of doxorubicin alone or theanine plus doxorubicin suppressed the increase in liver weight and inhibited hepatic metastasis. Moreover, the liver weights and metastasis scores demonstrated that theanine enhanced the inhibition of hepatic metastasis induced by doxorubicin. Furthermore, in vitro experiments indicated that theanine increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin remaining in M5076 cells. This action suggests that theanine leads the enhancement of the suppressive efficacy of doxorubicin on hepatic metastasis in vivo. Therefore, it was proved that theanine increased not only the antitumor activity on primary tumor but also the metastasis-suppressive efficacy of doxorubicin. The effect of theanine on the efficacy of antitumor agents is expected to be applicable in clinical cancer chemotherapy.  (+info)

Arginine biosynthesis in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: enzymes catalyzing the formation of ornithine and citrulline. (2/3625)

Many of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from patients require arginine for growth in a defined medium. As a basis for genetic studies of these Arg- strains, we examined two biosynthetic enzymes of Arg+ (nonrequiring) gonococci. Cell-free extracts contained (i) glutamate acetyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of L-ornithine from alpha-N-acetyl-L-ornithine, and (ii) ornithine transcaramylase, which catalyzes the reaction between L-ornithine and carbamyl phosphate, yielding L-citrulline. Arg- strains were unable to utilze alpha-N-acetyl-L-ornithine for growth lacked significant activity of glutamate acetyltransferase, and activity was gained by Arg+ clones derived by DNA-mediated transformation. Some of the Arg- patient isolates were unable to use either alpha-N-acetyl-L-ornithine or L-ornithine in place of arginine, and two separate steps of genetic transformation were required to yield Arg+ cells. Extracts of these doubly auxotrophic cells lacked glutamate acetyltransferase activity, but, unexpectedly, they displayed normal ornithine transcarbamylase activity. This finding illustrates the importance of identifying the products specified by arg loci during genetic studies of arginine auxotrophy.  (+info)

Absence of hydrogen peroxide production by or catalase action in Rickettsia prowazeki. (3/3625)

Glutamic acid oxidation by Rickettsia prowazeki is not accompanied by hydrogen peroxide generation, nor is added hydrogen peroxide degraded, as measured by a manometric technique.  (+info)

One-carbon metabolism in methanogenic bacteria: analysis of short-term fixation products of 14CO2 and 14CH3OH incorporated into whole cells. (4/3625)

Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, M. ruminantium, and Methanosarcina barkeri were labeled with 14CO2 (14CO2 + H14CO3- + 14CO32-) for from 2 to 45 s. Radioactivity was recovered in coenzyme M derivatives, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and several unidentified compounds. The properties of one important structurally unidentified intermediate (yellow fluorescent compound) displayed UV absorbance maxima at pH 1 of 290 and 335 nm, no absorbance in the visible region, and a fluorescence maximum at 460 nm. Label did not appear in organic phosphates until after 1 min. 14CH3OH was converted by M. barkeri primarily into coenzyme M derivatives at 25 s. [2-14C]acetate was assimilated by M. thermoautotrophicum mainly into alanine and succinate during 2 to 240 s, but not into coenzyme M derivatives or yellow fluorescent compound. Cell-free extracts of M. thermoautotrophicum lacked ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. The data indicated the absence of the Calvin, serine, and hexulose phosphate paths of C1 assimilation in the methanogens examined and indicated that pyruvate was an early intermediate product of net CO2 fixation. The in vivo importance of coenzyme M derivatives in methanogenesis was demonstrated.  (+info)

Physiological and morphological observations on Thiovulum sp. (5/3625)

Cell suspensions of Thiovulum sp., collected from enrichment cultures, were grown, maintained, and harvested for periods up to 7 months. In open-flow cultures run with aerated seawater, a continuous supply of hydrogen sulfide was provided by diffusion through a semipermeable membrane from either a live culture of Desulfovibrio esturaii, neutralized sodium sulfide, or a N2-H2S gas mixture. Attempts to grow Thiovulum in pure culture failed despite variation in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulfide in stratified as well as in completely mixed systems. Uptake of 14CO2 and some organic compounds by purified cell suspensions was measured, and values were corrected for the activity of heterotrophic as well as autotrophic contaminants as determined in control experiments. Cell populations exhibited maximum uptake activities during formation of the characteristic veils. Substantial uptake of CO2 in air-saturated seawater was coincident with an optimal concentration of hydrogen sulfide of about 1 mM. Glutamate and a selection of vitamins (B12M biotin, and thiamine) did not significantly affect the uptake of CO2. No substantial uptake of carbon from acetate, glutamate, mannitol, and Casamino Acids was found. Within the range of error indicated, the data are consistent with acceptance of a chemolithotrophic nature of Thiovulum.  (+info)

Uptake and effects of copper in rat liver mitochondria. (6/3625)

The rate and extent of Cu2+ uptake by rat liver mitochondria was measured under various conditions. 1. The uptake is both greater and faster without an energy supply. 2. The uptake, when occuring in ionic media, has a biphasic character, that is it always slows down after an initial burst, and then re-accelerates. 3. Uptake of Cu2+ in the presence of energy initiates K+ uptake from K+-containing media with accompanying swelling and respiratory stimulation. Depending on the amounts of Cu2+ added and the K+ concentration, an inhibition of respiration later ensues. 4. Chelation of the Cu2+ by substrates (notably glutamate) decreases the effects. 5. Prior exposure to Cu2+ decreases or prevents energy-dependent Ca2+ uptake.  (+info)

Microbiological degradation of bile acids. The conjugation of a certain cholic acid metabolite with amino acids in Corynebacterium equi. (7/3625)

1. (4R)-4[4alpha-(2-Carboxyethyl)-3aalpha-hexahydro-7abeta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1beta-y l]valeric acid (II) could not be utilized by Arthrobacter simplex, even though the acid was one of the metabolites formed from cholic acid (I) by this organism. Therefore the further degradation of the acid (II) by Corynebacterium equi was investigated to identify the intermediates involved in the cholic acid degradation. 2. The organism, cultured in a medium containing the acid (II) as the sole source of carbon, produced unexpected metabolites, the conjugates of this original acid (II) with amino acids or their derivatives, although the yield was very low. These new metabolites were isolated and identified by chemical synthesis as the Na-((4R)-4-[4alpha-(2-carboxyethyl)-3a alpha-hexahydro-7a beta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1 beta-yl]-valeryl) derivatives of L-alanine, glutamic acid, O-acetylhomoserine and glutamine, i.e. compounds (IIIa), (IIIb), (IIId) respectively. 3. The possibility that the bacterial synthetic reaction observed in the acid (II) metabolism with C. equi is analogous to peptide conjugation known in both animals and higher plants is discussed. A possible mechanism for this bacterial conjugation is also considered.  (+info)

Amino acid composition of peptidoglycan in Caulobacter crescentus. (8/3625)

Peptidoglycan of a gram-negative stalked bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus CB13, contained alanine, diaminopimelic acid, and glutamic acid, in molar ratios of 2 : 1 : 1. The amino acid compositions of peptidoglycans isolated from cultures enriched in swarmer and stalked cells, and from a stalk-less mutant were similar. This finding conflicts with a previous observation that swarmer peptidoglycan does not contain diaminopimelic acid (Goodwin and Shedlarski (1975) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 170, 23-36). It appears that, despite the morphological differences, the Caulobacter cells all contain a similar peptidoglycan in the cell wall.  (+info)

