Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kentucky" is a proper noun and not a term that has a medical definition. It is a state located in the eastern region of the United States. If you have any questions related to medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.

Daidzein and genistein glucuronides in vitro are weakly estrogenic and activate human natural killer cells at nutritionally relevant concentrations. (1/804)

Daidzein and genistein glucuronides (DG and GG), major isoflavone metabolites, may be partly responsible for biological effects of isoflavones, such as estrogen receptor binding and natural killer cell (NK) activation or inhibition. DG and GG were synthesized using 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver microsomes. The Km and Vmax for daidzein and genistein were 9.0 and 7.7 micromol/L, and 0.7 and 1.6 micromol/(mg protein. min), respectively. The absence of ultraviolet absorbance maxima shifts in the presence of sodium acetate confirmed that the synthesized products were 7-O-glucuronides. DG and GG were further purified by a Sephadex LH-20 column. DG and GG competed with the binding of 17beta-(3H) estradiol to estrogen receptors of B6D2F1 mouse uterine cytosol. The concentrations required for 50% displacement of 17beta-(3H) estradiol (CB50) were: 17beta-estradiol, 1.34 nmol/L; diethylstilbestrol, 1.46 nmol/L; daidzein, 1.6 micromol/L; DG, 14.7 micromol/L; genistein, 0.154 micromol/L; GG, 7.27 micromol/L. In human peripheral blood NK cells, genistein at <0.5 micromol/L and DG and GG at 0.1-10 micromol/L enhanced NK cell-mediated K562 cancer cell killing significantly (P < 0.05). At > 0.5 micromol/L, genistein inhibited NK cytotoxicity significantly (P < 0.05). The glucuronides only inhibited NK cytotoxicity at 50 micromol/L. Isoflavones, and especially the isoflavone glucuronides, enhanced activation of NK cells by interleukin-2 (IL-2), additively. At physiological concentrations, DG and GG were weakly estrogenic, and they activated human NK cells in nutritionally relevant concentrations in vitro, probably at a site different from IL-2 action.  (+info)

Identification of cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid in submitochondrial particles of bovine heart. (2/804)

Submitochondrial particles of bovine heart were hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2 and the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. We found a fatty acid with a molecular mass of 268 Da and a retention time longer than that of linoleic acid. Next, we synthesized organically cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, which has a molecular mass similar to that of the extracted fatty acid, and characterized its high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiles. Using these data we were able to identify endogenous cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid in rat and human heart and liver tissues that had been hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2. This fatty acid was not detected in tissue extracts that had not been hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2. Similar amounts of cis-9, 10-methylenehexadecanoic acid were measured in tissue extracts after total hydrolysis. These results suggest that cis-9, 10-methylenehexadecanoic acid is a fatty acid component, in the sn-2 position, of phospholipids in some mammalian tissue.  (+info)

Metabolites of a tobacco-specific carcinogen in urine from newborns. (3/804)

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy can result in fetal exposure to carcinogens that are transferred from the mother via the placenta, but little information is available on fetal uptake of such compounds. We analyzed samples of the first urine from newborns whose mothers did or did not smoke cigarettes for the presence of metabolites of the potent tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). METHODS: The urine was collected and analyzed for two metabolites of NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronide (NNAL-Gluc). Gas chromatography and nitrosamine-selective detection, with confirmation by mass spectrometry, were used in the analyses, which were performed without knowledge of the origin of the urine samples. RESULTS: NNAL-Gluc was detected in 22 (71%) of 31 urine samples from newborns of mothers who smoked; NNAL was detected in four of these 31 urine samples. Neither compound was detected in the 17 urine samples from newborns of mothers who did not smoke. The arithmetic mean level of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the 27 newborns of smokers for which both analytes were quantified was 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.083-0.200) pmol/mL. The levels of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the urine from these babies were statistically significantly higher than those in the urine from newborns of nonsmoking mothers (geometric means = 0.062 [95% CI = 0.035-0.110] and 0.010 [considered as not detected; no confidence interval], respectively; two-sided P<.001). NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc levels in the 18 positive urine samples in which both analytes were quantified ranged from 0.045 to 0.400 pmol/mL, with an arithmetic mean level of 0.20 (95% CI = 0.14-0.26) pmol/mL, about 5%-10% of the levels of these compounds detected in the urine from adult smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Two metabolites of the tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen NNK can be detected in the urine from newborns of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy.  (+info)

