Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. The common name of white mustard sometimes refers to other plants (MUSTARD PLANT).
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of AZORHIZOBIUM which forms nodules on the roots of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Members contain glucobrassicin.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.

Conversion of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates in humans after ingestion of cooked watercress. (1/243)

Isothiocyanates (ITCs), major constituents of cruciferous vegetables, can inhibit tumorigenesis in rodents by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens. ITCs that occur as glucosinolates are released by myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis when raw vegetables are chopped or chewed. However, because cruciferous vegetables are commonly consumed by humans after being cooked, it is important to examine whether dietary glucosinolates are converted to ITCs after cooked cruciferous vegetables in which myrosinase is deactivated have been consumed. This information is useful for evaluating the potential role of ITCs in cruciferous vegetables in the protection against human cancers. A urinary marker, based on a cyclocondensation product formed by the reaction of ITCs and their conjugates with 1,2-benzenedithiol, was used to quantify the uptake of dietary ITCs in humans. At breakfast and lunch, nine volunteers consumed a total of 350 g of cooked watercress in which the myrosinase activity was completely deactivated. On the basis of the analysis of ITCs in the cooked watercress upon adding exogenous myrosinase, the amount of glucosinolates ingested by each subject was estimated to be 475 micromol. The 24-h urine samples showed that the total urinary excretion of ITC conjugates in the subjects ranged from 5.6 to 34.8 micromol, corresponding to 1.2-7.3% of the total amount ingested. On the basis of our previous results that approximately 50% of dietary ITCs were excreted in the urine as conjugates, these values represent the minimal in vivo conversion of glucosinolates to ITCs. For purposes of comparison, we carried out a second experiment in which 150 g of uncooked watercress were consumed. The percentage of urinary ITC conjugates excreted in this study ranged from 17.2 to 77.7% of the total ingested ITCs. These results indicate that glucosinolates are converted to ITCs in humans after ingestion of cooked watercress, in which the myrosinase has been completely inactivated. The extent of conversion, however, is considerably less than that after ingesting uncooked vegetables. Furthermore, upon incubation of the cooked watercress juice with fresh human feces under anaerobic conditions, approximately 18% of glucosinolates was hydrolyzed to ITCs in 2 h. These results suggest that the microflora in the intestinal tract are a likely source for the hydrolysis of glucosinolates to ITCs in humans.  (+info)

An expressional system of human cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 gene transcription. (2/243)

AIM: To explore an expressional system of human cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 (CYP1A1) gene transcription. METHODS: The plasmid pMC 6.3 K containing human CYP1A1 promoter was transiently transfected into Hep G2 cells. The expression of chloramphenical acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene was detected by ELISA. RESULTS: Both the CAT expression and CYP1A1 activity increased with the concentrations of beta-naphthoflavone from 2.5 to 10 mumol.L-1. At 10 mumol.L-1 of beta-naphthoflavone, the levels of CAT and CYP1A1 were 94-fold and 2.8-fold those of the corresponding control, respectively. Using this method, the study of 8 glucosinolates with various side chains on the induction of CYP1A1 gene transcription showed that none of the parent glucosinolates increased CAT expression, whereas the breakdown products of indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin), rather than indole-3-carbinol, increased the CAT expression. CONCLUSION: The CYP1A1 gene transcriptional system was more reliable and sensitive.  (+info)

Glucosinolate genetics and the attraction of the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae to Brassica. (3/243)

The control of insect pests using parasitoids and carnivores has been successfully applied in protected cropping systems, orchards and forestry. Their success in annual field crops has been more limited due largely to the difficulties of attracting and maintaining a sufficient density of parasitoids in the crop before the levls of the insect herbivores become economically damaging. Parasitoids are known to be attracted to host-plant volatiles; thus, manipulating the host-plant chemistry may provide a means of enhancing the attraction of parasitoids to their prey. In this study we describe the differential attraction of the braconid wasp Diaeretiella rapae to two near-isogenic lines of Brassica oleracea which differ in a gene which alters the chemical structure of the isothiocyanates which are emitted following tissue damage. We demonstrate that, by enhancing the production of but-3-enyl isothiocyanate in B. oleracea and Brassica napus (oilseed rape), we can increase the attraction of D. rapae to these plants under standard field conditions.  (+info)

Purification and characterisation of epithiospecifier protein from Brassica napus: enzymic intramolecular sulphur addition within alkenyl thiohydroximates derived from alkenyl glucosinolate hydrolysis. (4/243)

Epithiospecifier protein (ESP), a ferrous ion dependent protein, has a potential role in regulating the release of elemental sulphur, nitriles, isothiocyanates and cyanoepithioalkanes from glucosinolates. Two classes of ESP polypeptides were purified with molecular masses of 39 and 35 kDa, and we show that the previously reported instability was conditionally dependent. The 39 kDa polypeptide was made up of two distinct isozymes (5.00, 5.14) whilst several were present for the 35 kDa form of ESP (5.40-5.66). An anti-ESP antibody reacted with both the 39 and 35 kDa ESP forms in Brassica napus and strongly with a polypeptide corresponding to the 35 kDa ESP form in Crambe abyssinica, but did not detect any ESP in Sinapis alba or Raphanus sativus. A cytochrome P-450 mediated iron dependent epoxidation type mechanism is suggested for ESP.  (+info)

Characterization of glucosinolate uptake by leaf protoplasts of Brassica napus. (5/243)

The uptake of radiolabeled p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (p-OHBG) by protoplasts isolated from leaves of Brassica napus was detected using silicone oil filtration technique. The uptake was pH-dependent with higher uptake rates at acidic pH. Imposition of a pH gradient (internal alkaline) across the plasma membrane resulted in a rapid uptake of p-OHBG, which was inhibited in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, indicating that the uptake is dependent on a proton motive force. Dissipation of the internal positive membrane potential generated a small influx as compared with that seen for pH gradient (DeltapH). Kinetic studies demonstrated the presence of two uptake systems, a saturable and a linear component. The saturable kinetics indicated carrier-mediated translocation with a K(m) of 1.0 mm and a V(max) of 28.7 nmol/microl/h. The linear component had very low substrate affinity. The carrier-mediated transport had a temperature coefficient (Q(10)) of 1.8 +/- 0.2 in the temperature range from 4-30 degrees C. The uptake was against a concentration gradient and was sensitive to protonophores, uncouplers, H(+)-ATPase inhibitors, and the sulfhydryl group modifier p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. The carrier-mediated uptake system had high specificity for glucosinolates because glucosinolate degradation products, amino acids, sugars, or glutathione conjugates did not compete for p-OHBG uptake. Glucosinolates with different side chains were equally good competitors of p-OHBG uptake, which indicates that the uptake system has low specificity for the glucosinolate side chains. Our data provide the first evidence of an active transport of glucosinolates by a proton-coupled symporter in the plasma membrane of rape leaves.  (+info)

A glucosinolate mutant of Arabidopsis is thermosensitive and defective in cytosolic Hsp90 expression after heat stress. (6/243)

The TU8 mutant of Arabidopsis previously described to be deficient in glucosinolate metabolism and pathogen-induced auxin accumulation was found to be remarkably less tolerant upon exposure to elevated temperatures than wild-type plants. Although moderately increased temperature only affected shoot growth, exposure to severe heat stress led to a dramatic decay of mutant plants. By contrast, wild-type seedlings showed little or no damage under the same conditions. Analysis of different heat stress proteins (Hsps) in TU8 seedlings revealed that only expression of cytoplasmic Hsp90 was affected in these plants. Although Hsp90 was present under control conditions, its level declined in mutant plants at elevated temperatures. Northern-blot analysis indicated that the decrease in Hsp90 protein was accompanied with a reduction of hsp90 transcript levels. Transient expression of Hsp90 in mutant protoplasts increased their survival rate at higher temperatures to near equivalent that of wild-type protoplasts. These data suggest that the reduced level of Hsp90 in TU8 mutants may be the primary cause for the observed reduction in thermostability.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 CYP79B2 from Arabidopsis catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime, a precursor of indole glucosinolates and indole-3-acetic acid. (7/243)

Glucosinolates are natural plant products known as flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents, and biopesticides. We report cloning and characterization of the cytochrome P450 CYP79B2 from Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression of CYP79B2 in Escherichia coli shows that CYP79B2 catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime. Recombinant CYP79B2 has a K(m) of 21 microm and a V(max) of 7.78 nmol/h/ml culture. Inhibitor studies show that CYP79B2 is different from a previously described enzyme activity that converts tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime (Ludwig-Muller, J. , and Hilgenberg, W. (1990) Phytochemistry, 29, 1397-1400). CYP79B2 is wound-inducible and expressed in leaves, stem, flowers, and roots, with the highest expression in roots. Arabidopsis overexpressing CYP79B2 has increased levels of indole glucosinolates, which strongly indicates that CYP79B2 is involved in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. Our data show that oxime production by CYP79s is not restricted to those amino acids that are precursors for cyanogenic glucosides. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole glucosinolates have evolved from cyanogenesis. Indole-3-acetaldoxime is a precursor of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, which suggests that CYP79B2 might function in biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Identification of CYP79B2 provides an important tool for modification of the indole glucosinolate content to improve nutritional value and pest resistance.  (+info)

High resolution X-ray crystallography shows that ascorbate is a cofactor for myrosinase and substitutes for the function of the catalytic base. (8/243)

Myrosinase, an S-glycosidase, hydrolyzes plant anionic 1-thio-beta-d-glucosides (glucosinolates) considered part of the plant defense system. Although O-glycosidases are ubiquitous, myrosinase is the only known S-glycosidase. Its active site is very similar to that of retaining O-glycosidases, but one of the catalytic residues in O-glycosidases, a carboxylate residue functioning as the general base, is replaced by a glutamine residue. Myrosinase is strongly activated by ascorbic acid. Several binary and ternary complexes of myrosinase with different transition state analogues and ascorbic acid have been analyzed at high resolution by x-ray crystallography along with a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucosyl enzyme intermediate. One of the inhibitors, d-gluconhydroximo-1,5-lactam, binds simultaneously with a sulfate ion to form a mimic of the enzyme-substrate complex. Ascorbate binds to a site distinct from the glucose binding site but overlapping with the aglycon binding site, suggesting that activation occurs at the second step of catalysis, i.e. hydrolysis of the glycosyl enzyme. A water molecule is placed perfectly for activation by ascorbate and for nucleophilic attack on the covalently trapped 2-fluoro-glucosyl-moiety. Activation of the hydrolysis of the glucosyl enzyme intermediate is further evidenced by the observation that ascorbate enhances the rate of reactivation of the 2-fluoro-glycosyl enzyme, leading to the conclusion that ascorbic acid substitutes for the catalytic base in myrosinase.  (+info)