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JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
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Our results suggest that L: -theanine has antipsychotic-like and possibly antidepressant-like effects. It exerts these effects, at least in part, through induction of BDNF in the hippocampus and the agonistic action of L: -theanine on the NMDA receptor.
1) Theanine Abatements Apprehension and Stress. After individuals took L-Theanine, they performed mental errands. Appeared differently in relation to the patients who took a placebo, they had lower extend signs, along with diminished heart rates and blood weight .. Daily supplementation in schizophrenic patients leads to diminished anxiety.. It also propelled relaxation in healthy patients.. Supplemental estimations of theanine that propel relaxation dont cause sedation.. In addition, theanine may also have stimulating effects when given at smaller estimations, measurements that are less than half the doses that propel relaxation.. 2) Theanine Upgrades Cerebrum Limit. L-Theanine supplementation helps increase thought and upgrade memory.. In men and ladies who experienced minor cerebrum hurt, a blend of L-Theanine and green tea remove improved memory in the midst of a mental exercise. It did all things considered by extending delayed acknowledgment in the midst of a memory test.. The subjects ...
The effect of various concentrations of l-glutamate on neurotransmission in the CA1 hippocampal area was studied using hippocampal slices. Three intervals of l-glutamate concentration were...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1sd3.1. Crystal structure of the GLUR6 ligand binding core in complex with 2S,4R-4-methylglutamate at 1.8 Angstrom resolution
Glutamate is an amino acid used by the brain to transmit signals, but, too much glutamate blocks future signals and can lead to toxicity in the brain.
Press Release issued Jun 17, 2019: Global Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate market is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly 3.3% over the next five years, will reach 5 million USD in 2024, from 4 million USD in 2019.
OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of PTK/ZK and pemetrexed disodium when given in combination.. II. To describe the toxicities associated with the combination of PTK/ZK with pemetrexed disodium.. III. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction of combination of PTK/ZK with pemetrexed disodium at the MTD (Group II).. IV. To evaluate the intracellular content of pemetrexed disodium polyglutamates as a measure of activity of pemetrexed disodium transport and activation enzymes in the MTD expansion cohort (Group II).. V. To evaluate polymorphisms and gene expression of pemetrexed disodium target genes, and genes encoding enzymes involved in the transport, activation, and inactivation of pemetrexed disodium, and correlate haplotype-tagged SNPs or gene expression levels with intracellular levels of pemetrexed disodium polyglutamates, toxicity and/or efficacy or pemetrexed disodium in Group II.. VI. To evaluate pharmacogenetic, metabolic ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hydrochloride and carboplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Pemetrexed disodium and celecoxib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. It is not yet known whether giving gemcitabine hydrochloride or pemetrexed disodium together with carboplatin is more effective with or without celecoxib in treating non-small cell lung cancer.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying gemcitabine hydrochloride, pemetrexed disodium, and carboplatin to compare how well they work when given together with celecoxib or a placebo in treating patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase III trial of pemetrexed plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine in patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. AU - Oettle, Helmut. AU - Richards, D.. AU - Ramanathan, R. K.. AU - van Laethem, J. L.. AU - Peeters, M.. AU - Fuchs, M.. AU - Zimmermann, A.. AU - John, W.. AU - Von Hoff, D.. AU - Arning, M.. AU - Kindler, H. L.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors wish to acknowledge the patients, nurses, study coordinators and investigators for their active participation in the study. This trial was supported by Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA. This study was presented in part at the 40th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, New Orleans, LA, 5-8 June 2004, and the World Conference on Gastrointestinal Cancer, Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 June 2004.. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Background: This randomized phase III study compared the overall survival (OS) of pemetrexed plus gemcitabine (PG) versus standard gemcitabine (G) in ...
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So my dad has NSCLC type adenocarcinoma. He has had 5 rounds of chemo with Carboplatin and Alimta. I just read that ALIMTA is a chemotherapy drug used to treat certain kinds of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) called advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. This is from the Alimta website ( Now I am confused as to why my dad is on Alimta if its for nonsquamous type. Anyone else with adenocarcinoma been on Alimta? My dad is going to begin maintenance therapy with avastin but I was wondering if I should ask the doctor if there is other types of chemo we should try before going to maintenance therapy? Any thoughts?. Thanks in advance! ...
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The amino acid glutamate may be the principal excitatory transmitter in the nervous system including in sensory neurons that convey pain sensation from the periphery to the brain. tissue inflammation as mostly explored in transgenic mice. The possible interplay between glutamate biosynthesis and VGLUT-dependent packaging in synaptic vesicles and its potential impact in various pain states will be presented. PNU 200577 participation during SNI- incisional- and oxaliplatin-induced PNU 200577 pain) (see [30 31 2.3 VGLUT Deletion Visceral Pain and Itch As mentioned above virtually all colorectal and urinary bladder DRG neurons in mice express VGLUT2 and some also PNU 200577 VGLUT1 or VGLUT3 (Figure 1) suggesting that changes in their expression should modulate visceral pain. However global heterozygous VGLUT1- [40] or VGLUT2-KO mice [40] show no differences in their responses to the (rather nonspecific) acetic acid visceral pain test; comparison between global VGLUT3-KO mice and WT mice (same as ...
Data presented today at the 42nd American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting in Atlanta, Ga., affirms that ALIMTA® (pemetrexed), manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company, offers patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) similar overall survival as docetaxel (Taxotere®).. The survival data were part of a large (n=571), randomized Phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of Alimta as second-line therapy in NSCLC. First reported in 2003(i), the study found that patients in the Alimta arm achieved 8.3 months of median survival, whereas those in the docetaxel arm obtained 7.9 months. This updated analysis of data tracked patients from the same study nearly two years beyond the conclusion of the original study and found similar results. The updated data showed that patients who received Alimta experienced 8.3 months of median survival compared to 8.0 months for those in the docetaxel arm. The data mirror previously reported results and ...
This phase I pilot trial studies how well atezolizumab, pemetrexed disodium, cisplatin, and surgery with or without radiation therapy in treating patients
Sodium Glutamate CAS NO.: 32221-81-1 EINECS NO.: 205-538-1 HS Code: 2103901000Commonly known as: DL-Sodium GlutamateAppearance: White crystal powder Na...
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Alimta infusion contains the active ingredient pemetrexed disodium, which is a type of chemotherapy medicine for cancer called a cytotoxic antimetabolite.
Learn how ALIMTA may help treat advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer. Find information about ALIMTA and platinum chemotherapy (carboplatin or cisplatin) in combination with KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab).
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Condition: Malignant Mesothelioma. Estimated Enrollment: 153. Gender: All. Min Age: 18 Years. Age Group: Adult, Older Adult. Current Status: Completed. Study Results: No Results Available. Outcome Measures: Complete macroscopic resection (part 1), Loco-regional relapse-free survival (part 2), Response to neoadjuvant therapy (part 1), Adverse drug reaction to neoadjuvant therapy (part 1). Interventions: Cisplatin, Pemetrexed. Phase: Study Type: Interventional. Study Design: Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: None (Open Label),Primary Purpose: Treatment. Primary Completion Date: March 26, 2014. Completion Date: January 23, 2018. Last Posted Date: May 15, 2019. Location: Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Website Link: ...
In this study, patients will receive either pemetrexed plus irinotecan or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin, and irinotecan.The purposes of this
The mechanisms regulating the highly ordered neuroarchitecture of the mammalian brain are largely unknown. The present study took advantage of hippocampal pyramidal-like neurons that arose from a common progenitor cell in cell culture (sister neurons) to ascertain the contribution of intrinsic factors to both the generation and degeneration of neuroarchitecture. Sister neurons were similar in overall cell form and dendritic numbers and lengths. Control non-sister neurons that grew in contact did not generate similar morphologies, indicating that the similarity of sister cells did not result from influences of the local microenvironment or cell interactions. These results suggest that intrinsic factors related to mitotic history play a role in the generation of neuroarchitecture. Since particular groups of hippocampal neurons are sensitive to glutamate neurotoxicity in situ and are vulnerable in neurodegenerative disorders, it was of interest to test glutamate sensitivity in the neuronal ...
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This trial assessed the efficacy and tolerability of pemetrexed [Alimta, LY231514, NSC 698037] + cisplatin [NSC 119875] in patients with advanced, persistent,
L-Theanine is considered an amino acid analogue of both L-glutamate and L-glutamine, and is commonly derived from various species of plants. L-theanine i
Assessment of the change in tumour burden is an important feature of the clinical evaluation of cancer therapeutics: both tumour shrinkage (objective response) and disease progression are useful endpoints in clinical trials. Since RECIST was published in 2000, many investigators, cooperative groups, industry and government authorities have adopted these criteria in the assessment of treatment outcomes. However, a number of questions and issues have arisen which have led to the development of a revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Evidence for changes, summarised in separate papers in this special issue, has come from assessment of a large data warehouse (,6500 patients), simulation studies and literature reviews. HIGHLIGHTS OF REVISED RECIST 1.1: Major changes include: Number of lesions to be assessed: based on evidence from numerous trial databases merged into a data warehouse for analysis purposes, the number of lesions required to assess tumour burden for response determination has been ...
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[4-({[(6r)-2-amino-5-methyl-4-oxo-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-6-pteridinyl]methyl}amino)benzoyl]-d-glutamic acid (C20H26N7O6+) from the PQR.
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I am a 45 year old female who has been diagnosed with recurrent Stage 3 sarcoma and stage 4 NSCLC. I am now being treated with my third chemo cocktail of Alimta. My first treatment was Gemzar, Taxoter and Neulasta. After a severe reaction to the Gemzar my chemo was changed to Carboplatin, Taxoter an Neulasta. After 4 treatments with the Carboplatin/Taxoter my treatment has been changed to ALIMTA. I am 7 days into my first treatment of 4. My oncologist says it is well tolerated by most patients ...
Pemetrexed is a cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. Pemetrexed is used to treat non-small cell lung cancer after other cancer medications have been tried without successful treatment. Pemetrexed is also used with another medication called cisplatin to treat...
L-Theanine nootropic is an antagonist of NMDA receptor and can inhibit the release of glutamate. This helps in shielding your brain from over-stimulation that is caused by glutamate and glutamate toxicity.