Ethyl glucuronide--a marker of alcohol consumption and a relapse marker with clinical and forensic implications. (4/804)

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, water-soluble, direct metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in body fluids and hair. We investigated urine and serum samples from three patient groups: (1) 33 in-patients in acute alcohol withdrawal; (2) 30 detoxified in-patients (treated for at least 4 weeks) from a 'motivation station'; and (3) 43 neuro-rehabilitation patients (non-alcoholics; most of them suffering from stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease etc.) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with deuterium-labelled EtG as the internal standard and additionally in the second group of patients using liquid chromatography (LC/MS-MS). We found no correlation between the concentration of EtG in urine at hospitalization and the blood-ethanol concentration (r = 0.17), the time frame of detection (r = 0.5) or the total amount of clomethiazole required for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms (r = 0.28). In four out of 30 in-patients from the 'motivation station'--where neither clinical impression nor routine laboratory findings gave indications of relapse--concentrations of EtG in urine ranged between 4.2 and 196.6 mg/l. EtG concentrations in urine of between 2.89 and 23.49 mg/l were found in seven out of 43 neuro-rehabilitation patients using GC/MS. The GC/MS and the LC/MS-MS results showed a correlation of 0.98 with Pearson's correlation test and 1.0 with Spearman's correlation test. We suggest that EtG is a marker of alcohol consumption that can be detected for an extended time period after the complete elimination of alcohol from the body. When used as a relapse marker with a specific time frame of detection intermediate between short- and long-term markers, EtG fills a clinically as well as forensically important gap. Its specificity and sensitivity exceed those of all other known ethanol markers.  (+info)

Metabolism of the antimalarial endoperoxide Ro 42-1611 (arteflene) in the rat: evidence for endoperoxide bioactivation. (5/804)

Ro 42-1611 (arteflene) is a synthetic endoperoxide antimalarial. The antimalarial activity of endoperoxides is attributed to iron(II)-mediated generation of carbon-centered radicals. An alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone (enone; 4-[2',4' bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-buten-2-one), obtained from arteflene by reaction with iron(II), was identified previously as the stable product of a reaction that, by inference, also yields a cyclohexyl radical. The activation of arteflene in vivo has been characterized with particular reference to enone formation. [14C]Arteflene (35 micromol/kg) was given i.v. to anesthetized and cannulated male rats: 42.2 +/- 7.0% (mean +/- S.D., n = 7) of the radiolabel was recovered in bile over 5 h. In the majority of rats, the principal biliary metabolites were 8-hydroxyarteflene glucuronide (14.2 +/- 3. 9% dose, 0-3 h) and the cis and trans isomers of the enone (13.5 +/- 4.6% dose, 0-3 h). In conscious rats, 15.3 +/- 1.6% (mean +/- S.D., n = 8) of the radiolabel was recovered in urine over 24 h. The principal urinary metabolite appeared to be a glycine conjugate of a derivative of the enone. Biliary excretion of the glucuronide, but not of the enones, was inhibited by ketoconazole. 8-Hydroxyarteflene was formed extensively by rat and human liver microsomes but no enone was found. Bioactivation is a major pathway of arteflene's metabolism in the rat. Although the mechanism of in vivo bioactivation is unclear, the reaction is not catalyzed by microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzymes.  (+info)

Purification and properties of an alginate lyase from a marine bacterium. (6/804)

An unidentified pseudomonad isolated by enrichment procedures from decomposing seaweed was grown in defined medium containing sodium alginate as the sole carbon source. The alginate lyase recovered from disrupted bacterial cells was purified by a procedure of (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. From sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis experiments a mol.wt. of about 50 000 was determined. The enzyme was active against both algal and bacterial alginate preparations. Kinetic studies together with analysis of the unsaturated oligouronide products of alginate lyase action indicated the enzyme was specific for guluronic acid-containing regions of the macromolecular substrate. The specificity of the enzyme can be used to give information about the primary composition of alginate samples.  (+info)

