Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.MethylglucosidesInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.PhlorhizinPhloretinCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.PropylaminesHexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.HexosesGlucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.GlycogenAffinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Cystinyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Dehydroascorbic Acid: The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1: A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nerve Tissue ProteinsLeishmania enriettii: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Sodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters: Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Deoxy SugarsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.PhotochemistryBlood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.MethylglycosidesMembrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.XyloseBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Tolazamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 3: A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.GlucosidesPhosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.GlucosephosphatesNeurotransmitter Transport Proteins: Membrane transport proteins found predominately in NEURONS and neuroendocrine cells that facilitate neurotransmitter transport. They include two distinct families of proteins that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS across the PLASMA MEMBRANE and that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS into SECRETORY VESICLES.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
These include a fungal phosphate transporter PiPT, plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1, and the human glucose transporter GLUT1. ... Deng D, Xu C, Sun P, Wu J, Yan C, Hu M, Yan N (June 2014). "Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1". Nature. ... Pascual JM, Wang D, Lecumberri B, Yang H, Mao X, Yang R, De Vivo DC (May 2004). "GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter ... Fischbarg J, Kuang KY, Vera JC, Arant S, Silverstein SC, Loike J, Rosen OM (April 1990). "Glucose transporters serve as water ...
Madej, MG; Sun, L; Yan, N; Kaback, HR (18 February 2014). "Functional architecture of MFS D-glucose transporters". Proceedings ... 25 (5). Madej, MG; Dang, S; Yan, N; Kaback, HR (9 April 2013). "Evolutionary mix-and-match with MFS transporters". Proceedings ...
1999). "Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) gene in patients with glycogen storage diseases type 1b and 1c ... Pan CJ, Lin B, Chou JY (1999). "Transmembrane topology of human glucose 6-phosphate transporter". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (20): ... 1999). "Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (9): ... 1999). "Glycogen storage disease type Ib: structural and mutational analysis of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter ...
"Glucose transporter deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) and the ketogenic diet". Epilepsia. 49 (Suppl 8): 46-9. doi:10.1111/j.1528- ... Hypoglycorrhachia is associated with Glucose transporter type 1 GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). Perhaps a much more common ... brain glucose transport system has been described in which severe neuroglycopenic effects occurred despite normal blood glucose ... Levels of glucose within the central nervous system are normally lower than the blood, regulated by an incompletely understood ...
Oliver JD, Hresko RC, Mueckler M, High S (Jun 1996). "The glut 1 glucose transporter interacts with calnexin and calreticulin ... Glucosidase II can also remove the third and last glucose residue. If the glycoprotein is not properly folded, an enzyme called ... These monoglucosylated oligosaccharides result from the trimming of two glucose residues by the sequential action of two ... UGGT (for UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase) will add the glucose residue back onto the oligosaccharide thus ...
"Facilitated glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome: impaired glucose transport into brain-a review". ... Genetic defects in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) appears to be the primary cause of De Vivo disease. Some evidence ... including carrier-mediated transporters such as glucose and amino acid carriers; receptor-mediated transcytosis for insulin or ... "GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter diseases". European Journal of Endocrinology. 150 (5): 627-33. doi:10.1530/eje. ...
Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ... a glucose transporter, on target cells. HTLV-1 is also associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and has been quite well ...
Segade, Fernando (16 July 2010). "Glucose transporter 10 and arterial tortuosity syndrome: the vitamin C connection". FEBS ...
... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A14 gene. Members of the glucose ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14". Retrieved 2011-10-23. Wu X, Freeze HH (December 2002). "GLUT14, a duplicon of ... are highly conserved integral membrane proteins that transport hexoses such as glucose and fructose into all mammalian cells. ...
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT ... "Cloning and characterization of glucose transporter 11, a novel sugar transporter that is alternatively spliced in various ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 11". Sasaki T, Minoshima S, Shiohama A, Shintani A, Shimizu A, Asakawa S, Kawasaki K, ... Shimizu N (December 2001). "Molecular cloning of a member of the facilitative glucose transporter gene family GLUT11 (SLC2A11) ...
December 1996). "Immunohistochemical Localization of Facilitated-Diffusion Glucose Transporters in Rat Pancreatic Islets". ...
HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1. HTLV-II has not been clearly linked to any disease ... Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ...
