Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The decarboxylation product of UDPglucuronic acid, which is used for formation of the xylosides of seryl hydroxyl groups in mucoprotein synthesis. Also forms plant xylans.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A non-heme IRON enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of MYOINOSITOL to D-glucuronic acid. The reaction is the first committed step in MYOINOSITOL catabolic pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.11 and 1.99.2.6.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
A genus of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the family HALOMONADACEAE. They are chemoorganotrophic and grow optimally in media containing 8-10% salt.
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Structural elucidation of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by a mucoid clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia. Characterization of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue in a heptasaccharide repeating unit. (1/799)

The structure of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by a clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia isolated from a patient with fibrocystic lung disease has been investigated. By means of methylation analyses, carboxyl reduction, partial depolymerization by fuming HCl and chemical degradations such as Smith degradation, lithiumethylenediamine degradation and beta-elimination, supported by GC/MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, the repeat unit of the EPS has been identified and was shown to correspond to the acidic branched heptasaccharide with the following structure: [formula: see text]. This partially acetylated acidic polymer, distinguished by the presence of the less usual D-isomer of rhamnose and of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue, could represent the main EPS produced by this bacterial species.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a human uronyl 2-sulfotransferase that sulfates iduronyl and glucuronyl residues in dermatan/chondroitin sulfate. (2/799)

A partial-length human cDNA with a predicted amino acid sequence homologous to a previously described heparan sulfate iduronyl 2-sulfotransferase (Kobayashi, M., Habuchi, H., Yoneda, M., Habuchi, O., and Kimata, K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13980-13985) was obtained by searching the expressed sequence-tagged data bank. Northern blot analysis was performed using this homologous cDNA as a probe, which demonstrated ubiquitous expression of messages of 5.1 and 2.0 kilobases in a number of human tissues and in several human cancer cell lines. Since the human lymphoma Raji cell line had the highest level of expression, it was used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone. The full-length cDNA was found to contain an open reading frame that predicted a type II transmembrane protein composed of 406 amino acid residues. The cDNA in a baculovirus expression vector was expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and cell extracts were then incubated together with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate and potential glycosaminoglycan acceptors. This demonstrated substantial sulfotransferase activity with dermatan sulfate, a small degree of activity with chondroitin sulfate, but no sulfotransferase activity with desulfated N-resulfated heparin. Analysis of [35S]sulfate-labeled disaccharide products of chondroitin ABC, chondroitin AC, and chondroitin B lyase treatment demonstrated that the enzyme only transferred sulfate to the 2-position of uronyl residues, which were preponderantly iduronyl residues in dermatan sulfate, but some lesser transfer to glucuronyl residues of chondroitin sulfate.  (+info)

Study of the response of a biofilm bacterial community to UV radiation. (3/799)

We have developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor that can be incorporated into biofilm ecosystems. RM4440 is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 derivative that carries a plasmid-based recA-luxCDABE fusion. We immobilized RM4440 in an alginate matrix to simulate a biofilm, and we studied its response to UV radiation damage. The biofilm showed a protective property by physical shielding against UV C, UV B, and UV A. Absorption of UV light by the alginate matrix translated into a higher survival rate than observed with planktonic cells at similar input fluences. UV A was shown to be effectively blocked by the biofilm matrix and to have no detectable effects on cells contained in the biofilm. However, in the presence of photosensitizers (i.e., psoralen), UV A was effective in inducing light production and cell death. RM4440 has proved to be a useful tool to study microbial communities in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a novel galactoside beta1, 3-glucuronyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of HNK-1 epitope. (4/799)

We isolated a cDNA encoding a novel glucuronyltransferase, designated GlcAT-D, involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope from rat embryo cDNA by the degenerate polymerase chain reaction method. The new cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame coding for a protein of 324 amino acids with type II transmembrane protein topology. The amino acid sequence of GlcAT-D displayed 50.0% identity to rat GlcAT-P, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 epitope on glycoproteins. Expression of GlcAT-D in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of the HNK-1 epitope on the cell surface. The enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells transferred a glucuronic acid (GlcA) not only to asialo-orosomucoid, a glycoprotein bearing terminal N-acetyllactosamine structure, but also to paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraosylceramide), a precursor of the HNK-1 epitope on glycolipids. Furthermore, substrate specificity analysis using a soluble chimeric form of GlcAT-D revealed that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA not only to Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ + but also to Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-pyridylamine++ +. Enzymatic hydrolysis and Smith degradation of the reaction product indicated that GlcAT-D transfers a GlcA through a beta1,3-linkage to a terminal galactose. The GlcAT-D transcripts were detected in embryonic, postnatal, and adult rat brain. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the expression pattern of GlcAT-D transcript in embryo is similar to that of GlcAT-P, but distinct expression of GlcAT-D was observed in the embryonic pallidum and retina. Regions that expressed GlcAT-D and/or GlcAT-P were always HNK-1-positive, indicating that both GlcATs are involved in the synthesis of the HNK-1 epitope in vivo.  (+info)

The glucuronic acid utilization gene cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6. (5/799)

A lambda-EMBL3 genomic library of Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 was screened for hemicellulolytic activities, and five independent clones exhibiting beta-xylosidase activity were isolated. The clones overlap each other and together represent a 23.5-kb chromosomal segment. The segment contains a cluster of xylan utilization genes, which are organized in at least three transcriptional units. These include the gene for the extracellular xylanase, xylanase T-6; part of an operon coding for an intracellular xylanase and a beta-xylosidase; and a putative 15.5-kb-long transcriptional unit, consisting of 12 genes involved in the utilization of alpha-D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The first four genes in the potential GlcUA operon (orf1, -2, -3, and -4) code for a putative sugar transport system with characteristic components of the binding-protein-dependent transport systems. The most likely natural substrate for this transport system is aldotetraouronic acid [2-O-alpha-(4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronosyl)-xylotriose] (MeGlcUAXyl3). The following two genes code for an intracellular alpha-glucuronidase (aguA) and a beta-xylosidase (xynB). Five more genes (kdgK, kdgA, uxaC, uxuA, and uxuB) encode proteins that are homologous to enzymes involved in galacturonate and glucuronate catabolism. The gene cluster also includes a potential regulatory gene, uxuR, the product of which resembles repressors of the GntR family. The apparent transcriptional start point of the cluster was determined by primer extension analysis and is located 349 bp from the initial ATG codon. The potential operator site is a perfect 12-bp inverted repeat located downstream from the promoter between nucleotides +170 and +181. Gel retardation assays indicated that UxuR binds specifically to this sequence and that this binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by MeGlcUAXyl3, the most likely molecular inducer.  (+info)

Biodegradable alginate microspheres as a delivery system for naked DNA. (6/799)

Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that can easily be polymerized into a solid matrix to form microspheres. These biodegradable microspheres were used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing the bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) early promoter. Mice inoculated orally with microspheres containing plasmid DNA expressed LacZ in the intestine, spleen and liver. Inoculation of mice with microspheres containing both the plasmid DNA and bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAd3) resulted in a significant increase in LacZ expression compared to those inoculated with microspheres containing only the plasmid DNA. Our results suggest that adenoviruses are capable of augumenting transgene expression by plasmid DNA both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Salt-resistant alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides. (7/799)

Analogues based on the insect cecropin-bee melittin hybrid peptide (CEME) were studied and analyzed for activity and salt resistance. The new variants were designed to have an increase in amphipathic alpha-helical content (CP29 and CP26) and in overall positive charge (CP26). The alpha-helicity of these peptides was demonstrated by circular dichroism spectroscopy in the presence of liposomes. CP29 was shown to have activity against gram-negative bacteria that was similar to or better than those of the parent peptides, and CP26 had similar activity. CP29 had cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization activity, as assessed by the unmasking of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase, similar to that of CEME and its more positively charged derivative named CEMA, whereas CP26 was substantially less effective. The activity of the peptides was not greatly attenuated by an uncoupler of membrane potential, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The tryptophan residue in position 2 was shown to be necessary for interaction with cell membranes, as demonstrated by a complete lack of activity in the peptide CP208. Peptides CP29, CEME, and CEMA were resistant to antagonism by 0.1 to 0.3 M NaCl; however, CP26 was resistant to antagonism only by up to 160 mM NaCl. The peptides were generally more antagonized by 3 and 5 mM Mg2+ and by the polyanion alginate. It appeared that the positively charged C terminus in CP26 altered its ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli, although CP26 maintained its ability to kill gram-negative bacteria. These peptides are potential candidates for future therapeutic drugs.  (+info)

Mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by hydrogen peroxide: a mechanism for virulence activation in the cystic fibrosis lung. (8/799)

The leading cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is respiratory failure due in large part to chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that undergo mucoid conversion, display a biofilm mode of growth in vivo and resist the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which release free oxygen radicals such as H2O2. The mucoid phenotype among the strains infecting CF patients indicates overproduction of a linear polysaccharide called alginate. To mimic the inflammatory environment of the CF lung, P. aeruginosa PAO1, a typical non-mucoid strain, was grown in a biofilm. This was treated with low levels of H2O2, as if released by the PMNs, and the formation of mucoid variants was observed. These mucoid variants had mutations in mucA, which encodes an anti-sigma factor; this leads to the deregulation of an alternative sigma factor (sigma22, AlgT or AlgU) required for expression of the alginate biosynthetic operon. All of the mucoid variants tested showed the same mutation, the mucA22 allele, a common allele seen in CF isolates. The mucoid mucA22 variants, when compared to the smooth parent strain PA01, (i) produced 2-6-fold higher levels of alginate, (ii) exhibited no detectable differences in growth rate, (iii) showed an unaltered LPS profile, (iv) were approximately 72% reduced in the amount of inducible-beta-lactamase and (v) secreted little or no LasA protease and only showed 44% elastase activity. A characteristic approximately 54 kDa protein associated with alginate overproducing strains was identified as AlgE (Alg76) by N-terminal sequence analysis. Thus, the common phenotype of the mucoid variants, which included a genetically engineered mucA22 mutant, suggested that the only mutation incurred as a result of H2O2 treatment was in mucA. When a P. aeruginosa biofilm was repeatedly exposed to activated PMNs in vitro, mucoid variants were also observed, mimicking in vivo observations. Thus, PMNs and their oxygen by-products may cause P. aeruginosa to undergo the typical adaptation to the intractable mu- coid form in the CF lung. These findings indicate that gene activation in bacteria by toxic oxygen radicals, similar to that found in plants and mammalian cells, may serve as a defence mechanism for the bacteria. This suggests that mucoid conversion is a response to oxygen radical exposure and that this response is a mechanism of defence by the bacteria. This is the first report to show that PMNs and their oxygen radicals can cause this phenotypic and genotypic change which is so typical of the intractable form of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung. These findings may provide a basis for the development of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy for the early stages of infection in CF patients.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - 3D porous chitosan-alginate scaffolds. T2 - A new matrix for studying prostate cancer cell-lymphocyte interactions in vitro. AU - Florczyk, Stephen J.. AU - Liu, Gang. AU - Kievit, Forrest M.. AU - Lewis, Allison M.. AU - Wu, Jennifer D.. AU - Zhang, Miqin. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - The treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains palliative. Immunotherapy offers a potentially effective therapy for CRPC; however, its advancement into the clinic has been slow, in part because of the lack of representative in vitro tumor models that resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment for studying interactions of CRPC cells with immune cells and other potential therapeutics. This study evaluates the use of 3D porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for culturing human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and studying tumor cell interaction with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) ex vivo. CA scaffolds and Matrigel matrix samples support in vitro tumor spheroid ...