In a previous transactivation screen, two Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factors, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29, along with the already characterized HAG1/MYB28, were identified as putative regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Molecular and biochemical characterization of HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 functions was performed using transformants with increased or repressed transcript levels. Real-time PCR assays, cotransformation assays and measurements of glucosinolate contents were used to assess the impact of both MYB factors on the steady-state level of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates. Both HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 were shown to be positive regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Expression of promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions indicated GUS activities in both vegetative and generative organs, with distinct characteristics for each MYB factor. HAG1/MYB28, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 reciprocally transactivated ...
Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28) was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in
Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites present in Brassicaceae plants such as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Intact glucosinolates are believed to be biologically inactive, whereas degradation products after hydrolysis have multiple roles in growth regulation and defense. The degradation of glucosinolates is catalyzed by thioglucosidases called myrosinases and leads by default to the formation of isothiocyanates. The interaction of a protein called epithiospecifier protein (ESP) with myrosinase diverts the reaction toward the production of epithionitriles or nitriles depending on the glucosinolate structure. Here we report the identification of a new group of nitrile-specifier proteins (AtNSPs) in A. thaliana able to generate nitriles in conjunction with myrosinase and a more detailed characterization of one member (AtNSP2). Recombinant AtNSP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to test its impact on the outcome of glucosinolate hydrolysis using a gas chromatography-mass ...
Within the cell, biosynthetic pathways are embedded in protein-protein interaction networks. In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. However, little is known about the spatial orchestration of these enzymes and their interplay with the cellular environment. To address these aspects, we applied two complementary, untargeted approaches - split-ubiquitin yeast 2-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation screens - to identify proteins interacting with CYP83A1 and CYP83B1, two homologous enzymes specific for aliphatic and indole glucosinolate biosynthesis, respectively. Our analyses reveal distinct functional networks with substantial interconnection among the identified interactors for both pathway-specific markers, and add to our knowledge about how biochemical pathways are connected to cellular processes. Specifically, a group of protein interactors involved in cell death and the hypersensitive response provides a potential link
Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites composed of a thioglucose group and an amino acid side-chain. They occur in the Brassicaceae and related families. A wide variety of glucosinolates exists owing to modification of the side-chain structure. Following tissue damage, myrosinase enzymes catalyse the decomposition of glucosinolates to a variety of volatile and nonvolatile products. The genetic control of concentration and side-chain modification of aliphatic glucosinolates, which have side-chains derived from methionine, are simple and well known from work on Arabidopsis and Brassica crops. In controlled conditions in the laboratory or in field trials, many aliphatic glucosinolates, or their degradation products, affect the behaviour of herbivores. For these reasons, we suggest that polymorphism for aliphatic glucosinolates in natural populations offers an attractive system for the study of ecological genetics of plant-herbivore interactions.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effects of different classes of important and common dietary phytochemicals (5 simple phenolics - tyrosol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid; chalcone - phloridzin; flavan-3-ol - (-) epicatechin; seco-iridoid - oleuropein glucoside; 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Another objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual combinations of streptomycin with the different phytochemicals on antibacterial activity. A disc diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals and 3 standard antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin) against the four bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of single compounds and dual combinations (streptomycin-phytochemicals) were ...
Glucosinolates are a class of plant secondary metabolites of Brassicaceaefamily with diverse biological functions. Hydrolytic products of some glucosinolates are beneficial whereas some impart...
Author: Knill, T. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008; Open Access; Title: Arabidopsis Branched-Chain Aminotransferase 3 Functions in Both Amino Acid and Glucosinolate Biosynthesis
In previous clinical studies, we evaluated the metabolism and disposition of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in a variety of crucifers, including market stage broccoli (11) . The current studies focus entirely on broccoli sprouts, which differ from mature broccoli plants in two important aspects (9 , 13 , 25) : (a) on a gram-fresh-weight basis, they contain up to 50 times more glucoraphanin, the glucosinolate precursor of sulforaphane, which is the most potent natural phase 2 enzyme-inducer known. Second, they contain substantially less or no detectable amounts of the indole and β-hydroxyalkenyl glucosinolates that are associated with potential toxicities (Table 1⇓ and Fig. 3⇓ ).. The principal end point in these studies was urinary dithiocarbamate excretion, as measured by the cyclocondensation reaction. Although this assay detects with equal efficiency isothiocyanates and each of the sequential metabolites (Fig. 1B)⇓ , the available evidence indicates that urine contains no ...
Influence of the lime on inorganic ion and glucosinolate contents in Chinese cabbage - Calcium;Chinese cabbage;Inorganic ion;Glucosinolates;Slaked lime;
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Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites with important roles in plant defense and human nutrition. To uncover regulatory mechanisms of glucosinolate production, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA activation-tagged lines and identified a high-glucosinolate mutant caused by overexpress …
Cruciferous vegetables differ from other classes of vegetables in that they are rich sources of sulfur-containing compounds known as glucosinolates (see Cruciferous Vegetables). Because epidemiological studies provide some evidence that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables are associated with lower risk of several types of cancer, scientists are interested in the potential cancer-preventive activities of compounds derived from glucosinolates (1). Among these compounds is indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a compound derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis (breakdown) of an indole glucosinolate, commonly known as glucobrassicin (2).. Summary. * Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is derived from the hydrolysis (breakdown) of glucobrassicin, a compound found in cruciferous vegetables. * In the acidic environment of the stomach, I3C molecules can combine with each other to form a number of biologically active acid condensation products, such as 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM). * I3C has been found to inhibit the development ...
Glucosinolates are a group of sulfur-containing glycosides found in many plant species, including cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. Accumulating evidence increasingly supports the beneficial effects of dietary glucosinolates on overall health, including as potential anti-cancer agents, because of their role in the prevention of the initiation of carcinogenesis via the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and their epigenetic mechanisms, including modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes, histone modification regulation and changes in the expression of miRNAs. In this context, the defense mechanism mediated by Nrf2-antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways can contribute to cellular protection against oxidative stress and reactive metabolites of carcinogens. In this review, we summarize the cancer chemopreventive role of naturally occurring glucosinolate derivatives as inhibitors of ...
Glucosinolates are the major class of secondary metabolites found in Brassicacrops. The molecule comprises a β-thioglucose moiety, a sulphonated oxime moiety and a variable side chain, derived from...
article{dd239673-ae87-4b21-bd30-83e6d058111e, abstract = {In mature seeds of Brassica napus three major and three minor myrosinase isoenzymes were identified earlier. These myrosinases are known to be encoded by at least two different families of myrosinase genes, denoted MA and MB. In the work described in this paper the presence of different myrosinase isoenzymes in embryos, seedlings, and vegetative mature tissues of B. napus was studied and related to the expression of myrosinase MA and MB genes in the same tissues to facilitate future functional studies of these enzymes. In developing seeds, myrosinases of 75, 73, 70, 68, 66, and 65 kD were present. During seedling development there was a turnover of the myrosinase pool such that in 5-d-old seedlings the 75-, 70-, 66-, and 65-kD myrosinases were present, with the 70- and 75-kD myrosinases predominating. In 21-d-old seedlings the same myrosinases were present, but the 66- and 65-kD myrosinase species were most abundant. At flowering the ...
The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a diet rich in broccoli on cardiovascular disease risk using biochemical indicators such as blood lipid profiles, most notably cholesterol; markers of inflammation as well as established physiological measurements such as Pulse wave velocity (PWV), Augmentation index (AIx) and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements (ABPM). Broccoli contains compounds known as glucosinolates which are metabolised to isothiocyanates when consumed. The major glucosinolate in broccoli is known as glucoraphanin which produces the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. The glucosinolates are thought to be the principal component in broccoli that may reduce CVD risk. The investigators will use a standard cultivar of broccoli and a cultivar that has enhanced levels of glucosinolates (HG broccoli). This broccoli has been used in previous intervention studies (e.g. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00535977). Volunteers will be asked to consume 400g of standard broccoli, HG broccoli or peas ...
Myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147, thioglucoside glucohydrolase, sinigrinase, and sinigrase) is a family of enzymes involved in plant defense against herbivores. The three-dimensional structure has been elucidated and is available in the PDB (see links in the infobox). A member of the glycoside hydrolase family, myrosinase possesses several similarities with the more ubiquitous O-glycosidases. However, myrosinase is the only known enzyme found in nature that can cleave a thio-linked glucose. Its known biological function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of a class of compounds called glucosinolates. Myrosinase is regarded as a defense-related enzyme and is capable of hydrolyzing glucosinolates into various compounds, some of which are toxic. Myrosinase catalyzes the chemical reaction a thioglucoside + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a sugar + a thiol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are thioglucoside and H2O, whereas its two products are sugar and thiol. In the presence of water, ...
What else does kale have in it? Yep. You guessed it - glucosinolates. Now, I am sure everyone knows the deal with glucosinolates….What? You mean you dont??? Well, let me hit you with some knowledge!. Glucosinolates are compounds found in high concentrations in leafy green vegetables (especially kale). These molecules are especially cool because they activate the bodys own antioxidant system. This cascade of antioxidant activity actually cycles over and over within the body and continues to protect your system as many as 3 to 4 days after the glucosinolate-containing food has been consumed. Talk about protection! By this process, glucosinolates help the liver eliminate toxic molecules.. These toxins come from many sources: cigarette smoke, pollution, drugs, even free radicals generated by our own bodies in response to illness. So the big picture here is even if you eat super clean, it is good to have some kale in your diet to protect against the bad stuff that may be floating around in your ...
The aphid Brevicoryne brassicae is a specialist feeding on Brassicaceae plants. The insect has an intricate defence system involving a beta-D-thioglucosidase (myrosinase) that hydrolyses glucosinolates sequestered from the host plant into volatile isothiocyanates. These isothiocyanates act synergistically with the pheromone E-beta-farnesene to form an alarm system when the aphid is predated. In order to investigate the enzymatic characteristics of the aphid myrosinase and its three-dimensional structure, milligram amounts of pure recombinant aphid myrosinase were obtained from Echerichia coli. The recombinant enzyme had similar physiochemical properties to the native enzyme. The global structure is very similar to Sinapis alba myrosinase and plant beta-O-glucosidases. Aphid myrosinase has two catalytic glutamic acid residues positioned as in plant beta-O-glucosidases, and it is not obvious why this unusual enzyme hydrolyses glucosinolates, the common substrates of plant myrosinases which are ...