Structural elucidation of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by a mucoid clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia. Characterization of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue in a heptasaccharide repeating unit. (7/804)

The structure of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by a clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia isolated from a patient with fibrocystic lung disease has been investigated. By means of methylation analyses, carboxyl reduction, partial depolymerization by fuming HCl and chemical degradations such as Smith degradation, lithiumethylenediamine degradation and beta-elimination, supported by GC/MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, the repeat unit of the EPS has been identified and was shown to correspond to the acidic branched heptasaccharide with the following structure: [formula: see text]. This partially acetylated acidic polymer, distinguished by the presence of the less usual D-isomer of rhamnose and of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue, could represent the main EPS produced by this bacterial species.  (+info)

Biotransformation of curcumin through reduction and glucuronidation in mice. (8/804)

Curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric and curry, has antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic properties of curcumin in mice. After i.p. administration of curcumin (0.1 g/kg) to mice, about 2.25 microg/ml of curcumin appeared in the plasma in the first 15 min. One hour after administration, the levels of curcumin in the intestines, spleen, liver, and kidneys were 177.04, 26.06, 26.90, and 7.51 microg/g, respectively. Only traces (0.41 microg/g) were observed in the brain at 1 h. To clarify the nature of the metabolites of curcumin, the plasma was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, and two putative conjugates were observed. Treatment of the plasma with beta-glucuronidase resulted in a decrease in the concentrations of these two putative conjugates and the concomitant appearance of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) and curcumin, respectively. To investigate the nature of these glucuronide conjugates in vivo, the plasma was analyzed by electrospray. The chemical structures of these metabolites, determined by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, suggested that curcumin was first biotransformed to dihydrocurcumin and THC and that these compounds subsequently were converted to monoglucuronide conjugates. Because THC is one of the major metabolites of curcumin, we studied its stability at different pH values. THC was very stable in 0.1 M phosphate buffers of various pH values. Moreover, THC was more stable than curcumin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2 (37 degrees C). These results, together with previous findings, suggest that curcumin-glucuronoside, dihydrocurcumin-glucuronoside, THC-glucuronoside, and THC are major metabolites of curcumin in vivo.  (+info)

Glucuronates are not a medical term per se, but they refer to salts or esters of glucuronic acid, a organic compound that is a derivative of glucose. In the context of medical and biological sciences, glucuronidation is a common detoxification process in which glucuronic acid is conjugated to a wide variety of molecules, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, to make them more water-soluble and facilitate their excretion from the body through urine or bile.

The process of glucuronidation is catalyzed by enzymes called UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. The resulting glucuronides can be excreted directly or further metabolized before excretion.

Therefore, "glucuronates" can refer to the chemical compounds that result from this process of conjugation with glucuronic acid, as well as the therapeutic potential of enhancing or inhibiting glucuronidation for various clinical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kentucky" is not a medical term or condition. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

Medical Definition of Microbiota:

The community of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microscopic life forms, that inhabit a specific environment or body part. In the human body, microbiota can be found on the skin, in the mouth, gut, and other areas. The largest concentration of microbiota is located in the intestines, where it plays an essential role in digestion, immune function, and overall health.

The composition of the microbiota can vary depending on factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental exposures. Dysbiosis, or imbalance of the microbiota, has been linked to various health conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.

Therefore, maintaining a healthy and diverse microbiota is crucial for overall health and well-being. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, stress management, and other lifestyle practices that support the growth and maintenance of beneficial microorganisms in the body.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are a type of fatty acid that have a low molecular weight and are known for their ability to evaporate at room temperature. They are produced in the body during the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins in the absence of oxygen, such as in the digestive tract by certain bacteria.

The most common volatile fatty acids include acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. These compounds have various roles in the body, including providing energy to cells in the intestines, modulating immune function, and regulating the growth of certain bacteria. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of other molecules, such as cholesterol and bile acids.