It has been shown that cytochalasin B binds covalently to mammalian glucose transporter proteins when irradiated with UV light ... Baly, DL; Horuk, R (1988). "The Biology and Biochemistry of the Glucose Transporter". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 947 (3): ... Inhibition of Glucose Transport and the Stoichiometry of Cytochalasin Binding". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 323 (2): 207-219 ... Cytochalasin B inhibits glucose transport and platelet aggregation. It blocks adenosine-induced apoptotic body formation ...
"Crypt/villus site of substrate-dependent regulation of mouse intestinal glucose transporters". Proceedings of the National ... Karasov, W. H.; Pond Rs, 3.; Solberg, D. H.; Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Regulation of proline and glucose transport in mouse ... Diamond, J. M.; Karasov, W. H. (1987). "Adaptive regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters". Proceedings of the National ...
Solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC37A2 gene ... glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 2". Pan CJ, Chen SY, Jun HS, Lin SR, Mansfield BC, Chou JY (2011). "SLC37A1 and ... SLC37A2 are phosphate-linked, glucose-6-phosphate antiporters". PLoS One. 6 (9): e23157. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023157. PMC ...
"The Krüppel-like factor KLF15 regulates the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (37): 34322-8. doi ... However, they also exhibit improved glucose tolerance as a result of enhanced insulin secretion. The enhancement of insulin ... KLF15 in adipocytes of mice results in down-regulation of SCD1 expression in adipocytes and consequent enhancement of glucose- ...
"Expression of hexokinases and glucose transporters in treated and untreated oesophageal adenocarcinoma". Histology and ... By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy ... Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. ... new insights from the crystal structure of recombinant human brain hexokinase complexed with glucose and glucose-6-phosphate". ...
... of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine. ... validates the critical role of SGLT2 in renal glucose reabsorption and modulates plasma glucose level". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. ... It did not undergo further development after phase II.[citation needed] Sergliflozin inhibits subtype 2 of the sodium-glucose ... January 2007). "Sergliflozin, a novel selective inhibitor of low-affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2), ...
2014). "Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1". Nature. 510: 121-125. doi:10.1038/nature13306. CS1 maint: ... In 2014 her laboratory successfully solved the structure of GLUT1, a key protein in facilitating the transport of glucose ...
Rumsey SC, Kwon O, Xu GW, Burant CF, Simpson I, Levine M (July 1997). "Glucose transporter isoforms GLUT1 and GLUT3 transport ... GLUT1 and GLUT3 are glucose transporters, and transfer only the dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) form of vitamin C. Although ... It is transported through the intestine via both glucose-sensitive and glucose-insensitive mechanisms. The presence of large ... Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium-Ascorbate Co-Transporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)-are the two ...
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 7 also known as glucose transporter 7 (GLUT7) is a protein that ... Glucose transporter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197241 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... facilitated glucose transporter)". Li Q, Manolescu A, Ritzel M, Yao S, Slugoski M, Young JD, Chen XZ, Cheeseman CI (July 2004 ... This family of transporters shows conservation of 12 transmembrane helices as well as functionally significant amino acid ...
... and glucose transporter isoform 2 (GLUT2), intestinal transporters for vitamin C and Glucose". The Journal of Biological ... "Inhibition of the intestinal glucose transporter GLUT2 by flavonoids". The FASEB Journal. 21 (2): 366-77. doi:10.1096/fj.06- ... People showing very high urine glucose levels were confined to bed and restricted to an unlimited supply of water, coffee, tea ... In fact, some evidence indicates the human brain - the largest consumer of glucose in the body - can operate more efficiently ...
All brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier structures have glucose transporters (GLUT1). These transporters are generally ... Rahner-Welsch S, Vogel J, Kuschinsky W (July 1995). "Regional congruence and divergence of glucose transporters (GLUT1) and ...
The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is ... Glucose transporter 1 (or GLUT1), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1), is ... GeneReviews/NIH/UW entry on Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome Glucose Transporter Type 1 at the US National ... Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate about 50,000 times ...
The generation of glucose from compounds like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glycerate 3-phosphate and amino acids is called ... Metal micronutrients are taken up into organisms by specific transporters and bind to storage proteins such as ferritin or ... Bouché C, Serdy S, Kahn C, Goldfine A (2004). "The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes". Endocr Rev. ... Insulin is produced in response to rises in blood glucose levels. Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then ...