Glucosinolates and their products have a negative effect on many insects, resulting from a combination of deterrence and toxicity. In an attempt to apply this principle in an agronomic context, some glucosinolate-derived products can serve as antifeedants, i.e., natural pesticides.[15]. In contrast, the diamondback moth, a pest of cruciferous plants, may recognize the presence of glucosinolates, allowing it to identify the proper host plant.[16] Indeed, a characteristic, specialised insect fauna is found on glucosinolate-containing plants, including butterflies, such as large white, small white, and orange tip, but also certain aphids, moths, such as the southern armyworm, sawflies, and flea beetles.[citation needed] For instance, the large white butterfly deposits its eggs on these glucosinolate-containing plants, and the larvae survive even with high levels of glucosinolates and eat plant material containing glucosinolates.[citation needed] The whites and orange tips all possess the so-called ...
Authors: (Olga Nydia Campas-Baypoli, Ernesto Uriel Cant -Soto, Jos Antonio Rivera-Jacobo, Departamento de Biotecnolog a y Ciencias Alimentarias. Instituto Tecnol gico de Sonora. Cd. Obreg n, Sonora, M xico ...
Cabbage has long been known as a fantastic food for the reduction of cancer risk, and for the healing of the intestinal tract. It turns out that there are numerous factors that play into those abilities. These include the beneficial fibers in cabbage, the content of glutamine (an amino acid-like substance used by intestinal cells for healing), and a high content of miraculous compounds called glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur containing molecules that have glucose attached to them. When you break open the cell walls of cabbage, an enzyme is released called myrosinase that removes the glucose from the sulfur compounds commonly called isothiocyanates. One of these isothiocyanates, sulforaphane, has an amazing capacity to turn on a part of our genes called the Antioxidant Response Element. When it does this, we start producing more antioxidant proteins, and detoxification proteins (enzymes actually) that provide us 72 hours of protection from environmentally and internally produced toxins. ...
The carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis has recently been interpreted to predict that plants grown under elevated CO2 environments will allocate excess carbon to defense, resulting in an increase in ca
S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase. Involved in glucosinolate metabolism and defense against phytopathogens (By similarity).
Jørgensen ME, Olsen CE, Geiger D, Mirza O, Halkier BA, Nour-Eldin HH (2015) A functional EXXEK motif is essential for proton coupling and active glucosinolate transport by NPF2.11 . Plant Cell Physiol 56: 2340-2350.. Soltis NE, Kliebenstein DJ (2015) Natural variation of plant metabolism: genetic mechanisms, interpretive caveats, and evolutionary and mechanistic insights. Plant Physiol 169: 1456-1468.. Cacho NI, Kliebenstein DJ, Strauss SY (2015) Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses. New Phytol 208: 915-927.. Madsen SR, Kunert G, Reichelt M, Gershenzon J, Halkier BA (2015) Feeding on leaves of the glucosinolate transporter mutant gtr1gtr2 reduces fitness of Myzus persicae. J Chem Ecol 41: 975-984.. Zhang Y, Huai D, Yang Q, Cheng Y, Ma M, Kliebenstein DJ, Zhou Y (2015) Overexpression of three glucosinolate biosynthesis genes in Brassica napus identifies enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis ...
Study 21 Glucosinolates flashcards from Ben Holtom's University Of Guelph class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Healthy Kale Kale is a nutritionally packed leafy vegetable that contains incredible healing and rejuvenating properties. Kale is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, chlorophyll, amino acids, vitamins A, C, E, K, B-complex and minerals such as iron, magnesium, copper, and potassium. Kale is an anti-cancer powerhouse and contains phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that help protect the body from breast, colon, prostate, ovarian, and bladder cancer. These glucosinolates are also known to detox the body on genetic level and have the ability to literally transform your body and health. Kale also contains an exceptionally high amount of antioxidants such as carotenoids and flavonoids which are essential for protecting the body from degenerative diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, prostatitis, osteoporosis, and neurological disorders. Kale contains an organic sulfur which has potent antibiotic, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties that work to boost to the immune system and provide ...
In addition, the chemical process of fermenting food appears to enhance the presence of some nutrients. Researchers in Poland have been investigating the healthy effects of fermented cabbage (sauerkraut). When cabbage is fermented the amount of glucosinolate increases. Glucosinolate has anti-cancer properties. Other research has found nutrients other than glucosinolates are enhanced during fermentation, including vitamin C and many B vitamins. Fruits and vegetables contain enzymes which the human body does not produce. Eating fermented plant foods may offer even more beneficial enzymes to enhance digestion. In addition, researchers have been noting how the presence of fibrinolytic enzymes in many popular Japanese fermented foods, including fermented shrimp paste and natto, help dissolve fibrin clots. Fibrin clots are a risk factor in heart disease, the leading cause of death in North America. Beware of Less Healthy Imposters ...
Broccoli has a strong, positive impact on our bodys detoxification system, and researchers have recently identified one of the key reasons for this detox benefit. Glucoraphanin, gluconasturtiian, and glucobrassicin are 3 glucosinolate phytonutrients found in a special combination in broccoli. This dynamic trio is able to support all steps in bodys detox process, including activation, neutralization, and elimination of unwanted contaminants. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are the detox-regulating molecules made from broccolis glucosinolates, and they help control the detox process at a genetic level ...
ABSTRACT: Flavin monooxygenase (FMO) is one of the most important enzymes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the full length of FMO gene (RsFMOgs-ox1) encoding a putative FMO protein composed of 450 amino acids was successfully cloned using the RACE-PCR method. The amino acid sequence of RsFMOgs-ox1 has high similarities of 92% and 83% with BrFMOgs-ox1 and AtFMOgs-ox1,2,3, respectively, and the gene structure of FMOgs-ox1 is similar to its plant homologues. Quantitative (qPCR) analysis revealed that RsFMOgs-ox1 was highly expressed during early seedling development. In mature radish, the highest expression was observed in the leaves, while the lowest transcript was evident in the root. The expression of RsFMOgs-ox1 was also regulated by wounding, notably 1 day after treatment. Subcellular localization in Arabidopsis showed that RsFMOgs-ox1 was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclei. This study allows us to understand something about RsFMOgs-ox1 function in glucosinolate ...
Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower have a chemical component called indole-3-carbinol that can combat breast cancer by converting a cancer-promoting estrogen into a more protective variety. Broccoli, especially sprouts, also have the phytochemical sulforaphane, a product of glucoraphanin - believed to aid in preventing some types of cancer, like colon and rectal cancer. Sulforaphane induces the production of certain enzymes that can deactivate free radicals and carcinogens. The enzymes have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors in laboratory animals. However, be aware that the Agriculture Department studied 71 types of broccoli plants and found a 30-fold difference in the amounts of glucoraphanin. It appears that the more bitter the broccoli is, the more glucoraphanin it has. Broccoli sprouts have been developed under the trade name BroccoSprouts that have a consistent level of sulforaphane - as much as 20 times higher than the levels found in mature heads of broccoli. Try Curry in a Hurry, ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The crucifer family, Brassicaceae, is an economically important family for its many food crops. Crucifers are characterized by the presence of a group of secondary compounds called glucosinolates, which with their degradation products are primarily responsible for the characteristic aromas and flavors of crucifers. Glucosinolate degradation products include substituted isothiocyanates, nitriles, thiocyanates, epithionitriles and oxazolidinethiones, which vary depending on the plant species studied, side-chain substitution, cell pH and cell iron concentration. Many of these degradation products have biological activity ranging from insect attractants to suspected human health benefits, but are not commercially available. We have developed methods for isolation and purification of several of these degradation products, including the isothiocyanates erucin, iberin, cheirolin, hesperin, and lesquerellin (as well as most of the corresponding ...
Plant genomes encode numerous small molecule glycosyltransferases which modulate the solubility, activity, immunogenicity and/or reactivity of hormones, xenobiotics and natural products. The products of these enzymes can accumulate to very high concentrations, yet somehow avoid inhibiting their own biosynthesis. Glucosyltransferase UGT74B1 (UDP-glycosyltransferase 74B1) catalyses the penultimate step in the core biosynthetic pathway of glucosinolates, a group of natural products with important functions in plant defence against pests and pathogens. We found that mutation of the highly conserved Ser284 to leucine [wei9-1 (weak ethylene insensitive)] caused only very mild morphological and metabolic phenotypes, in dramatic contrast with knockout mutants, indicating that steady state glucosinolate levels are actively regulated even in unchallenged plants. Analysis of the effects of the mutation via a structural modelling approach indicated that the affected serine interacts directly with ...
Plant genomes encode numerous small molecule glycosyltransferases which modulate the solubility, activity, immunogenicity and/or reactivity of hormones, xenobiotics and natural products. The products of these enzymes can accumulate to very high concentrations, yet somehow avoid inhibiting their own biosynthesis. Glucosyltransferase UGT74B1 (UDP-glycosyltransferase 74B1) catalyses the penultimate step in the core biosynthetic pathway of glucosinolates, a group of natural products with important functions in plant defence against pests and pathogens. We found that mutation of the highly conserved Ser284 to leucine [wei9-1 (weak ethylene insensitive)] caused only very mild morphological and metabolic phenotypes, in dramatic contrast with knockout mutants, indicating that steady state glucosinolate levels are actively regulated even in unchallenged plants. Analysis of the effects of the mutation via a structural modelling approach indicated that the affected serine interacts directly with ...
NCT00252018 The Effect of Broccoli Sprouts as a Nutritional Supplement in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. [C. Torp-Pedersen, Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Denmark] The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a daily intake of dried broccoli sprouts will improve the endothelial function of the participants as measured by Flow mediated dilation (FMD). The dried sprouts are chosen because broccoli sprouts are known as containing large amounts of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin which in vitro and in animal models has been shown to have a positive effect on the endothelium as measured by NO release.. Status: Completed. NCT00340743 Diet and Genetic Damage. [J. Taylor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC] This study will examine the risks and protective effects of dietary factors on temporary genetic damage to cells lining the gastrointestinal tract and to blood cells. Some foods, including very well done meat, may increase genetic damage in cells, while ...
Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower have a chemical component called indole-3-carbinol that can combat breast cancer by converting a cancer-promoting estrogen into a more protective variety. Broccoli, especially sprouts, also have the phytochemical sulforaphane, a product of glucoraphanin - believed to aid in preventing some types of cancer, like colon and rectal cancer. Sulforaphane induces the production of certain enzymes that can deactivate free radicals and carcinogens. It appears that the bitterer the broccoli is, the more glucoraphanin it has. Broccoli sprouts have been developed under the trade name BroccoSprouts that have a consistent level of sulforaphane - as much as 20 times higher than the levels found in mature heads of broccoli. Studies show that consumption of green and yellow leafy vegetables has been associated with lower levels of stomach cancer. ...
Joel Fuhrman, M.D., a physician and New York Times best-selling author who is a renowned expert in nutrition, writes on his website that Eating a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables is your best defense for fighting and preventing cancer. Why? Fuhrmans studies have demonstrated that cruciferous vegetables are twice as effective as other vegetables, beans, and fruits at reducing cancer rates.. According to the National Cancer Institute, the substances that give cruciferous veggies their sulfur scent and sometimes bitter taste are plant compounds known as glucosinolates, which are a current focus of anticancer research. Glucosinolates have been effective at treating cancer in animal and cellular studies, and current research is looking at their effectiveness in treating cancer in humans. Cruciferous veggies are also high in other key nutrients:. •vitamins C, E, and ...