This trial will assess the efficacy and tolerability of gemcitabine and pemetrexed in combination followed by pemetrexed and concurrent upper abdominal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short-term metabolic fate of 13N-labeled glutamate, alanine, and glutamine(amide) in rat liver. AU - Cooper, A. J.L.. AU - Nieves, E.. AU - Rosenspire, K. C.. AU - Filc-DeRicco, S.. AU - Gelbard, A. S.. AU - Brusilow, S. W.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - Tracer quantities (in 0.2 ml) of 13N-labele glutamate, alanine, or glutamine(amide) were administered rapidly (≤ 2 s) via the portal vein of anesthetized adult male rats. Liver content of tracer at 5 s was 57 ± 6 (n = 6), 24 ± 1 (n = 3), and 69 ± 7 (n = 3) % of the injected dose, respectively. Portal-hepatic vein differences for the corresponding amino acids were 17 ± 6, 26 ± 8, and 19 ± 9% (n = 4), respectively, suggesting some export of glutamate and glutamine, but not of alanine, to the hepatic vein. Following L-[13N]glutamate administration, label rapidly appeared in liver alanine and aspartate (within seconds). The data emphasize the rapidity of nitrogen exchange via linked transaminases. By 30 s following ...
Wild-type GluN1/GluN2A shows robust glutamate-activated currents (Fig. 3 A, left; −750 ± 50 pA, n = 18; n = number of whole-cell recordings). Most other tryptophan-substituted constructs also showed robust glutamate-activated current, though certain constructs showed either significantly reduced peak current amplitudes (e.g., GluN1(M813W)/GluN2A; Fig. 3 A, middle) or no detectable glutamate-activated membrane current (e.g., GluN1/GluN2A(S831W); Fig. 3 A, right). To compare current amplitudes, we normalized current amplitudes to those for wild type (Fig. 3 B and Table 1). Constructs are highlighted as to whether they showed significantly reduced current amplitudes (blue), significantly greater current amplitudes (green) or no detectable current (X, red) relative to wild type (P , 0.05, t test).. This experiment suggests several initial conclusions. First, compared with similar experiments for AMPARs, where 9 out of 23 tested positions in the M4 segment showed no detectable current (Salussolia ...
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What does SLC25A22 do? Mitochondria are the cellular energy plant of the cell, and molecular transport is tightly regulated at both the outer and inner mitochondrial membrane. SCL25A22, also known as GC1, is the main glutamate transporter across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Why do the mitochondria need glutamate? Glutamate plays an important role in fuelling both the Krebs cycle and urea cycle, and impairment of glutamate import may have a devastating effect on the energy homeostasis of the cell. As demonstrated by the catastrophic epilepsy arising from SLC25A22 deficiency, the effect is particularly damaging in the developing nervous system where SLC25A22 is highly expressed. However, it remains to be shown whether the effect of recessive SLC25A22 mutations actually result in mitochondrial glutamate starvation.. The SLC25A22 phenotype. Recessive mutations in SCL25A22 were previously described in a family with neonatal epileptic encephalopathy with suppression bursts (NEESB), cerebellar ...
Hi All. Its been some time since my last post. Would like to provide some update and get some insight on proper next step.. My mother had finished 4 cycles of carbo + alimta with minimal side effects. Her PET scan afterwards shown improvement in the lung and bone mets, and also her CEI has dropped from over 4000 to around 600. Symptom-wise she had also improved greatly that her cough had stopped completely. The doctors at our government sector followed their standard procedure to stop the carbo and remain alimta as maintenance therapy This is where things go the other way round. Her coughing resumed before the second alimta maintenance treatment and CEI had rose to over 700. Situation did not improve after the 3rd alimta only dose and a PET scan was arranged and it turns out the main tumor and also the bone/adrenal gland mets had all worsen. Doctor suggested alimta is of no use any more and suggested to start keytruda at 2mg/KG/3weeks as a next step (without PDL1 testing).. We consulted our ...
Alimta WP Pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) is a chemotherapy drug manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company. Its indications are the (...)
The first direct comparison of treating nonsquamous lung cancer with either pemetrexed or docetaxel in addition to cisplatin has shown that the two combinations achieve similar progression-free survival.
By MCC Athena Blain, NCG 2 HM Marcus Steward, NMCB 11 conducts an airway obstruction check on Caesar, a?life-sized mannequin, on NCBC Gulfport, Miss., March 6. ?Steward was one of?seven medical personnel under NCG 2 who received introductory t...,
The aim of this study is to explore the Clinical Value of Sequential Gefitinib With Pemetrexed/Platinum compare with Pemetrexed/Platinum for Advanced NS
Grumet, F.C., 1972: Genetic control of the immune response a selective defect in immunologic immuno globulin g memory in nonresponder mice
... or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to ... Role of glutamate decarboxylase in Citrus[edit]. It is also believed that the control of glutamate decarboxylase has the ... Higher glutamate levels activate microglia and activation of xc(−) increases the extracellular glutamate release.[30] ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators ...
Glutamate content[edit]. Roquefort has a high content of free glutamate, 1280 mg per 100 g of cheese.[12] ...
Glutamate neurotransmission[edit]. Recent work has demonstrated a close link between seizure activity and high extracellular ... Glutamate activation of ionotropic receptors leads to a rapid excitatory signal based on cation influx that can cause release ...
... is a compound with formula NH4C5H8NO4. It is an ammonium acid salt of glutamic acid. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monosodium glutamate.. Look up monosodium glutamate symptom complex, Chinese food ... and glutamate anions in zwitterionic form, −OOC-CH(NH+. 3)-(CH. 2)2-COO−.[39] In solution it dissociates into glutamate and ... Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also known as sodium glutamate, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant ... Consumption and manufacture of high-salt and high-glutamate foods, which contain both sodium and glutamate, stretch back far ...
GlutamateEdit. Glutamate levels in the RHT are measured by means of immunoreactivity. Retinal nerve terminals display a ... The synapse of glutamate to the SCN has been shown to cause phase shifts in circadian rhythms, discussed more in detail later. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is co-stored and co-transmitted with glutamate in retinal terminals. ... significantly higher content of glutamate immunoreactivity than the postsynaptic dendrites and non-retinal terminals. The ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Glutamate metabolism/transport modulators ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators ... Theanine is structurally similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and in accordance, binds to glutamate receptors ... it inhibits glutamine transporters and glutamate transporters, and thus blocks the reuptake of glutamine and glutamate.[17][21] ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Glutamate metabolism/transport modulators ... glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), in individuals with addiction.[37] While NAC has been demonstrated to modulate glutamate ... hence there is increasing glutamate release into the extracellular space. This glutamate in turn acts on mGluR2/3 receptors, ... L-cysteine also serves as a precursor to cystine, which in turn serves as a substrate for the cystine-glutamate antiporter on ...
In the dark, a photoreceptor (rod/cone) cell will release glutamate, which inhibits (hyperpolarizes) the ON bipolar cells and ... causing less glutamate to be released. This causes the ON bipolar cell to lose its inhibition and become active (depolarized), ...
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. Journal of Pharmacology ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Glutamate metabolism/transport modulators ... It is a selective antagonist for the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3), and has been useful in the study of ... The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate. Journal of Neuroscience. 2002 Oct 15;22(20):9134-41. PMID ...
Glutamate receptors: NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, and Kainate receptor. Glutamate. Na+, K+, Ca2+ [11]. ... metabotropic glutamate. They are composed of seven transmembrane alpha helices. The loops connecting the alpha helices form ...
Glutamate. Glu. Metabotropic glutamate receptors. NMDA receptors, kainate receptors, AMPARs. Small: Amino acids. Gamma- ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3). -. PP: Other. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. CART. Unknown Gi/Go- ... Glutamate is used at the great majority of fast excitatory synapses in the brain and spinal cord. It is also used at most ... The most prevalent transmitter is glutamate, which is excitatory at well over 90% of the synapses in the human brain.[4] The ...
Thus, theanine was shown to competitively inhibit the glutamate uptake by acting on these glutamate transporters. Media related ... In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed the expression of GLAST and GLT-1, astrocytic high-affinity glutamate ... Sugiyama T, Sadzuka Y, Tanaka K, Sonobe T (2001). "Inhibition of glutamate transporter by theanine enhances the therapeutic ... ISBN 978-3-540-87912-1. "SLC1A1 solute carrier family 1 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system Xag), ...
Glutamate and NMDA receptorsEdit. Glutamate levels are observed to be elevated during mania. Lithium is thought to provide long ... GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission.[72] ... increasing the availability of glutamate in post-synaptic neurons.[72] The NMDA receptor is also affected by other ... It is proposed that lithium competes with magnesium for binding to NMDA glutamate receptor, ...
... also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of development or in response to infection or DNA damage.[20]. Cytochrome c binds to cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus anchoring its presence and keeping it from releasing out of the mitochondria and initiating apoptosis. While the initial attraction between cardiolipin and cytochrome c is electrostatic due to the extreme positive charge on cytochrome c, the final interaction is hydrophobic, where a hydrophobic tail from cardiolipin inserts itself into the hydrophobic portion of cytochrome c.. During the early phase of apoptosis, mitochondrial ROS production is stimulated, and cardiolipin is oxidized by a peroxidase function of the cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex. The hemoprotein is then detached from the mitochondrial inner membrane and can be extruded into the soluble cytoplasm through pores in the outer membrane.[21]. The sustained elevation in ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
... , also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊˌkjuːˈtɛn/, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail. This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way.[1][2] Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements-such as the heart, liver, and kidney-have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.[3][4][5] There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol). The capacity ...
Glutamate aspartate transporter. *Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. *ATP synthase. *Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II ...
In this reaction the glutamate is converted into alpha-ketoglutarate, which is a citric acid cycle intermediate. The ... alpha-ketoglutarate derived from glutamate or glutamine), having an anaplerotic effect on the cycle, or, in the case of leucine ... acids the alpha keto-acids formed from the citric acid cycle intermediates have to acquire their amino groups from glutamate in ...
G→glutamate→. α-ketoglutarate. HISTIDINE→. *Histidine ammonia-lyase. *Urocanate hydratase. *Formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase ...
Glutamate aspartate transporter. *Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. *ATP synthase. *Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II ...
G→glutamate→. α-ketoglutarate. HISTIDINE→. *Histidine ammonia-lyase. *Urocanate hydratase. *Formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase ...
