A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Glucose in blood.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Abstaining from all food.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Beta-cell gene expression and functional characterisation of the human insulinoma cell line CM. (1/340)

Animal insulinoma cell lines are widely used to study physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in glucose metabolism and to establish in vitro models for studies on beta-cells. In contrast, human insulinoma cell lines are rarely used because of difficulties in obtaining and culturing them for long periods. The aim of our study was to investigate, under different experimental conditions, the capacity of the human insulinoma cell line CM to retain beta-cell function, particularly the expression of constitutive beta-cell genes (insulin, the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT2, glucokinase), intracellular and secreted insulin, beta-cell granules, and cAMP content. Results showed that CM cells from an early-passage express specific beta-cell genes in response to glucose stimulation, in particular the insulin and GLUT genes. Such capacity is lost at later passages when cells are cultured at standard glucose concentrations. However, if cultured at lower glucose concentration (0.8 mM) for a longer time, CM cells re-acquire the capacity to respond to glucose stimulation, as shown by the increased expression of beta-cell genes (insulin, GLUT2, glucokinase). Nonetheless, insulin secretion could not be restored under such experimental conditions despite the presence of intracellular insulin, although cAMP response to a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin, was present indicating a viable system. In conclusion, these data show that the human insulinoma cell line CM, at both early-passage and late-passage, posseses a functional glucose-signalling pathway and insulin mRNA expression similar to normal beta-cells, representing, therefore, a good model for studies concerning the signalling and expression of beta-cells. Furthermore, we have previously shown that it is also a good model for immunological studies. In this respect it is important to note that the CM cell line is one of the very few existing human beta-cell lines in long-term culture.  (+info)

Sucrase-isomaltase and hexose transporter gene expressions are coordinately enhanced by dietary fructose in rat jejunum. (2/340)

We previously demonstrated that the levels of mRNAs of both sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and sodium/D-glucose transporter (SGLT1) are modulated by dietary sucrose in the rat jejunum. In the present study, we investigated whether the transcription of the gene coding SI is regulated by certain types of monosaccharides. Force-feeding a fructose and sucrose diet, (40% energy as fructose or sucrose) gave rise to parallel increases in the transcripts of SI and intestinal hexose transporters (SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2) within 12 h. Force-feeding a glycerol-containing diet also caused an enhancement of SI, SGLT1, and GLUT2 mRNA levels. However, feeding the diet containing glucose or alpha-methylglucoside generally did not increase the transcript levels of SI or the intestinal hexose transporters. Nuclear run-on assays revealed that fructose as well as sucrose increased the transcription of both SI and GLUT5 genes and that the transcription rates of these genes were unaffected by glucose. These results suggest that fructose (or a metabolite) is capable of increasing the mRNA levels of SI and hexose transporters in the small intestine and that transcriptional regulation might play a pivotal role in the carbohydrate-induced coordinate enhancement of SI and fructose transporter gene expression  (+info)

Neonatal diabetes mellitus with hypergalactosemia. (3/340)

We report the case of a male, small-for-gestational-age newborn who presented with failure to thrive, severe fluctuation of blood glucose concentrations, and increased serum concentrations of galactose. The infant responded well to a lactose-free diet supplemented with fructose, inulin and corn starch. The metabolic disorder disappeared within 6 months. The transient course, and results of a molecular analysis of the glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene seem to rule out Fanconi-Bickel syndrome.  (+info)

Comparative aspects of the function and mechanism of SUR1 and MDR1 proteins. (4/340)