In addition to their role in the body, volatile fatty acids are also important in the food industry, where they are used as flavorings and preservatives. They are produced naturally during fermentation and aging processes, and are responsible for the distinctive flavors of foods such as yogurt, cheese, and wine.

Collagen Type VI is a type of collagen that is widely expressed in various tissues, including skeletal muscle, skin, and blood vessels. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays important roles in maintaining tissue structure and function. Collagen Type VI forms microfilaments that provide structural support to the basement membrane and regulate cell-matrix interactions. Mutations in the genes encoding collagen Type VI can lead to several inherited connective tissue disorders, such as Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy.

Butyrates are a type of fatty acid, specifically called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), that are produced in the gut through the fermentation of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. The name "butyrate" comes from the Latin word for butter, "butyrum," as butyrate was first isolated from butter.

Butyrates have several important functions in the body. They serve as a primary energy source for colonic cells and play a role in maintaining the health and integrity of the intestinal lining. Additionally, butyrates have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, regulate gene expression, and may even help prevent certain types of cancer.

In medical contexts, butyrate supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions such as ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), due to their anti-inflammatory properties and ability to promote gut health. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of butyrates and their long-term effects on human health.

In enzymology, a glucuronate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucuronate ⇌ {\ ... and D-glucuronate ketol-isomerase. This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, two ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucuronate aldose-ketose-isomerase. Other names in common use include uronic ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-fructuronate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, D-glucuronate, and one product, D- ...
D-glucuronate dehydrogenase, D-glucuronate reductase, and L-glucuronate reductase (incorrect). This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a glucuronate reductase (EC 1.1.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-gulonate + NADP+ ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-glucuronate + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-gulonate and NADP+, ... whereas its 3 products are D-glucuronate, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically ...
In enzymology, a glucuronate-2-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction of cleaving off the 2- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is polysaccharide-2-O-sulfo-D-glucuronate 2-sulfohydrolase. This enzyme is also called ... sulfate groups of the 2-O-sulfo-D-glucuronate residues of chondroitin sulfate, heparin and heparitin sulfate. This enzyme ...
The enzyme UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.35) catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-D-glucuronate ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-D-glucuronate carboxy-lyase (UDP-D-xylose-forming). Other names in common use ... 1. Uridine diphosphate glucuronate carboxy-lyase of wheat germ". Biochemistry. 4 (11): 2468-2475. doi:10.1021/bi00887a028. ... include uridine-diphosphoglucuronate decarboxylase, and UDP-D-glucuronate carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in starch and ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin-D-glucuronate 5-epimerase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a chondroitin-glucuronate 5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... chondroitin D-glucuronate, and one product, dermatan L-iduronate. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically ... chondroitin D-glucuronate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dermatan L-iduronate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, ...
UDP-glucuronate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UTP and 1-phospho-alpha-D-glucuronate, whereas its two products are ... 1-phospho-alpha-D-glucuronate uridylyltransferase. Other names in common use include UDP-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase, UDP-D- ... In enzymology, a glucuronate-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.44) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Roberts RM (August ...
In enzymology, an UDP-glucuronate 5'-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucuronate ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucuronate 5'-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-L-iduronate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-glucuronate, and one product, UDP-L ...
In enzymology, an UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucuronate ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine diphospho-D- ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-D-galacturonate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-glucuronate, and one product, ...