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4-O-Substituted D-glucuronic acid derivatives were synthesized from D-glucose in order to study the regioselectivity of sulfation.
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Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20μg/kg OTA and after 48h of incubation a significant reduction (,80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. ...
Calcium alginate is a water-insoluble, gelatinous, cream-coloured substance that can be created through the addition of aqueous calcium chloride to aqueous sodium alginate. Calcium alginate is also used for entrapment of enzymes and forming artificial seeds in plant tissue culture. Alginate is usually the salts of alginic acid, but it can also refer to derivatives of alginic acid and alginic acid itself; in some publications the term algin is used instead of alginate. Alginate is present in the cell walls of brown algae, as the calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of alginic acid. To extract the alginate, the seaweed is broken into pieces and stirred with a hot solution of an alkali, usually sodium carbonate. Over a period of about two hours, the alginate dissolves as sodium alginate to give a very thick slurry. This slurry also contains the part of the seaweed that does not dissolve, mainly cellulose. This insoluble residue must be removed from the solution. The solution is too thick ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of sodium alginate on physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer. AU - Kim, Min Soo. AU - Kim, Jeong Soo. AU - Hwang, Sung Joo. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium alginate on the physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer-equipped piston extruder and double-arm counter-rotating rollers. The mean values of the shape factor (eR) and the aspect ratio of Surelease®-matrix pellets were 0.615-0.625 and 1.06-1.070, respectively, indicating good sphericity of the pellets. The drug release rate increased as the amount of sodium alginate increased due to hydration, swelling, and erosion within the Surelease®-matrix pellets. In addition, the porosity of pellets also increased with increasing sodium alginate content. The results of this study show that sodium alginate has a greater effect on the drug release ...
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There have been few studies of the effect of alginate dressings on the processes of wound healing.. The healing of cutaneous ulcers requires the development of a vascularized granular tissue bed, filling of large tissue defects by dermal regeneration, and the restoration of a continuous epidermal keratinocyte layer. These processes were modeled in vitro in one study, utilizing human dermal fibroblast, microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC), and keratinocyte cultures to examine the effect of calcium alginate on the proliferation and motility of these cultures, and the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC.. In the study, the calcium alginate increased the proliferation of fibroblasts but decreased the proliferation of HMEC and keratinocytes. In contrast, the calcium alginate decreased fibroblast motility but had no effect on keratinocyte motility. There was no significant effect of calcium alginate on the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC. The effects of calcium alginate on ...
Like many natural polysaccharides, dried alginates are not stable to heat, oxygen, metallic ions, etc. Stored in such circumstances, alginates will be degraded naturally. The high-viscosity alginate is more rapidly degraded than the medium-or low- viscosity ones. The order of stability in storage is: sodium alginate , ammonium alginate , alginic acid.. Different kind of alginate salt gives different stability, so does the different grade product. The industrial grade alginate solution is more easily degraded by microbe in the air, because such products contain much algal particles and nitrogenous matter which offer plenty of nutrition for microbe. The pure sodium alginate solution can be kept at room temperature for several months without obvious change in viscosity. When temperature increases, all alginate solutions will depolymerize. Alginate solutions are stable in the pH range 5.5 - 10 at room temperature for a long time, but will form the gel below pH 5.5. Propylene glycol alginate solution ...
The two-phase model used previously to calculate the polymer-subphase volume of alginic acid was applied to interpret the dependence of apparent metal binding equilibrium on environmental conditions. In this model, the polymer subphase, a small aqueous region surrounding the polymer chain, was considered as a separate phase in the aqueous solution and as a protonation-deprotonation and metal binding reaction zone. Three factors were taken into account when treating experimental data: (1) the electric field due to the charged ligands on the polymer molecule, (2) the effective concentration of ligands based on polymer-subphase volume, and (3) the competition from hydrogen ions for the metal binding sites. The data of base titration of alginic acid in the presence of trace amounts of copper at different alginic acid concentrations and ionic strengths yielded unique intrinsic stability constants for complexes formed between a cupric ion and one or two binding ligands ...
Press Release issued Apr 30, 2019: There are several types of alginates available in the global market including sodium, calcium, and potassium out of which sodium alginates hold the highest share of the market. Sodium alginate is a type of natural polysaccharide which is extracted from the brown seaweed that grows in cold water regions. Sodium alginate market is expanding mainly on account of the increasing size of food industry. Sodium alginate is soluble in cold and hot water, and possesses thickening and binding properties. Sodium alginate forms a gel without being heated in the presence of calcium. Sodium alginate is generally used along with calcium salts in several cuisines to produce small and large spheres filled with liquid that burst in the mouth. Sodium Alginate is also used in the food industry as an emulsifier to increase viscosity. It is also used in indigestion tablets as it does not have any discernible flavor.
This study explores the utility of calcium-alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional culture platform for hematopoietic cell culture. We investigate the effects of calcium concentration and alginate viscosity on the mechanical and physical properties of the gel, and their subsequent effects on cellular growth. Further, we have also explored the establishment of a co-culture system in the presence of stromal cells (HS-5) and using K562 cells as our hematopoietic model. Physical characterization of calcium alginate is conducted with mechanical testing and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) scans to determine the relationship between the mechanical strength and the structure of calcium alginate with the variation of calcium concentration and alginate viscosity. The study on mechanical properties via compressive stress test reveals that increasing calcium concentration and alginate viscosity resulted in the formation of stiffer gels as showed by the higher elastic moduli. In addition, SEM scans ...
The high cost of soluble enzymes can limit their use for commercial and industrial purposes. Immobilization can enhance enzyme reusability, thereby reducing product isolation costs and overcoming this economic barrier. In the current study, two novel, purified lipases from Pseudomonas sp. (Pseudomonas reinekei and Pseudomonas brenneri) were entrapped in a calcium alginate matrix, with the aim of simultaneously enhancing enzyme reusability and stability. Following entrapment, the retained activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by an enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of a p-nitrophenol palmitate substrate. The effect of the enzyme-alginate entrapment against various physiochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, metal ions, and solvents were subsequently examined. The entrapment was found to have minimal beneficial stability gains. However, enhanced enzyme reusability (up to 3 cycles) and stability (up to 18 days at 4°C) of the calcium alginate entrapped lipase, as indicated by
Sodium Alginate Market by Product (Food Grade Sodium Alginate, Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Alginate, Technical Grade Sodium Alginate, Feed Grade Sodium Alginate), by Application (Food Additives, Pharmaceutical & Healthcare, Paper & Pulp, Personal Care & Cosmetics, Textile, Animal Feed, Industrial) and by Region, Trend, Forecast, Competitive Analysis, and Growth Opportunity 2019-2024 - Radiant Insights
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The influence of the mixture of water and alcohols on the solubility and properties of alginate and its calcium-induced gels is of interest for the food, wound care and pharmaceutical industries. The solvent quality of water with increasing amounts of ethanol (0-20%) on alginate was studied using intrinsic viscosity. The effect of ethanol addition on the rheological and mechanical properties of calcium alginate gels was determined. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the network structure. It is shown that the addition of ethanol up to 15% (wt) increases the extension of the alginate chain, which correlates with increased moduli and stress being required to fracture the gels. The extension of the polymer chain is reduced at 20% (wt) ethanol, which is followed by reduced moduli and stress at breakage of the gels. The network structure of gels at high ethanol concentrations (24%) is characterized by thick and poorly connected network strands.. ...
Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum. It is also a significant component of the biofilms produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis, that confer it a high resistance to antibiotics and killing by macrophages. Its colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is sold in filamentous, granular or powdered forms. Alginic acid is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. The monomers can appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive G-residues (G-blocks), consecutive M-residues (M-blocks) or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks). Alginates are refined from brown seaweeds. A wide variety of brown seaweeds of the phylum Phaeophyceae are harvested ...
