Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The decarboxylation product of UDPglucuronic acid, which is used for formation of the xylosides of seryl hydroxyl groups in mucoprotein synthesis. Also forms plant xylans.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A non-heme IRON enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of MYOINOSITOL to D-glucuronic acid. The reaction is the first committed step in MYOINOSITOL catabolic pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
A genus of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the family HALOMONADACEAE. They are chemoorganotrophic and grow optimally in media containing 8-10% salt.
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Structural elucidation of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by a mucoid clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia. Characterization of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue in a heptasaccharide repeating unit. (1/799)

The structure of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by a clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia isolated from a patient with fibrocystic lung disease has been investigated. By means of methylation analyses, carboxyl reduction, partial depolymerization by fuming HCl and chemical degradations such as Smith degradation, lithiumethylenediamine degradation and beta-elimination, supported by GC/MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, the repeat unit of the EPS has been identified and was shown to correspond to the acidic branched heptasaccharide with the following structure: [formula: see text]. This partially acetylated acidic polymer, distinguished by the presence of the less usual D-isomer of rhamnose and of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue, could represent the main EPS produced by this bacterial species.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a human uronyl 2-sulfotransferase that sulfates iduronyl and glucuronyl residues in dermatan/chondroitin sulfate. (2/799)

A partial-length human cDNA with a predicted amino acid sequence homologous to a previously described heparan sulfate iduronyl 2-sulfotransferase (Kobayashi, M., Habuchi, H., Yoneda, M., Habuchi, O., and Kimata, K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13980-13985) was obtained by searching the expressed sequence-tagged data bank. Northern blot analysis was performed using this homologous cDNA as a probe, which demonstrated ubiquitous expression of messages of 5.1 and 2.0 kilobases in a number of human tissues and in several human cancer cell lines. Since the human lymphoma Raji cell line had the highest level of expression, it was used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone. The full-length cDNA was found to contain an open reading frame that predicted a type II transmembrane protein composed of 406 amino acid residues. The cDNA in a baculovirus expression vector was expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and cell extracts were then incubated together with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate and potential glycosaminoglycan acceptors. This demonstrated substantial sulfotransferase activity with dermatan sulfate, a small degree of activity with chondroitin sulfate, but no sulfotransferase activity with desulfated N-resulfated heparin. Analysis of [35S]sulfate-labeled disaccharide products of chondroitin ABC, chondroitin AC, and chondroitin B lyase treatment demonstrated that the enzyme only transferred sulfate to the 2-position of uronyl residues, which were preponderantly iduronyl residues in dermatan sulfate, but some lesser transfer to glucuronyl residues of chondroitin sulfate.  (+info)

Study of the response of a biofilm bacterial community to UV radiation. (3/799)

We have developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor that can be incorporated into biofilm ecosystems. RM4440 is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 derivative that carries a plasmid-based recA-luxCDABE fusion. We immobilized RM4440 in an alginate matrix to simulate a biofilm, and we studied its response to UV radiation damage. The biofilm showed a protective property by physical shielding against UV C, UV B, and UV A. Absorption of UV light by the alginate matrix translated into a higher survival rate than observed with planktonic cells at similar input fluences. UV A was shown to be effectively blocked by the biofilm matrix and to have no detectable effects on cells contained in the biofilm. However, in the presence of photosensitizers (i.e., psoralen), UV A was effective in inducing light production and cell death. RM4440 has proved to be a useful tool to study microbial communities in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a novel galactoside beta1, 3-glucuronyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of HNK-1 epitope. (4/799)

We isolated a cDNA encoding a novel glucuronyltransferase, designated GlcAT-D, involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope from rat embryo cDNA by the degenerate polymerase chain reaction method. The new cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame coding for a protein of 324 amino acids with type II transmembrane protein topology. The amino acid sequence of GlcAT-D displayed 50.0% identity to rat GlcAT-P, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 epitope on glycoproteins. Expression of GlcAT-D in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of the HNK-1 epitope on the cell surface. The enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells transferred a glucuronic acid (GlcA) not only to asialo-orosomucoid, a glycoprotein bearing terminal N-acetyllactosamine structure, but also to paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraosylceramide), a precursor of the HNK-1 epitope on glycolipids. Furthermore, substrate specificity analysis using a soluble chimeric form of GlcAT-D revealed that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA not only to Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ + but also to Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ +. Enzymatic hydrolysis and Smith degradation of the reaction product indicated that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA through a beta1,3-linkage to a terminal galactose. The GlcAT-D transcripts were detected in embryonic, postnatal, and adult rat brain. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the expression pattern of GlcAT-D transcript in embryo is similar to that of GlcAT-P, but distinct expression of GlcAT-D was observed in the embryonic pallidum and retina. Regions that expressed GlcAT-D and/or GlcAT-P were always HNK-1-positive, indicating that both GlcATs are involved in the synthesis of the HNK-1 epitope in vivo.  (+info)

The glucuronic acid utilization gene cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6. (5/799)