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a class of secondary metabolites with allelochemical properties found in members of the Brassicales. GSLs are relatively nontoxic, but after hydrolysis of the sugar moiety by myrosinase (thioglucosidase), the compounds are degraded. The break-down products are highly bioactive, affect germination, growth of neighboring plants and can have antimicrobial effects. Therefore, the GSL/myrosinase complex is a natural plant defense system against diverse pathogens, which has already been used in integrated pest and weed management. Presently, potential negative long-term effects of the GSL hydrolysis products on beneficial soil microorganisms are not known. Bioassays performed in this study are based on analyzing growth suppression of selected pathogenic and beneficial soil fungi by GSLs and their hydrolysis products. Lipid, protein, enzyme and RNA analyses were carried out to systematically characterize GSL derived changes of the soil community structure. On this end, soil of ...
With increased heart rate, elevated production of ROS will appear. Indeed, this is thought to contribute to contractile and endothelial dysfunction, extracellular remodeling of the heart, and myocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, two molecular antioxidant processes are involved; the first one is redox-active and short-lived; it can also contribute to ROS production. On the other hand, the second one involves indirect antioxidants action; its long-lived and does not have a pro-oxidant effect. Therefore, the introduction of health-promoting antioxidant foods is needed to decrease the risk of CVD.. Sulforaphane is a metabolite of glucoraphanin (Grn), which in turn is the main glucosinolate (GLS) in broccoli. The production of sulforaphane is only possible when this is released due to plat injury. For example, chewing will chemically change the structure of glucoraphanin in conjunction with the enzyme myrosinase. Furthermore, this action will release glucose and sulfate, leaving the sulforaphane (SFN) ...
Here is a quick look at what some of these specific nutrients do:. 1. Antioxidants. Zeaxanthin and lutein (both carotenoids): Zeaxanthin and lutein are powerful antioxidants that protect against degenerative illnesses such as cancer, cardio-vascular disease and macular degeneration.. 2. Anti-inflammatory. Vitamin K and Omega-3: Vitamin K and Omega-3 play key roles in reducing inflammation in the body by regulating the inflammatory processes.. 3. Anti-Cancer. Glucosinolates: Kale, along with the rest of the members of the Brassica family (such as cabbage and broccoli), contains a number of these anti-cancer chemicals. These groups of glucosinolates and their derived isothiocyantes block the growth of certain types of cancer cells, boost DNA repair and help cells to detox!. With accolades such as these, why wouldn t kale have its own fan club?. So jump on the kale bandwagon and start enjoying it in your soups, salads, stir fries, smoothies and more today.. Watch out for my next post on six simple ...
Authors: (Sabine Montaut, and Patrick Rollin, Laurentian University, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Biomolecular Sciences Programme, Sudbury, ON, Canada, and others ...
Several epidemiologic studies suggest that consumption of cruciferous vegetables may be particularly effective (compared with total fruit and vegetable consumption) in reducing cancer risk at several organ sites. Crucifers that are widely consumed are especially rich in glucosinolates, which are con …
Anti-Cancer Properties - Broccoli probably ranks number one on the list of all round anti-cancer vegetables, with broccoli being the subject to the highest amount of scientific and medical research. Broccoli is considered a major deterrent to lung, stomach, mouth, ovarian, breast, cervix, colon and prostate cancer. The reason broccoli is an, A grade anti cancer food is because it is rich in substances such as indoles, glucosinolates, beta carotene and vitamin C. It also contains high amounts of sulphorane, a substance that has been extensively looked into in laboratories. It is a phytonutrient that catalyses the formation of and function of phase II enzymes within the body. These enzymes have been known to remove or destroy cancer-causing substances from cells under lab conditions. It is speculated that these enzymes will bring about similar results within the human body ...
Dr Oz shows you how to de-stress and how protect your skin, the eyes and the liver with 3 key nutrients that include glucosinolates, zinc and lutein.
Isothiocyanates and their naturally occurring glucosinolate precursors are widely consumed as part of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables. When plant cells are damaged, glucosinolates are released and converted to isothiocyanates by the enzyme myrosinase. Many isothiocyanates inhibit the neoplastic effects of various carcinogens at a number of organ sites. Consequently, these agents are attracting attention as potential chemoprotectors against cancer. As a prerequisite to understanding the mechanism of the protective effects of these compounds, which is thought to involve the modulation of carcinogen metabolism by the induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes and the inhibition of phase 1 carcinogen-activating enzymes, we examined the fate of ingested isothiocyanates and glucosinolates in humans. Recently developed novel methods for quantifying isothiocyanates (and glucosinolates after their quantitative conversion to isothiocyanates by purified myrosinase) and their urinary metabolites ...
Jez JM, Lee SG, Sherp AM (2016) The next green movement: plant biology for the environment and sustainability. Science 353, 1241-4. Kilgore M, Holland CK, Jez JM, Kutchan TM (2016) Identification of a noroxomaritidine reductase with Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis-related activities. J Biol Chem 291, 16740-52. Lee SG, Nwumeh R, Jez JM (2016) Structure and mechanism of isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana: insights on leucine and aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. J Biol Chem 291, 13421-30. Herrmann J, Nathin D, Lee SG, Sun T, Jez JM (2015) Recapitulating the structural evolution of redox regulation in adenosine-5-phosphosulfate kinase from cyanobacteria to plants. J Biol Chem 290, 24705-14. Korasick DA, Jez JM, Strader LC (2015) Refining the nuclear auxin response pathway through structural biology. Curr Opin Plant Biol 27, 22-8. Cahoon RE, Lutke WK, Cameron JC, Chen S, Lee SG, Rivard RS, Rea PA, Jez JM (2015) Adaptive engineering of phytochelatin-based heavy metal ...
Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage and kale, are rich sources of sulfur-containing compounds called glucosinolates. Isothiocyanates are biologically active hydrolysis (breakdown) products of glucosinolates. Cruciferous vegetables contain a variety of different glucosinolates, each of which forms a different isothiocyanate when hydrolyzed (see Figure) (1). For example, broccoli is a good source of glucoraphanin, the glucosinolate precursor of sulforaphane (SFN), and sinigrin, the glucosinolate precursor of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (2). Watercress is a rich source of gluconasturtiin, the precursor of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), while garden cress is rich in glucotropaeolin, the precursor of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). At present, scientists are interested in the cancer-preventive activities of vegetables that are rich in glucosinolates (see Cruciferous Vegetables), as well as individual isothiocyanates (3).. Summary. * Isothiocyanates are derived from the hydrolysis ...
Lets face it. You either love Brussels sprouts or… you dont. If you love them then this recipe will knock your Brussels-loving socks off. If you dont, maybe you should give them another try…. First of all, lets take a quick peek at the amazing health benefits of these little nutritional powerhouses. Brussels sprouts are a cruciferous veggie, which immediately raises them on the charts of healthy foods. Whats so special about cruciferous vegetables? Why, glucosinolates of course! What in the world is that? Glucosinolates are phytonutrients that are the chemical starting points for a variety of cancer-protective substances. All cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates and have great health benefits for this reason. But recent research has revealed just how valuable Brussels sprouts are in this regard.. The cancer protection we get from Brussels sprouts is mostly related to four specific glucosinolates found in this special vegetable: glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, sinigrin, and ...
Citation: Berhow, M.A., Polat, U., Glinski, J., Glensk, M., Vaughn, S.F., Isbell, T., Ayala-Diaz, I., Marek, L., Gardner, C.A. 2011. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds. Meeting Abstract. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-glucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecyl-glucosinolate. We have developed methods to isolate mg quantities of these glucosinolates and flavonoids using a combination of reverse phase flash countercurrent chromatography and preparative HPLC methods. An analytical method has been developed to accurately measure glucosinolate levels in seeds, seed meal and sprouts. The camelina glucosinolates have not been assessed for their phytochemical activities in ...
The glucosinolate-myrosinase system is a well-known defense system that has been shown to induce stomatal closure in Brassicales. Isothiocyanates are highly reactive hydrolysates of glucosinolates, and an isothiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), induces stomatal closure accompanied by elevation of free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](cyt)) in Arabidopsis. It remains unknown whether AITC inhibits light-induced stomatal opening. This study investigated the role of Ca2+ in AITC-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening. AITC induced stomatal closure and inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner. A Ca2+ channel inhibitor, La3+, a Ca(2+)chelator, EGTA, and an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from internal stores, nicotinamide, inhibited AITC-induced [Ca2+](cyt) elevation and stomatal closure, but did not affect inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening. AITC activated non-selective Ca2+-permeable cation channels and inhibited ...
Super Sprout to the rescue! Broccoli Sprout is in the Brassica family and contains Sulforaphane a potent super nutrient unique to Cruciferous Vegetables. Broccoli Sprout Powder 70g. Super Sprout. Broccoli Sprouts are a new Superfood that may boost your immune system.
Behavioral improvements occur transiently during febrile illnesses in autism, and include decreased repetitive behaviors and improved speech. These changes have been recorded in 38% of autistic children in a clinical survey and 83% in an observational study, respectively. The cellular basis for this fever effect is unknown but is likely to involve heat shock proteins (HSP) and cellular stress responses (CSR) that lead to changes in synaptic function and network connectivity.. Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4R- (methylsulfinyl)butane) is an isothiocyanate that is delivered by lyophilized extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts. Broccoli sprouts are widely consumed as a food item all over the world by very large numbers of individuals, without any reports of adverse effects. Our preliminary work in vitro shows that sulforaphane stimulates HSP and mitochondrial biogenesis in several genetic disorders.. This study of sulforaphane-rich Broccoli Sprout Extract in autism is a randomized, ...
According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The number of cancer patients is expected to increase to a staggering 22 million within the next two decades. This statistic is quite alarming. However, these projections may be prevented from coming true by eating broccoli sprouts.. The sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts prevents and kills cancer cells. Studies show that eating three to five servings of broccoli sprouts per week decreases the risk of cancer by 30 - 40%. Sulforaphane inhibits enzymes that can activate pro-carcinogens and induce enzymes that cause the elimination of chemicals that, in turn, damage the DNA. It also kills cancer cells.. ...
Our Organic raw Broccoli sprouts can contain up to 50 times the amount of certain antioxidants found in full grown Broccoli. Broccoli sprouts are an excellent source of sulforaphane glucosinolate, a natural compound found in broccoli and other cruciferous plants, that provide antioxidant protection. When it comes to
Glucosinolates (GLS) are secondary metabolites mainly found in plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family, including also horseradish (Armoracia rusticana G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb), a popular spice with a characteristic pungent flavor due to the abundance of GLS. Such compounds exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities, as well as human health properties. Therefore, it is very important to have a full understanding of their levels and profiles in plants. However, the characterization of GLS from horseradish crude extracts is a tough task, due to the complexity of the vegetal matrix and the occurrence of many GLS in trace amounts. Here we describe two alternative effective and rapid methods for GLS characterization in horseradish plants: Liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for determination of intact GLS and HPLC-UV for determination of desulfo-GLS.
Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that Brassica vegetables in general and broccoli in particular protect humans against cancer; they are rich sources of glucosinolates and posses a high content on flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. The contents of total intact glucosinolates, total phenolics, vitamin C, and minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper) in the edible portions of freshly harvested broccoli (florets), which was subjected to stir-frying treatments, were evaluated. In the present work, the stir-fry cooking experiments were carried out using different edible oils from plant origin (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soyabean oil, and safflower oil) known and used worldwide. Results showed that during stir-frying, phenolics and vitamin C were more affected than glucosinolates and minerals. Stir-fry cooking with extra virgin olive, soybean, peanut, or safflower oil did not reduce the total ...
Radish anthocyanin extract has potential as a natural colorant because of its pigment stability and attractive red hue. Presence of undesirable aroma compounds could limit its applications in foods. The pungent principle of radish, 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBI), is produced enzymatically upon cell injury from its glucosinolate precursor, 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate (MTBG), and undergoes subsequent degradation to produce a number of volatiles. To evaluate the potential of flavor formation, juices were prepared from winter and spring radish cultivars. Whole radishes, peels and flesh, as well as radish extracts, were analyzed for glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. Aroma intensities of radish juice extracts were evaluated using sensory analysis. MTBI was monitored by HPLC (detection level 160 ppb). MTBG was extracted from freeze-dried radish tissue with boiling methanol, purified by anion exchange and enzymatically desulfated. DesulfoMTBG was quantified by HPLC, using ...
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Broccoli sprouts (and to a certain degree, mature broccoli) contain compounds that help the liver detox the body. Some of the compounds, like glucoraphanin, stimulate the production of enzymes in the body that fight off carcinogens, too. In a study, three-day old broccoli sprouts were shown to be 10-100 times more powerful than their mature counterparts. When broccoli sprout extract was given to mice, mammary tumor suppression was remarkably higher than in previous studies that used dry, mature broccoli. Thats not to say that you should bypass mature broccoli completely; just try to work some broccoli sprouts into your diet, too ...
A Japanese study of broccoli sprouts and liver function has found the sulforaphane-rich food to be highly beneficial. An extract from broccoli sprouts given to male participants was shown to improve hepatic abnormalities and overall liver function significantly.. For the study, the researchers conducted a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of males with fatty liver disease. The subjects received either extract of broccoli sprouts in capsule form, or a placebo. The capsules contained glucoraphanin, a precursor for the sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts. ...
A diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles through modulating mitochondrial ...
Broccoli sprouts, also called Brassica oleracea italica, are broccoli harvested when the broccoli plant is 3 to 4 days old. Consuming this type of broccoli...
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Epidemiological data indicate that dietary consumption of cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of many cancers including breast cancer. Cruciferous vegetables contain high levels of glucosinolates; stable phytochemicals that when metabolized produce cancer-preventing active isothiocyanates. Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane (SFN) found in broccoli sprouts, are thought to prevent tumorigenesis through epigenetic mechanisms controlling the expression of tumor-related genes. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts results in rapid distribution of SFN to breast epithelium, however, the effect of chronic exposure to low levels of SFN on the growth of breast cells has not been fully explored.. In the present study we assessed the effect of SFN on the growth of an immortalized breast cell line (MCF10A), and two breast cancer cell lines; the estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 cell line, and the estrogen receptor negative TMX2-28 cell line. We first determined the seeding densities for each cell line that ...
Bluebonnets BroccoliActive 500 mg Vcaps provide standardized amounts of glucosinolates from the broccoli plant, sprouts and seeds. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetable capsules for maximum assimilation and absorption. Supplement Facts: Serving Size: 1 Capsule Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Broccoli Extract (plant) 500mg * Glucosinolates sulforaphane 30mg * * Daily Value not established Other Ingredients: 100% Kosher vegetable capsules, vegetable cellulose, vegetable magnesium stearate. Free of milk, egg, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat and soybeans. Also free of corn, yeast, gluten, barley, rice, sodium and sugar.
Bluebonnets BroccoliActive 500 mg Vcaps provide standardized amounts of glucosinolates from the broccoli plant, sprouts and seeds. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetable capsules for maximum assimilation and absorption. Supplement Facts: Serving Size: 1 Capsule Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Broccoli Extract (plant) 500mg * Glucosinolates sulforaphane 30mg * * Daily Value not established Other Ingredients: 100% Kosher vegetable capsules, vegetable cellulose, vegetable magnesium stearate. Free of milk, egg, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat and soybeans. Also free of corn, yeast, gluten, barley, rice, sodium and sugar.
And a submitted companion paper reports dietary glucosinolate from Brussels sprouts and cabbage drove coronary heart diseases.. In addition, participants who consumed one or more servings per week of Brussels sprouts (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.24; P trend = 0.001) and cabbage (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16; P trend = 0.04) had a significantly higher CHD risk than those who consumed these cruciferous vegetables less than once per month.. Rhonda?. ...
And a submitted companion paper reports dietary glucosinolate from Brussels sprouts and cabbage drove coronary heart diseases.. In addition, participants who consumed one or more servings per week of Brussels sprouts (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.24; P trend = 0.001) and cabbage (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16; P trend = 0.04) had a significantly higher CHD risk than those who consumed these cruciferous vegetables less than once per month.. Rhonda?. ...
Glucoraphanin - Sulforaphane used for atherosclerosis, colon cancer, Detoxification, cancer, inflammation, mononucleosis, stomach ulcer, tuberculosis, viral, he
Plants use diverse mechanisms influenced by vast regulatory networks of indefinite scale to adapt to their environment. These regulatory networks have an unknown potential for epistasis between genes within and across networks. To test for epistasis within an adaptive trait genetic network, we generated and tested 47 Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant combinations for 20 transcription factors, which all influence the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates, the defense metabolites that control fitness. The epistatic combinations were used to test if there is more or less epistasis depending on gene membership within the same or different phenotypic subnetworks. Extensive epistasis was observed between the transcription factors, regardless of subnetwork membership. Metabolite accumulation displayed antagonistic epistasis, suggesting the presence of a buffering mechanism. Epistasis affecting enzymatic estimated activity was highly conditional on the tissue and environment and shifted between both ...
Plants use diverse mechanisms influenced by vast regulatory networks of indefinite scale to adapt to their environment. These regulatory networks have an unknown potential for epistasis between genes within and across networks. To test for epistasis within an adaptive trait genetic network, we generated and tested 47 Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant combinations for 20 transcription factors, which all influence the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates, the defense metabolites that control fitness. The epistatic combinations were used to test if there is more or less epistasis depending on gene membership within the same or different phenotypic sub-networks. Extensive epistasis was observed between the transcription factors, regardless of sub-network membership. Metabolite accumulation displayed antagonistic epistasis, suggesting the presence of a buffering mechanism. Epistasis affecting enzymatic estimated activity was highly conditional on the tissue and environment and shifted between ...
By Nutri People. First cultivated by the Romans, broccoli is related to the cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprout. Broccoli sprouts contain high amounts of active parts called sulphoraphanes. These act as indirect antioxidants, boosting what are called phase 2 detoxification enzymes, which trigger antioxidant activity throughout the body. Indirect antioxidants last longer in the body than direct antioxidants. Sulphoraphane levels drop as the broccoli plant grows older. Three-day old broccoli sprouts contain 20 to 50 times more sulphoraphanes than the mature cooked vegetable. Broccoli supplements should be free from goitrens.. ...
Broccoli sprouts contain a chemical called sulforaphane which is one of the most potent antioxidants and detoxification substances that we know of. These have been shown to greatly reduce the risk of stomach, bladder, colo-rectal, and breast cancer. Just add about 1/4 cup a day to your diet and watch your health change!
Broccoli sprouts contain a chemical called sulforaphane which is one of the most potent antioxidants and detoxification substances that we know of. These have been shown to greatly reduce the risk of stomach, bladder, colo-rectal, and breast cancer. Just add about 1/4 cup a day to your diet and watch your health change!
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A phase II study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extracts in men with recurrent prostate cancer. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
A new study found that a chemical in broccoli sprouts is able to temporarily improve symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The research was a collabo
1. Gut Health. The word microbiome is derived from micro meaning small and biome which indicates a habitat of living things.. Yet the microbiome is not small by any means. Of the 100 trillion microbial cells in the human biome, the large majority of them reside in the gut.. It is sometimes difficult to think of the microbiome as an entity. After all, it is not the same as an organ or tissue because the microbiome does not have a specific location. Furthermore, this far-reaching system has many roles and is tied to many different physiological functions.. The gut microbiome impacts nearly every function in the human body. Most diseases can be traced back to the origin in the gut and the health of the microbiome.. Poor gut health can lead to inflammatory disorders like ulcerative colitis, autoimmune disorders, and even heart disease, arthritis and cancer. A healthy gut microbiome dictates your overall state of health and even your longevity.. In order to have a normal immune system, one ...
Signs of oxidation-the interaction of oxygen with other substances-are commonly seen in the browning of a cut apple or avocado, on copper that has turned green, and on the rusty part of a nail. The cells of our bodies react to oxygen exposure as well, and though some oxidation effects are good, for example when the immune system uses this process to fight infections, too much oxidation may harm health-especially when living with a health condition, such as diabetes.. Fortunately, research has found that a healthy diet can protect against excess oxidation. Expanding on those previous findings, a new study suggests that broccoli sprouts may be a star player for keeping oxidation in balance in people with type 2 diabetes.. ...
Buy Wheatgrass Juice or Broccoli Sprout Juice from our secure online shop. Free postage and handy one-sachet-a-day 7 packs for prolonged freshness.
Cabbage aphids - features of existence and measures of control The cabbage aphid belongs to the genus Brevicoryne . The name is derived from the Latin words brevi and coryne and which loosely
The name broccoli is derived from an Italian name Brocco. It may not be a favorite vegetable for many, especially kids but it has great number of properties to benefit your entire body. It can be stated as one of the finest vegetables which fight numerous diseases. With the high vitamin content it tops the list in the vegetables department. It is known that broccoli has more Vitamin C in comparison to orange. It also has good amount of calcium which you find in abundance in our very own milk.. Just the presence of so many good qualities helps broccoli to combat many health problems. It contains components which fight deadly disease like cancer. Broccoli sprouts contains more cancer fighting elements in comparison to well-developed broccoli. Eating broccoli sprouts on regular basis prevents stomach cancer. It also minimizes your chance of gastritis and peptic ulcer. Your sun-damaged skin gets a sigh of relief as it protects your skin. This saves you from diseases like skin cancer. Your heart ...