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily proteins have divergent functions and can be classified as transporters, channels, and receptors, although their predicted secondary structures are very much alike. Prominent members include the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) and the multidrug transporter (MDR1). SUR1 is a subunit of the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel and plays a key role in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. SUR1 binds ATP at NBF1, and ADP at NBF2 and the two NBFs work cooperatively. The pore-forming subunit of the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel, Kir6.2, is a member of the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel family, and also binds ATP. In this article, we present a model in which the activity of the K(ATP) channel is determined by the balance of the action of ADP, which activates the channel through SUR1, and the action of ATP, which stabilizes the long closed state by binding to Kir6.2. The concentration of ATP could also affect the channel activity through binding to NBF1 of SUR1. MDR1, on the other hand, is an ATP-dependent efflux pump which extrudes cytotoxic drugs from cells before they can reach their intracellular targets, and in this way confers multidrug resistance to cancer cells. Both NBFs of MDR1 can hydrolyze nucleotides, and their ATPase activity is necessary for drug transport. The interaction of SUR1 with nucleotides is quite different from that of MDR1. Variations in the interactions with nucleotides of ABC proteins may account for the differences in their functions.  (+info)

Maternal hypothyroxinemia influences glucose transporter expression in fetal brain and placenta. (5/340)

The influence of maternal hypothyroxinemia on the expression of the glucose transporters, GLUT1 and GLUT3, in rat fetal brain and placenta was investigated. Fetal growth was retarded in hypothyroxinemic pregnancies, but only before the onset of fetal thyroid hormone synthesis. Placental weights were normal, but placental total protein concentration was reduced at 19 days gestation (dg). Immunoblotting revealed a decreased abundance of GLUT1 in placental microsomes at 16 dg, whereas GLUT3 was increased. Fetal serum glucose levels were reduced at 16 dg. In fetal brain, the concentration of microsomal protein was deficient at 16 dg and the abundance of parenchymal forms of GLUT1 was further depressed, whereas GLUT3 was unaffected. Northern hybridization analysis demonstrated normal GLUT1 mRNA levels in placenta and fetal brain. In conclusion, maternal hypothyroxinemia results in fetal growth retardation and impaired brain development before the onset of fetal thyroid function. Glucose uptake in fetal brain parenchyma may be compromised directly, due to deficient GLUT1 expression in this tissue, and indirectly, as a result of reduced placental GLUT1 expression. Though corrected by the onset of fetal thyroid hormone synthesis, these deficits are present during the critical period of neuroblast proliferation and may contribute to long term changes in brain development and function seen in this model and in the progeny of hypothyroxinemic women.  (+info)

A dietary intervention (high carbohydrate) during the neonatal period causes islet dysfunction in rats. (6/340)

Artificial rearing of 4-day-old rat pups on a high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula results in the immediate onset of hyperinsulinemia. To evaluate these early changes, studies on pancreatic function were carried out on 12-day-old HC rats and compared with age-matched mother-fed (MF) pups. The plasma insulin and glucagon contents were increased sixfold and twofold, respectively, in HC rats compared with MF rats. There was a distinct leftward shift in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretory pattern for HC islets. HC islets secreted insulin in the absence of any added glucose and in the presence of Ca(2+) channel inhibitors. The activities of glucokinase, hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were significantly increased in HC islets compared with MF islets. The protein contents of GLUT-2 and hexokinase were significantly increased in HC islets. These findings indicate that a nutritional intervention in the form of a HC formula only during the suckling period has a profound influence on pancreatic function, causing the onset of hyperinsulinemia.  (+info)

Insulin resistance and glucose transporter expression during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in the lamb. (7/340)

Three- to six-day-old lambs infused with 100 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1) insulin required greater amounts of glucose to maintain euglycemia during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp compared with 31- to 35-day-old insulin-infused lambs (15.87 +/- 3.47 vs. 4.30 +/- 1.11 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Endogenous glucose production persisted in both groups; however, the percent decrease compared with age-matched lambs receiving no insulin was greater in the younger group compared with the older group (53%, P < 0.001, vs. 34%, P < 0.01). The younger animals showed greater glucose utilization compared with the older animals (215 vs. 96%, respectively, P < 0.01). No effect of insulin was noted on GLUT-4 protein expression in either group. GLUT-2 expression was increased in older vs. younger lambs. Older insulin-infused lambs showed lower GLUT-2 expression than older 0 insulin-infused lambs [0.94 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.64 +/- 0.10 (OD) units, P < 0.005]. Increased sensitivity to insulin in the younger animals was not related to acute changes in GLUT-4 expression. Increased GLUT-2 expression with age, as well as decreased expression with hyperinsulinemia, is consistent with the development of an insulin-resistant state in the adult.  (+info)