A lambda-EMBL3 genomic library of Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 was screened for hemicellulolytic activities, and five independent clones exhibiting beta-xylosidase activity were isolated. The clones overlap each other and together represent a 23.5-kb chromosomal segment. The segment contains a cluster of xylan utilization genes, which are organized in at least three transcriptional units. These include the gene for the extracellular xylanase, xylanase T-6; part of an operon coding for an intracellular xylanase and a beta-xylosidase; and a putative 15.5-kb-long transcriptional unit, consisting of 12 genes involved in the utilization of alpha-D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The first four genes in the potential GlcUA operon (orf1, -2, -3, and -4) code for a putative sugar transport system with characteristic components of the binding-protein-dependent transport systems. The most likely natural substrate for this transport system is aldotetraouronic acid [2-O-alpha-(4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronosyl)-xylotriose] (MeGlcUAXyl3). The following two genes code for an intracellular alpha-glucuronidase (aguA) and a beta-xylosidase (xynB). Five more genes (kdgK, kdgA, uxaC, uxuA, and uxuB) encode proteins that are homologous to enzymes involved in galacturonate and glucuronate catabolism. The gene cluster also includes a potential regulatory gene, uxuR, the product of which resembles repressors of the GntR family. The apparent transcriptional start point of the cluster was determined by primer extension analysis and is located 349 bp from the initial ATG codon. The potential operator site is a perfect 12-bp inverted repeat located downstream from the promoter between nucleotides +170 and +181. Gel retardation assays indicated that UxuR binds specifically to this sequence and that this binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by MeGlcUAXyl3, the most likely molecular inducer.  (+info)

Biodegradable alginate microspheres as a delivery system for naked DNA. (6/799)

Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that can easily be polymerized into a solid matrix to form microspheres. These biodegradable microspheres were used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing the bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) early promoter. Mice inoculated orally with microspheres containing plasmid DNA expressed LacZ in the intestine, spleen and liver. Inoculation of mice with microspheres containing both the plasmid DNA and bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAd3) resulted in a significant increase in LacZ expression compared to those inoculated with microspheres containing only the plasmid DNA. Our results suggest that adenoviruses are capable of augumenting transgene expression by plasmid DNA both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Salt-resistant alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides. (7/799)

Analogues based on the insect cecropin-bee melittin hybrid peptide (CEME) were studied and analyzed for activity and salt resistance. The new variants were designed to have an increase in amphipathic alpha-helical content (CP29 and CP26) and in overall positive charge (CP26). The alpha-helicity of these peptides was demonstrated by circular dichroism spectroscopy in the presence of liposomes. CP29 was shown to have activity against gram-negative bacteria that was similar to or better than those of the parent peptides, and CP26 had similar activity. CP29 had cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization activity, as assessed by the unmasking of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase, similar to that of CEME and its more positively charged derivative named CEMA, whereas CP26 was substantially less effective. The activity of the peptides was not greatly attenuated by an uncoupler of membrane potential, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The tryptophan residue in position 2 was shown to be necessary for interaction with cell membranes, as demonstrated by a complete lack of activity in the peptide CP208. Peptides CP29, CEME, and CEMA were resistant to antagonism by 0.1 to 0.3 M NaCl; however, CP26 was resistant to antagonism only by up to 160 mM NaCl. The peptides were generally more antagonized by 3 and 5 mM Mg2+ and by the polyanion alginate. It appeared that the positively charged C terminus in CP26 altered its ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli, although CP26 maintained its ability to kill gram-negative bacteria. These peptides are potential candidates for future therapeutic drugs.  (+info)

Mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by hydrogen peroxide: a mechanism for virulence activation in the cystic fibrosis lung. (8/799)

The leading cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is respiratory failure due in large part to chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that undergo mucoid conversion, display a biofilm mode of growth in vivo and resist the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which release free oxygen radicals such as H2O2. The mucoid phenotype among the strains infecting CF patients indicates overproduction of a linear polysaccharide called alginate. To mimic the inflammatory environment of the CF lung, P. aeruginosa PAO1, a typical non-mucoid strain, was grown in a biofilm. This was treated with low levels of H2O2, as if released by the PMNs, and the formation of mucoid variants was observed. These mucoid variants had mutations in mucA, which encodes an anti-sigma factor; this leads to the deregulation of an alternative sigma factor (sigma22, AlgT or AlgU) required for expression of the alginate biosynthetic operon. All of the mucoid variants tested showed the same mutation, the mucA22 allele, a common allele seen in CF isolates. The mucoid mucA22 variants, when compared to the smooth parent strain PA01, (i) produced 2-6-fold higher levels of alginate, (ii) exhibited no detectable differences in growth rate, (iii) showed an unaltered LPS profile, (iv) were approximately 72% reduced in the amount of inducible-beta-lactamase and (v) secreted little or no LasA protease and only showed 44% elastase activity. A characteristic approximately 54 kDa protein associated with alginate overproducing strains was identified as AlgE (Alg76) by N-terminal sequence analysis. Thus, the common phenotype of the mucoid variants, which included a genetically engineered mucA22 mutant, suggested that the only mutation incurred as a result of H2O2 treatment was in mucA. When a P. aeruginosa biofilm was repeatedly exposed to activated PMNs in vitro, mucoid variants were also observed, mimicking in vivo observations. Thus, PMNs and their oxygen by-products may cause P. aeruginosa to undergo the typical adaptation to the intractable mu- coid form in the CF lung. These findings indicate that gene activation in bacteria by toxic oxygen radicals, similar to that found in plants and mammalian cells, may serve as a defence mechanism for the bacteria. This suggests that mucoid conversion is a response to oxygen radical exposure and that this response is a mechanism of defence by the bacteria. This is the first report to show that PMNs and their oxygen radicals can cause this phenotypic and genotypic change which is so typical of the intractable form of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung. These findings may provide a basis for the development of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy for the early stages of infection in CF patients.  (+info)