Initially, SDHA oxidizes succinate via deprotonation at the FAD binding site, forming FADH2 and leaving fumarate, loosely bound to the active site, free to exit the protein. Electrons from FADH2 are transferred to the SDHB subunit iron clusters [2Fe-2S],[4Fe-4S],[3Fe-4S] and tunnel along the [Fe-S] relay until they reach the [3Fe-4S] iron sulfur cluster. The electrons are then transferred to an awaiting ubiquinone molecule at the Q pool active site in the SDHC/SDHD dimer. The O1 carbonyl oxygen of ubiquinone is oriented at the active site (image 4) by hydrogen bond interactions with Tyr83 of SDHD. The presence of electrons in the [3Fe-4S] iron sulphur cluster induces the movement of ubiquinone into a second orientation. This facilitates a second hydrogen bond interaction between the O4 carbonyl group of ubiquinone and Ser27 of SDHC. Following the first single electron reduction step, a semiquinone radical species is formed. The second electron arrives from the [3Fe-4S] cluster to provide full ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Glutamate itself is formed by amination of α-ketoglutarate: α-ketoglutarate + NH+. 4 ⇄ glutamate. The α-ketoglutarate family of ... Glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reductive amination of α-ketoglutarate to glutamate. A transamination reaction takes ... proline allosterically inhibits Glutamate 5-kinase which catalyzes the reaction from L-glutamate to an unstable intermediate L- ... conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using a glutamate-alanine transaminase, and 2) conversion of valine to α- ...
G→glutamate→. α-ketoglutarate. HISTIDINE→. *Histidine ammonia-lyase. *Urocanate hydratase. *Formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase ...
positive regulation of glutamate secretion. • response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of cell growth. • ...
GABA is synthesized from glutamate via the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) with pyridoxal phosphate (the active form of ... Foster AC, Kemp JA (February 2006). "Glutamate- and GABA-based CNS therapeutics". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 6 (1): 7-17. doi:10.1016 ... The direct involvement of GABA in the glutamate-glutamine cycle makes the question of whether GABA can penetrate the blood- ... This process converts glutamate (the principal excitatory neurotransmitter) into GABA (the principal inhibitory ...
3 Glutamate receptor expression analysis.. (A) RNA-seq data (variance stabilizing transformation of reads) of all glutamate ... S7B). The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subunits glutamate receptor ionotropic NMDA 1 (GRIN1) and GRIN2B, ... Differential expression of glutamate receptors in avian neural pathways for learned vocalization. J. Comp. Neurol. 476, 44-64 ( ... Metabotropic glutamate2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptors, schizophrenia and cognition. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 639, 81-90 (2010).. ...
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to ... Role of glutamate decarboxylase in Citrus[edit]. It is also believed that the control of glutamate decarboxylase has the ... Higher glutamate levels activate microglia and activation of xc(−) increases the extracellular glutamate release.[30] ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators • Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators ...
Monoammonium glutamate is a compound with formula NH4C5H8NO4. It is an ammonium acid salt of glutamic acid. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Glutamate Cascade from Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors to Gene Expression in Striatal Neurons ... Alcohol and Glutamate Neurotransmission in Humans John H. Krystal, Ismene L. Petrakis, D. Cyril DSouza, Graeme Mason, Louis ... In Glutamate and Addiction, world-renowned scientific experts critically review all of this evidence and make the case for the ... Glutamate and Opiate Drugs (Heroin) of Abuse. * Front Matter Pages 279-279 ...
Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity. ... Brain tissue has a remarkable ability to accumulate glutamate. This ability is due to glutamate transporter proteins present in ... In addition to this simple, but essential glutamate removal role, the glutamate transporters appear to have more sophisticated ... A variety of soluble compounds (e.g. glutamate, cytokines and growth factors) influence glutamate transporter expression and ...
FSANZ Internet Consumer Additives and processing aids MSG in food Glutamates and food ... Glutamic acid and glutamates (E 620-625) are authorised food additives in the EU and Australia and New Zealand in line with ... Glutamates are added to a wide range of foods to enhance their flavour by giving them a "savoury" or "meaty" taste. ... on glutamic acid and glutamates added to food. The opinion does not raise new safety issues not considered as a part of the ...
L-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:29985) is a glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:14321) L-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:29985) is a polar amino acid zwitterion ( ... L-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:29985) is conjugate acid of L-glutamate(2−) (CHEBI:29988) L-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:29985) is conjugate ... L-glutamate(2−) (CHEBI:29988) is conjugate base of L-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:29985). D-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:29986) is enantiomer ... L-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI:29985) has role EC (glutamate-ammonia ligase) inhibitor (CHEBI:24319) L-glutamate(1−) (CHEBI: ...
Glutamate formiminotransferase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects physical and mental development. Explore ... Mutations in the FTCD gene cause glutamate formiminotransferase deficiency. The FTCD gene provides instructions for making the ... Glutamate formiminotransferase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects physical and mental development. There are two ... Glutamate formiminotransferase deficiency is a rare disorder; approximately 20 affected individuals have been identified. Of ...
This ability is due to glutamate transporter proteins present in the plasma membranes of both glial cells and neurons. The ... transporter proteins represent the only (significant) mechanism for removal of glutamate from the extracellular fl … ... Brain tissue has a remarkable ability to accumulate glutamate. ... the glutamate transporters provide glutamate for synthesis of e ... Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity ...
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were initially discovered by their unique coupling mechanism and pharmacological ... Glutamate Receptor Xenopus Oocyte Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Ibotenic Acid These keywords ... Schoepp, D. D. (1993) The biochemical pharmacology of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 21, 97-102.PubMed ... Weiss, J. H. Christine, C. W., and Choi, D. W. (1989) Bicarbonate dependence of glutamate receptor activation by (3-N-methy ...
... by the Food and Drug Administration would require food producers to disclose whether their products contain free glutamate--the ... Currently, monosodium glutamate must be disclosed only if it is added to food in its pure, ingredient form. But free glutamate ... Free glutamate is used as a flavoring, yet it has no flavor itself. Instead, it affects the way the brain senses flavors. ... It is most commonly found in food in its salt form, glutamate, which comes in two forms--that which is bound to protein and ...
MSG, or Monosodium Glutamate is a salt of the amino acid - Glutamic Acid (glutamate). A salt is the chemical name for a ... Hearing - The hair cells of the ear use glutamate as a neurotransmitter. Over-stimulation of these cells by glutamate can ... Their immune system attacks the means by which glutamate is metabolized, even though it does not attack glutamate itself. ... Blood vessels - Glutamate is vasoactive - it changes the diameter of the blood vessels - one reason why it may cause headaches. ...
Could a PR push of monosodium glutamate, an ingredient dubbed as a "killer condiment" by its detractors, win over the public? ...
glutamate. , calcium di-L-. glutamate. , monoammonium L-. glutamate. , magnesium di-L-. glutamate. ) to be specifically ... glutamate. (MSG) was responsible for the When glutamates. and glutamate. salts are naturally present in a food (e.g. in meat, ... glutamate. (such as monosodium. glutamate. (MSG)), to form foods/food ingredients with high concentrations of glutamates. 227. ... glutamate. (such as monosodium. glutamate. (MSG)), to form foods/food ingredients with high concentrations of glutamates. 133. ...
Glutamate is synthesized in the central nervous system from glutamine as part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle by the enzyme ... Glutamate exerts its effects by binding to and activating cell surface receptors. In mammals, four families of glutamate ... Glutamate transporters, EAAT and VGLUT, are found in neuronal and glial membranes. They rapidly remove glutamate from the ... Sponges possess metabotropic glutamate receptors, and application of glutamate to a sponge can trigger a whole-body response ...
... glutamate (E620) Monopotassium glutamate (E622) Calcium glutamate (E623) Monoammonium glutamate (E624) Magnesium glutamate ( ... Free glutamate is the form directly tasted and absorbed whereas glutamate bound in protein is not available until further ... Glutamate flavoring is the generic name for flavor-enhancing compounds based on glutamic acid and its salts (glutamates). These ... Nonetheless, glutamate by itself does not elicit an intense umami taste. The mixing of glutamate with nucleotides inosine-5- ...
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism and Alzheimers disease have ... "Depressed females have over-active glutamate receptor gene." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 31 Jul. 2015. Web.. 26 Mar ... Females with depression, Sodhi discovered, had the highest levels of expression of several glutamate receptor genes, perhaps ... The study also suggests new glutamate receptor targets for development of treatments for depression and identifies biochemical ...
About DISODIUM COCOYL GLUTAMATE: Disodium Cocoyl Glutamate is a disodium salt of the coconut acid amide of glutamic acid.. ...
Aspartate/glutamate/uridylate kinase (IPR001048). Short name: Asp/Glu/Uridylate_kinase Domain relationships *Aspartate/ ... This entry contains proteins with various specificities and includes the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In ... glutamate/uridylate kinase (IPR001048) *Aspartokinase 3, N-terminal (IPR035804). *N-acetylglutamate synthase, kinase-like ...
About POTASSIUM COCOYL GLUTAMATE: Potassium Cocoyl Glutamate is a mixed potassium salts of the coconut acid amide ofglutamic ...
The assay is based on the conversion of glutamine to glutamate by Glutaminase enzyme. ... selective and sensitive detection of glutamine and glutamate in biological samples. ... The Glutamine/Glutamate-Glo™ Assay is a bioluminescent assay for rapid, ... glutamate detection with the Glutamate Detection Reagent. When Glutamate Detection Reagent, which contains glutamate ...
Glutamate-1-semialdehyde is a molecule formed from by the reduction of tRNA bound glutamate, catalyzed by glutamyl-tRNA ... Glutamate-5-semialdehyde. References[edit]. *^ Beale SI (August 1990). "Biosynthesis of the Tetrapyrrole Pigment Precursor, ... It is isomerized by glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase to give aminolevulinic acid in the biosynthesis of porphyrins, ... delta-Aminolevulinic Acid, from Glutamate". Plant Physiol. 93 (4): 1273-9. doi:10.1104/pp.93.4.1273. PMC 1062668. PMID 16667613 ...
glutamate decarboxylase 2. Names. 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase. GAD-65. Glutamate decarboxylase-2 (pancreas). glutamate ... Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG) Alanine, aspartate and glutamate ... Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, ... GAD2 glutamate decarboxylase 2 [Homo sapiens] GAD2 glutamate decarboxylase 2 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:2572 ...
... l-glutamate (MNI-glutamate). Pharmacological reagents were purchased from Tocris unless noted otherwise. The glutamate receptor ... After washout, the medium was exchanged for Mg2+-free HBS medium along with 2 μM TTX and 2 mM MNI-glutamate. Glutamate uncaging ... S2 A-C). Unless noted otherwise, glutamate uncaging experiments were performed in Hepes buffer containing 2 mM MNI-glutamate, ... the use of caged neurotransmitter MNI-glutamate has aided in the mapping of glutamate receptors, input specificity, and ...
Home » Investigations » Import Injury » Monosodium Glutamate from China and Indonesia. Monosodium Glutamate from China and ...
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Glutamate acts on postsynaptic glutamate receptors to mediate excitatory communication between neurons. The discovery that ... additional presynaptic glutamate receptors can modulate neurotransmitter r... ... Glutamate acts on postsynaptic glutamate receptors to mediate excitatory communication between neurons. The discovery that ... We compare the physiological roles of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in short- and long-term regulation of ...