Plants of the Brassicaceae are defended from feeding by generalist insects by constitutively-expressed and herbivory-induced glucosinolates (GS). We induced Arabidopsis plants 1, 16 and 24 h prior to allowing neonate larvae of the generalist Helicoverpa armigera to feed on whole plants for 72 h. These plants were subsequently retested with another group of neonates for a further 72 h. We used wild-type A. thaliana Col-0, and mutant lines lacking indolic GS, aliphatic GS or all GS. We hypothesized that larvae would not grow well on defended plants (WT) compared to those lacking GS, and would not grow well if plants had been primed or fed on for longer, due to the expected induced GS. There was survivorship on all lines suggesting H. armigera is a suitable generalist for these experiments. Larvae performed less well on wild-type and no indolic lines than on no aliphatic and no GS lines. Larvae distributed feeding damage extensively in all lines, more so on wild type and no-indolic lines. Contrary ...
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Ingesting live probiotic microorganisms, such as those found in yogurt, kimchi, and sauerkraut, is often touted to improve the health of the microbial communities residing in our guts. Although the compositions of our microbiomes have been associated with a wide range of disorders, including diabetes, obesity, depression, Alzheimers disease, and Parkinsons disease, we have few studies establishing firm causative relationships between the abundance of an ingested microbe and measurable health benefits. Instead of searching for probiotic strains, a recent report by Ho et al. describes the engineering of commensal bacteria to fight colon cancer using a reagent rarely found in the laboratory: broccoli.. The cruciferous family of vegetables, which includes broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, are unique in their near-ubiquitous prevalence of glucosinolates. These sulfur-rich organic compounds lend these vegetables their notoriously bitter taste but also happen to be useful chemical ...
Arabidopsis Myrosinase Genes AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 Are Root-Tip Specific and Contribute to Auxin Biosynthesis and Root-Growth Regulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Glucosinolates prevent the uptake of iodine, affecting the function of the thyroid and thus are considered goitrogens. They are ... "Glucosinolates (Goitrogenic Glycosides)". Cornell University: Department of Animal Science. Missing or empty ,url= (help) ...
... contains glucosinolates. These compounds have been reported to prevent cancer in small doses, but, like many ...
Most of the work in his department focuses on two major groups of plant defenses: glucosinolates and terpenoids. National ... doi:10.1038/nature03451 Halkier, B. A., Gershenzon, J. (2006). Biology and biochemistry of glucosinolates. Annual Review of ... The Arabidopsis epithiospecifier protein promotes the hydrolysis of glucosinolates to nitriles and influences Trichoplusia ni ...
Glucosinolate content in Brassica vegetables is around one percent of dry matter. These compounds also cause the bitter taste ... Yet, there have been no reports of ill effects in humans from the consumption of glucosinolates from normal amounts of Brassica ... "Undesirable glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables". Acta Hort. 163: 83-84. Jones, D.A. (1998). "Why are so many food plants ... "Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: The influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health". Mol ...
Gimsing, A. L.; Kirkegaard, J. A. (2009). "Glucosinolates and biofumigation: fate of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis ... allyl glucosinolate (sinigrin) when in the presence of 500 µM ascorbate. Sulfate, a byproduct of glucosinolate hydrolysis, has ... a gut microbe capable of catalyzing the same hydrolysis of glucosinolates would be able to activate ingested glucosinolates ... crops like rapeseed that contained the glucosinolate-myrosinase system were deliberately bred to minimize glucosinolate content ...
Diamondback moths are considered pests as they feed on the leaves of cruciferous crops and plants that produce glucosinolates. ... The egg-laying females have been reported to recognize chemicals in the host plants, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, that ... "Phylloplane location of glucosinolates in Barbarea spp. (Brassicaceae) and misleading assessment of host suitability by a ...
The characteristic flavor of cabbage is caused by glucosinolates, a class of sulfur-containing glucosides. Although found ... Dinkova-Kostova AT, Kostov RV (2012). "Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in health and disease". Trends Mol Med. 18 (6): 337- ... Such compounds include sulforaphane and other glucosinolates which may stimulate the production of detoxifying enzymes during ...
The glucosinolate has a β-glucose and a sulfated oxime. The myrosinase removes the β-glucose to form mustard oils that are ... Plant hosts contain a variety of glucosinolates; while all of them have the β-glucose and sulfated oxime. The diamondback moth ... The moth has an enzyme, a sulfatase, that it uses to desulfate the glucosinolate, meaning the myrosinase cannot locate and ... This worldwide crop pest feeds exclusively on members of the Brassicaceae and has developed a defense against the glucosinolate ...
In the whites family (Pieridae), one counter mechanisme involves glucosinolate sulphatase, which changes the glucosinolate, so ... Brassicaceae contain glucosinolates as well as myrosinases inside their cells. When the cell is damaged, the myrosinases ... The energy penalty for synthesising all these glucosinolates may be as high as 15% of the total needed to produce a leaf. ... Differences between the mixtures of glucosinolates between species and even within species is large, and individual plants may ...
Niels Agerbirk & Carl Erik Olsen (2011). "Isoferuloyl derivatives of five seed glucosinolates in the crucifer genus Barbarea". ... Winter cress contains different glucosinolates, flavonoids and saponins. Vera Kuzina; Jens Kvist Nielsen; Jörg Manfred Augustin ... glucosinolates, hairiness and resistance to the herbivore Phyllotreta nemorum". Phytochemistry. 72 (2-3): 188-198. doi:10.1016/ ...
As for other glucosinolates, degradation by the enzyme myrosinase is expected to produce an isothiocyanate, indol-3- ... Glucobrassicin is a type of glucosinolate that can be found in almost all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, broccoli, ... doi:10.1007/s11101-008-9098-0. Clay, N. K.; Adio, A. M.; Denoux, C.; Jander, G.; Ausubel, F. M. (2009). "Glucosinolate ... Gluconasturtiin Agerbirk, Niels; Vos, Martin; Kim, Jae Hak; Jander, Georg (2008). "Indole glucosinolate breakdown and its ...
Aliabadi, A., Renwick, J.A.A., & Whitman, D.W. (2002). "Sequestration of glucosinolates by harlequin bug Murgantia histrionica ...
"Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea". J Agric Food Chem. 47 (4): 1541-8. doi:10.1021/jf980985s ... kale contains glucosinolate compounds such as glucoraphanin, which contributes to the formation of sulforaphane, a compound ... "A mechanistic perspective on process-induced changes in glucosinolate content in Brassica vegetables: A review". Critical ...
It contains chemicals of the class glucosinolates, including sinalbin. The seeds contain a plant hormone, Gibberellic acid, ... Popova, I.E.; Morra, M.J. (5 November 2014). "Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate ...
Glucosinolates. *Precursor to isothiocyanates *Sinigrin. *Gluconasturtiin. *Glucoraphanin. *Aglycone derivatives * ...
Glucosinolates. *Precursor to isothiocyanates *Sinigrin. *Gluconasturtiin. *Glucoraphanin. *Aglycone derivatives * ...
Glucosinolates. *Precursor to isothiocyanates *Sinigrin. *Gluconasturtiin. *Glucoraphanin. *Aglycone derivatives * ...
Glucosinolates are composed of a β-thioglucose moiety, a sulfonated oxime and a side chain. The synthesis of glucosinolates ... The glucosinolate-myrosinase system is assumed to play a role in plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Furthermore, ... Upon tissue disruption glucosinolates are enzymatically degraded by myrosinase and may yield a variety of biologically active ... The transfer of a glucose and a sulfate moiety completes the formation of the glucosinolates. The physiological significance of ...
Fenwick, G. Roger; Heaney, Robert K.; Mullin, W. John; VanEtten, Cecil H. (1982). "Glucosinolates and their breakdown products ... Ishida M, Hara M, Fukino N, Kakizaki T, Morimitsu Y (2014). "Glucosinolate metabolism, functionality and breeding for the ... including isothiocyanates and glucosinolates. Boiling reduces the levels of cauliflower compounds, with losses of 20-30% after ...
Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed to isothiocyanates (ITCs) by the action of myrosinase. ITCs, possibly a bioactive component in ... "Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthrene tetraols in a ... Cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates which are under basic research for their potential properties of affecting some ...
With regard to defence chemicals (glucosinolates), it is similar to other members of the genus. "Barbarea australis - Native ... "Isoferuloyl derivatives of five seed glucosinolates in the crucifer genus Barbarea". Phytochemistry. 72 (7): 610-623. doi: ...
... glucosinolates in the seeds of Erysimum perofskianum Fisch et Mey., E. Allionii hort., E. crepidifolium Rohb. and E. ...
Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT, Talalay P (2001). "The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among ... TF; Abel S (2004). "Arabidopsis glucosyltransferase UGT74B1 functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis and auxin homeostasis". ... "A radioassay of enzymes catalyzing the glucosylation and sulfation steps of glucosinolate biosynthesis in Brassica species". ...
Glucosinolates are feeding deterrents and are toxic to non-adapted herbivores. With higher glucosinolate concentrations, there ... This suggests that glucosinolates may have originated as defenses against generalist herbivores. Insects selectively adapting ... Feeding and Growth of S. Eridania On Brassica Juncea with varying glucosinolate concentrations and myrosinase activities. ... to glucosinolates may have selected for stronger defense produced by their rapid hydrolysis by myrosinase. Larvae are ...
Plant FMO's also play a role in the metabolism of glucosinolates. These non-xenobiotic roles of plant FMO's suggest that other ...
Glucosinolates such as glucobarbarin and glucobrassicin are used as a cue for egg-laying by female cabbage white butterflies ... Agerbirk N, Olsen CE, Heimes C, Christensen S, Bak S, Hauser TP (2015) Multiple hydroxyphenethyl glucosinolate isomers and ... Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik (2011). "Isoferuloyl derivatives of five seed glucosinolates in the crucifer genus Barbarea ... Agerbirk, Niels; Ørgaard, Marian; Nielsen, Jens Kvist (2003). "Glucosinolates, flea beetle resistance, and leaf pubescence as ...
Since allyl isothiocyanate is harmful to the plant itself, it is stored in the harmless form of the glucosinolate, separate ... When cut or grated enzymes from the now-broken plant cells break down sinigrin (a glucosinolate) to produce allyl ... Upon crushing the flesh of horseradish, the enzyme myrosinase is released and acts on the glucosinolates sinigrin and ... Cole, Rosemary A. (1976). "Isothiocyanates, nitriles and thiocyanates as products of autolysis of glucosinolates in Cruciferae ...
"Glucosinolate composition of seeds from297 species of wild plants". Phytochemistry. 30: 2623-2638. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(91) ...
... and glucosinolates that reduce its palatability to herbivores. In northeastern forests, garlic mustard rosettes increase the ... "Glucosinolate composition of seeds from297 species of wild plants". Phytochemistry. 30: 2623-2638. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(91) ...
The larvae of these butterfly often consume cruciferous plants containing chemicals called glucosinolates. This genus is ...
Notify me of updates to Glucosinolates and Their Distribution (pp. 9-32). ... Acting generally as bio-precursors of isothiocyanates (ITCs), glucosinolates (GLs) are important thiosaccharidic metabolites ...
... "glucosinolate". Spelling glucosinolate names in one or two words (e.g. allylglucosinolate versus allyl glucosinolate) are both ... Plants with glucosinolatesEdit. Glucosinolates occur as secondary metabolites of almost all plants of the order Brassicales. ... The essence of glucosinolate chemistry is the ability of a glucosinolate to convert into an isothiocyanate (a "mustard oil") ... Aromatic glucosinolates include indolic glucosinolates, such as glucobrassicin, derived from tryptophan and others from ...
Keywords: Antibacterial drug screening; antibiotic-phytochemicals synergy; glucosinolate hydrolysis products; pathogenic ... Antimicrobial Activity of Phenolics and Glucosinolate Hydrolysis Products and their Synergy with Streptomycin against ... 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against ...
A, glucosinolates are converted to isothiocyanates by the enzymatic action of myrosinase. For glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate) ... Chemoprotective Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates of Broccoli Sprouts. Theresa A. Shapiro, Jed W. Fahey, Kristina L. Wade, ... Chemoprotective Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates of Broccoli Sprouts. Theresa A. Shapiro, Jed W. Fahey, Kristina L. Wade, ... those of an equimolar quantity of allyl glucosinolate (9) . A representative tracing and glucosinolate structures are presented ...
To uncover regulatory mechanisms of glucosinolate production, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA activation-tagged lines ... Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites with important roles in plant defense and human nutrition. ... and identified a high-glucosinolate mutant caused by overexpress … ... Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites with important roles in plant defense and human nutrition. To uncover ...
Buy Phenethyl Glucosinolate Potassium Salt(RG) - CAS Number 18425-76-8 from LGC Standards. Login or Register to enable purchase ...
20x the sulforaphane-glucosinolate (SG) than broccoli. - tested 50 different kinds of broccoli seeds. - found one that yielded ... Glucosinolate breakdown products "increase" phase II enzymes (glutathione transferases). - no effect on phase I. - want more II ... After thioglycosidic bond has been cleaved from glucosinolate, how does metabolism proceed? ...