Mast cell sarcoma is most commonly seen in the skin, but it can also arise in other parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, or gastrointestinal tract. The tumors are usually large, irregularly shaped masses that can be firm or soft to the touch. They may ulcerate and bleed easily, leading to swelling and discomfort.

The symptoms of mast cell sarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. They may include:

* A lump or mass that may be painless or tender to the touch
* Swelling in the affected area
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Fatigue
* Fevers
* Night sweats

Mast cell sarcoma is rare and accounts for only about 1-2% of all skin tumors. It is more common in dogs than cats and tends to affect older animals. The exact cause of mast cell sarcoma is not known, but genetic factors and environmental triggers may play a role.

Treatment options for mast cell sarcoma depend on the location and stage of the tumor. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. Additional therapies such as radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy may be recommended based on the severity of the disease and the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for mast cell sarcoma varies depending on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the effectiveness of treatment, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is guarded and early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes. With prompt and appropriate therapy, some patients with mast cell sarcoma can achieve long-term remission or even cure. However, in advanced cases or those that are resistant to treatment, the prognosis may be poorer.

There are several types of cholestasis, including:

1. Obstructive cholestasis: This occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing freely from the liver.
2. Metabolic cholestasis: This is caused by a problem with the metabolism of bile acids in the liver.
3. Inflammatory cholestasis: This occurs when there is inflammation in the liver, which can cause scarring and impair bile flow.
4. Idiopathic cholestasis: This type of cholestasis has no identifiable cause.

Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve bile flow, dissolve gallstones, or reduce inflammation. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications of cholestasis.