Roles of Glutamate Synthase, gltBD, and gltF in Nitrogen Metabolism of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes Thomas J. Goss ... Role of Glutamate Synthase in Biofilm Formation by Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis, a model organism for bacterial biofilm ... Osmosensitivity Associated with Insertions in argP (iciA) or glnE in Glutamate Synthase-Deficient Mutants of Escherichia coli ... Role of TnrA in Nitrogen Source-Dependent Repression of Bacillus subtilis Glutamate Synthase Gene Expression Boris R. Belitsky ...
The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a familyof G protein‐coupled receptors widely distributed in the central nervous ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein‐coupled receptors widely distributed in the central nervous ... Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. AJ Doherty, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK GL Collingridge, University of Bristol, ... Comparison of the structures of the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor, mGlu1α, and the β2‐adrenergic receptor. Schematic ...
A similar desensitization occurred following close-range pressure ejection of glutamate. The rapid, desensitizing glutamate ... Rapid desensitization of glutamate receptors in vertebrate central neurons. L O Trussell, L L Thio, C F Zorumski, G D Fischbach ... Rapid desensitization of glutamate receptors in vertebrate central neurons. L O Trussell, L L Thio, C F Zorumski, G D Fischbach ... Rapid desensitization of glutamate receptors in vertebrate central neurons. L O Trussell, L L Thio, C F Zorumski, and G D ...
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were initially discovered by their unique coupling mechanism and pharmacological characteristics. (
  • Biochemical receptors for glutamate fall into three major classes, known as AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors. (
  • Many synapses use multiple types of glutamate receptors. (
  • Glutamate exerts its effects by binding to and activating cell surface receptors. (
  • In mammals, four families of glutamate receptors have been identified, known as AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, NMDA receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors. (
  • Glutamic acid stimulates specific receptors located in taste buds such as the amino acid receptor T1R1/T1R3 or other glutamate receptors like the metabotropic receptors (mGluR4 and mGluR1), which induce the flavor known as umami. (
  • While research has shown that this synergism occurs in some animal species with other amino acids, studies of human taste receptors show that the same reaction only occurs between glutamate and the selected nucleotides. (
  • The metabotropic glutamate receptors such as mGluR4 and mGluR1 can be easily activated at glutamate concentration levels found in food. (
  • The effect is mediated by ifenprodil-sensitive NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors and involves an increase of transmitter release at the synapse. (
  • Presynaptic glutamate receptors: physiological functions and mechanisms of action. (
  • Glutamate acts on postsynaptic glutamate receptors to mediate excitatory communication between neurons. (
  • The discovery that additional presynaptic glutamate receptors can modulate neurotransmitter release has added complexity to the way we view glutamatergic synaptic transmission. (
  • Here we review evidence of a physiological role for presynaptic glutamate receptors in neurotransmitter release. (
  • We compare the physiological roles of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in short- and long-term regulation of synaptic transmission. (
  • The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein‐coupled receptors widely distributed in the central nervous system, acting to modulate synaptic function through interactions with other receptors, signalling mechanisms and (potentially) gene expression. (
  • Bortolotto ZA, Bashir ZI, Davies CH and Collingridge GL (1994) Metabotropic glutamate receptors activate a molecular switch which regulates the induction of long‐term potentiation. (
  • Conn PJ and Pin J‐P (1997) Pharmacology and functions of metabotropic glutamate receptors. (
  • Helton DR, Tizzano JP, Monn JA, Schoepp DD and Kallman MJ (1998) Anxiolytic and side‐effect profile of LY354740: a potent, highly selective, orally active agonist for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. (
  • 1999) Neuroprotective actions of novel and potent ligands of group I and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. (
  • 1998) Homer binds a novel proline‐rich motif and links group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with IP3 receptors. (
  • Anwyl R (1999) Metabotropic glutamate receptors: electrophysiological properties and role in plasticity. (
  • Bortolotto ZA, Fitzjohn SM and Collingridge GL (1999) Roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors in LTP and LTD in the hippocampus. (
  • Moroni F, Nicoletti F and Pellegrini‐Giampietro DE (eds) (1998) Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Brain Function. (
  • Schoepp DD, Jane DE and Monn JA (1999) Pharmacological agents acting at subtypes of glutamate receptors. (
  • The rapid, desensitizing glutamate current exhibited a linear current-voltage relation and it was not blocked by 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, suggesting that it was mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate-insensitive (G2) receptors. (
  • Desensitization of G2 receptors may be agonist-dependent: currents evoked by kainate, a selective G2 agonist, did not decay, whereas prior application of glutamate did reduce the size of kainate responses. (
  • Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) can result in long-lasting modulation of neuronal excitability. (
  • Glutamate can activate multiple subtypes of both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, primarily leading to EPSPs in the CNS. (
  • Plant genes that encode proteins similar to mammalian glutamate receptors, which are critical to neuronal function, were identified some time ago, but the function of these proteins in plants has been a mystery. (
  • Experimental drugs that block glutamate receptors in the central nervous system or lower glutamate brain levels may represent the next generation of antidepressant medications , and offer potential advantages over current drug treatments. (
  • Targeting glutamate receptors could transform care for patients for this devastating disease. (
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to a superfamily of G protein coupled receptors. (
  • Based on these modulators, a number of radiotracers useful for imaging specific metabotropic glutamate receptors have been developed and their in vivo biological properties have been characterized. (
  • We have developed five ligands for PET imaging of metabotropic glutamate subgroup 5 receptors and investigated mGluR functions in animal models of different neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • However, only the free form of glutamic acid or glutamates has an effect on the glutamate receptors. (
  • When bound to other amino acids in a protein, it does not stimulate glutamate receptors. (
  • MSG is used to give a "meaty", "savory", or "brothy" taste to foods by stimulating the glutamate receptors on the tongue. (
  • There are glutamate receptors in other parts of the body, notably the brain, where glutamate is a neurotransmitter. (
  • Due to their high uncoupled anion conductance, EAAT4 and EAAT5 seem to be acting more like inhibitory glutamate receptors than as glutamate transporters. (
  • Both GABA and glutamate exert their signaling roles by acting on receptors located on the surface of the cells expressing them [e.g. (
  • Metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors (mGluR5) likely play essential roles in mediating some of the actions of drugs of abuse. (
  • Glutamate receptors are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. (
  • Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation. (
  • Glutamate receptors are implicated in a number of neurological conditions. (
  • Maybe we could deal with a drug abuse problem by manipulating the receptors that respond to glutamate," Rebec said. (
  • Decreased expression of mRNAs encoding non-NMDA glutamate receptors GluR1 and GluR2 in medial temporal lobe neurons in schizophrenia. (
  • Alongside identified issues with GABA receptors, one has to assume that a "blockage" in the conversion of glutamate to GABA may contribute to greater amounts of glutamate being more readily available throughout the body. (
  • Furthermore, glutamate receptors are implicated in the pathologies of a number of neurodegenerative diseases due to their central role in excitotoxicity and their prevalence throughout the central nervous system. (
  • [1] One of the major functions of glutamate receptors appears to be the modulation of synaptic plasticity, a property of the brain thought to be vital for memory and learning. (
  • Both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors have been shown to have an effect on synaptic plasticity . (
  • [2] An increase or decrease in the number of ionotropic glutamate receptors on a post-synaptic cell may lead to long-term potentiation or long-term depression of that cell, respectively. (
  • [3] [4] Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors may modulate synaptic plasticity by regulating post-synaptic protein synthesis through second messenger systems. (
  • [5] Research shows that glutamate receptors are present in CNS glial cells as well as neurons. (
  • [6] It is suggested that these glutamate receptors play a role in modulating gene expression in glial cells, both during the proliferation and differentiation of glial precursor cells in brain development and in mature glial cells. (
  • Glutamate receptors can be divided into two groups according to the mechanism by which their activation gives rise to a postsynaptic current. (
  • [8] Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) form the ion channel pore that activates when glutamate binds to the receptor. (
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) indirectly activate ion-channels on the plasma membrane through a signaling cascade that involves G proteins . (
  • Glutamate receptors are usually not specifically geared towards glutamate exclusively as the ligand and sometimes even requires another agonist . (
  • There are many specific subtypes of glutamate receptors, and it is customary to refer to primary subtypes by a chemical which binds to it more selectively than glutamate. (
  • Due to the diversity of glutamate receptors, their subunits are encoded by numerous gene families. (
  • Glutamatergic receptors are grouped according to similarities in amino acid sequence and pharmacodynamic properties such as affinity for glutamate and threshold for channel opening. (
  • Kainate receptors are predominantly presynaptic and appear to regulate glutamate release. (
  • Abnormal function of glutamate receptors has been linked with certain neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's chorea. (
  • The design, synthesis and evaluation of eight contrast agents for metabotropic glutamate receptors is reported. (
  • Fermented products such as soy sauce, steak sauce, and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to those in foods with added monosodium glutamate. (
  • While glutamate reuptake is a normal process for healthy brains, several diseases such as Huntington's disease, ALS, and epilepsy result in either failed reuptake of glutamate or high levels of glutamate in the brain. (
  • By altering the normal levels of glutamate and glucose in the blood and muscle tissue, the investigators can gather more information about the role of glutamate in energy metabolism. (
  • During this study the investigators will increase the levels of glutamate and glucose in the bloodstream by asking participants to ingest MSG along with a sugary drink. (
  • Research in the early 1990s determined that ALS patients have raised levels of glutamate in the fluid bathing the brain and spinal cord. (
  • In the second, a team of neurologists in two different hospitals checked the levels of glutamate and GOT in several hundred stroke victims who were admitted to their hospitals. (
  • Researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center and several other institutions have for the first time linked high levels of glutamate - a neurotransmitter in the brain produced from glucose - in people with type 1 diabetes to symptoms of depression and lower levels of cognitive performance. (
  • The study, which involved researchers at institutions in both the United States and Korea, documents increased levels of glutamate in the prefrontal area of the brains of people with type 1 diabetes, an area associated with both higher-level thinking and regulation of emotions. (
  • At the same time, the study shows a link between those high levels of glutamate to poorer glucose control, more symptoms of depression and lower scores on tests of cognitive function in those with diabetes. (