Heparosan-N-sulfate-glucuronate+5-epimerase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ... Heparosan-N-sulfate-glucuronate 5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.17, heparosan epimerase, heparosan-N-sulfate-D-glucuronosyl 5-epimerase, ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction heparosan-N-sulfate D-glucuronate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ...
... (EC 2.3.1.201, WbpD, WlbB) is an enzyme with systematic ... UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-glucuronate+N-acetyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate This enzyme participates in the ...
UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UGD; EC 4.1.1.35) catalyzes the formation of UDP-xylose from UDP-glucuronate. UDP-xylose is then ... 2002). "UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase, a key enzyme in proteoglycan synthesis: cloning, characterization, and localization". J ... "Entrez Gene: UXS1 UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. BURMA DP, HORECKER BL (1958). "Pentose fermentation by ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Dahms AS, Donald A (1982). "D-xylo-Aldonate dehydratase ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Shaw DR (February 1962). "Pyrophosphorolysis and enzymic ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Chiang C, Knight SG (1960). "A new pathway of pentose ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Hickman J, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in ...
Mechanism of action of UDP-glucuronate carboxyl-lyase. Biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-d-xylose. V. UDP-d-glucuronate and ... V. UDP-d-glucuronate and UDP-d-galacturonate carboxy-lyase of Ampullariella digitata. Fan, D. F. and Feingold, D. S. Arch. ... Mechanism of action of UDP-glucuronate carboxyl-lyase. Schutzbach, J. S. and Feingold D. S. J. Biol. Chem. 245:2476-2482, 1970 ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. This enzyme catalyses the conversion of L-arabinose to L- ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Glaser L (April 1963). "Ribitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Moran F, Nasuno S, Starr MP (1968). "Oligogalacturonide ... 2 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucuronate This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically those carbon-oxygen lyases acting ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Wing RA, Yamaguchi J, Larabell SK, Ursin VM, McCormick S ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Yamanaka K, Gino M, Kaneda R (1977). "A specific NAD-D- ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Buchert J, Viikari L (1988). "The role of xylonolactone ...
This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. SMILEY JD, ASHWELL G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in ...
In enzymology, a glucuronate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucuronate ⇌ {\ ... and D-glucuronate ketol-isomerase. This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, two ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucuronate aldose-ketose-isomerase. Other names in common use include uronic ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-fructuronate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, D-glucuronate, and one product, D- ...
Morphine metabolites were isolated with column chromatography on a resin and neutral aluminum oxide and TLC from the urine of morphine-dependent subjects maintained on morphine sulfate at a dose of 240 mg/day. These metabolites were characterized as morphine 3-glucuronide, morphine 6-glucuronide, mo …
... pentose and glucuronate interconversions, glycerolipid metabolism, folate biosynthesis, and tyrosine metabolism. In addition to ... and pentose and glucuronate interconversions, including the pentose phosphate pathway and the glucuronate interconversions ... Maternal plasma metabolites involving pentose and glucuronate interconversion pathways decreased on D 17 of pregnancy. ... a) alpha-linolenic acid; (b) glycerophospholipid metabolism; (c) pentose and glucuronate interconversions; (d) glycerolipid ...
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions. 3.42 × 10−4. 0. 2.01 × 10−5. Beta-Alanine metabolism. 3.69 × 10−4. 0. 2.89 × 10−5. ...
Adult, Aged, Carcinogens/adverse effects/metabolism, Cotinine/urine, Creatinine/urine, Female, Glucuronates/urine, Humans, Lung ... Glucuronates); 0 (Nitrosamines); 0 (Tobacco Smoke Pollution); 6M3C89ZY6R (Nicotine) ...
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions. map00520 Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. map01100 Metabolic pathways. ...
Trimetrexate Glucuronate Trimetrexate Glucuronate. per 25 mg. Chemotherapy Antimetabolite. Folic Acid Antagonist. No 1993. 2007 ...
UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase 1 [Nicotiana tabacum]. arabidopsis. blastx. At3G46440.2. 280. 8e-76. 83.54. 474 bp (56.0%). -2. ...
glucuronate isomerase. NP_227880. 15642839. pMH2T7. 896909. TM0082. flagellar hook-associated protein 3. NP_227898. 15642857. ...
00040 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions. 4331761. 09102 Energy metabolism. 00710 Carbon fixation in photosynthetic ... 00040 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions. 4347508. 09102 Energy metabolism. 00710 Carbon fixation in photosynthetic ...
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions. 28.57. map00500. Starch and sucrose metabolism. 12.70. map00530. Aminosugars ...