... and gluconic acid are fermentation products in Kombucha tea. Glucuronic acid is a precursor of ascorbic acid ( ... Gluconic acid Isosaccharinic acid Uronic acid D-Glucuronic acid at Sigma-Aldrich Ohno, Shuji; Nakajin, Shizuo (2008-10-06). " ... Glucuronic acid is a sugar acid derived from glucose, with its sixth carbon atom oxidized to a carboxylic acid. In living ... Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλεῦκος "wine, must" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence ...
UDP-glucuronic acid is a sugar used in the creation of polysaccharides and is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of ascorbic ... Glucuronic acid UDP Bontemps Y, Vuillermoz B, Antonicelli F, Perreau C, Danan JL, Maquart FX, Wegrowski Y (Jun 2003). "Specific ... acid (except in primates and guinea pigs). It is made from UDP-glucose by UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (EC using NAD+ ...
UDP-glucuronic+acid+dehydrogenase+(UDP-4-keto-hexauronic+acid+decarboxylating) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... UDP-glucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UDP-4-keto-hexauronic acid decarboxylating) (EC, UDP-GlcUA decarboxylase, ArnADH) ...
"Entrez Gene: GLCE glucuronic acid epimerase". Grigorieva E, Eshchenko T, Rykova VI, et al. (2008). "Decreased expression of ... and enzyme activity of the full-length heparin/heparan sulfate-glucuronic acid C5-epimerase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (24): 21538-43 ...
Polymerized with glucuronic acid, it forms hyaluronan. GlcNAc has been reported to be an inhibitor of elastase release from ... It is a secondary amide between glucosamine and acetic acid. It is significant in several biological systems. It is part of a ... cross-linked with oligopeptides at the lactic acid residue of MurNAc. This layered structure is called peptidoglycan (formerly ... biopolymer in the bacterial cell wall, which is built from alternating units of GlcNAc and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), ...
... is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid conjugation. Its major metabolite is an inactive 2-n-glucuronide ... Early studies of lamotrigine's mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat ... At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium-evoked amino acid release. These studies suggested that ... Observations that lamotrigine reduced γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor-mediated neurotransmission in rat amygdala, suggest ...
After conjugation with glucuronic acid, bilirubin is excreted.[citation needed] Bilirubin is structurally similar to the ... Jaundice is classified, depending upon whether the bilirubin is free or conjugated to glucuronic acid, into conjugated jaundice ... Direct bilirubin = Conjugated bilirubin + delta bilirubin In the liver, bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid by the ... Though most bile acid is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum to participate in enterohepatic circulation, conjugated bilirubin is ...
Gluconic acid Glucuronic acid Isosaccharinic acid "Hexuronic acid". Uronic+Acids at the US National Library ... the uronic acid analog of glucose is glucuronic acid. Uronic acids derived from hexoses are known as hexuronic acids and uronic ... Uronic acids (/ʊˈrɒnɪk/) or alduronic acids are a class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups ... while oxidation of both the terminal hydroxyl group and the aldehyde yields an aldaric acid. The names of uronic acids are ...
Licarbazepine is metabolised by conjugation with Glucuronic acid. Approximately 4% are oxidised to the inactive 10,11-dihydroxy ...
Roberts RM (August 1971). "The formation of uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid in plants. Uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid ... UDP-D-glucuronic acid pyrophosphorylase, UDP-glucuronic acid pyrophosphorylase, and uridine diphosphoglucuronic ...
Jacobson B, Davidson EA (March 1962). "Biosynthesis of uronic acids by skin enzymes. I. Uridine diphosphate-D-glucuronic acid-5 ... Other names in common use include uridine diphosphoglucuronate 5'-epimerase, UDP-glucuronic acid 5'-epimerase, and C-5-uronosyl ...
KILGORE WW, STARR MP (1959). "Catabolism of galacturonic and glucuronic acids by Erwinia carotovora". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2227- ... Ashwell G, Wahba AJ, Hickman J (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. I. Purification and properties of uronic acid ... Other names in common use include uronic isomerase, uronate isomerase, D-glucuronate isomerase, uronic acid isomerase, and D- ...
Kilgore WW, Starr MP (1959). "Catabolism of galacturonic and glucuronic acids by Erwinia carotovora". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2227- ... Hickman J; Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. II. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D- ... mannonic acid dehyrogenases in Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 1566-1570. ...
... as well as estriol 16α-β-D-glucosiduronic acid, is a natural, steroidal estrogen and the glucuronic acid (β-D-glucopyranuronic ... Geoffrey Dutton (2 December 2012). Glucuronic Acid Free and Combined: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicine. ... "Isolation and characterization of estriol 16 alpha-glucosiduronic acid from human pregnancy urine". J. Biol. Chem. 238 (4): ... acid) conjugate of estriol. It occurs in high concentrations in the urine of pregnant women as a reversibly formed metabolite ...
Uronic acid Glucuronic acid Isosaccharinic acid (ISA) "D-Gluconic acid". American Chemical Society. Bjerrum, J., et al. ... Gluconic acid on ChemSub Online: D-Gluconic acid. (CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, Chemical articles with multiple ... In aqueous solution at neutral pH, gluconic acid forms the gluconate ion. The salts of gluconic acid are known as "gluconates ... In aqueous solution, gluconic acid exists in equilibrium with the cyclic ester glucono delta-lactone. Gluconic acid preparation ...
Shaklee PN, Glaser JH, Conrad HE (1985). "A sulfatase specific for glucuronic acid 2-sulfate residues in glycosaminoglycans". J ...