  • Plasma and brain levels of glutamate and its amino acid sibling, glutamine, have been the source of some speculation. (
  • gltC mutants had decreased, aberrantly regulated levels of glutamate synthase activity and decreased gltA mRNA. (
  • In humans, T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis secreted higher levels of glutamate, and cerebrospinal fluid glutamine levels were increased. (
  • A new study suggests that an excess of the neurotransmitter glutamate may lead to the development of psychosis in those at the risk of developing schizophrenia. (
  • Using a new approach researchers have found that variants in a group of genes involved in transmission of signals by the neurotransmitter glutamate appear to increase the risk of depression. (
  • The neurotransmitter glutamate can be synthesized from glutamine by the action of phosphate-activated glutaminase. (
  • Their findings, published in JNeurosci , show that increasing levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the hippocampus normalizes anxious monkeys' "fight or flight" response. (
  • A study led by Indiana University on neurochemical changes associated with alcohol addiction found that the neurotransmitter glutamate plays a role in some alcohol cravings. (
  • In an attempt to understand the effects that drugs like Adderall have on typical brains, scientists have found a relationship between activity of the neurotransmitter glutamate and mood for the first time, according to a study conducted by University researchers. (
  • New evidence suggests that the peptide causes the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to build up in synapses, making neurons hyperactive. (
  • The neurotransmitter glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain and is responsible for most corticocortical and corticofugal neurotransmission. (
  • A significant study pertaining to fibromyalgia and the neurotransmitter glutamate was just released in the Clinical Journal of Pain in October 2017. (
  • Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. (
  • Because glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, we tested whether glutamate in 2 min microdialysate samples from the MPOA of male rats increases during sexual activity and whether increasing glutamate levels by reverse dialysis of glutamate uptake inhibitors into the MPOA facilitates sexual behavior. (
  • Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, according to a researcher at the University of Illinois at Chicago. (
  • Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter that promotes the flow of signals between nerve cells. (
  • Glutamate is the most abundant swift excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. (
  • Glutamate (glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter , the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. (
  • Glutamate, "the brain's principal excitatory neurotransmitter" is involved with processes relating to learning and memory, said Lisa Weyandt, professor of psychology and neuroscience at the University of Rhode Island. (
  • Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter in that it generally increases the likelihood of neurons firing. (
  • In addition to this simple, but essential glutamate removal role, the glutamate transporters appear to have more sophisticated functions in the modulation of neurotransmission. (
  • Further, the glutamate transporters provide glutamate for synthesis of e.g. (
  • Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity. (
  • Glutamate transporters, EAAT and VGLUT, are found in neuronal and glial membranes. (
  • This cytoplasmic glutamate is transported into vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters. (
  • Three vesicular glutamate transporters have been cloned and they exhibit differential expression in glutamatergic neurons in various brain regions. (
  • Whereas glutamate transporters in glial cells and postsynaptic neurons contribute significantly to re-uptake of synaptically released transmitter, the functional role of presynaptic glutamate transporters is poorly understood. (
  • Given the evidence for presynaptic glutamate transporters, similar mechanisms could be of general importance for transmission in the nervous system. (
  • Glutamate transporters in glial plasma membranes: highly differentiated localizations revealed by quantitative ultrastructural immunocytochemistry. (
  • Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transporters. (
  • The most important and most abundant transporters for removal of transmitter glutamate in the brain are EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 (GLAST), while GAT1 and GAT3 are the major GABA transporters in the brain. (
  • Molecules called transporters aid in keeping glutamate in proper concentrations around nerve cells. (
  • Gene therapy approaches are under investigation to deliver glutamate transporters to cells affected by ALS. (
  • Instead of attempting to get drugs into the brain, Teichberg had the idea that one might be able to transport glutamate from the brain to the blood using the tiny "pumps," or transporters, on the capillaries that work on differences in glutamate concentration between the two sides. (
  • Such a characteristic is probably why glutamate and its transporters show a connection with conditions like epilepsy, where seizure activity may reflect the over-zealous firing of neurons [6]. (
  • To maintain synaptic efficacy, recycling synaptic vesicles (SV) are refilled with glutamate by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). (
  • Glutamate uptake. (
  • Glutamate uptake appears to be modulated on virtually all possible levels, i.e. (
  • Cysteine competes with glutamate for uptake. (
  • Excitotoxicity due to excessive glutamate release and impaired uptake occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke, autism, some forms of intellectual disability, and diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Uptake of glutamate by secretory granules appears to be required for its effects. (
  • Danbolt, N.C. Glutamate uptake. (
  • Gundersen, V., Danbolt, N.C., Ottersen, O.P. & Storm-Mathisen, J. Demonstration of glutamate/aspartate uptake activity in nerve endings by use of antibodies recognizing exogenous D-aspartate. (
  • Low extracellular levels can only be maintained by cellular uptake because there is no extracellular metabolism of GABA and glutamate [e.g. (
  • It was soon realized that the mechanisms responsible for the uptake of GABA and glutamate are independent of each other ( 21 , 25 , 26 ) and that there is heterogeneity both within GABA uptake ( 27 ) and glutamate uptake ( 28 - 33 ). (
  • To see if impaired reuptake of glutamate might be responsible for the Aβ effect, the authors tried to mimic it by pipetting the glutamate uptake blocker DL-threo-b-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) onto the hippocampal CA1 region of wild-type mice. (
  • The dynamics and mechanism of glutamate uptake in intact neurons are still largely unknown. (
  • Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase ( GAD ) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO 2 . (
  • Also - Over 85% of individuals with Type 1 Diabetes have antibodies to the enzyme the body uses to turn Glutamate into GABA - glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). (
  • Glutamate itself serves as metabolic precursor for the neurotransmitter GABA, via the action of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase. (
  • Another problem with amino-oxyacetic acid is that it potently inhibits both glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase (see Table below). (
  • The neurotransmitter GABA is formed from glutamate by the action of glutamate decarboxylase. (
  • Inhibitors of glutamate decarboxylase generally also inhibit GABA-transaminase due to the fact that both enzymes require pyridoxal phosphate for activity. (
  • However, in the case of the carbonyl-trapping agent aminooxyacetic acid its Ki value for inhibition of GABA-transaminase is 10-fold lower than that for glutamate decarboxylase. (
  • The process of converting glutamate to GABA is reliant on the functioning of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme which itself uses the active form of vitamin B6, PLP (Pyridoxal-phosphate) or P5P, as a cofactor. (
  • This ability is due to glutamate transporter proteins present in the plasma membranes of both glial cells and neurons. (
  • We have examined glutamate receptor desensitization in voltage-clamped embryonic chicken spinal cord neurons and postnatal rat hippocampal neurons maintained in culture. (
  • The glutamate transporter GLT1a is expressed in excitatory axon terminals of mature hippocampal neurons. (
  • In ALS, transport of glutamate is slowed into the glial cells that surround the junctions of motor neurons. (
  • This study show by live-cell imaging with pH- and chloride-sensitive fluorescent probes in cultured hippocampal neurons of wild-type and VGLUT1-deficient mice that in SVs VGLUT functions as a glutamate/proton exchanger associated with a channel-like chloride conductance. (
  • We discovered soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) complex proteins in Th17 cells that enable a vesicular glutamate release pathway that induces local intracytoplasmic calcium release and subsequent damage in neurons. (
  • Altogether, our findings demonstrate that β1-integrin- and KV1.3 channel-dependent signaling stimulates glutamate release from Th17 cells upon direct cell-cell contact between Th17 cells and neurons. (
  • Glutamine is a common precursor for the biosynthesis of both glutamate and GABA. (
  • It appears that glutamine serves as the precursor for glutamate, making phosphate-activated glutaminase, an important enzyme for GABA synthesis as well. (
  • It appears that glutamate formed from glutamine may be metabolized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle prior to its conversion to GABA, which may allow new alternative regulatory mechanisms. (
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are, respectively, the major inhibitory and the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system ( 1 - 3 ), and are thereby involved directly or indirectly in most aspects of normal brain function including cognition, memory, and learning. (
  • The biological consequences of this hyperarousal process on sleep (increased wake time) and cortical excitability (as demonstrated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)) are postulated to reflect increased degree of excitatory glutamatergic activity, and therefore affected brain regions will show relatively increased glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) on MR spectroscopy (MRS). Changes in inhibitory activity and GABA may also occur, but less significantly than the increase in Glu/Gln. (
  • Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. (
  • Despite its excitatory link, glutamate is an essential component in the formation of the neurotransmitter GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter. (
  • I'm most concerned with her homozygous CBS, COMT, DAOA, and GAD1 (high glutamate/low gaba) mutations. (
  • Mechanism of action is unknown, but it enhances GABA transmission and inhibits glutamate transmission. (
  • Hypothesized to interact with glutamate and GABA neurotransmitters centrally to restore neuronal excitation and inhibition balance. (
  • Indeed, it is difficult to find a brand of canned tuna that does not include hydrolyzed soy protein--a particularly potent source of free glutamate. (
  • It is most commonly found in food in its salt form, glutamate, which comes in two forms--that which is bound to protein and that which is free of protein. (
  • The flavoring effect of glutamate comes from its free form, in which it is not bound to other amino acids in protein. (
  • The savory flavor of tomatoes, fermented soy products, yeast extracts, certain sharp cheeses, and fermented or hydrolyzed protein products (such as soy sauce and fermented bean paste) is partially due to the presence of free glutamate ions. (
  • Nakahara K, Okada M and Nakanishi S (1997) The metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 induces calcium oscillations in cultured astrocytes via protein kinase C phosphorylation. (
  • MSG that isn't naturally occurring must be listed as monosodium glutamate on foods labels, but that's not the case when it occurs naturally in ingredients like soy protein isolate or hydrolyzed yeast. (
  • Any ingredient containing the words 'glutamate,' 'hydrolyzed,' 'protein,' 'protease,' 'enzymes' or 'enzyme modified' is likely to contain hidden MSG, and 'yeast extract,' 'autolyzed yeast,' 'soy sauce,' 'Ajinomoto,' 'calcium caseinate' and 'sodium caseinate' also indicate the potential presence of MSG. (
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (GPRC1E or MGLUR5 or GRM5) - Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor. (
  • lists other names for MSG, including monopotassium glutamate and vegetable protein extract, and several additives that contain various amounts of MSG. (