J:302659 Trabszo C, et al., Arylsulfatase K inactivation causes mucopolysaccharidosis due to deficient glucuronate desulfation ...
These include, but are not limited to, conjugation with xylose, glucuronate and sulfate.. - Dimerizations. These include, but ... These include, but are not limited to, conjugation with xylose, glucuronate and sulfate.. - Dimerizations. These include, but ...
00040 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions. 00051 Fructose and mannose metabolism. 00052 Galactose metabolism. 00053 ...
Norclobazam is conjugated in the liver and excreted in the bile as glucuronate and in the urine as sulfate. The clobazam plasma ...
... glucuronate or sulfate". Biofactors 17 (1-4): 103-14. PMID 12897433.. ...
The urinary sex pheromone directed at females consists of 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20β-triol 3-glucuronate and its 20α-epimer. The ... and whether the pregnanetriol 3-glucuronates also reduce male-male aggression. Males were allowed to fight their mirror image ... the two pregnanetriol 3-glucuronates (P3Gs); or vi) P3Gs plus DMU filtrate. Control males mounted an increasingly aggressive ...
L-rhamnose-α-1,4-D-glucuronate lyase (EC 4.2.2.-);. Mechanism. b-elimination ...
Identification and characterization of a UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase in Arabidopsis. FEBS Letters 569 (1-3), pp. 327 - 331 ( ...
D-Glucuronate. Formulae in BiGG models: C6H9O7. Charges in BiGG models: -1 ...
High molecular weight polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of sodium glucuronate and N-acetylglucosamine; ...
heparosan-N-sulfate-glucuronate 5-epimerase. 5.1.3.18. GDP-mannose 3,5-epimerase. ...
... this reaction favored the formation of UDP-glucuronate which in turn was diverted into the formation of amino sugars. These ...
... trimetrexate glucuronate, pentamidine isethionate, vancomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, diazepam, midazolam, digoxin, ...
... glucuronate, and sulfate, which are collectively known as phase II products of biotransformation. Unlike other members of the ...
... abstracts the proton from the C5 position of glucuronic acid while Asn183 and His233 neutralize the charge on the glucuronate ...
Microbes in people with PD expressed lower levels of genes involved in the degradation of D-glucuronate, a chemical needed for ...
  • This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in six metabolic pathways were found on D 17 and D 45, including variations in the level of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, glycerolipid metabolism, folate biosynthesis, and tyrosine metabolism. (nature.com)
  • arachidonic acid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions in 19 weeks. (bvsalud.org)
  • The results demonstrated that GLXB herb pair mainly played a therapeutic role by regulating glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions in the whole process of AS. (bvsalud.org)
  • In enzymology, a glucuronate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucuronate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-fructuronate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, D-glucuronate, and one product, D-fructuronate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucuronate aldose-ketose-isomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include uronic isomerase, uronate isomerase, D-glucuronate isomerase, uronic acid isomerase, and D-glucuronate ketol-isomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number and sequence of the Mannuronate and Glucuronate residues shown above vary in the naturally occurring alginate. (cybercolloids.net)
  • Identification and characterization of a UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase in Arabidopsis. (mpg.de)
  • Finding step dctM for D-glucuronate catabolism in Acidovorax sp. (lbl.gov)
  • Microbes in people with PD expressed lower levels of genes involved in the degradation of D-glucuronate, a chemical needed for excretion of drugs and toxins in the urine. (alzforum.org)
  • This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glucuronate, any salt or ester of glucuronic acid. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In a prospective, randomized, double-blind therapeutic trial, 191 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were treated for 8 weeks daily b.i.d. orally either with betaine glucuronate combined with diethanolamine glucuronate and nicotinamide ascorbate (Ietepar) (96 patients) or with undistinguishable placebo capsules (95 patients). (nih.gov)
  • I. Purification and characterization of the oxygenase and of an enzyme complex containing the oxygenase and D -glucuronate reductase. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Neutrexin is the brand name for trimetrexate glucuronate. (nih.gov)
  • Neutrexin is available as a sterile lyophilized powder, containing trimetrexate glucuronate equivalent to either 200mg or 25mg of trimetrexate without any preservatives or excipients. (nih.gov)
  • Trimetrexate glucuronate for injection is a pale greenish-yellow powder or cake. (nih.gov)
  • Identification and characterization of a UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase in Arabidopsis. (mpg.de)
  • 23. Expression of chondroitin-glucuronate C5-epimerase and cellular immune responses in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (nih.gov)