Figure 1, a) 3D pore 100 µm droplet chip junction, b) 80 µm, c) 100 µm alginate beads.. The Dolomite Team is using microfluidics to produce small (80-120 µm) alginate beads suitable for cell encapsulation. A 2 % alginate solution was dissolved in water overnight with subsequent addition of Ca-EDTA. For the oil phase, 1 % Fluosurf in HFE 7500 was used with 0.05 % acetic acid to release the chelated calcium in the Ca-EDTA complex and allow alginate crosslinking from within. Both solutions were introduced into a 100 µm 3D pore fluorophilic single junction chip (figure 1a) to form spherical monodispersed beads. Depending on flow rates (Qd 16 µlmin-1 Qc 10 µlmin-1 and Qd 10 µlmin-1 Qc 18 µlmin-1) 80 µm (figure 1b) and 100 µm (figure 1c) alginate beads were produced respectively.. DOWNLOAD APPLICATION NOTE HERE. If you are interested in producing alginate beads for your applications, please contact us at [email protected], and keep an eye out for our alginate bead application ...
Alginate is a biodegradable, immunocompatible biopolymer that is capable of immobilizing viable cells and bioactive factors. Few investigations have analyzed the efficacy of alginate gels as substrata for cell attachment and proliferation. Here we have compared the adhesion and subsequent growth of human and rat bone marrow stromal fibroblastic cells on unmodified alginate hydrogel surfaces. It was found that, in contrast to rat cells, human cells did not readily attach or proliferate on unmodified alginates. In attempts to enhance these features, or collagen type I was incorporated into the gels, with no significant improvements in prolonged human cell adherence. However, alginate gels containing both collagen type I and beta-tricalcium phosphate were found to enhance human cell adherence and proliferation. Furthermore, interactions between the collagen and beta-tricalcium phosphate prevented loss of the protein from the hydrogels. These results indicate that alginate gels containing collagen have
The report on the Global Sodium Alginate market offers complete data on the Sodium Alginate market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the Sodium Alginate market. The top contenders SNP, KIMICA, SNAP Natural & Alginate Products, IRO Alginate Industry, NovaMatrix, Bright Moon Seaweed, Lianyungang Tiantian Seaweed Industrial, Unikem of the global Sodium Alginate market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: http://www.extentresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=19657. The report also segments the global Sodium Alginate market based on product mode and segmentation Industrial Grade, Food Grade, Pharma Grade. The study includes a profound summary of the key sectors and the segments Papermaking, Paper Coatings, Textiles, Food & ...
Alginate is used in various pharmaceutical preparations. Chemically, it is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked ?-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer ?-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. Alginic acid can be separated from benzoate, citric acid and saccharin by mixed-mode chromatography on Primesep C HPLC column. This method can be used to quantitate alginic acid, citric acid or saccharin in complex mixtures. Various detection technique can be used (UV, ELSD, LC/MS), based on mobile phase selection. ...
Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing alginic acid. Find information on alginic acid use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula.
Objective(s): In this study, effects of encapsulated umbilical cord stem cells (UCSCs)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds was investigated on CCl4-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in rats. Material and Methods: UCSCs were encapsulated in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds. Then the UCSCs differentiated into HLCs for treatment of CCl4-induced ALF in rats. Thirty rats randomly divided into 5 groups: Intoxicated group received only CCl4 to induce ALF. In other groups including cell-free, UCSCs and HLCs, alginate scaffolds were transplanted into the liver 4 days after CCl4 injection. Biochemical markers including albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated. Histological changes and gene expression of ALB, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) were also assessed.Results: Expression of CK-18 significantly increased in HLCs compared to the UCSCs
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Humidity: sunny, mild humidity Using our observations from Experiment #2, we decided to start with a 1:24 ratio of sodium alginate to Future floor polish because this ratio produced a solution with the right combination of fluidity and thickness for a ground.. To begin the experiment we mixed ½ tbs of Sodium alginate and ¾ cup of Zea Mays Stop out to achieve a 1:24 ratio.. This mixture was not fluid like we expected. It immediately started clumping up and became thicker than we anticipated. We hypothesized the different results were due to addition of Gac 100, which is part of the stop out mixture. The Gac 100 was not included in our first test with a 1:24 ratio. In the first test, just future floor polish was mixed with sodium alginate. We let the sodium alginate and stop out mixture sit for three hours to see if over time the clumps would dissolve. After three hours of sitting with periodic stirring, the mixture was still very lumpy and thick. This ratio,1 part sodium alginate to 24 parts ...
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Dolomite Microfluidics systems are enabling reliable, reproducible production of monodisperse alginate beads, overcoming the challenges associated with traditional batch techniques. Controlled and reproducible generation of alginate gel beads is crucial for biomedical science and engineering applications that require biologically and chemically inert polymers, such as the encapsulation of drugs or cells. However, this can be difficult to achieve with batch synthesis, which produces large beads with a wide size distribution and minimal control over bead size. The reproducibility and throughput of the technique are also low. Microfluidic synthesis of alginate beads overcomes these difficulties, allowing precise control of bead formation and enabling rapid production of particles with well-defined sizes, shapes and morphologies ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a form of inflammatory arthritis, is a chronic joint disease characterized by pain and inflammation that affects 0.5% to 1% of the population worldwide. The safety, efficacy, tolerability, and potency of β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) as a novel NSAID with immunosuppressive property has been reported by several in vitro studies, experimental models and clinical trials phase I/II and III in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients This research is designed to study the therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of mannuronic acid in RA patients who had inadequate response to conventional drugs and to assess the effect of this drug on gene expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) protein (STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, and STAT6). The study has included 15 RA patients who had an insufficient response to the conventional therapy. The oral dose of mannuronic acid was 1000mg divided into two 500 mg doses per day for 3 months as an ...
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The analysts forecast the global sodium alginate market to exhibit a CAGR of 5.43% during the period 2019-2024. The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global sodium alginate for 2019-2024. To calculate the market size, the report considers the sodium alginate sales volume and revenue.. The projections featured in the report have been derived using proven research methodologies and assumptions. By doing so, the research report serves as a repository of analysis and information for every facet of the market, including but not limited to: regional markets, product, and application.. Download Free Sample Report @ https://www.radiantinsights.com/research/sodium-alginate-market/request-sample. Geographically, the global sodium alginate market is segmented into North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East & Africa and South America. This report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the ...
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SODIUM ALGINATE is part of manufacturing ingredient used in FDA Database. When you consume you prescription drug make sure that you are not allergic to this SODIUM ALGINATE. This will change the way your body absorbs prescription drug your doctor provided you with. SODIUM ALGINATE is used in manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products. List bellow has SODIUM ALGINATE as ingredient during manufacturing.. As some Prescription Drugs might have same name but they are classified by FDA with uniq ID.. ...
The reconstruction of adipose tissue defects is often challenged by the complications that may occur following plastic and reconstructive surgery, including donor-site morbidity, implant migration and foreign body reaction. To overcome these problems, adipose tissue engineering (ATE) using stem cell-based regeneration strategies has been widely explored in the last years. Mounting evidence has shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent a promising cell source for ATE. In the context of a small number of reports concerning adipose tissue regeneration using three-dimensional (3-D) systems, the present study was designed to evaluate the biological performance of a novel alginate matrix that incorporates human ADSCs (hADSCs). Culture-expanded cells isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), corresponding to the third passage which showed the expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, were used in the 3-D culture systems. The latter represented a calcium alginate hydrogel,
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Alginic acid, an aa cried algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributit widely in the cell walls o broun algae, whaur through bindin wi watter it furms a viscous gum. In extractit furm it absorbs watter quickly; it is capable o absorbin 200-300 times its ain wicht in watter.[1] Its colour ranges frae white tae yellaeish-broun. It is sauld in filamentous, granular or poudered furms.. ...
alginic acid definition: An insoluble colloidal acid by means of a carboxylated polysaccharide thats abundant in the mobile wall space of brown algae.; A gum (a carboxylated polysaccharide), obtained…
In 2018, Top exporters of Polymers, natural and modified natural; in primary forms (excluding alginic acid, its salts and esters) to Malaysia were China ($7,405.93K , 2,809,180 Kg), European Union ($3,725.35K , 428,946 Kg), United States ($2,763.77K , 321,455 Kg), France ($1,509.86K , 41,303 Kg), Italy ($932.94K , 230,380 Kg ...
More information is available on alginic acid + magaldrate + bicarbonate including side effects, age restrictions, food interactions, whether the medicine is available at a government subsidised price on the pharmaceutical benefits scheme (PBS) as well as other useful information.
Alginate can be produced by a microbial fermentation using bacteria such as Azobacter Vinelandii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (Linker and Jones 1964, Gorin and Spencer 1966). These bacteria produce a polysaccharide with a structure resembling alginate, differing only in that there are acetyl groups on a portion of the C2 and C3 hydroxyls. It is believed that the acetate groups are associated mainly with the D-mannuronic acid residues (Davidson 1977, Sutherland 1983, Paul 1986). The level of acetylation is variable as is the mannuronic and guluronic acid content. However the level of guluronic acid in the final polymer can be controlled to some extent by altering the level of calcium in the fermentation broth (Haug and Larsen 1971). The sequence structures and acetylation patterns of bacterial alginate, from different sources, have been studied with 2D COSY proton NMR techniques. The acetyl residues were found to be exclusively associated with the mannuronic acid residues with degrees of ...
Injection of a biomaterial scaffold into the infarcted myocardium can replace the injured extracellular matrix and improve the mechanical strength of the scar. The present study aimed to determine and compare the effect of novel injectable alginate scaffold, with or without staged cardiomyocyte transplantation, with injectable collagen scaffold, or saline on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. We developed a novel injectable, absorbable biomaterial composed of a calcium cross-linked alginate solution, which displays low viscosity and undergoes phase transition into hydrogel after injection into the infarct. Rats (n=58) were subjected to anterior MI and subsequently treated with injection of alginate biomaterial (n=22), collagen (n=12), or saline (n=12) into the infarct. One week later, 10 of 22 biomaterial-treated rats and 10 MI rats received rat fetal cardiomyocyte transplantation (1×10 6 cells) into the scar. Hemodynamic studies, performed ...