Glucosinolates are the major class of secondary metabolites found in Brassicacrops. The molecule comprises a β-thioglucose ... Hydroxylation of alkenyl glucosinolates in Brassica napus. Heredity 72: 594-598CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Glucosinolates are the major class of secondary metabolites found in Brassica crops. The molecule comprises a β-thioglucose ... Mithen RF (2001) Glucosinolates and their degradation products. Adv Bot Res 35:213-262 Mithen RF, Campos H (1996) Genetic ...
Glucosinolates are a group of sulfur-containing glycosides found in many plant species, including cruciferous vegetables such ... In this review, we summarize the cancer chemopreventive role of naturally occurring glucosinolate derivatives as inhibitors of ... Dietary Glucosinolates Sulforaphane, Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Indole-3-Carbinol/3,3′-Diindolylmethane: Antioxidative Stress/ ... Dietary Glucosinolates Sulforaphane, Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Indole-3-Carbinol/3,3′-Diindolylmethane: Antioxidative Stress/ ...
A wide variety of glucosinolates exists owing to modification of the side-chain structure. Following tissue damage, myrosinase ... The genetic control of concentration and side-chain modification of aliphatic glucosinolates, which have side-chains derived ... In controlled conditions in the laboratory or in field trials, many aliphatic glucosinolates, or their degradation products, ... For these reasons, we suggest that polymorphism for aliphatic glucosinolates in natural populations offers an attractive system ...
indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. 8-MTO. 8-methylthiooctyl glucosinolate. pOHB. para-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate. LCMS. liquid ... Glucosinolate Analysis. Glucosinolates were analyzed as desulfo-glucosinolates through a modified version of a previously ... Bold values emphasize the contribution of leaf apoplast glucosinolates to total leaf glucosinolates (glucosinolate content in ... we group glucosinolates into total, aliphatic, and indole glucosinolates. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolates are further ...
Network-Guided Discovery of Extensive Epistasis between Transcription Factors Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis ... Network-Guided Discovery of Extensive Epistasis between Transcription Factors Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis ... Network-Guided Discovery of Extensive Epistasis between Transcription Factors Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis ... Network-Guided Discovery of Extensive Epistasis between Transcription Factors Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis ...
Glucosinolates (GS) are metabolized to isothiocyanates that may enhance human healthspan by protecting against a variety of ... Differences in percentages of the glucosinolates (GS), by glucosinolate, across leaf samples of all species (species ... Table 2 Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for differences in glucosinolate levels between silica-gel dried and fresh, and mature and ... stenopetala). We report on the occurrence of simple alkyl glucosinolates in four species (M. peregrina, M. ruspoliana, M. rivae ...
The glucosinolates are also found in seeds of these plants. About 132 different glucosinolates are known to occur naturally in ... Glucosinolates belong to the glucosides. Every glucosinolate contains a central carbon atom, which is bound via a sulfur atom ... Glucosinolate have been shown to alter animal eating behavior. Plants producing large amounts of glucosinolates are under basic ... Aromatic glucosinolates include indolic glucosinolates, such as glucobrassicin, derived from tryptophan and others from ...
Analysis of intact glucosinolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.. Botting CH1, Davidson NE, Griffiths DW, Bennett RN, Botting ... Glucosinolates are naturally occurring plant compounds that may be important in the dietary prevention of cancer. This study ... The method was used for crude plant extracts to rapidly examine the glucosinolate profile of the plant. The results for a range ... The methodology was used to characterize a number of individual glucosinolates either produced by synthetic chemistry or ...
Keywords: Glucosinolates; bioavailability; breakdown products; cancer; clinical trials; indole-3-carbinol; isothiocyanates; ... Background: Glucosinolates (GLSs) are dietary plant secondary metabolites occurring in the order Brassicales with potential ...
Clarke DB (2010) Glucosinolates, structures and analysis in food. Anal Methods 2:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Glucosinolates Isothiocyanates Sulforaphane Oxidative stress Neurodegeneration Parkinsons disease Alzheimers disease Multiple ... Halkier BA, Gershenzon J (2006) Biology and biochemistry of glucosinolates. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:303-333CrossRefGoogle ... In: Mérillon JM., Ramawat K. (eds) Glucosinolates. Reference Series in Phytochemistry. Springer, Cham. * First Online 25 April ...
... some of the most recent information on glucosinolate-containing plant families is presented. Glucosinolates (GLs) are ... In this chapter, some of the most recent information on glucosinolate-containing plant families is presented. Glucosinolates ( ... Benzoic acid glucosinolate esters and other glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry 59(6):663-671. doi: ... Clarke DB (2010) Glucosinolates, structures and analysis in food. Anal Methods 2(4):310-325. doi: 10.1039/B9AY00280D CrossRef ...
... detoxification diet glucosinolate levels dietary glucosinolate diets containing effects of canola effects of glucosinolates egg ... rapeseed meal fed the canola feed intake gastrointestinal tract glucosinolate composition glucosinolate content glucosinolate ... products goitrogenic hens fed canola hepatic hepatic GSX individual glucosinolates indole-3-carbinol intact glucosinolates ... The Effects of Glucosinolates in Canola Meal Feeding Regimens on Liver and Thyroid Physiological Responses and Productive ...
We used UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS to measure the presence of glucosinolates and qRT-PCR to analyse the expression of glucosinolate ... We used UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS to measure the presence of glucosinolates and qRT-PCR to analyse the expression of glucosinolate ... QTOF-MS analysis of various indolic glucosinolate mutants reveal increased or decreased levels of indolic glucosinolates in ... QTOF-MS analysis of various indolic glucosinolate mutants reveal increased or decreased levels of indolic glucosinolates in ...
glucosinolate;. MAM,. methylthioalkylmalate synthase;. MeJA,. methyl jasmonate.. * Freely available online through the PNAS ... On the basis of the results discussed above, we rename these genes Production of Methionine-Derived Glucosinolate (PMG) 1 and 2 ... Glucosinolates (GSLs) produced by vegetables in the family Brassicaceae, such as broccoli and cabbage, have recently attracted ... One of the intriguing, although poorly described metabolic pathways in plants is the biosynthesis of glucosinolates (GSLs), a ...
Notify me of updates to Glucoraphanin And Other Glucosinolates In Heads Of Broccoli Cultivars (pp. 33-46). ... of glucosinolates in broccoli heads harvested from known cultivars grown in field studies. Based on those results, we present ... influencing glucosinolate levels is also considered based on results of studies that have examined this. Breeding approaches ... Glucoraphanin And Other Glucosinolates In Heads Of Broccoli Cultivars (pp. 33-46). $100.00 ...
Here, we show that S. sclerotiorum infection activates the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, and isothiocyanates contribute to ... sclerotiorum on glucosinolate-producing plants. Some plants produce toxic isothiocyanates that protect them against pathogens. ... are able to infect many plant hosts including glucosinolate producers. ... Brassicales plants produce glucosinolates and myrosinases that generate toxic isothiocyanates conferring broad resistance ...
The glucosinolate content was not affected by H2S and SO2 exposure, demonstrating that these sulfur compounds did not form a ... The glucosinolate content was not affected by H2S and SO2 exposure, demonstrating that these sulfur compounds did not form a ... The glucosinolate content was decreased in sulfate-deprived plants, though its proportion of organic sulfur fraction was higher ... The glucosinolate content was decreased in sulfate-deprived plants, though its proportion of organic sulfur fraction was higher ...
Glucosinolate Metabolites Required for an Arabidopsis Innate Immune Response. By Nicole K. Clay, Adewale M. Adio, Carine Denoux ... Glucosinolate Metabolites Required for an Arabidopsis Innate Immune Response. By Nicole K. Clay, Adewale M. Adio, Carine Denoux ... Glucosinolate Metabolites Required for an Arabidopsis Innate Immune Response Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Glucosinolates (GSs) were analyzed in 56 accessions of Brassica rapa grown in the greenhouse. Eight different glucosinolates ... They are the aliphatic glucosinolates progoitrin (PRO), gluconapin (NAP), glucobrassicanapin (GBN), the indolyl glucosinolates ... Genetic variation in glucosinolate content within Brassica rapa vegetables. Author(s). He, H.; Ping, L.; Bonnema, G.; Dekker, M ... The total glucosinolate contents in Brassica rapa group varied substantially between the different accessions. The highest ...
Protection of humans by plant glucosinolates: efficiency of conversion of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates by the ... Protection of Humans by Plant Glucosinolates: Efficiency of Conversion of Glucosinolates to Isothiocyanates by the ... Protection of Humans by Plant Glucosinolates: Efficiency of Conversion of Glucosinolates to Isothiocyanates by the ... Protection of Humans by Plant Glucosinolates: Efficiency of Conversion of Glucosinolates to Isothiocyanates by the ...
In contrast to mutations that affect the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic mutant ... Glucosinolate Metabolites Required for an Arabidopsis Innate Immune Response. By Nicole K. Clay, Adewale M. Adio, Carine Denoux ... Glucosinolate Metabolites Required for an Arabidopsis Innate Immune Response. By Nicole K. Clay, Adewale M. Adio, Carine Denoux ... The role of glucosinolate hydrolysis in insect resistance has been studied for more than 100 years. Here we have identified a ...
The Hardcover of the Glucosinolates in Rapeseeds: Analytical Aspects: Proceedings of a Seminar in the CEC Programme of Research ... Purification and Analysis of Desulfo Indolyl Glucosinolates.- Optimization of Glucosinolates Desulphation before HPL - ... Glucosinolate Analysis in Whole Rapeseed by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.- Future Requirements for Glucosinolate ... Approach to Determination of HPLC Response Factors for Glucosinolates.- Isolation of Intact Glucosinolates by Column ...
NaturalHealth365) Study reveals that glucosinolates do not get destroyed in the stir frying process. Find out how this nutrient ... Glucosinolates fight cancer by a multitude of actions. Red cabbage and bok choy belong to the Brassica family of vegetables, ... Naturalhealth365) Glucosinolates may not be a word that rolls easily off the tongue. But, the presence of these natural ... Does stir frying destroy the cancer-fighting properties of glucosinolates?. Posted by: Lori Alton, staff writer in Nutrition ...
Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of cruciferous vegetables.. T A ... Isothiocyanates and their naturally occurring glucosinolate precursors are widely consumed as part of a diet rich in ... When plant cells are damaged, glucosinolates are released and converted to isothiocyanates by the enzyme myrosinase. Many ... Finally, when bowel microflora were reduced by mechanical cleansing and antibiotics, the conversion of glucosinolates became ...
D. B. Clarke, "Glucosinolates, structures and analysis in food," Analytical Methods, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 310-325, 2010. View at ... S. F. Vaughn, "Glucosinolates as natural pesticides," in Principles Practices in Plant Allelochemical Interactions, S. J. ... B. A. Halkier and J. Gershenzon, "Biology and biochemistry of glucosinolates," Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 57, pp. 303 ... I. E. Sønderby, F. Geu-Flores, and B. A. Halkier, "Biosynthesis of glucosinolates-gene discovery and beyond," Trends in Plant ...
... is their rich content of glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that are converted to isothiocyanates ( ... Daily Consumption of Well-Cooked Broccoli May Affect Glucosinolate Metabolites and Inflammatory Biomarkers. The safety and ... The change in glucosinolate metabolites will be measured in blood plasma and urine [ Time Frame: At end of diet period 1 (week ... The ability of fecal microbiota to metabolize glucosinolates will be determined [ Time Frame: once per week during diet periods ...
... the biologically important glucosinolate breakdown products, can present health-promoting effects, play an important role in ... Glucosinolate-Derived Isothiocyanates Inhibit Arabidopsis Growth and the Potency Depends on Their Side Chain Structure. János ... "Glucosinolate-Derived Isothiocyanates Inhibit Arabidopsis Growth and the Potency Depends on Their Side Chain Structure." Int. J ... Urbancsok J, Bones AM, Kissen R. Glucosinolate-Derived Isothiocyanates Inhibit Arabidopsis Growth and the Potency Depends on ...
  • Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates that induce phase 2 detoxication enzymes, boost antioxidant status, and protect animals against chemically induced cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinase (an enzyme found in plants and bowel microflora) to form isothiocyanates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We studied the disposition of broccoli sprout glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in healthy volunteers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dosing preparations included uncooked fresh sprouts (with active myrosinase) as well as homogenates of boiled sprouts that were devoid of myrosinase activity and contained either glucosinolates only or isothiocyanates only. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a crossover study, urinary dithiocarbamate excretion increased sharply after administration of broccoli sprout glucosinolates or isothiocyanates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies indicate that isothiocyanates are about six times more bioavailable than glucosinolates, which must first be hydrolyzed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In intact plants, sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates are stored as inert precursors, termed glucosinolates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A , glucosinolates are converted to isothiocyanates by the enzymatic action of myrosinase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Isothiocyanates and other glucosinolate-derived compounds can also reduce palatability of the meal. (springer.com)
  • The degradation of glucosinolates is catalyzed by thioglucosidases called myrosinases and leads by default to the formation of isothiocyanates. (qxmd.com)
  • Broccoli contains compounds known as glucosinolates which are metabolised to isothiocyanates when consumed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To uncover regulatory mechanisms of glucosinolate production, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA activation-tagged lines and identified a high-glucosinolate mutant caused by overexpression of IQD1 (At3g09710). (nih.gov)
  • Bak S, Tax FE, Feldmann KA, Galbraith DW, Feyereisen R (2001) CYP83B1, a cytochrome P450 at the metabolic branch point in auxin and indole glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • Campos de Quiros H, Magrath R, McCallum D, Kroymann J, Scnabelrauch D, Mitchell-Olds T, Mithen R (2000) a-Keto acid elongation and glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana . (springer.com)
  • The genetic control of concentration and side-chain modification of aliphatic glucosinolates, which have side-chains derived from methionine, are simple and well known from work on Arabidopsis and Brassica crops. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites present in Brassicaceae plants such as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (qxmd.com)
  • Characterization of recombinant nitrile-specifier proteins (NSPs) of Arabidopsis thaliana: dependency on Fe(II) ions and the effect of glucosinolate substrate and reaction conditions. (qxmd.com)
  • The Arabidopsis epithiospecifier protein promotes the hydrolysis of glucosinolates to nitriles and influences Trichoplusia ni herbivory. (qxmd.com)
  • Altered glucosinolate hydrolysis in genetically engineered Arabidopsis thaliana and its influence on the larval development of Spodoptera littoralis. (qxmd.com)
  • In a previous transactivation screen, two Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factors, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29, along with the already characterized HAG1/MYB28, were identified as putative regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Arabidopsis HARMLESS TO OZONE LAYER protein methylates a glucosinolate breakdown product and functions in resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. (uniprot.org)
  • Glucosinolates are a group of sulfur-containing glycosides found in many plant species, including cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. (altmetric.com)
  • The major glucosinolate in broccoli is known as glucoraphanin which produces the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The glucosinolates are thought to be the principal component in broccoli that may reduce CVD risk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • the second group will consume 400g of the high glucosinolate broccoli each week for 12weeks while the third group will consume 400g of peas each week for 12weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Examination of the indicators of CVD after the consumption of broccoli, high glucosinolate broccoli and peas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cyvex Nutrition has launched BroccoSinolate™, a natural antioxidant (glucosinolates), which joins a family of broccoli-based nutraceuticals marketed by the company. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • BroccoSinolate is extracted from mature broccoli plants stabilized and standardized to 4-6% glucosinolates. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Glucosinolates are bioactive phytochemicals found in Brassica (cruciferous) vegetables (e.g., broccoli, cauliflower, rapeseed, mustard, etc.) that protect the plants against the invasion of microorganisms and insects. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Glucosinolates: Kale, along with the rest of the members of the Brassica family (such as cabbage and broccoli), contains a number of these anti-cancer chemicals. (care2.com)
  • Sulforaphane is a metabolite of glucoraphanin (Grn), which in turn is the main glucosinolate (GLS) in broccoli. (healthvoice360.com)
  • So-called aliphatic glucosinolates derived from mainly methionine , but also alanine , leucine , isoleucine , or valine . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ecological genetics of aliphatic glucosinolates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In controlled conditions in the laboratory or in field trials, many aliphatic glucosinolates, or their degradation products, affect the behaviour of herbivores. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For these reasons, we suggest that polymorphism for aliphatic glucosinolates in natural populations offers an attractive system for the study of ecological genetics of plant-herbivore interactions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Real-time PCR assays, cotransformation assays and measurements of glucosinolate contents were used to assess the impact of both MYB factors on the steady-state level of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Both HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 were shown to be positive regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • HAG1/MYB28, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 reciprocally transactivated each other in the control of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis and downregulated the expression of genes involved in the control of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis, pointing to a reciprocal negative regulation of these two pathways. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • All three HAG transcription factors exert a coordinated control on aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This chapter concentrates on the genetic control of glucosinolate biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Bak S, Feyereisen R (2001) The involvement of two P450 enzymes, CYP83B1 and CYP83A1, in auxin homeostasis and glucosinolate biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Bak S, Nielsen HL, Halkier BA (1998) The presence of CYP79 homologues in glucosinolateproducing plants shows evolutionary conservation of the enzymes in the conversion of amino acid to aldoxime in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates. (springer.com)
  • Du LC, Halkier BA (1998) Biosynthesis of glucosinolates in the developing walls and seeds of Sinapis alba . (springer.com)
  • Du LC, Lykkesfeldt J, Olsen CE, Halkier BA (1995) Involvement of cytochrome P450 in oxime production in glucosinolate biosynthesis as demonstrated by an in vitro microsomal enzyme system isolated from jasmonic acid-induced seedlings of Sinapis alba . (springer.com)
  • Glucosinolates are the major class of secondary metabolites found in Brassica crops. (springer.com)
  • The economic importance of glucosinolates in Brassica crops is due to the biological activity of their degradation products, which include isothiocyanate, nitriles and a range of indole compounds (Figs. 2 and 3). (springer.com)
  • Kale contains glucosinolates and their derived Isothiocyantes such as: indole-3-carbinol, sulforaphane, phenethyl-isothiocyanate, benzyl-isothiocyanate and allyl-isothiocyanate (more on these later! (care2.com)
  • The essence of glucosinolate chemistry is the ability of a glucosinolate to convert into an isothiocyanate (a "mustard oil") upon hydrolysis of the thioglucoside bond by the enzyme myrosinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucosinolates upon plant tissue disruption yields an unstable aglucone which most typically rearranges to a toxic isothiocyanate. (gpr44.com)
  • Thorough chewing of fresh sprouts exposes the glucosinolates to plant myrosinase and significantly increases dithiocarbamate excretion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These compounds are generated by the action of the endogenous plant enzyme myrosinase, or by thioglucosidases from gut microbes following consumption of intact glucosinolates. (springer.com)
  • Bones AM, Rossiter JT (1996) The myrosinase-glucosinolate system, its organisation and biochemistry. (springer.com)
  • Following tissue damage, myrosinase enzymes catalyse the decomposition of glucosinolates to a variety of volatile and nonvolatile products. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interaction of a protein called epithiospecifier protein (ESP) with myrosinase diverts the reaction toward the production of epithionitriles or nitriles depending on the glucosinolate structure. (qxmd.com)
  • In conclusion, we show that AtNSPs belonging to a new family of A. thaliana proteins structurally related to AtESP divert product formation from myrosinase-catalyzed glucosinolate hydrolysis and, thereby, likely affect the biological consequences of glucosinolate degradation. (qxmd.com)
  • Comparative biochemical characterization of nitrile-forming proteins from plants and insects that alter myrosinase-catalysed hydrolysis of glucosinolates. (qxmd.com)
  • The glucosinolate-myrosinase program and proposed pathways of aromatic nitrile metabolic rate in P. rapae larvae. (gpr44.com)
  • Analysis of steady-state messenger RNA levels of glucosinolate pathway genes indicates that IQD1 affects expression of multiple genes with roles in glucosinolate metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • After thioglycosidic bond has been cleaved from glucosinolate, how does metabolism proceed? (brainscape.com)
  • Involved in glucosinolate metabolism and defense against phytopathogens (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • To assess the metabolism of benzylglucosinolate and 2phenylethylglucosinolate, P. rapae larvae were fed A. thaliana Col- leaves to which possibly of the two exogenous glucosinolates had been used. (gpr44.com)
  • In distinction, the main route of benzylglucosinolate metabolism consists of a C1 reduction from the C2 chain of this glucosinolate. (gpr44.com)
  • Intact glucosinolates are believed to be biologically inactive, whereas degradation products after hydrolysis have multiple roles in growth regulation and defense. (qxmd.com)
  • A wide variety of glucosinolates exists owing to modification of the side-chain structure. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These compounds, along with indolyl glucosinolate degradation products, have also been shown to have anticarcinogenic activity. (springer.com)
  • Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites with important roles in plant defense and human nutrition. (nih.gov)
  • Accumulating evidence increasingly supports the beneficial effects of dietary glucosinolates on overall health, including as potential anti-cancer agents, because of their role in the prevention of the initiation of carcinogenesis via the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and their epigenetic mechanisms, including modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes, histone modification regulation and changes in the expression of miRNAs. (altmetric.com)
  • Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a class of secondary metabolites with allelochemical properties found in members of the Brassicales. (biosc.de)
  • In this review, we summarize the cancer chemopreventive role of naturally occurring glucosinolate derivatives as inhibitors of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo human cancer animal models. (altmetric.com)
  • As IQD1 is induced by mechanical stimuli, we propose IQD1 to be novel nuclear factor that integrates intracellular Ca(2+) signals to fine-tune glucosinolate accumulation in response to biotic challenge. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the compound indole-3-carbinol, which appears to work as an anti-estrogen, appears to slow or prevent the growth of tumors of the breast and prostate.Cauliflower also contains other glucosinolates besides sulfurophane, substances which may improve the liver's ability to detoxify carcinogenic substances.A high intake of cauliflower has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. (organicsupermarket.ie)
  • Recombinant AtNSP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to test its impact on the outcome of glucosinolate hydrolysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach. (qxmd.com)
  • 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites composed of a thioglucose group and an amino acid side-chain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Glucosinolates occur as secondary metabolites of almost all plants of the order Brassicales . (wikipedia.org)
  • GUS expression reveals IQD1 promoter activity mainly in vascular tissues of all organs, consistent with the expression patterns of several glucosinolate-related genes. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of glucosinolate hydrolysis profiles of transgenic A. thaliana plants overexpressing AtNSP2 confirms its nitrile-specifier activity in planta. (qxmd.com)
  • The nature and biological activity of these products is dependent on the glucosinolate chain structure, reviewed in detail below. (springer.com)