18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose". Journal of Labelled ... Radioligands that bind to dopamine receptors (D1,[14] D2 receptor,[15][16] reuptake transporter), serotonin receptors (5HT1A, ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... These radionuclides are incorporated either into compounds normally used by the body such as glucose (or glucose analogues), ...
The major transporters are Sodium-dependent-vitamin C transporters SVCT1 and 2 and the glucose transporters Glut-1 and Glut-3. ... The main transporters are Sodium-dependent-vitamin C transporters SVCT1 and two and the glucose transporters Glut-1 and Glut-3 ...
Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. ... Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, ... Thorens B (1996). "Glucose transporters in the regulation of intestinal, renal, and liver glucose fluxes". Am. J. Physiol. 270 ... Hebert D, Carruthers A (1992). "Glucose transporter oligomeric structure determines transporter function. Reversible redox- ...
... the endothelia and epithelia of the blood-brain barrier allow little glucose to diffuse across their paracellular... ... The retina relies on glucose for metabolic energy, but unlike systemic endothelia, ... 4. Takata K. Glucose transporters in the transepithelial transport of glucose. J Electron Microsc 1996;45:275-284.Google ... Glucose Transporters in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Development. In: Tombran-Tink J., Barnstable C.J. (eds) Ocular Transporters ...
Sodium-glucose transporters in cancer. Claudio Scafoglio, Bruce A. Hirayama, Vladimir Kepe, Jie Liu, Chiara Ghezzi, ... Sodium-glucose transporters in cancer. Claudio Scafoglio, Bruce A. Hirayama, Vladimir Kepe, Jie Liu, Chiara Ghezzi, ... namely active glucose transport mediated by sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs). This means that the specific ... A well-known mechanism of glucose uptake into cells is facilitative diffusion mediated by glucose transporters (GLUTs) (8). The ...
... the Na+-glucose cotransporter and the facilitative glucose transporter. The Na+-glucose cotransporter transports glucose ... Facilitative glucose carriers are expressed by most if not all cells. The facilitative glucose-transporter isoforms have ... Molecular Biology of Mammalian Glucose Transporters. Graeme I Bell, Toshiaki Kayano, John B Buse, Charles F Burant, Jun Takeda ... Molecular Biology of Mammalian Glucose Transporters. Graeme I Bell, Toshiaki Kayano, John B Buse, Charles F Burant, Jun Takeda ...
It has been postulated that a glucose transporter of beta cells (GLUT-2) may be important in glucose-stimulated insulin ... Regulation of beta-cell glucose transporter gene expression.. L Chen, T Alam, J H Johnson, S Hughes, C B Newgard, and R H Unger ... This provides functional evidence of a profound reduction of high Km glucose transporter in beta cells. In contrast, GLUT-2 was ... To determine the effect of prolonged hyperglycemia, we also infused animals with 50% (wt/vol) glucose for 5 days (glucose at ...
... depends upon the transport of glucose across the cell surface membrane by specific carrier proteins. Two general classes of... ... Glucose oxidation, a major source of metabolic energy for mammalian cells, ... Glucose Transporter GLUT4 Expression GLUT4 Glucose Transporter GLUT4 mRNA Glucose Transporter Protein These keywords were added ... The first category of glucose transporters are the Na+/dependent glucose co-transporters which are found in the brush border ...
... L. Zanoli,1 A. Granata,2 P. Lentini,3 S. Rastelli,1 P ... Leszek Szablewski, "Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases," Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 24, no. 1, ... Lin Zhang, Mei Zhang, Qingguo Lv, and Nanwei Tong, "Efficacy and Safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in ... Sanjay Kalra, Vikram Singh, and Dinesh Nagrale, "Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibition and the Glomerulus: A Review," ...
... Frank Gaunitz cbkga01 at mailserv.zdv.uni-tuebingen.de Wed ... I have heard that there is a distributor for antibodies directed against the Glut-1 glucose-transporter (erythroid/brain or ...
Rabbit polyclonal Glucose Transporter GLUT1 antibody validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and ... Anti-Glucose Transporter GLUT1 antibody. See all Glucose Transporter GLUT1 primary antibodies. ... Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform may be responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad ... The antibody labels glucose transporter (Glut 1) species from rat brain, human RBC, SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and rat ...
Buy our Human Glucose Transporter GLUT4 peptide. Ab34088 is a blocking peptide for ab33780 and has been validated in BL. Abcam ... Human Glucose Transporter GLUT4 peptide. See all Glucose Transporter GLUT4 proteins and peptides. ...