Substrates of glycosynthase include glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, and glucuronic acid. Modern methods to prepare ... The leaving group is displaced by an alcohol of the acceptor sugar aided by the active site general base amino acid of the ... The first was that a change of the active site nucleophile of a glycosidase from a carboxylate to another amino acid resulted ... Mutation of the active site nucleophile to a non-nucleophilic amino acid prevents the formation of a covalent intermediate. An ...
... if it is glucuronic acid, then the molecule is a glucuronide; etc. In the body, toxic substances are often bonded to glucuronic ... For example, the glycone and aglycone portions can be chemically separated by hydrolysis in the presence of acid and can be ... Salicin is converted in the body into salicylic acid, which is closely related to aspirin and has analgesic, antipyretic, and ... There are four type of linkages present between glycone and aglycone: C-linkage/glycosidic bond, "nonhydrolysable by acids or ...
UDP-glucuronic acid:anthocyanin glucuronosyltransferase, UDP-glucuronic acid:anthocyanidin 3-glucoside 2'-O-beta- ... "UDP-glucuronic acid:anthocyanin glucuronosyltransferase from red daisy (Bellis perennis) flowers. Enzymology and phylogenetics ... Osmani SA, Bak S, Imberty A, Olsen CE, Møller BL (November 2008). "Catalytic key amino acids and UDP-sugar donor specificity of ...
Release of D-glucuronic acid is achieved in the fourth step. Myo-inositol can be ingested from fruits and vegetables and ... Inositol Glucuronic acid Oxygenases Bollinger JM, Diao Y, Matthews ML, Xing G, Krebs C (February 2009). "myo-Inositol oxygenase ... In the kidney, MIOX converts myo-inositol to glucuronic acid which is then able to enter the glucuronate-xylulose pathway for ... V. Purification and properties of the enzyme that cleaves inositol to D-glucuronic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
"UDP-glucuronic acid/UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine transporter [Homo sapiens - Protein - NCBI]". Retrieved ... and is particularly rich in the amino acid phenylalanine, containing twice the normal proportion of this amino acid. TMEM241 is ...
Isonicotinic acid is further metabolized by glycine-conjugation or glucuronic acid-conjugation. Iproniazid can also interact ... Isonicotinic acid, formed during the hydrolysis of iproniazid, is described as a moderately toxic compound and allergen with ... The Synthesis of Acid Hydrazides, their Derivatives and Related Compounds1,2". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 75 (8 ... The same holds for isonicotinic acid and isonicotinoyl glycine. Carbon dioxide and propane are gaseous which are presumably ...
... glucuronic acid". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 53 (4): 1160-2. doi:10.1002/anie.201309073. PMID 24310928. Epub 2013 ... Protein chains built from amino acids of mixed chirality tend not to fold or function as catalysts, but mirror-image proteins ... Proteins are exclusively composed of left-handed amino acids; RNA and DNA contain only right-handed sugars. This phenomenon is ... In the Mass Effect series, chirality of amino acids in foodstuffs is discussed often in both dialogue and encyclopedia files. ...
... glucuronic acid, or sulfate. A mixture of conjugated and nonconjugated bile acids, along with cholesterol itself, is excreted ... Wolkoff AW, Cohen DE (February 2003). "Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: I. Hepatocyte transport of bile acids". ... nicotinic acid derivatives or bile acid sequestrants. There are several international guidelines on the treatment of ... alongside the nonpolar fatty-acid chain of the other lipids. Through the interaction with the phospholipid fatty-acid chains, ...
UGT1A1 normally catalyzes the conjugation of bilirubin and glucuronic acid within hepatocytes. Conjugated bilirubin is more ...
Enzymatic synthesis of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid and uridine diphosphate galacturonic acid with extracts from ... Enzymatic synthesis of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid and uridine diphosphate galacturonic acid with extracts from ... Decarboxylation of uridine diphosphate-d-glucuronic acid by an enzyme preparation from hen oviduct. Bdolah, A. and Feingold, D ... The 4-epimerization and decarboxylation of DUP-d-glucuronic acid by extracts of Phaseolus aureus seedings. Decarboxylation of ...
His doctoral thesis was about the metabolism of glucuronic acid, ribitol, and xylulose. He then completed a postdoctoral ...
... 's metabolites are further conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted into the urine. In data from the U.S. Drug ... Pethidine is quickly hydrolysed in the liver to pethidinic acid and is also demethylated to norpethidine, which has half the ...
Kurosawa Y, Takahara H, Shiraiwa M (August 2002). "UDP-glucuronic acid:soyasapogenol glucuronosyltransferase involved in ...
Breazeale SD, Ribeiro AA, Raetz CR (January 2002). "Oxidative decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid in extracts of polymyxin- ...
... which is then conjugated to glucuronic acid. These metabolites are excreted in the urine and bile. Only about 3% of the active ... Sumatriptan is metabolised primarily by monoamine oxidase A into 2-{5-[(methylsulfamoyl)methyl]-indole-3-yl}acetic acid, ...
The reaction is a transfer of two glucuronic acid groups including UDP glucuronic acid sequentially to the propionic acid ... Thereafter, so long as the second step of attachment of the other glucuronic acid to it succeeds (officially called "re- ... and by attaching two molecules of glucuronic acid to it in a two step process. ... In greater detail about this reaction, a glucuronosyl moiety is conjugated to one of the propionic acid side chains, located on ...
Several of the immediate metabolites of oxycodone are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted in the urine. 6 ...
... as it is a complex polymer of GAG units and uronic acids (including D-glucuronic acid, L-iduronic acid, and D-glucosamine). ... It is a naturally-occurring polysaccharide of O-sulfated N-acetyl-D-galatosamine, L-iduronic acid, and D-glucuronic acid that ... and is composed of O-sulfated N-acetyl-D-galatosamine and D-glucuronic acid. It is theorized that this change in efficacy is ... Alginic acid functions as a heparinoid when it is sulfated. Pentosan from the bark of Fagus sylvatica, when sulfated, acts with ...