  • Chemically, sodium stearoyl glutamate belongs to the amino acid group since the glutamate portion (not to be confused with the protein gluten) comes from the amino acid known as glutamic acid, which enhances skin hydration. (
  • Basically one (mono) sodium atom is "stuck" to the amino acid glutamate. (
  • The sodium salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate (MSG), is manufactured on a large scale and widely used in the food industry. (
  • Moreover, sodium in monosodium glutamate may activate glutamate to produce a stronger umami taste. (
  • Sodium stearoyl glutamate is a synthetic or animal-derived ingredient (Paula's Choice uses the former) that is added to cosmetics to condition skin or work as an emulsifier, keeping oil-and-water formulas blended. (
  • I don't know what you experienced, but I think you would need to ingest a *major* amount of msg to have any acute physiological effect (and even then, probably more due to the sodium than the glutamate). (
  • MSG is a free amino acid salt: the amino acid glutamate plus one sodium atom attached. (
  • Glutamate metabolism, which to a large extent takes place in astroglial cells, is catalyzed either by glutamine synthetase or glutamate dehydrogenase. (
  • We offer Glutamate Dehydrogenase RNAi for use in common research applications. (
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  • Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, GDH) is an enzyme , present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes , as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate , and vice versa. (
  • Typically, the α-ketoglutarate to glutamate reaction does not occur in mammals, as glutamate dehydrogenase equilibrium favours the production of ammonia and α-ketoglutarate. (
  • In humans the relevant genes are called GLUD1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) and GLUD2 (glutamate dehydrogenase 2), and there are also at least 8 GLDH pseudogenes in the human genome as well, probably reflecting microbial influences on eukaryote evolution. (
  • NAD + (or NADP + ) is a cofactor for the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction, producing α-ketoglutarate and ammonium as a byproduct. (
  • Ammonia incorporation in animals and microbes occurs through the actions of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase . (
  • In humans, the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is controlled through ADP-ribosylation , a covalent modification carried out by the gene sirt4 . (
  • Under these circumstances, glutamate dehydrogenase activity is raised in order to increase the amount of α-ketoglutarate produced, which can be used to provide energy by being used in the citric acid cycle to ultimately produce ATP . (
  • Bardsley, M. E. and Roberts, P. J. (1983) Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat brain by glutamate and aspartate. (
  • It appears, however, that glutamate derived from glutamine via this route is produced intramitochondrially and may subsequently undergo a transamination catalyzed by the mitochondrial isoform of aspartate aminotransferase. (
  • Acute MSG supplementation also stimulates modest increases in plasma concentrations of aspartate, alanine, and glutamine (which are produced from glutamate within the muscle and subsequently released into circulation). (
  • This cycle provides both NADH/FADH 2 for ATP synthesis through the respiratory chain and precursors for synthesis of other metabolites, such as fatty acids starting from citrate, aspartate from oxaloacetate and glutamate/glutamine from oxoglutarate (8). (
  • Most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is mediated by the endogenous excitatory amino acids (EAAs) glutamate, aspartate and homocysteine. (
  • Neurotransmitters, including glutamate, are substances that conduct signals from one nerve cell to another. (
  • As with all neurotransmitters, glutamate docks at specific recognition molecules on the receiving neuron. (
  • While "all addictive substances result in an increase in dopamine," scientists currently do not understand how other neurotransmitters like glutamate can contribute to mood and addiction, Weyandt said. (
  • Two neurochemical compounds altered in fibromyalgia amongst others include the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and histamine. (
  • Which monosodium glutamate (MSG) sources are associated with migraine in children? (
  • To better understand the link between glutamate and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle, the investigators will be using a nutritional approach to raise the body's glutamate levels with monosodium glutamate (MSG) supplementation, and raise blood glucose levels with a sugary drink. (
  • In healthy young adults, a dose of roughly 10 g monosodium glutamate (MSG) transiently elevates plasma (700-800%) and intramuscular (30%) glutamate concentrations. (
  • PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Monosodium Glutamate (MSG). (
  • This downloadable document (GMI PUB) is filled with medically researched knowledge, relevant information and pertinent data on Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) . (
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  • 2000). Additive-induced urticaria: experience with monosodium glutamate (MSG). (
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG): a villain and promoter of liver inflammation and dysplasia. (
  • Headache and mechanical sensitization of human pericranial muscles after repeated intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG). (
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used 'flavor enhancer,' and so powerfully so that (arguably) you could spray it on roadkill and it would taste good. (
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used food additive. (
  • Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is a salt added to foods to enhance flavor. (
  • Most people will probably have heard mention of glutamate when talking about the food industry and use of the flavour enhancer, monosodium glutamate (MSG). (
  • monosodium glutamate(msg) is a glutamate amino acid, it is naturally present in some foods. (
  • Chronic monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake causes kidney dysfunction and renal oxidative stress in the animal model. (
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a common food additive popular for its umami taste [1] . (
  • Without monosodium glutamate (MSG), the modern food industry wouldn't be what it is today. (
  • NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. (
  • Glycine is an 'obligate co-agonist' for glutamate, i.e. glutamate cannot act on the NMDA receptor in the absence of glycine. (
  • Mutations in the FTCD gene cause glutamate formiminotransferase deficiency. (
  • FTCD gene mutations that cause glutamate formiminotransferase deficiency reduce or eliminate the function of the enzyme. (
  • Two SNPs in GRM7 (rs2069062 and rs2014195) were significantly associated with antipsychotic response in candidate gene analysis, as were two SNPs in the human glutamate receptor delta 2 ( GRID2) gene (rs9307122 and rs1875705) in genome-wide association analysis. (
  • Further examination of these findings with those from a separate risperidone-treated study sample demonstrated that top SNPs in both studies were overrepresented in glutamate genes and that there were similarities in neurodevelopmental gene categories associated with drug response from both study samples. (
  • These associations indicate a role for gene variants related to glutamate signaling and antipsychotic response with more broad association patterns indicating the potential importance of genes involved in neuronal development. (
  • 6 Glutamate gene polymorphisms are also associated with neurocognitive endophenotypes in genetic studies of schizophrenia. (
  • Their central role in excitotoxicity and prevalence in the central nervous system has been linked or speculated to be linked to many neurodegenerative diseases, and several other conditions have been further linked to glutamate receptor gene mutations or receptor autoantigen/antibody activity. (
  • Researchers are working towards gene therapy approaches to deliver the glutamate transporter molecule to cells affected by ALS. (
  • 14. Collinge J, Curtis D. Decreased hippocampal expression of a glutamate receptor gene in schizophrenia. (
  • A variety of soluble compounds (e.g. glutamate, cytokines and growth factors) influence glutamate transporter expression and activities. (
  • Glutamate flavoring is the generic name for flavor-enhancing compounds based on glutamic acid and its salts (glutamates). (
  • Nitrogen-containing compounds, such as the glutamate-containing tripeptide, glutathione, and glutamine, have been shown to be important for expression of L. monocytogenes virulence genes. (
  • The toxic effects of glutamate and related compounds in the retina and the brain. (
  • Outside of this link, glutamate also acts as a neurotransmitter, similar to compounds like serotonin and dopamine. (
  • Compounds that block glutamate reuptake cause similar hyperexcitability. (
  • So, the toxicity of the two compounds must be caused by the anions- glutamate or chloride. (
  • In the August 9 Science, researchers led by Arthur Konnerth, Technische Universität München, Germany, suggest that after a neuron fires, Aβ dimers block clearance of glutamate released into the synaptic cleft. (
  • When a neuron fires, GLT1 quickly binds the newly released glutamate, then immediately diffuses along the projections away from the synapse, dragging glutamate with it. (
  • Glutamate is synthesized in the central nervous system from glutamine as part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle by the enzyme glutaminase. (
  • It could be achieved through a naturally-occurring enzyme called glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. (
  • Nitrogen source regulation of glutamate synthase activity in Bacillus subtilis occurs at the level of transcription of the gltA and gltB genes, which encode the two subunits of the enzyme. (
  • However, despite its many links to energy provision, the role of glutamate in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. (
  • C 1 N bond-forming ligase) inhibitor that interferes with the action of glutamate ammonia ligase (EC (
  • The inhibitory action of Glutamate, via group II mGluRs, provides an avenue for a disinhibitory effect that could have interesting consequences upon a well-investigated, model neuronal circuit, turning its assumed functional role upside down. (
  • Glutamine and glutamate limit the. (
  • Here, we studied the effect of glutamine and glutamate on electrical activity in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. (
  • Based on the joint effort of a great many top scientists, this book covers most aspects of the metabolism and function of glutamine and glutamate in mammals. (
  • 1. Enzymes in Glutamine and Glutamate Metabolism 2. (
  • We propose that, in addition to glucose, the 5-carbon amino acids glutamine and glutamate should be considered to be equally important for maintenance and promotion of cell function. (
  • Identifying and targeting the mechanisms that increase glutamate metabolism in the brain may also provide the medical field with additional ways of treating problems within the brain. (
  • The paper, "Exercise increases mitochondrial glutamate oxidation in the mouse cerebral cortex" by Eric Herbst and Graham Holloway is published in Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism . (
  • and B) whether normal skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and the behaviour of additional amino acids (other than glutamate) is altered. (
  • The ability of glutamate to independently stimulate insulin secretion provides further support for an association between glutamate and glucose metabolism, yet only two studies to date have administered MSG during an oral glucose challenge to directly examine this relationship. (
  • This may be related to pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiencies, as this vitamin is necessary for glutamate metabolism. (
  • Glutamate, one of the two acidic proteinogenic amino acids, is also a key molecule in cellular metabolism. (
  • The specialized aspects of glutamine/glutamate metabolism of different glutamine-utilizing cells are discussed in the context of glucose requirements and cell function. (
  • And according to the agency's Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule-Making, or ANPR, on MSG, the new regulation would "apply to foods that contain free glutamate from any source. (
  • In addition, glutamate plays important roles in the regulation of growth cones and synaptogenesis during brain development. (
  • Obesity, voracity, and short stature: the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetite. (
  • Positive regulation of glutamate biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis. (
  • However, if the researchers stimulated the hippocampal slices by adding glutamate, blocking inhibitory inputs, or elevating the extracellular K + concentration, Aβ dimers revved up the activity even further, just as they did it vivo. (