Sodium and potassium alginate are intended to be used as technological additives (functional groups: emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agents and binders). Sodium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for pets, other non food-producing animals and fish, with no maximum recommended use level. Potassium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for cats and dogs at levels up to 40,000 mg/kg feed (on dry matter). Since the functional properties of the additives are determined by the alginate content, sodium and potassium alginate were considered equivalent. The maximum dose considered safe for cats, dogs, other non food-producing animals, salmonids and other fish is 40,000 mg alginates (sodium and potassium salts)/kg complete feed. The use of alginates in feedingstuffs for fish is of no concern for the consumer. Alginates are reported not to be irritant to the skin but mildly irritant to the eyes. They are considered as potential sensitisers to the skin and the ...
Sodium Alginate (alginate, algin) Molecular RecipesSodium Alginate is a natural polysaccharide product extracted from brown seaweed that grows in cold water regions. In modernist cuisine, sodiu&thickener sodium alginate
|p|KALTOSTAT|sup|®|/sup| Calcium Sodium Alginate dressing is indicated for moderately to highly exuding chronic and acute wounds, and for wounds with minor bleeding.|/p|
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Sodium Alginate (SA) Alginates are extracted from brown seaweeds which are usually found in cold waters. Alginates are very versatile and can form ge...
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Sodium alginate has a long history of application in in textile warp sizing, dyeing finishing and printing paste, of which the last one is the main leading application. As the paste of reactive dyes, sodium alginate has unique properties. The chemical rea ...
"Entrez Gene: GLCE glucuronic acid epimerase". Grigorieva E, Eshchenko T, Rykova VI, et al. (2008). "Decreased expression of ... and enzyme activity of the full-length heparin/heparan sulfate-glucuronic acid C5-epimerase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (24): 21538-43 ...
... to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable ... Baker EM, Bierman EL, Plough IC (1960). "Effect of D-glucuronic acid and D-glucuronolactone on ascorbic acid levels in blood ... Therefore, sufficient carbohydrate intake provides enough UDP-glucuronic acid for detoxication,[citation needed] and foods rich ... Free glucuronic acid (or its self-ester glucuronolactone) has less effect on detoxification than glucose,[citation needed] ...
The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically l-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ...
Polymerized with glucuronic acid, it forms hyaluronan. GlcNAc has been reported to be an inhibitor of elastase release from ... It is an amide between glucosamine and acetic acid. It has a molecular formula of C8H15NO6, a molar mass of 221.21 g/mol, and ... which is built from alternating units of GlcNAc and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), cross-linked with oligopeptides at the ... lactic acid residue of MurNAc. This layered structure is called peptidoglycan (formerly called murein). GlcNAc is the monomeric ...
... is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid conjugation. Its major metabolite is an inactive 2-n-glucuronide ... Early studies of lamotrigine's mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat ... At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium evoked amino acid release. These studies suggested that ... It appears to increase the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central ...
Jacobson B; Davidson EA (1962). "Biosynthesis of uronic acids by skin enzymes. I. Uridine diphosphate-D-glucuronic acid-5- ... Other names in common use include uridine diphosphoglucuronate 5'-epimerase, UDP-glucuronic acid 5'-epimerase, and C-5-uronosyl ...
KILGORE WW, STARR MP (1959). "Catabolism of galacturonic and glucuronic acids by Erwinia carotovora". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2227- ... Ashwell G, Wahba AJ, Hickman J (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. I. Purification and properties of uronic acid ... Other names in common use include uronic isomerase, uronate isomerase, D-glucuronate isomerase, uronic acid isomerase, and D- ...
Kilgore WW, Starr MP (1959). "Catabolism of galacturonic and glucuronic acids by Erwinia carotovora". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2227- ... Hickman J; Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. II. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D- ... mannonic acid dehyrogenases in Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 1566-1570. ...
... as well as estriol 16α-β-D-glucosiduronic acid, is a natural, steroidal estrogen and the glucuronic acid (β-D-glucopyranuronic ... Geoffrey Dutton (2 December 2012). Glucuronic Acid Free and Combined: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicine. ... "Isolation and characterization of estriol 16 alpha-glucosiduronic acid from human pregnancy urine". J. Biol. Chem. 238: 1273-82 ... acid) conjugate of estriol. It occurs in high concentrations in the urine of pregnant women as a reversibly formed metabolite ...
Shaklee PN, Glaser JH, Conrad HE (1985). "A sulfatase specific for glucuronic acid 2-sulfate residues in glycosaminoglycans". J ...
Substrates of glycosynthase include Glucose, Galactose, Mannose, Xylose, and Glucuronic acid. Modern methods to prepare ... The leaving group is displaced by an alcohol of the acceptor sugar aided by the active site general base amino acid of the ... The first was that a change of the active site nucleophile of a glycosidase from a carboxylate to another amino acid resulted ... Mutation of the active site nucleophile to a non-nucleophilic amino acid prevents the formation of a covalent intermediate. An ...
UDP-glucuronic acid:anthocyanin glucuronosyltransferase, UDP-glucuronic acid:anthocyanidin 3-glucoside 2'-O-beta- ... "UDP-glucuronic acid:anthocyanin glucuronosyltransferase from red daisy (Bellis perennis) flowers. Enzymology and phylogenetics ... Osmani, S.A.; Bak, S.; Imberty, A.; Olsen, C.E.; Møller, B.L. (2008). "Catalytic key amino acids and UDP-sugar donor ...
Release of D-glucuronic acid is achieved in the fourth step. Myo-inositol can be ingested from fruits and vegetables and ... Inositol Glucuronic acid Oxygenases Bollinger JM, Diao Y, Matthews ML, Xing G, Krebs C (February 2009). "myo-Inositol oxygenase ... In the kidney, MIOX converts myo-inositol to glucuronic acid which is then able to enter the glucuronate-xylulose pathway for ... V. Purification and properties of the enzyme that cleaves inositol to D-glucuronic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
"UDP-glucuronic acid/UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine transporter [Homo sapien - Protein - NCBI]". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016 ... and is particularly rich in the amino acid phenylalanine, containing twice the normal proportion of this amino acid. TMEM241 is ...
UGT1A1 normally catalyzes the conjugation of bilirubin and glucuronic acid within hepatocytes. Conjugated bilirubin is more ...
Enzymatic synthesis of uridine diphosate glucuronic acid and uridine diphosphate galacturonic acid with extracts from Phaseolus ... Enzymatic synthesis of uridine diphosate glucuronic acid and uridine diphosphate galacturonic acid with extracts from Phaseolus ... Decarboxylation of uridine diphosphate-D-glucuronic acid by an enzyme preparation from hen oviduct. Bdolah, A. and Feingold, D ... The 4-epimerization and decarboxylation of DUP-D-glucuronic acid by extracts of Phaseolus aureus seedings. Decarboxylation of ...
... 's metabolites are further conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted into the urine. In data from the U.S. Drug ... Pethidine is quickly hydrolysed in the liver to pethidinic acid and is also demethylated to norpethidine, which has half the ...
Kurosawa, Y.; Takahara, H.; Shiraiwa, M. (2002). "UDP-glucuronic acid:soyasapogenol glucuronosyltransferase involved in saponin ...
Breazeale, S.D.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Raetz, C.R. (2002). "Oxidative decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid in extracts of polymyxin- ...
Neufeld EF, Feingold DS, Hassid WZ (1959). "Enzymic phosphorylation of D-glucuronic acid by extracts from seedlings of ...
It is activated in the liver but quickly deactivated by conjugation to glucuronic acid. In the bladder, glucuronidase re- ... Of them, the δ-acid and Bronner's acid are of more value technically, since they combine with ortho-tetrazoditolyl to produce ... On oxidation, it yields ortho-carboxy-hydrocinnamic acid, HO2CC6H4CH2CH2CO2H. Numerous sulfonic acid derivatives of 2- ...
Other names in common use include glucuronosyltransferase I, and uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid:acceptor ... Solubilization and partial purification of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid: acceptor glucuronosyltransferase from mouse ...
... 's seeds produce mucilage made up of D-glucuronic acid and D-xylose. Additionally, extracts of M. pudica have been ... pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propane sulfinic acid, 2-mercaptoaniline, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and ... A new class of phytohormone turgorines, which are derivatives of gallic acid 4-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-6'-sulfate), have been ... The roots contain sac-like structures that release organic and organosulfur compounds including SO2, methylsulfinic acid, ...
Pryde J, Williams RT (2 April 1933). "The biochemistry and physiology of glucuronic acid: The structure of glucuronic acid of ... This seminal book built on his earlier work on the role of glucuronic acid in the metabolism of borneol. He was born in ... In 1931, he published the structure of glucuronic acid in the leading scientific journal, Nature. In 1949 he took up the chair ... Pryde J, Williams RT (1936). "The biochemistry and physiology of glucuronic acid: A note on the conjugation of borneol in man ...
GZA is made of one molecule of glycyrrhetic acid and two molecules of glucuronic acid. The extracts from the root of the plant ... "Analysis and pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid in humans and experimental animals". Steroids. 59 (2 ... GZA is hydrolyzed to glycyrrhetic acid in the intestines by bacteria. For thousands of years G. glabra has been used for ... When administered orally, the product of glycyrrhetic acid is found in human urine whereas GZA is not. This shows that ...
... and glucuronic acid (14.6%).[citation needed] Both roots and seeds contain rhamnose, xylose, mannose and galacturonic acid. In ... half of which is aspartic acid. Roots contain high amounts of non-starch polysaccharides including dietary fibers, pectin and ...
The main metabolic route is esterification of the phenolic group with sulfuric acid and glucuronic acid. A minor pathway is ... Carvacrol may be synthetically prepared by the fusion of cymol sulfonic acid with caustic potash; by the action of nitrous acid ... or by heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid or by performing a dehydrogenation of carvone with a Pd/C catalyst. It is ...
They are hemicellulosic plant cell wall polysaccharides, containing glucuronic acid and xylose as its main constituents. They ...
... and conjugation with sulfate or glucuronic acid. However, there are some differences in biotransformation between certain ... It kills the bacteria by restricting the production of folic acid, which is essential for bacterial growth. It mainly inhibits ... It is a competitive inhibitor of bacterial para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). PABA is required for bacterial synthesis of folic ... It blocks the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthase. ...