D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). Some of these GlcA residues may be epimerized into L-iduronic ... N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin ... "On Chondroitin Sulphuric Acid". J. Biol. Chem. 15: 69-79. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)88542-8. Free PDF online Archived 2008-11- ... the stimulation of the synthesis of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, and the decrease in catabolic activity of chondrocytes, ...
... where it is conjugated with glucuronic acid to become more water-soluble. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme UDP- ... from the amino acid glycine and succinyl-CoA from the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). The rate-limiting enzyme responsible for ... Heme D is another derivative of heme B, but in which the propionic acid side chain at the carbon of position 6, which is also ... In addition, a unique sulfonamide ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group ...
... dependent oxidation of UDP-glucose into UDP-glucuronic acid. The N- and C-terminal domains of UgdG share structural features ...
The monosaccharides that induce growth are arabinose, fructose, fucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose, glucuronic acid ... They do grow on host-derived glycans like neutral mucin O-glycans, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. ... glucosamine, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, rhamnose, ribose, and xylose " ...
Metabolites are conjugated with sulfuric acid or glucuronic acid for excretion in the urine. Some of the metabolites formed via ... The plasma protein binding of melatonin is approximately 60%. It is mainly bound to albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and high- ...
For example, the hexodialdose O=CH-(CHOH)4-CH=O, obtained by reducing glucuronic acid with sodium amalgam. Sławomir Jarosz ( ...
The innate utilization of sugars as solubilizing moieties in Phase II and III metabolism (glucuronic acids) has remarkably ... Pharmacologists often join substances to glucuronic acid via glycosidic bonds in order to increase their water solubility; this ... D-glucose is first protected by forming the peracetate by addition of acetic anhydride in acetic acid, and then addition of ...
Uronic acids Glucuronic acid (6C) Galacturonic acid (6C) Iduronic acid (6C) Aldaric acids Tartaric acid (4C) meso-Galactaric ... Examples of sugar acids include: Aldonic acids Glyceric acid (3C) Xylonic acid (5C) Gluconic acid (6C) Ascorbic acid (6C, ... Ulosonic acids Neuraminic acid (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) Ketodeoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO or ... acid (Mucic acid) (6C) D-Glucaric acid (Saccharic acid) (6C) Robyt, J.F. (1998). Essentials of carbohydrate chemistry. New York ...
He also discovered the importance of glucuronic acid as a reaction partner for drugs, and the mode of action of tetanus toxin ... With Schmiedeberg, he discovered glucuronic acid as the most important reaction partner of drugs (in his case, a metabolite of ...
"Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase that transfers glucuronic acid to N ...
In the liver, they quickly metabolize by conjugation with a sulfate or glucuronic acid, and are secreted in the urine. ... Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues: These serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis. Inhibition of glucose ... Increased urinary uric acid Increased urinary calcium and hypocalcemia Alkalosis Leukocytosis Excessive glucocorticoid levels ... The fatty acids released by lipolysis are used for production of energy in tissues like muscle, and the released glycerol ...
It consists of alternating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues that are linked by beta-1-3 and beta-1-4 glycosidic ... Hyaluronic acid is synthesized by membrane-bound synthase at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, and the chains are ... Hyaluronic acid is produced during wound healing and tissue repair to provide a framework for ingrowth of blood vessels and ... Hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid is a high molecular weight unbranched polysaccharide synthesized by a wide variety of organisms ...
UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UXS1 gene. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UGD ... Hwang HY, Horvitz HR (2002). "The SQV-1 UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase and the SQV-7 nucleotide-sugar transporter may act in ...
... glucuronic acid citric acid oxalic acid Under anaerobic conditions, bacteria will decompose sugars into: lactic acid butyric ... In contrast, fatty acids may react with sodium and potassium ions present in tissue, to produce salts of fatty acids. When the ... The fatty acid content of the triglycerides varies from person to person, but contains oleic acid in the greatest amount, ... This essentially increases the amounts of saturated fatty acids, while decreasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. ...
... is further processed and excreted in bile after conjugation with glucuronic acid. In this way, BVR is essential in many mammals ... BVR is composed of two closely packed domains, between 247-415 amino acids long and containing a Rossmann fold. BVR has also ...
... that catalyzes hydrolysis of β-D-glucuronic acid residues from the non-reducing end of mucopolysaccharides (also referred to as ... Human β-glucuronidase is synthesized as an 80 kDa monomer (653 amino acids) before proteolysis removes 18 amino acids from the ... Evidence for Glu(540) as the nucleophile and Glu(451) as the acid-base residue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (33 ... Henrissat B, Bairoch A (August 1993). "New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence ...
... glucuronic acid → bilirubin diglucuronide (conjugated bilirubin). Bilirubin that has been conjugated by the liver is water- ... ursodeoxycholic acid, or opioid antagonists such as naltrexone. The word "jaundice" is from the French jaunisse, meaning " ...
Glucuronic acid, a carbohydrate with a similar structure to glucose, is located specifically in the extracellular region of M. ... Mucor plumbeus can also use sucrose, D-mannose, D-sorbitol and citric acid as sources of carbon. Zygospores were found to be ... Mucor plumbeus can cause self inhibition of its germinating spores with the production of certain factors such as nonanoic acid ...