Moreover, the absorption of glucose and homeostasis of Ca2+ in IEC are regulated by cation channels and transporters, such as ... In this review, we consider the involvement of these cation channels and transporters in the regulation of glucose uptake in ... The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na+/glucose cotransporter ( ... although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. The membrane potential of small intestinal epithelial cells ( ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
1 patients with glucose transporter type 1 deficiency experience fatigue, insomnia, depressed mood, pain, and anxious mood and ... Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on glucose transporter type 1 deficiency at PatientsLikeMe. ... use Armodafinil to treat their glucose transporter type 1 deficiency and its symptoms. ... 0 glucose transporter type 1 deficiency patients report severe pain (0%). * 1 a glucose transporter type 1 deficiency patient ...
Diseases such as glucose-galactose malabsorption, Fanconi-Bickel syndrome and De Vivo disease (GLUT1 deficiency syndrome ( ... GLUT1DS)) arise from heritable mutations in transporter-encoding genes that impai … ... We review the three genetically determined disorders of glucose transport across cell membranes. ... GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter diseases Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 May;150(5):627-33. doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1500627. ...
... report that glucose transporters, which transfer glucose from the blood to the brain, are inhibited by E. coli K1 during ... Glucose transporters blocked in bacterial meningitis. by Childrens Hospital Los Angeles E. coli K1 damages microvessels (green ... "We found that expression of glucose transporters is completely shut down by bacteria, leaving insufficient fuel for the immune ... The reason for the reduced glucose levels associated with bacterial meningitis was believed to be the need for glucose as fuel ...
Browse our Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Proteins. We offer Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Peptides and Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Proteins for use ... Alternate Names for Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Proteins. Glucose Transporter GLUT6 protein, SLC2A6 protein, Glucose transporter ...
Putative vacuolar glucose transporterImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,E3VWY8,E3VWY8_VITVI Putative vacuolar glucose transporter OS=Vitis vinifera OX=29760 GN=VGT2 PE=3 SV=1 ... Sugar transporter (TC 2.A.1.1) family. [View classification]UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
The effect of non-labeled ADP-glucose and ADP on the uptake rate of [α-32P] ADP-glucose indicated the substrate specificity of ... we have shed some light on the molecular and biochemical characteristics of barley plastidial ADP-glucose transporter, HvBT1. ... It acts as a main gate for the transport of ADP-glucose, the main precursor for starch biosynthesis during grain filling, from ... Biochemical characterization of HvBT1 using E. coli system revealed that HvBT1 is able to transport ADP-glucose into E. coli ...
Brain glucose transporters. Implications for neurologic disease. Eduardo E. Benarroch. First published March 19, 2014, DOI: ... These cells express different subtypes of glucose transporters (GLUTs) that mediate the sodium-independent facilitated ... about 120 g of glucose per day). In the nervous system, the aerobic metabolism of glucose is the main source of energy in the ... Astrocytes take up glucose from the blood and metabolize it to lactate, which is then delivered to neurons. The relative ...
The G1DRC aims to improve the availability of G1D information and resources, treatments, clinical studies, and general awareness for patients and the medical community.
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Glucose Transporter GLUT8 Rabbit anti-Mouse, Rat, Polyclonal, Novus ... Glucose Transporter GLUT8 Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Glucose Transporter GLUT8 in Mouse, Rat samples. It is ... GLUT-8, GLUT8solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 8, GLUTX1facilitated glucose transporter member 8 ... Recombinant fusion protein containing a sequence corresponding to amino acids 200-260 of human Glucose Transporter GLUT8 (NP_ ...
Human and rat beta cells differ in glucose transporter but not in glucokinase gene expression.. De Vos A1, Heimberg H, Quartier ... Human beta-cells differ from rodent beta-cells in glucose transporter gene expression (predominantly GLUT1 instead of GLUT2), ... Glucose homeostasis is controlled by a glucose sensor in pancreatic beta-cells. Studies on rodent beta-cells have suggested a ... Little direct evidence exists so far to implicate these two proteins in glucose recognition by human beta-cells. The present in ...
... glucose transport across this membrane requires glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins [4]. The GLUT are membrane transporters ... Localization of Glucose Transporter 10 to Hair Cells Cuticular Plate in the Mouse Inner Ear. Bei Chen,1 Yunfeng Wang,2 Manying ... L. Szablewski, "Glucose transporters in healthy heart and in cardiac disease," International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 230, ... H. Bays, "Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Targeting the kidney to improve glycemic control in diabetes ...