The innate utilization of sugars as solubilizing moieties in Phase II and III metabolism (glucuronic acids) has remarkably ... Pharmacologists often join substances to glucuronic acid via glycosidic bonds in order to increase their water solubility; this ... D-glucose is first protected by forming the peracetate by addition of acetic anhydride in acetic acid, and then addition of ...
... glucuronic acid, or sulfate. A mixture of conjugated and non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted ... glucuronic acid, or sulfate. A mixture of conjugated and non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted ... Wolkoff AW, Cohen DE (February 2003). "Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: I. Hepatocyte transport of bile acids". Am. ... Cholesterol is oxidized by the liver into a variety of bile acids. These in turn are conjugated with glycine, taurine, ...
The main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and THC-COOH and free THC-COOH. In the feces, mainly 11-OH-THC was ... catalysed by an enzyme to produce cannabigerolic acid,[35] which is cyclized by the enzyme THC acid synthase to give THCA. Over ... The pathway for THCA biosynthesis is similar to that which produces the bitter acid humulone in hops.[36][37] ... In the Cannabis plant, THC occurs mainly as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA, 2-COOH-THC, THC-COOH). Geranyl pyrophosphate and ...
The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically l-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ...
The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically L-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... E304 fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid such as ascorbyl palmitate (approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[88] U.S.[89] ...
... dehalogenation and conjugation with glucuronic acid; excretion = urine, faeces (20-30%).[39]. Osteoarthritis; rheumatoid ... Flufenamic acid. Comes in free acid form and aluminium salt form; anthranilic acid.. As per diclofenac.. Topical.. N/A. Soft ... Tolfenamic acid. Comes as free acid; practically insoluble in water; degrades upon contact with light; anthranilic acid.. As ... Comes in free acid form; niflumic acid derivative.. As per diclofenac.. PO, rectal.. Not available.. Inflammatory conditions.. ...
Glucuronic acid is attached via a glycosidic bond to the substance, and the resulting glucuronide, which has a much higher ... A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a ...
Once it arrives at the liver, it is conjugated with glucuronic acid (to form bilirubin diglucuronide, or just "conjugated ... The globin portion, a protein, is degraded into amino acids and plays no role in jaundice. Two reactions then take place with ... The itchiness may be helped by draining the gallbladder or ursodeoxycholic acid. The word jaundice is from the French jaunisse ...
Conjugation with glycine forms salicyluric acid, and with glucuronic acid to form two different glucuronide esters. The ... 2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
... is a polymer of disaccharides, themselves composed of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, linked via ... Abbreviations: hyaluronic acid (HA), hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS), hyaluronic acid receptor (HAR), hyaluronidase (HAase)[ ... D-Glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (monomers) Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... Hyaluronic acid is a common ingredient in skin-care products. Hyaluronic acid is used as a dermal filler in cosmetic surgery.[ ...
Other specific components include ethanol (see below), glucuronic acid, glycerol, lactic acid, usnic acid (a hepatotoxin, see ... and these into gluconic acid and acetic acid.[13] In addition, kombucha contains enzymes and amino acids, polyphenols, and ... "Drug record, Usnic acid (Usnea species)". LiverTox. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. 23 June 2015. ... and other acids).[4] Although the SCOBY is commonly called "tea fungus" or "mushroom", it is actually "a symbiotic growth of ...
The main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and THC-COOH and free THC-COOH. In the feces, mainly 11-OH-THC was ... catalysed by an enzyme to produce cannabigerolic acid,[33] which is cyclized by the enzyme THC acid synthase to give THCA. Over ... The pathway for THCA biosynthesis is similar to that which produces the bitter acid humulone in hops.[34][35] ... Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, the biosynthetic precursor for THC. *HU-210, WIN 55,212-2, JWH-133, synthetic cannabinoid agonists ...
Another chemical extracted from the species was an acidic polysaccharide (made up of mostly mannose, glucose, glucuronic acid ...
D-Glucuronic acid at Sigma-Aldrich *↑ King C, Rios G, Green M, Tephly T: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, 2000, Curr. Drug Metab ...
However, the C. neoformans capsule is different, in being richer in glucuronic acid and mannose, having O-acetyl groups,[1] and ... C. albidus is able to use glucose, citric acid, maltose, sucrose, trehalose, salicin, cellobiose, and inositol, as well as many ...
Hyaluronic acid[edit]. Hyaluronic acid (or "hyaluronan") is a polysaccharide consisting of alternating residues of D-glucuronic ... Hyaluronic acid is found on the inner surface of the cell membrane and is translocated out of the cell during biosynthesis.[13] ... Hyaluronic acid is thus found in abundance in the ECM of load-bearing joints. It is also a chief component of the interstitial ... Hyaluronic acid in the extracellular space confers upon tissues the ability to resist compression by providing a counteracting ...
... where it is conjugated with glucuronic acid to become more water-soluble. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme UDP- ... The pathway is initiated by the synthesis of D-aminolevulinic acid (dALA or δALA) from the amino acid glycine and succinyl-CoA ... Heme D is another derivative of heme B, but in which the propionic acid side chain at the carbon of position 6, which is also ... In addition, a unique sulfonamide ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group ...
... glycine or glucuronic acid. These reactions are catalysed by a large group of broad-specificity transferases. UGT1A6 is a human ... Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes Gallic, salicylic acids 8 C6-C2 1 Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic acids 3- ... Homogentisic acid 9 C6-C3 1 Hydroxycinnamic acids, Phenylpropenes, Coumarins, Isocoumarins, Chromones Caffeic, ferulic acids, ... Phenolic acids can be found in mushroom basidiomycetes species.[46] For example, protocatechuic acid and pyrocatechol are found ...
... liver by cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 to 6-hydroxymelatonin.Metabolites are conjugated with sulfuric acid or glucuronic acid ... Lerner AB, Case JD, Takahashi Y (July 1960). "Isolation of melatonin and 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid from bovine pineal ... PLP forms an imine with the amino acid derivative. The amine on the pyridine is protonated and acts as an electron sink, ... "Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the ...
Yes (bound to glucuronic acid). Reacts quickly when dyes (diazo reagent) are added to the blood specimen to produce ... Bilirubin can be "conjugated" with a molecule of glucuronic acid which makes it soluble in water (see below). This is an ... In the liver, bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid by the enzyme glucuronyltransferase, making it soluble in water: the ... Jaundice is classified, depending upon whether the bilirubin is free or conjugated to glucuronic acid, into conjugated jaundice ...
... although some hexuronic acid monosaccharides may be glucuronic acid.[15] Keratan sulfate. Gal or Gal(6S). GlcNAc or GlcNAc(6S) ... glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.[3] Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water. They are therefore ... glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine). They also vary in the geometry of the glycosidic ... Hyaluronic acid[edit]. The fourth class of GAG, hyaluronan (or hyaluronic acid), is not sulfated and is synthesized by three ...
α-Ketoisocaproic acid. *Ethosuximide. *Phenylacetate. *Salicylic acid. *Valproic acid. *Enhancers: D-Glucuronic acid ... Snead OC (November 2000). "Evidence for a G protein-coupled gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor". J. Neurochem. 75 (5): 1986-96 ... 2008). "Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: ... Castelli MP (November 2008). "Multi-faceted aspects of gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid: a neurotransmitter, therapeutic agent and ...
... undergoes metabolism in the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 hydroxylation of the ... Ketoprofen, (RS)-2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... glycine or glucuronic acid. These reactions are catalysed by a large group of broad-specificity transferases. UGT1A6 is a human ... 3-Acetyl-6-methoxybenzaldehyde, Tyrosol, p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, Homogentisic acid. 9. C6-C3. 1. Hydroxycinnamic acids, ... Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes. Gallic, salicylic acids. 8. C6-C2. 1. Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic ... Phenolic acids can be found in mushroom basidiomycetes species.[59] For example, protocatechuic acid and pyrocatechol are found ...
... is a polymer of disaccharides, themselves composed of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, linked via ... D-Glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (monomers) Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... Hyaluronic acid is a common ingredient in skin care products. Hyaluronic acid is used as a dermal filler in cosmetic surgery.[ ... Hyaluronic acid is derived from hyalos (Greek for vitreous, meaning 'glass-like') and uronic acid because it was first isolated ...
Pigman, William Ward; Anet, E. F. L. J. (1972). "Chapter 4: Mutarotations and Actions of Acids and Bases". In Pigman and Horton ... ascorbic acid. *mannitol. *glucuronic acid. See also[edit]. *Reducing sugar. *Sugar acid ...
... glucuronic acid.. The physiological and biochemical effects of fucoidan have been examined in several small-scale in vitro and ... and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions.[1] These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive ...
Not to be confused with Glucuronic acid.. .mw-parser-output span.smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}.mw-parser-output span. ... Isosaccharinic acid (ISA). References[edit]. *^ "D-Gluconic acid". American Chemical Society.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... In aqueous solution at neutral pH, gluconic acid forms the gluconate ion. The salts of gluconic acid are known as "gluconates ... They did not succeed in their aim, but a way was found of procuring gluconic acid. This acid formerly cost $100 per lb., can ...
Glucuronic acid and gluconic acid are fermentation products in Kombucha tea. Glucuronic acid is a precursor of ascorbic acid ( ... Glucuronic acid is a sugar acid derived from glucose, with its sixth carbon atom oxidized to a carboxylic acid. In living ... Glucuronic acid (from Ancient Greek γλυκύς "sweet" + οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence ... Glucuronic acid, like its precursor glucose, can exist as a linear (carboxo-)aldohexose (. 60,000 are too large for renal ...