  • The transporter proteins represent the only (significant) mechanism for removal of glutamate from the extracellular fluid and their importance for the long-term maintenance of low and non-toxic concentrations of glutamate is now well documented. (
  • They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. (
  • There was a slight [∼140% of baseline (BL)] rise in extracellular glutamate when the female was presented, a significant increase (∼170% of BL) during periods of mounting and intromitting, and a very large increase in samples collected during ejaculation (∼300% of BL). (
  • The mixture increased extracellular glutamate (∼280% of BL), increased the number of ejaculations in the 40 min test, decreased ejaculation latency, and decreased the postejaculatory latency to resume copulation. (
  • For glutamate, there is another reason to keep the extracellular levels low. (
  • Further, both the Aβ dimers and TBOA transiently increased the extracellular glutamate concentration, suggesting they acted by a similar mechanism. (
  • Few studies have manipulated circulating concentrations of both glutamate and glucose in humans, and none have evaluated the effect of this unique manipulation in skeletal muscle tissue. (
  • Then they measured concentrations of glutamate using a technology called magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (
  • According to the data, concentrations of glutamate were nine percent higher in the subjects with diabetes. (
  • Two vibrational fingerprints of monosodium glutamate are detected at 1369 and 1422 cm -1 , although the concentrations are much above physiological concentrations. (
  • A new labeling rule proposed by the Food and Drug Administration would require food producers to disclose whether their products contain free glutamate--the active ingredient in monosodium glutamate. (
  • In fact, some foods that proudly advertise "No MSG" actually contain large amounts of free glutamate. (
  • Under the proposed rule, manufacturers of prepared foods made with additives that contain free glutamate would have to disclose its presence on the label. (
  • Free glutamate is used as a flavoring, yet it has no flavor itself. (
  • The exact chemical basis for some people's reactions to free glutamate is still unclear. (
  • Free glutamate that occurs naturally in vegetables like tomatoes, they say, isn't harmful. (
  • MSG--the first product making use of free glutamate--was first isolated in Japan in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda, who had noticed that the seaweed kombu was used as a flavor enhancer. (
  • Critics say the presence of free glutamate can trigger reactions in people who are sensitive to it ranging from dizziness and shortness of breath to headaches and drowsiness. (
  • But at least one neuroscientist, Washington University's John W. Olney, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, claims free glutamate can cause brain damage--particularly in children. (
  • The proposed warning statement would carry with it the implication that the average consumer, who has been consuming free glutamate-containing products for years, should now, suddenly, be concerned," wrote one. (
  • Manufactured monosodium glutamate consists to over 99.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form, which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than can be found in the free glutamate ions of fermented naturally occurring foods. (
  • Only a fraction of the glutamate in foods is in its "free" form, and only free glutamate produces an umami flavor in foods. (
  • Free glutamate exists in certain cheeses (such as parmesan), in tomato products, and in soy sauce. (
  • However, free glutamate, as found in soy sauce or prepared foods, enters the bloodstream much faster than the glutamates bound in proteins, where they are released slowly during digestion. (
  • 2000) Evaluation of the activity of a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (+/−)‐2‐amino‐2‐(3‐cis and trans‐carboxycyclobutyl‐3‐(9‐thioxanthyl)propionic acid) in the in vitro neonatal spinal cord and in an in vivo pain model. (
  • Similar to high fructose corn syrup and partially hydrogenated oils, consumers need to get in the habit of looking for monosodium glutamate. (
  • A case report of orafacial granulomatosis attributed to monosodium glutamate allergy. (
  • Previous human and animal studies suggest roles for glutamate, the hippocampus, and two prefrontal brain regions - known as area 25 and area 32 - in the behavioral and physiological response to threat. (
  • Nonfermented naturally occurring foods have lower relative levels of D-glutamate than fermented products do. (
  • Salicylates, amines and glutamates naturally occur in many of the foods you eat on a daily basis. (
  • Glutamate is a naturally occurring amino acid that the body uses and needs. (
  • Glutamate is a compound naturally found in foods like cheese, mushrooms, and tomatoes. (
  • L Glutamate is a non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. (
  • Because of this, glutamate is found naturally in many of the ordinary things we eat, such as tomatoes, peas, corn, milk and especially in meats and cheeses. (
  • However, it is important to note, that naturally occurring glutamate is "bound" in most foods, while MSG is added to foods and is in "free" form. (
  • Here, we used electrophysiological recording to examine the functional properties of a presynaptic glutamate transporter in rat retinal rod bipolar cells and its role in regulating glutamatergic synaptic transmission between rod bipolar cells and amacrine cells. (
  • Release of glutamate activated the presynaptic transporter with a time course that suggested a perisynaptic localization. (
  • The transporter was also activated by spillover of glutamate from neighboring rod bipolar cells. (
  • Figure 1: Localization of a glutamate transporter at axon terminal of rod bipolar cells. (
  • Figure 2: Kinetics and concentration-response relationship of glutamate transporter at rod bipolar axon terminals. (
  • Figure 3: Synaptic release of glutamate activates the transporter in rod bipolar cells. (
  • Figure 5: Spillover of glutamate between rod bipolar cells activates the transporter. (
  • Figure 7: Activation of glutamate transporter in rod bipolar cell axon terminals suppresses synaptic transmission. (
  • Eliasof, S. & Werblin, F. Characterization of the glutamate transporter in retinal cones of the tiger salamander. (
  • He, Y., Janssen, W.G., Rothstein, J.D. & Morrison, J.H. Differential synaptic localization of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 and glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 in the rat hippocampus. (
  • Because astrocytes normally clear glutamate from synapses, the researchers wondered if Aβ might affect GLT-1, the main excitatory amino-acid transporter in these cells. (
  • Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 in age-dependent optic neuropathy. (
  • To determine retinal vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) expression alterations in a mouse model of progressive optic neuropathy (glaucoma). (
  • Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but also through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission. (
  • Here we show that glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes of the rat hippocampal dentate molecular layer enhances synaptic strength at excitatory synapses between perforant path afferents and granule cells. (
  • Such glutamate-receptor "hot spots" often corresponded to points of contact with neighboring neurites, which raises the possibility that they are located at synapses. (
  • In response to an unexpected loud sound, increased hippocampal glutamate was associated with increased blood pressure, heart rate, and scanning of the environment - all of which are part of a typical threat response and reduced in anxious individuals. (
  • Glutamate, an amino acid that is one of the twenty amino acids used to construct proteins, is used by the brain to transmit signals, but too much glutamate blocks future signals and can lead to toxicity in the brain. (
  • Proteins can be hydrolyzed by heat, releasing free glutamates. (
  • Glutamates can be produced by fermentation of starches or sugars, but also by breaking the bonds between amino acids in proteins, leaving free amino acids. (
  • When proteins are broken down into their constituent amino acids, the result can contain as much as 20 percent glutamates. (
  • Bound glutamates in proteins are very common in food. (
  • Glutamate is one of the 20 amino acids used to assemble proteins and as a result is abundant in many areas of the body, but it also functions as a neurotransmitter and is particularly abundant in the nervous system . (
  • Studying postmortem tissue from brains of psychiatric patients, Monsheel Sodhi, assistant professor of pharmacy practice at UIC, noted that female patients with depression had abnormally high expression levels of many genes that regulate the glutamate system, which is widely distributed in the brain. (
  • A new study has found depressed women have an abnormally high expression of the genes that regulate the glutamate system. (
  • Female patients with depression have abnormally high expression levels of many genes that regulate the glutamate system, which is widely distributed in the brain. (
  • In Glutamate and Addiction, world-renowned scientific experts critically review all of this evidence and make the case for the role of glutamatergic systems in both the etiology and treatment of addiction disorders. (
  • Using a variety of pharmacological, biochemical, genetic, and brain imaging techniques, these investigators show precisely how glutamate is involved in the etiology of addictions and how blocking or activating certain elements of the glutamatergic system appear to alleviate particular components of addiction. (
  • Information on the food additive monosodium glutamate, or MSG, needs to be shared to protect the American family. (
  • The amino acid glutamate-and its receptor and signalling functions- is fast becoming the one to watch with autism spectrum disorders in mind. (
  • In contrast, decreased glutamate release is observed under conditions of classical phenylketonuria leading to developmental disruption of glutamate receptor expression. (
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (GPRC1E or MGLUR5 or GRM5) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (
  • The latest report Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (GPRC1E or MGLUR5 or GRM5) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (GPRC1E or MGLUR5 or GRM5) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (
  • It also reviews key players involved in Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (GPRC1E or MGLUR5 or GRM5) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (
  • Glutamate opens calcium channels. (
  • Glutamate is shown to be generated by mitochondria in response to glucose and directly stimulates exocytosis in permeabilized cells in which the concentration of calcium is held constant. (
  • Signal intensity enhancements of up to 27% were observed by MRI in primary astrocyte suspensions and the reversibility of probe binding to the receptor sites, induced by added glutamate , was demonstrated using optical emission and the antagonistic activity of complexes was defined by calcium binding assays. (
  • Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. (
  • Thus, we provide the first combined functional and ultrastructural evidence for a physiological control of synaptic activity via exocytosis of glutamate from astrocytes. (
  • EFSA's scientific advice will inform risk managers in the European Commission and Member States who regulate the safe use of glutamates as food additives in the EU. (
  • Classic competitive ligands, which are amino acid derivatives, bind to the orthosteric binding site as endogenous glutamate. (
  • Endogenous glutamate plays a significant role in nociceptive processing, this neurotransmitter being associated with hyperalgesia and central sensitization. (
  • The authors believe this is because the endogenous Aβ had already fully blocked glutamate reuptake. (
  • However this secondary effect of glutamate on insulin is poorly understood. (
  • This suggests that the ability of carbohydrate to stimulate insulin secretion may overpower any effect of glutamate on this hormone, but the specific mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. (
  • After administering a psychostimulant, researchers observed an increase in the presence of glutamate, measured through the use of a technique called magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (
  • Monosodium glutamate is injected into the eyes to simulate disease conditions, and the contribution to the Raman spectrum due to the presence of glutamate is identified. (
  • This will help the design of future studies investigating the function of glutamate in aging and disease. (