The large intracytoplasmic loop of the glucose transporter GLUT2 is involved in glucose signaling in hepatic cells. (8/340)

The hypothesis that the glucose transporter GLUT2 can function as a protein mediating transcriptional glucose signaling was addressed. To divert the putative interacting proteins from a glucose signaling pathway, two intracytoplasmic domains of GLUT2, the C terminus and the large loop located between transmembrane domains 6 and 7, were transfected into mhAT3F hepatoma cells. Glucose-induced accumulation of two hepatic gene mRNAs (GLUT2 and L-pyruvate kinase) was specifically inhibited in cells transfected with the GLUT2 loop and not with the GLUT2 C terminus. The dual effects of glucose were dissociated in cells expressing the GLUT2 loop; in fact a normal glucose metabolism into glycogen occurred concomitantly with the inhibition of the glucose-induced transcription. This inhibition by the GLUT2 loop could be due to competitive binding of a protein that normally interacts with endogenous GLUT2. In addition, the GLUT2 loop, tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP), was located within the nucleus, whereas the GFP and GFP-GLUT2 C-terminal proteins remained in the cytoplasm. In living cells, a fraction (50%) of the expressed GFP-GLUT2 loop translocated rapidly from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to high glucose concentration and conversely in the absence of glucose. We conclude that, via protein interactions with its large loop, GLUT2 may transduce a glucose signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.  (+info)