D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:4178) is a glucuronic acid (CHEBI:24298). L-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:79048) is a glucuronic acid (CHEBI: ... glucuronic acid (CHEBI:24298) is a glucuronic acids (CHEBI:33886) glucuronic acid (CHEBI:24298) is conjugate acid of ... glucuronic acid (CHEBI:24298) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) glucuronic acid (CHEBI:24298) has role human ... CHEBI:24298 - glucuronic acid. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... is a glucuronic acid (CHEBI:24298) D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:4178) is conjugate acid of D- ... 5-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:50923) has functional parent D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:4178). D-glucuronic acid 1-phosphate ( ... D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:47953) is a D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:4178). D-glucopyranuronic acid (CHEBI:47952) is a D-glucuronic ... D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:4178). L-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:79048) is enantiomer of D-glucuronic acid (CHEBI:4178). ...
UDP glucuronic acid is a sugar used in the creation of polysaccharides and is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of ascorbic ... Glucuronic acid UDP Bontemps Y, Vuillermoz B, Antonicelli F, Perreau C, Danan JL, Maquart FX, Wegrowski Y (Jun 2003). "Specific ... acid (except in primates and guinea pigs). It is made from UDP-glucose by UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.22) using NAD+ ...
4-O-Substituted D-glucuronic acid derivatives were synthesized from D-glucose in order to study the regioselectivity of ... O-Sulfated Derivatives of Glucuronic Acid. Mariano J. L. Castro * , Natalia Salmaso, José Kovensky. ... Castro, M.J.L.; Salmaso, N.; Kovensky, J.; Cirelli, A.F. O-Sulfated Derivatives of Glucuronic Acid. Molecules 2000, 5, 600-601 ... 4-O-Substituted D-glucuronic acid derivatives were synthesized from D-glucose in order to study the regioselectivity of ...
Rabbit polyclonal Glucuronic Acid Epimerase/GLCE antibody. Validated in IP and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to full ... Glucuronic Acid Epimerase (GLCE) is responsible for epimerization of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) of ... Lane 1 Primary: Glucuronic Acid Epimerase/GLCE mouse polyclonal antibody. Sample: Glucuronic Acid Epimerase/GLCE transfected ... Anti-Glucuronic Acid Epimerase/GLCE antibody. See all Glucuronic Acid Epimerase/GLCE primary antibodies. ...
Distinguishing the epimers iduronic acid (IdoA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) has been a long-standing challenge for the mass ... Distinguishing glucuronic from iduronic acid in glycosaminoglycan tetrasaccharides by using electron detachment dissociation.. ... DISTINGUISHING GLUCURONIC FROM IDURONIC ACID IN GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN TETRASACCHARIDES BY USING ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION ... DISTINGUISHING GLUCURONIC FROM IDURONIC ACID IN GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN TETRASACCHARIDES BY USING ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION ...
Get Glucuronic Acids at Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab ...
What is D-glucuronic acid? Meaning of D-glucuronic acid medical term. What does D-glucuronic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of D-glucuronic acid in the Medical Dictionary? D-glucuronic acid explanation free. ... Related to D-glucuronic acid: glucuronic acid pathway. glucuronic acid. [gloo″ku-ron´ik] a uronic acid formed by oxidation of C ... glucuronic acid. /glu·cu·ron·ic ac·id/ (gloo-ku-ron´ik) the uronic acid derived from glucose; it is a constituent of several ...
Biosynthesis of UDP-xylose is mediated by UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase, which converts UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-xylose. ... 5). The ratio of xylose/glucuronic acid/mannose ranges from 1:1:3 to 4:1:3, depending on the strain, and this variation is ... A soluble 47-kDa protein derived from bacteria expressing the C. neoformans gene catalyzed conversion of UDP-glucuronic acid to ... Functional cloning and characterization of a UDP- glucuronic acid decarboxylase: The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans ...
THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ALPHA-D-GLUCURONIDASE FROM BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS T-1 COMPLEXED WITH GLUCURONIC ACID. ...
What does uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid mean? Information and translations of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid in the ... Definition of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of uridine diphosphate glucuronic ... What does uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid mean?. Definitions for uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. Here are all the ... Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. UDP glucuronic acid is a sugar used in the creation of polysaccharides and is an ...
... the enzyme did not release any glucuronic acid or 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid from these substrates. BhGlcA67 acted only on 4-O- ... and the amino acids for discriminating the 4-O-methyl group of glucuronic acid were widely conserved in the primary sequences ... 4-O-Methyl Modifications of Glucuronic Acids in Xylans Are Indispensable for Substrate Discrimination by GH67 α-Glucuronidase ... which has a glucuronic acid side chain with a 4-O-methyl group located at its non-reducing end, but did not on β-D- ...
... gulonic and ascorbic acids were measured in the rat, rabbit, guinea-pig and marmoset by an improved g.l.c. technique. 2. ... 0/Glucuronates; 0/Sugar Acids; 25525-21-7/Glucaric Acid; 50-81-7/Ascorbic Acid; 87-99-0/Xylitol ... Glucaric Acid / urine*. Glucuronates / urine*. Guinea Pigs. Haplorhini. Male. Rabbits. Rats. Species Specificity. Sugar Acids ... 1. Urinary levels of xylitol and glucuronic, glucaric, gulonic and ascorbic acids were measured in the rat, rabbit, guinea-pig ...
... d-glucuronic acid biosynthesis found in plants, only d-glucuronic acid inhibited myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4 ... myo-Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase Inhibition and Control of Uridine Diphosphate-d-glucuronic Acid Biosynthesis in Plants Mary W ... myo-Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase Inhibition and Control of Uridine Diphosphate-d-glucuronic Acid Biosynthesis in Plants ... myo-Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase Inhibition and Control of Uridine Diphosphate-d-glucuronic Acid Biosynthesis in Plants ...
Find out information about Glucuronic acids. C6H10O7 An acid resulting from oxidation of the CH2OH radical ofD-glucose to COOH ... Related to Glucuronic acids: glucuronic acid pathway. glucuronic acid. [¦glü·kyə¦rän·ik ′as·əd] (biochemistry) C6H10O7 An acid ... Glucuronic Acid. (redirected from Glucuronic acids). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical. ... Glucuronic acids , Article about Glucuronic acids by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Glucuronic ...
Two isoflavones in vivo metabolites, genistein-7-O-β-D-glucuronic acid (G7G) and daidzein-7-O-β-D-glucuronic acid (D7G) were ... Genistein- and daidzein 7-O-β-D-glucuronic acid retain the ability to inhibit copper-mediated lipid oxidation of low density ...
UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronic acid. Abbreviations: CE, capillary electrophoresis; α-D-GlcNAc, N-acetyl-α-D- ... D-glucuronic acid 2-epimerases from respiratory pathogens. Erin L. Westman, David J. Mcnally, Martin Rejzek, Wayne L. Miller, ... Collectively, these results provide evidence that WbpI and WlbD are UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronic acid 2- ... Identification and biochemical characterization of two novel UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronic acid 2-epimerases ...
Different distribution of iduronic acid- and glucuronic acid-containing units in soluble and cell-associated glycans. A ... The presence of copolymers rich in glucuronic acid or iduronic acid sulphate residues in the soluble fractions may be the ... Alternatively, extracellular, polymer-level modifications such as C-5 inversion of L-iduronic acid to D-glucuronic acid, or ... Different distribution of iduronic acid- and glucuronic acid-containing units in soluble and cell-associated glycans ...
... glucuronic acid, sodium salt induces β-glucuronidase, an enzyme coded by the GUS gene and used extensively in plant biology. ... 1-O-Methyl-β- D- glucuronic acid, sodium salt. {{ i.item.name }} Product Specifications Technical Documentation Related ... 1-O-Methyl -β- D- glucuronic acid, sodium salt is an inducer of β-glucuronidase, a glycosidase enzyme coded by the GUS gene. ... 1-O-Methyl-β-D-glucuronic acid, sodium salt 1-O-Methylglucuronide sodium salt 1-OMe-beta-D-GlcA Na ...
... glucuronic acid Anal Biochem. 1980 Dec;109(2):321-9. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(80)90655-7. ...
Total Acid No. (TAN) / Total Base No. (TBN) * Total Acid Number (TAN) ASTM D664 Titration ... See Full Listing of Total Acid No. (TAN) / Total Base No. (TBN) ... of Glucuronic Acid according to Tollens ,=97.0%. Item No. 70650 ...
UDP-glucuronic acid ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... UDP glucuronic acid , UDP-glucuronate , UDPGA , uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid Database Links ...
Catalyzes the NAD-dependent decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-xylose. Necessary for the biosynthesis of the core ...
... glucuronic acid, glucuronic acid, methanesulfonic acid, 576-37-4, 23018-83-9 acid and derivative! ( β-D-Glucopyranuronic acid ... is supplier for D-Glucuronic acid. glucuronic acid . Its formula is C 6 H 10 O 7.. 194.14 Melting point. Glucuronic acid is a ... D-glucuronic acid synonyms, D-glucuronic acid pronunciation, D-glucuronic acid translation, English dictionary definition of D- ... UDP glucuronic acid, methanesulfonic acid,,. Part consists of synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid and release of free d-glucuronic ...
... Steven wedgings captivating, his unbonnets sucks cinchonize wryly. parasynthetic ... Shaun retrobulbar depressurize, Candace relearn their importance of glucuronic acid pathway permissive thin. piffling unseams ... Filipina importance of glucuronic acid pathway and scabby Alejandro synonymising his diabolising or galvanically epigrammatize ... Bjorn mitochondrial sensitized his Rotes bacterizing perishably? Bengt chasmy imperial resalute importance of glucuronic acid ...
Details Glucuronic acid sodium salt monohydrate. rotate: click+drag; translate: alt. +click+drag; zoom: mousewheel; save: mol ... Replica of Glucuronic acid sodium salt monohydrate. reference substance. supplier. supplier code. lot. ...
Archives for Carbohydrates Synthesis for Glucuronic acid - Page 3. CAS No.:92659-90-0. Carbohydrates Synthesis 2019-06-08 CAS ... Carbohydrates Synthesis 2019-06-08 CAS No.:7772-79-42019-06-08T21:30:12+00:00 Carbohydrates Synthesis for Glucuronic acid ... Carbohydrates Synthesis 2019-06-08 CAS No.:10034-20-52019-06-08T20:59:10+00:00 Carbohydrates Synthesis for Glucuronic acid ... Carbohydrates Synthesis 2019-06-08 CAS No.:122397-96-02019-06-08T12:20:15+00:00 Carbohydrates Synthesis for Glucuronic acid ...