... activation promotes glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation in adipocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that protein ... Potential role of protein kinase B in glucose transporter 4 translocation in adipocytes Endocrinology. 1997 May;138(5):2005-10. ... Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activation promotes glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation in adipocytes. In ... together with an epitope tagged transporter (Glut 4 myc). Gag-PKB was associated with all membrane fractions, whereas the ...
  • Empagliflozin (EMPA), a SGLT-2i, increases urinary glucose excretion, and reduces blood pressure (BP) and body weight. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sodium-glucose transporters (SGLT) belong to the solute carrier 5 family, which is characterized by sodium dependent transport of sugars and other solutes. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of several extended pedigrees with high density of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) identified a triplet ATG deletion in SLC5A4 leading to a single Sodium-glucose transporters (SGLT) belong to the solute carrier 5 family, which is characterized by sodium dependent transport of sugars and other solutes. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Differential effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the "adipose- type" and "brain-type" glucose transporters in mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In adipose tissue a slight recovery was observed by 30 days, but in the brains of treated animals glucose transport was significantly decreased even at the latest time. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In August 1960, in Prague, Robert K. Crane presented for the first time his discovery of the sodium-glucose cotransport as the mechanism for intestinal glucose absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 Acute stimulation by the intracellular messenger cAMP of intestinal glucose absorption via the SGLT1 has been shown. (bmj.com)
  • The molecular weight of the glucose transporter precipitated by the serum is approximately 46 kDa. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The molecular basis of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake: signalling, trafficking and potential drug targets. (semanticscholar.org)
  • El estudio llevado a cabo por el grupo de los Drs. Jose Manuel García Fernández y Jesús Díez, del Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de la Universidad de Córdoba, cuya primera autora es la doctoranda María del Carmen Muñoz Marín, ha probado que Prochlorococcus es perfectamente capaz de absorber glucosa del océano. (sebbm.es)
  • Class II comprises: GLUT5 (SLC2A5), a fructose transporter in enterocytes GLUT7 - SLC2A7 - (SLC2A7), found in the small and large intestine, transporting glucose out of the endoplasmic reticulum GLUT9 - SLC2A9 - (SLC2A9) GLUT11 (SLC2A11) Class III comprises: GLUT6 (SLC2A6), GLUT8 (SLC2A8), GLUT10 (SLC2A10), GLUT12 (SLC2A12), and GLUT13, also H+/myoinositol transporter HMIT (SLC2A13), primarily expressed in brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retina relies on glucose for metabolic energy, but unlike systemic endothelia, the endothelia and epithelia of the blood-brain barrier allow little glucose to diffuse across their paracellular spaces. (springer.com)
  • also known as blood-brain barrier glucose transport defect. (abcam.com)
  • This disease causes a defect in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. (abcam.com)
  • Scientists at The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) report that glucose transporters, which transfer glucose from the blood to the brain, are inhibited by E. coli K1 during meningitis. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This causes inhibition of glucose uptake and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier integrity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The normal adult brain constitutes approximately 2% of the body weight and consumes approximately 20% of glucose in the body (about 120 g of glucose per day). (neurology.org)
  • However the brain functional consequences of DAT blockade by cocaine are less clear since they are confounded by its concomitant blockade of norepinephrineand serotonin transporters. (nih.gov)
  • To separate the dopaminergic from the non-dopaminergic effects of cocaine on brain function we compared the regional brain metabolic responses to cocaine between dopamine transporter deficient (DAT(-/-)) mice with that of their DAT(+/+) littermates. (nih.gov)
  • these visits will also include blood work for exosome markers and brain MRS. In addition, placement of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) along with a 34-hour urine collection will be carried out. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We here show for the first time the pharmacological characterization of BAY-876, comprising inhibition of glucose-uptake, anti-proliferative activity in vitro, and anti-tumor efficacy in vivo in models of different tumor indications in monotherapy as well as first results on the combinability of BAY-876. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several of them (GLUT6, GLUT8) are made of motifs that help retain them intracellularly and therefore prevent glucose transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theoretical safety concerns about increased glucosuria by SGLT2 inhibtion do not appear to be relevant as patients with familial renal glucosuria by an inherited defective form of SGLT2 have normal kidney function, are not hypoglycemic and have no pathology caused by the transporter defect. (pharmiweb.com)