The kidney is unable to filter out this bilirubin as it is bound to protein, however, it is conjugated with glucuronic acid in ... 1) In an acid medium Para-arsanilic acid or sulphanilamide + NO− 2 → Diazonium salt 2) In an acid medium Diazonium salt + ... 1) Reaction catalysed by leukocyte esterase Indolecarboxylic acid ester → Indoxyl + Acid 2) In acid medium Indoxyl + Diazonium ... The proportions are 78% beta-hydroxybutyric acid, 20% acetoacetic acid and 2% acetone. The test used in the urine test strips ...
... and its metabolites are excreted almost entirely by the kidney, mainly as conjugates with glucuronic acid. The active ... A similar tablet called "A.C. & C." (which stands for Acetylsalicylic acid with Caffeine and Codeine) containing 325-375 mg of ... There is a known combination of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and codeine phosphate hemihydrate named Aspaco that is ... acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) instead of acetaminophen is also available without a prescription. Codeine combined with an ...
Glucuronic Acid/analogs & derivatives. Glucuronates. Hearing Impaired Persons/education. Education of Hearing Disabled. ... Acid Sensing Ion Channels/agonists. Sodium Channel Agonists. Acid Sensing Ion Channels/antagonists & inhibitors. Acid Sensing ... Trifluoroacetic Acid/analogs & derivatives. Fluoroacetates. Visually Impaired Persons/education. Education of Visually Disabled ... Dichloroacetic Acid/analogs & derivatives. Chloroacetates. Epithelial Sodium Channels/agonists. Epithelial Sodium Channel ...
Chitosan-glucuronic acid conjugate coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles: A smart pH-responsive and receptor-targeted system ... The surface of the drug-loaded MSNs were capped with chitosan-glucuronic acid (CHS-GCA) conjugate to combine two strategies viz ... Chitosan-glucuronic acid conjugate coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles: A smart pH-responsive and receptor-targeted system ... Glucuronic acids; Glycosylated; Mesoporous silica nanoparticles; pH sensitive; PH-responsive; Pore diameters; Pore volume, ...
Kombucha Brewers Internationals review of Response surface methodology for optimization of glucuronic acid production using ... Response surface methodology for optimization of glucuronic acid production using kombucha layer on sour cherry juice. Authors: ... The optimum conditions for the glucuronic acid production (the important key component for its detoxifying action through ... Keywords: acidity, fermentation, glucuronic acid, high-performance liquid chromatography, kombucha, pomegranate juice, response ...
Lamotrigine is metabolized mainly by glucuronic acid conjugation, with the majority of the metabolites being recovered in the ... Because lamotrigine is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid conjugation, drugs that are known to induce or inhibit ... Since lamotrigine is metabolized predominately by glucuronic acid conjugation, drugs that are known to induce or inhibit ... Lamotrigine is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid conjugation; the major metabolite is an inactive 2-N-glucuronide ...
... both fish also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. 5. Common carp were significantly less capable of molinate sulphoxidation ... Glucuronic Acid; Glutathione/metabolism; Oxidation-Reduction; Sulfones/metabolism; Sulfoxides/metabolism; Thiocarbamates* ...
Glucuronic Acid / isolation & purification Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Uronic acid carbazole assay and cetylpyridinium chloride titration depend on the chondroitin sulfate molecular weight. Maccari ...
Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid / metabolism Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
HS is mainly composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic (GlcA) or iduronic acid (IdoA) along with glucosamine (GlcN ...
Glucuronide: a glycoside that yields glucuronic acid upon hydrolysis. Glucaronic acid: an acid, C6H10O7, formed by the ... 7.Walaszek Z, Potential use of D-glucaric acid derivatives in cancer prevention. Cancer Letters. 54(1-2):1-8, 1990. ... thus one may have low or normal levels of glucaronic acid along with low, normal or high levels of estrogen. The healthy body ...
... nucleic acids) damage especially during oxygen reintroduction [40]. Specific glucuronic acid derivatives and jaceidin, ... and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Moreover, spinach leaves contain flavonoids [19] and phenolic acids such as ferulic acid, orto- ... Salts, hexane, acetone, acetic acid, potassium peroxydisulfate, and ascorbic acid were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Milan, ... containing aromatic polyphenols and derivatives of the glucuronic acid. NAO can counteract free radicals [22,23] that show anti ...
In adults, the majority of acetaminophen is conjugated with glucuronic acid and, to a lesser extent, with sulfate. These ... which conjugates with glutathione and is then further metabolized to form cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates. The ...
glucuronic acid,Laetrile,128,1,r,1, Lotusate,talbutal,128,1,r,1, lunar,moon,128,1,r,1, lunar,silver,128,1,r,1, lunar,argyric,1, ... nicotinic acid,niacin,128,1,r,1, nicotinic acid,antipellagra factor,128,1,r,1, nicotinic acid,pellagra-preventive factor,128,1, ... dehydrocholic acid,Cholan-DH,128,1,r,1, dehydrocholic acid,Decholin,128,1,r,1, Deltasone,prednisone,128,1,r,1, Deltasone,Deltra ... nicotinic acid,128,1,r,1, penicillin G potassium,Pentids,128,1,r,1, penicillin V potassium,Betapen-VK,128,1,r,1, penicillin V ...
Basically, the author states that ascorbic acid is not vitamin C. Here are some snippets. From... ... This they do by converting glucuronic acid derived from glucose into ascorbic acid (C6H8O6). Three enzymes are required to make ... Ascorbic acid is not a living complex. It is a copy of a part of a living complex known as vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is a ... Ascorbic acid is an isolate, a fraction, a distillate of naturally occurring vitamin C. In addition to ascorbic acid, vitamin C ...
Phase II requires compounds like glutathione, sulfur and glucuronic acid (all found in Xeneplex). ... Proprietary blend of organic free trade coffee, reduced glutathione, MSM, glucuronolactone, pantothenic acid, and magnesium di- ...