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Monogenic and polygenic mutations are important contributors in patients suffering from epilepsy, including metabolic epilepsies which are inborn errors of metabolism with a good respond to specific dietetic treatments. Heterozygous variation in solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1) and mutations of the GLUT1/SLC2A2 gene results in the failure of glucose transport, which is related with a glucose type-1 transporter (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is a treatable disorder of glucose transport into the brain caused by a variety of mutations in the SLC2A1 gene which are the cause of different neurological disorders also with different types of epilepsy and related clinical phenotypes. Since patients continue to experience seizures due to a pharmacoresistance, an early clinical diagnosis associated with specific genetic testing in SLC2A1 pathogenic variants in clinical phenotypes could predict pure drug response and might improve safety
Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) antibody | P11166 | Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1, Glucose transporter type 1, erythrocyte/brain (GLUT-1), HepG2 glucose transporter, GLUT1
Insulin and GLUT 4 - A signal transduction pathway. What is GLUT 4. Glucose transporter type 4, also known as GLUT4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLUT4 gene. GLUT4 is the...
There is a considerable resurgence of interest in the role of aerobic glycolysis in cancer; however, increased glycolysis is frequently viewed as a consequence of oncogenic events that drive malignant cell growth and survival. Here we provide evidence that increased glycolytic activation itself can be an oncogenic event in a physiologically relevant 3D culture model. Overexpression of glucose transporter type 3 (GLUT3) in nonmalignant human breast cells activated known oncogenic signaling...
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common reasons of cancer-related death with few biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 protein SLC2A1, also known as glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), has been associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in many human solid tumors. However, little is reported about its clinical significance and biological functions in GC. Here we observed a strong up-regulation of SLC2A1 in patients with GC and found that SLC2A1 was significantly correlated with depth of invasion and clinical stage. Additionally, over-expression of SLC2A1 in GC cells promotes cellular proliferation and metastasis in vitro and enhances tumor growth in vivo as well as enhancement of glucose utilization. Meanwhile, elevated SLC2A1 also contributes to tumor metastasis in vitro. Our results indicate SLC2A1 exhibits a pivotal role in tumor growth, metastasis and glucose metabolism, and also suggest SLC2A1 as a
Slim Fast Boosters Carb Cutter, with green tea extract, helps reduce calorie uptake and limits carb and sugar absorption. Take Slim Fast Carb Cutter before a carborhydrate-rich meal or snack to help limit carb and sugar absorption.
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS, OMIM 227810) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family (Santer et al. J Inherit Metab Dis 21:191-194, 1998). The typical clinical picture is characterized .... ...
Mann S, Beedie C, Balducci S, Zanuso S, Allgrove J, Bertiato F, Jimenez A.Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly prevalent condition with complications including blindness and kidney failure. Evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, with physical activity demonstrated to increase glucose uptake and improve glycaemic control. Proposed mechanisms for these effects include the maintenance and improvement of insulin sensitivity via increased glucose transporter type four production. The optimal mode, frequency, intensity and duration of exercise for the improvement of insulin sensitivity are however yet to be identified. We review the evidence from 34 published studies addressing the effects on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity of aerobic exercise, resistance training and both combined. Effect sizes and confidence intervals are reported for each intervention and meta-analysis presented. The quality of the evidence is tentatively graded, and recommendations for
Muscle, Skeletal;Muscle Proteins;Insulin Resistance;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Glucose Transporter Type 4;Cystinyl Aminopeptidase;Aminopeptidases;Biological Transport;Monosaccharide Transport Proteins;Centrifugation, Density ...
KAZ L-Arabinose is a natural sugar blocker. It has GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status, and blocks sugar absorption to the body.
GLUT-1 was the first member of this family to be characterized. It is responsible for the basal glucose uptake needed for respiration in all cells. Expression levels of GLUT-1 in cell membranes vary inversely with glucose concentration. GLUT-1 can also transport other pentose and hexose sugars. Aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells requires high levels of glucose, and GLUT-1 has been targeted in cancer research. Alternate names include solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1 (SLC2A1); glucose transporter type 1, erythrocyte/brain; HepG2 glucose transporter; GLUT; PED; DYT9; DYT17; DYT18; EIG12; and GLUT1DS.. GLUT-3 has been studied in other cell types with specific glucose requirements, including sperm, preimplantation embryos, circulating white blood cells, and carcinoma cell lines. GLUT-3 is expressed in, and is the main transporter for, neuronal cells. GLUT-3 has both a higher affinity for glucose and at least a five-fold greater transport capacity than GLUT-1, GLUT-2, ...