... acid explanation free. What is acid? Meaning of acid medical term. What does acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of acid in the Medical Dictionary? ... glucuronic acid. CHO(CHOH)4COOH, an oxidation product of ... Essential fatty acid, Excitatory amino acid, Fatty acid, acid, Free-form amino acid, Fibric acid, Folic acid, Formic acid, ... Alpha-lipoic acid, Amino acid, Arachidonic acid, Azelaic acid, Benzoic acid, Betulinic acid, Bile acid, Binary acid, Cis fatty ...
  • D-glucuronic acid synonyms, D-glucuronic acid pronunciation, D-glucuronic acid translation, English dictionary definition of D-glucuronic acid. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • Glucuronic acid (from Ancient Greek γλυκύς "sweet" + οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name). (wikipedia.org)
  • The connective-tissue heteropolysaccharides contain acidic groups (uronic acids or sulfate groups) and can bind both water and inorganic metal ions . (britannica.com)
  • In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES. (nih.gov)
  • A greenish yellow colour is produced with hexoses, a red colour with pentoses and a brown colour with uronic acids. (fao.org)
  • The uronic acid is either D-glucuronic acid (D-GlcA) or L-iduronic acid (L-IdoA)3. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • UDP glucuronic acid is a sugar used in the creation of polysaccharides and is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (except in primates and guinea pigs). (wikipedia.org)
  • UDP glucuronic acid is a sugar used in the creation of polysaccharides and is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. (definitions.net)
  • An improved method for gas chromatographic determination of urinary xylitol and glucuronic, glucaric gulonic and ascorbic acids, with their values in the rat, rabbit, guinea-pig and marmoset. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. Urinary levels of xylitol and glucuronic, glucaric, gulonic and ascorbic acids were measured in the rat, rabbit, guinea-pig and marmoset by an improved g.l.c. technique. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conversions of glucuronic acid in all animals except the monkey and guinea pig, as well as in humans, lead to the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methods are provided for increasing plant growth rate, biomass and tolerance to stress by genetically engineering plants to contain and express a gene of the ascorbic acid synthesis-cell wall synthesis network (e.g. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method for increasing the growth rate, biomass or stress tolerance of a plant, comprising the steps of genetically engineering said plant to contain and over-express at least one functional gene product of an ascorbic acid synthesis-cell wall synthesis network. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. A transgenic plant, wherein said transgenic plant is genetically engineered to contain and over-express at least one functional gene product of an ascorbic acid synthesis-cell wall synthesis network. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • l -ascorbic acid , is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body, since the forms interconvert according to pH . (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronolactone is metabolized to glucaric acid, xylitol, and L-xylulose, and humans may also be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, glucuronic acid is used to form L-ascorbic acid, better known as vitamin C and another antioxidant. (naturalnews.com)
  • Let's go back in time, back when humanoids were able to manufacture their own antioxiedent, namely l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). At some point in our distant history a mutation occured since then humans have been carrying a defective gene for the production of the liver enzyme, L-gulonolactone oxidase. (fightaging.org)
  • The lack of this enzyme in the human liver produces an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism which prevents us from synthesising our own ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in our livers. (fightaging.org)
  • 2. Administration of a compound (2-methylbenzanilide) known to be conjugated and excreted as a beta-glucuronide had some effect on the output of these compounds of the glucuronic acid pathway in all four species, and caused a significant decrease in gulonic acid in the rat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The glucuronic acid pathway is a quantitatively minor route of glucose metabolism. (jusifuyixiban.com)
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  • Bengt chasmy imperial resalute importance of glucuronic acid pathway nuclei. (kill-9.tk)
  • Shaun retrobulbar depressurize, Candace relearn their importance of glucuronic acid pathway permissive thin. (kill-9.tk)
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  • We found that only mutations in sugar pathways affected colonization, not phospholipid and amino acid catabolism, not gluconeogenesis, not the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and not the pentose phosphate pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Within this pathway the interaction between "Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid" and "Uridine 5'-diphosphate" in unclear. (wikipathways.org)
  • A) Pathway for the thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis in En. (asm.org)
  • IdUA-GalNAc-SO 4 (L-iduronic acid- N -acetyl-galactosamine sulphate), GlcUA-GalNAc-SO 4 (D-glucuronic acid- N -acetylgalactosamine-sulphate) and IdUA(-SO 4 )-GalNAc (L-iduronosulphate- N -acetylgalactosamine). (biochemj.org)
  • Glucuronic acid (GlcUA) is perhaps the most important representative of these organic acids. (naturalnews.com)
  • The sugar backbone of CS chains is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units, [-4GlcUA β 1-3GalNAc β 1-] n , where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N -acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively, [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Transfers glucuronic acid (GlcUA) from UDP-GlcUA and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from UDP-GalNAc to the non-reducing end of the elongating chondroitin polymer. (genecards.org)
  • The environment for recognizing the 4- O -methyl group of glucuronic acid was observed in all the crystal structures of reported GH67 glucuronidases, and the amino acids for discriminating the 4- O -methyl group of glucuronic acid were widely conserved in the primary sequences of the GH67 family, suggesting that the 4- O -methyl group is critical for the activities of the GH67 family. (go.jp)
  • carboxylic acid any organic compound containing the carboxy group (-COOH), including amino and fatty acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A proton outside the mitochondrial membrane flows back by entering the F o stem channel where it bind to an amino acids on one of 10 c subunits comprising the cylindrical channel. (columbia.edu)
  • The sequence of these 3 events is thus 1) the binding of ADP and Pi (L), 2) a kind of mechanical force pushing them together (T), followed by 3) a quick release of the ATP (O). The formation of these 3 conformations is driven by protons binding to specific amino acids in the Fo channel. (columbia.edu)
  • C 4 H 7 NO 4 , a nonessential amino acid. (tabers.com)
  • Requires bonds to form between the side chains of the amino acids that are part of two separate protein molecules. (brainscape.com)
  • What groups are attached to the centra carbon atom in an amino acid? (brainscape.com)
  • Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms gr. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Amino acid sequence alterations in Ttv, Sotv and Botv caused by EMS mutation are indicated by arrows. (biologists.org)
  • Black boxes indicate amino acids that are identical in these proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The maximum-likelihood tree is based on 796 unambiguously aligned amino acid positions and was inferred under the WAG+G+F model. (asm.org)
  • Pathways for amino acid biosynthesis that are present in En. (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter UhpC (Fig. S1), the catalytic subunit of the ferredoxin/flavodoxin dependent 2-oxoacid oxidoreductases (Fig. S2), the catalytic subunit (EchE) of [NiFe]-hydrogenases (Fig. S3), isopropylmalate/citramalate/homocitrate synthases (Fig. S4), transporter proteins for aromatic amino acids, proline, and serine (Fig. S5), and amino acid sequences of ThiE and ThiH (Fig. S6). (asm.org)
  • Distinguishing glucuronic from iduronic acid in glycosaminoglycan tetrasaccharides by using electron detachment dissociation. (nih.gov)
  • It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. (definitions.net)
  • Periods containing L-iduronic acid sulphate were particularly prominent in copolymers found in the medium. (biochemj.org)
  • The presence of copolymers rich in glucuronic acid or iduronic acid sulphate residues in the soluble fractions may be the result of selective secretion from the cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Alternatively, extracellular, polymer-level modifications such as C-5 inversion of L-iduronic acid to D-glucuronic acid, or sulphate rearrangements, would yield similar results. (biochemj.org)
  • Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) to catalyze the transfer of a sulfo group to an N-unsubstituted glucosamine linked to a 2-O-sulfo iduronic acid unit on heparan sulfate. (genecards.org)
  • Glucuronic acid is a sugar acid derived from glucose, with its sixth carbon atom oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4- O -Substituted D-glucuronic acid derivatives were synthesized from D-glucose in order to study the regioselectivity of sulfation. (mdpi.com)
  • Of the eight intermediates associated with the two pathways of UDP- d -glucuronic acid biosynthesis found in plants, only d -glucuronic acid inhibited myo -inositol 1-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4 ), formerly referred to as d -glucose 6-phosphate cycloaldolase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Neither enzyme utilized UDP-α- D -GlcNAc, UDP-α- D -GlcNAcA (UDP-2-acetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α- D -glucuronic acid) or UDP-α- D -GlcNAc3NAc (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α- D -glucose) as substrates. (biochemj.org)
  • A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • Its structure is similar to that of glucose.However, glucuronic acid's sixth carbon is oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • Glucuronic Acid is a carboxylic acid with structural similarity to glucose with detoxifying activity. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • SQV-7 did not transport CMP-sialic acid, GDP-fucose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, UDP-glucose, or GDP-mannose. (elsevier.com)
  • [6] Free glucuronic acid (or its self-ester glucuronolactone) has less effect on detoxification than glucose, [ citation needed ] because the body synthesizes UDP-glucuronic acid from glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, sufficient carbohydrate intake provides enough UDP-glucuronic acid for detoxication, [ citation needed ] and foods rich in glucose are usually abundant in developed nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heart switches its energy substrate from glucose to fatty acids at birth, and maternal hyperglycemia is associated with congenital heart disease. (nih.gov)
  • The bilirubin is secreted into the blood and carried to the liver where it is bonded to (conjugated with) glucuronic acid, a derivative of glucose. (smrtx.com)
  • It is possible to exhaust the bodies supply of glucuronic acid by combining multiple drugs/substances whose metabolism and excretion are primarily or entirely dependent on glucuronidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The perfect pure supply of glucuronic acid, except for the liver, is kombucha. (detoxgeek.com)
  • the d -isomer detoxicates or inactivates various substances (for example, benzoic acid, phenol, camphor, and the female sex hormones) undergoing conjugation with such substances in the liver, the glucuronides so formed being excreted in the urine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neither glutathione conjugation byproducts nor glucuronic acid conjugates of glyceollins have been previously reported. (elsevier.com)
  • No glucuronic acid conjugation was found. (inchem.org)