A glucuronic acid binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes.. Chan YS; Wong JH; Ng TB. Protein ... Novel galactonic acid-binding hexameric lectin from Hibiscus mutabilis seeds with antiproliferative and potent HIV-1 reverse ...
URIDINE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE-GLUCURONIC ACID. uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. CHEBI:17200. UDP-alpha-D-glucuronic acid. An ... pentosenucleic acids. ribonucleic acids. ribose nucleic acid. yeast nucleic acid. CHEBI:33697. ribonucleic acid. Any organic ... cis-o-Coumarinic acid lactone. o-Hydroxycinnamic acid lactone. o-hydroxycinnamic acid delta-lactone. CHEBI:28794. coumarin. ... carboxylic acid esters. CHEBI:33308. carboxylic ester. A carbon oxoacid acid carrying at least one -C(=O)OH group and having ...
In particular, the LARGE1 protein adds chains of sugar molecules composed of xylose and glucuronic acid to a protein called ...
... are excreted in human urine both as free hydroxylated metabolites and as hydroxylated metabolites conjugated to glucuronic acid ...
These metabolites underwent extensive phase II metabolism to yield sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates. The most abundant ...
XG wells form a viscous hydrogel when dissolved in water due to the negative charge of pyruvic and glucuronic acid groups on ... d-glucose with side chains composed of two mannose molecules and one glucuronic acid molecule30. ... Im, J., Chang, I. & Cho, G.-C. Effects of malonic acid crosslinked starch for soil strength improvement. Trans. Geotech. 31, ...
The presence of uronic acids (such as D-glucuronic, D-galacturonic, and mannuronic acids) or ketal-linked pryruvates confers ... were more hydrophobic than were nonmycolic acid-containing bacteria, and increase in mycolic acid chain length generally ... Most fimbriae that have been examined contain a high proportion of hydrophobic amino acid residues (22). Fimbriae play a role ... 40) found that the slime of coagulase-negative bacteria consists of a teichoic acid mixed with small quantities of proteins. ...
Metabolized primarily by the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid. Metabolites: ~5% converted to the major metabolite, ...
Has both beta-1,3-glucuronic acid and beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase activity. Transfers glucuronic acid (GlcUA) ... Has both beta-1,3-glucuronic acid and beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase activity. Transfers glucuronic acid (GlcUA) ... Has both beta-1,3-glucuronic acid and beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase activity. Transfers glucuronic acid (GlcUA) ... Involved in the degradation of several amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol via propionyl-CoA to the ...
Glucuronic Acid, 6-(14)C-labeled, (D)-isomer Glucuronic Acid, Monopotassium Salt Glucuronic Acid, Monosodium Salt Monopotassium ... Sugar Acids [D09.811] * Uronic Acids [D09.811.922] * Glucuronates [D09.811.922.162] * Glucuronic Acid [D09.811.922.162.500] * ... Glucuronic Acid, 6-(14)C-labeled, (D)-isomer Narrower Concept UI. M0570648. Registry Number. 10048-73-4. Terms. Glucuronic Acid ... Uronic Acids [D02.241.152.811] * Glucuronates [D02.241.152.811.162] * Glucuronic Acid [D02.241.152.811.162.500] * Alginic Acid ...
  • HS is mainly composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic (GlcA) or iduronic acid (IdoA) along with glucosamine (GlcN). (
  • On a more technical level, hyaluric acid is an glycosaminoglycan (formerly called a mucopolysaccharide), a long unbranched polysaccharide (complex sugar ), composed of repeating dimeric units of glucuronic acid and N acetyl glucosamine . (
  • glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and hexose (Hex) sugars are assumed to be linked to a hydroxyl group through an acetal linkage. (
  • The transfer of the Raman spectrum may not require addition of oxygen, or burn o jel glucuronic acid or sulphate. (
  • Choosing the separation be achieved by varying surfactant concentration, the addition of oxygen, or glucuronic acid or sulphate. (
  • The surface of the drug-loaded MSNs were capped with chitosan-glucuronic acid (CHS-GCA) conjugate to combine two strategies viz. (
  • both fish also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. (
  • In particular, the LARGE1 protein adds chains of sugar molecules composed of xylose and glucuronic acid to a protein called alpha (α)-dystroglycan. (
  • 7.Walaszek Z, Potential use of D-glucaric acid derivatives in cancer prevention. (
  • Kombucha layer involving a symbiosis of osmophilic yeast species and acetic acid bacteria that convert a very simple substrate to a slightly carbonated, acidic, refreshing beverage with high pharmaceutical and nutritional value. (
  • Glucaronic acid: an acid, C6H10O7, formed by the oxidation of glucose, found combined with other products of metabolism in the blood and urine. (
  • A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE . (
  • In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES . (
  • To overcome the obstacles and expedite the synthesis, a divergent approach was designed, where 64 HS tetrasaccharides covering all possible structures of 2-O-, 6-O- and N-sulfation with the glucosamine-glucuronic acid-glucosamine-iduronic acid backbone were successfully produced from a single strategically protected tetrasaccharide intermediate. (
  • ST 27:1;O for cholesterol and lathosterol (also zymostenol), or ST 24:1;O5 for an oxidized sterol and for cholic acid and ursocholic acid. (
  • GL1 xanthan lyase, a member of polysaccharide lyase family 8, acts specifically on pyruvated side chains of xanthan and yields pyruvated mannose through a beta-elimination reaction by using a single Tyr255 residue as base and acid catalysts. (
  • The optimum conditions for the glucuronic acid production (the important key component for its detoxifying action through conjugation to the xenobiotic metabolism of the substances in the liver) using kombucha layer on sweetened sour cherry juice were determined using response surface methodology. (
  • The latter is an important point: Some bile acids have an identical mass and molecular formula to oxidized sterols lacking a carboxylic acid group. (
  • BA 24:1;O5;T for taurocholic acid (= common name, abbreviation TCA). (
  • Most U.S. vitamin companies then buy the bulk ascorbic acid from this single facility. (