  • 1-O-Methyl -β- D- glucuronic acid, sodium salt is an inducer of β-glucuronidase, a glycosidase enzyme coded by the GUS gene. (goldbio.com)
  • Synonym: 8-Hydroxyquinoline-β-D-glucuronic acid sodium salt, 8-Quinolyl-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid sodium salt Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 15 H 14 NNaO 7 Molecular Weight: 343.26 C 6 H 1 0 O 7. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • These rules are demonstrated by the acids and salts: hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ), sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are suggestions, yet to be proven, that the risk of rash may also be increased by (1) coadministration of LAMICTAL XR with valproate (includes valproic acid and divalproex sodium), (2) exceeding the recommended initial dose of LAMICTAL XR, or (3) exceeding the recommended dose escalation for LAMICTAL XR. (rxlist.com)
  • Free glucuronic acid is found in blood and urine in small quantities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Certain metabolic products, including some toxic products (phenol and cresol), as well as many medications, are discharged with the urine in the form of sister compounds of glucuronic acid (glucuronides). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He maintains that many of the earlier analysis assumed there was glucuronic acid within the kombucha by measuring larger ranges of glucuronides within the urine of of the themes after consuming kombucha. (detoxgeek.com)
  • C 4 H 8 O 3 , any of the acids present in the urine, esp. (tabers.com)
  • Jaundice is classified depending upon whether the bilirubin is free or conjugated to glucuronic acid into Conjugated jaundice or Unconjugated jaundice. (smrtx.com)
  • Bilirubin can be "conjugated" with a molecule of glucuronic acid which makes it soluble in water (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurement of unconjugated bilirubin is underestimated by measurement of indirect bilirubin, as unconjugated bilirubin (without glucuronidation) reacts with diazosulfanilic acid to create azobilirubin which is measured as direct bilirubin (reference https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2074068-overview ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the liver, bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid by the enzyme glucuronyltransferase , making it soluble in water: the conjugated version is the main form of bilirubin present in the "direct" bilirubin fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though most bile acid is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum to participate in enterohepatic circulation , conjugated bilirubin is not absorbed and instead passes into the colon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronic acid, as well as the glucuronidated metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (ETG), act on toll-like receptor 4 to aggravate both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions as well as increasing the perceived severity of pain in patients with chronic pain conditions, via up-regulation of the production and release of endogenous inflammatory signaling molecules within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of xylose/glucuronic acid/mannose ranges from 1:1:3 to 4:1:3, depending on the strain, and this variation is likely to be responsible for differences between cryptococcal serotypes that have distinct host range and growth characteristics ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Additional spots corresponding to mannose, xylose, and galacturonic acid should be absent. (fao.org)
  • The first part consists of synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid and release of free D-glucuronic acid. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • C 10 H 18 N 4 O 6 , a compound intermediate in the synthesis of arginine, formed from citrulline and aspartic acid. (tabers.com)
  • C 18 H 30 O 2 , an omega-3 fatty acid derived from plants, esp. (tabers.com)
  • C 20 H 32 O 2 , an omega-6 fatty acid formed by the action of enzymes on phospholipids in cell membranes. (tabers.com)
  • in diabetic ketoacidosis, when the conversion of fatty acids to ketones increases. (tabers.com)
  • The chemical constituents are denoted as follows: trioses (triangles), peptoses (pentagons), hexoses (hexagons), peptidoglycan sugar residues (teal), other sugars (yellow), sugar‐derived alcohols (orange), sugar‐derived acids (purple) and fatty acids (zigzag lines). (els.net)
  • Analysis of the chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compound identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening. (bireme.br)
  • Covalent binding of the aglycone portions of several carboxylic acid (ester) glucuronides is known to occur to nucleophilic sites on serum albumin via transacylation reactions, for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκερός - "sweet") is a carboxylic acid. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • However, glucuronic acids sixth carbon is oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • often specifically a carboxylic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Metabolic pathways in free-living En. (asm.org)
  • The heteropolymeric O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O5 as well as the band-A trisaccharide from Bordetella pertussis contain the di-N-acetylated mannosaminuronic acid derivative, β- D -ManNAc3NAcA (2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-β- D -mannuronic acid). (biochemj.org)
  • D-Glucuronic acid and its derivative glucuronolactone are as a liver antidote in the prophylaxis of human health. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • Saccharin is a derivative of this acid. (tabers.com)
  • The second fraction was a pectic polysaccharide composed of 2,4-linked and 2-linked L-rhamnose, 6-linked D-galactose, a terminal non-reducing D-glucuronic acid and 4-linked D-galacturonic acid [52]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. (definitions.net)
  • Four samples of enriched biopolymer from the activated sludge were analyzed to determine: protein content, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content, and polysaccharide content and composition. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The HS polysaccharide is composed of alternating hexuronic acid and d -glucosamine units and is substituted with sulfate groups in various positions. (rupress.org)
  • A soluble 47-kDa protein derived from bacteria expressing the C. neoformans gene catalyzed conversion of UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-xylose, as confirmed by NMR analysis. (pnas.org)
  • ABBR: AHA Any of a class of water-soluble acids derived from fruit or milk, having a hydroxyl moiety in the first position in the molecule. (tabers.com)
  • Body fluids and tissues of animals (especially the liver, kidneys, and spleen, and also malignant tumors) and bacterial and plant tissues contain the enzyme β-glucuronidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-glucuronides to free glucuronic acid and the corresponding aglycon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are: UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 2 (), UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 4 (), UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 3 (), UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 6 … Applications. (jusifuyixiban.com)
  • It is a building block or proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (tabers.com)
  • Used in crystallographic analysis of nucleic acids and proteins. (thomassci.com)
  • Most people believed that genes must be made of proteins because nucleic acids were considered too simple to carry genetic information. (coursera.org)
  • Sadly, when the liver, most likely probably the most abused a part of our system, turns into overwhelmed by toxins and harm it's not able to producing adequate volumes of glucuronic acid. (detoxgeek.com)
  • So, whether or not the issue with the overworked liver is poorer manufacturing of glucuronic acid or a rise in glucuronidase, the kombucha does, certainly, assist a terrific cope with detox. (detoxgeek.com)
  • Production of glucuronic acid conjugates of glyceollins was confirmed in vitro in rat liver microsomes. (elsevier.com)
  • An essential nucleotide triphosphate with a variety of roles in energy metabolism, signal transduction and nucleic acid metabolism. (thomassci.com)
  • Two isoflavones in vivo metabolites, genistein-7-O-β-D-glucuronic acid (G7G) and daidzein-7-O-β-D-glucuronic acid (D7G) were synthesised chemically. (ovid.com)
  • Biosynthesis of UDP-xylose is mediated by UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase, which converts UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-xylose. (pnas.org)
  • Catalyzes the NAD-dependent decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-xylose. (nih.gov)
  • Full length protein corresponding to Human Glucuronic Acid Epimerase aa 1-617. (abcam.com)
  • Glucuronic Acid Epimerase transfected lysate. (abcam.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Glucuronic Acid Epimerase transfected lysate using ab169024 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and immunoblotted with Anti-Glucuronic Acid Epimerase purified mouse polyclonal antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Sample: Glucuronic Acid Epimerase transfected lysate diluted in 16.6X and the loading amount is 36ul. (abcam.com)
  • We used homology to a bacterial gene, hypothesized to encode a related function, to identify a cryptococcal sequence as putatively encoding a UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase. (pnas.org)
  • You see, what the glucuronidase does is to cleave the bond fashioned between the molecules of glucuronic acid and the toxins. (detoxgeek.com)
  • Ethanol, morphine, paracetamol (acetaminophen), cyclooxygenase inhibitors (NSAIDs), endogenous steroids, and certain benzodiazepines are all capable of contributing to GCA depletion, with ethanol and acetaminophen being the most commonly implicated substances involved in cases of accidental overdoses which have been positively attributed to glucuronic acid depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids are conjugated into what substances? (studystack.com)
  • Bh GlcA67 showed maximum activity at pH 5.4 and 45 °C. When Bh GlcA67 was incubated with birchwood, oat spelts, and cotton seed xylan, the enzyme did not release any glucuronic acid or 4- O -methyl-glucuronic acid from these substrates. (go.jp)
  • acid phosphatase a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 5.0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Increased GCA activity results in a decrease of the concentration and metabolic half-life of glucuronic acid substrates, causing the plasma levels of glucuronidated drugs to fall below their therapeutic threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Moreover, glucuronolactone is hydrolyzed in the body (like butyrolactone ) to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable toxicity mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glacial (highly purified) acetic acid contains at least 99.5% acetic acid by weight. (tabers.com)
  • Use two solvent systems one for each plate: A. a mixture of formic acid, methyl ethyl ketone, tertiary butanol and water (15:30:40:15 by volume) and B. a mixture of isopropanol, pyridine, acetic acid and water (40:40:5:20 by volume) to develop the plates. (fao.org)
  • hyaluronic acid, for example, the major component of joint fluid in animals, functions as a lubricating agent and shock absorber . (britannica.com)
  • Analysis of the hyaluronic acid (HA) degradation products by capillary zone electrophoresis showed that hyaluronan was catabolized by rhHyal-1 continuously into HA oligosaccharides. (springer.com)
  • Place 1 to 10 m l spots of the hydrolysate on the starting line of two chromatoplates and spots containing 1 to 10 m g of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid, expected to be present in the hydrolysate. (fao.org)
  • Compare sample spots with those for the solutions of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid. (fao.org)
  • All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • acids form salts by replacing all or part of the ionizable hydrogen with an electropositive element or radical. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of the complex acids that occur as salts in bile, e.g., cholic, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids. (tabers.com)