Increase in waist size has been correlated with both a reduced disposal of glucose and an increase in the risk of diabetes. A similar relationship exists for adipocytes (AC). The expansion of AC occurs early in the progression of obesity. This expansion, known as adipocyte hypertrophy, is accompanied by a sequence of events that culminates in loss of the integrity of the cell resulting in dissemination of fat from AT into other tissue compartments. There is considerable evidence to show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) accumulate in visceral adipose tissue, which correlates with the development of insulin resistance.. New evidence suggests that the increased demand for lipid storage by nutritional excess leads to the conversion of the AC from a small multilocular cell with intact glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to a unilocular cell with a large lipid droplet and decreased GLUT4 translocation. Thus, insulin resistance at the AC level seems to be an early event in the meta-inflammatory ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Antibody (7E3). Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Glucose Transporter GLUT1 antibody [EPR3915]. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 62 publication(s)…
Rabbit polyclonal Glucose Transporter GLUT4 antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC, IM, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 74 publications…
Glucose Transporter GLUT1小鼠单克隆抗体可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC,Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被20篇文献引用并得到8个独立的用户反馈。
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab41525 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,ELISA,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,Dot,IHC-FrFl…Glucose Transporter…
G-allele of intronic rs10830963 in MTNR1B confers increased risk of impaired fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes through an impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release: studies involving 19,605 Europeans. ...
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Glucose transport across the chondrocyte membrane is essential for chondrogenesis and the development of the skeletal system. We have previously used RT-PCR to show that fully developed human articular chondrocytes express transcripts for the GLUT1 and GLUT9 glucose transporters. In this study we report on the expression and immunohistochemical localization of the GLUT1 and GLUT9 proteins in embryonic and mature ovine cartilage. We also provide Western blot evidence for GLUT1 and GLUT9 expression in mature ovine chondrocytes. Ovine embryos (developmental stages E32 to E36 and E42 to E45) were obtained from pregnant ewes humanely killed by injection with sodium pentobarbitone. Embryos were fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry. Polyclonal antibodies to GLUT1 and GLUT9 revealed that both transporters are expressed in developing chondrocytes in ovine embryos and in the superficial, middle and deep layers of ovine cartilage from mature animals. GLUT1 expression was observed in erythrocytes ...
Glucose Transporter GLUT6兔多克隆抗体(ab119272)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Glucose Transporter GLUT8 Rabbit anti-Mouse, Rat, Polyclonal, Novus Biologicals:: 100 µg; Unconjugated.
ISHIKAWA Nobuhisa , OGURI Tetsuya , ISOBE Takeshi , FUJITAKA Kazunori , KOHNO Nobuoki Japanese journal of cancer research : gann 92(8), 874-879, 2001-08-31 医中誌Web 参考文献32件 ...
GLUT5 antibody (solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose/fructose transporter), member 5) for WB. Anti-GLUT5 pAb (GTX47818) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Start the Sugar Blockers Diet and learn how to block sugar absorption by eating sweets, sipping wine, and snacking on fatty foods.
The facilitative glucose transport protein GLUT1 has important roles in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of human diseases
The regulation of blood glucose levels in humans, in response to insulin, is essential to survival. This response is mediated through the insulin responsive glucose transporter GLUT4. In response to insulin stimulation GLUT4 is trafficked from intracellular insulin sensitive stores (GSVs GLUT4 storage vesicles) to the plasma membrane of fat and muscle cells allowing uptake of glucose into these cells and lowering of plasma glucose levels. Previous work from our lab has identified that ubiquitination and subsequent deubiquitination of GLUT4 is required for entry and stability in GSVs. This balance of ubiquitination and deubiquitination in mammalian cells is carried out by E3 ligases and deubiqutinating enzymes (DUBs). It appears that E3 ligases allow for targeted entry of GLUT4 into insulin sensitive GSVs and that the DUB USP25 is required for GLUT4 to stably maintained in these GSVs. Using a model developed in our lab my thesis looked at key steps of ubiquitination and deubiquitination to try ...
PI3-kinase signal transduction in diabetes and cancer; molecular mechanisms of cancer cell metastasis and radiation/chemotherapy resistance; tumor suppressor genes with emphasis on NHERF scaffold proteins; transgenic mouse models Current studies in our lab focus on: -Identification of molecular signals targeting the activity and surface expression of insulin-sensitive glucose transport proteins (phosphorylation, ubiquitination, endosomal recycling) -Functional characterization and localization of facilitative glucose transporter GLUT12 in tumor cells -Role of nutrient (glucose) uptake in decreased sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy: contribution of glucose transporters to radiation survival, glucose transporter expression levels as a predictive marker of radioresistance -Significance of NHERF/Akt/SGK interaction in cancer cell growth and metastasis -Generation of transgenic mouse ...
Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2 ...
Transcription of the yeast HXT2 and HXT4 genes, which encode glucose transporters, is induced only by low levels of glucose. This low-glucose-induced expression is mediated by two independent repression mechanisms: in the absence of glucose, transcription of both genes is prevented by Rgt1p, a C6 zinc cluster protein; at high levels of glucose, expression of HXT2 and HXT4 is repressed by Mig1p. Only at low glucose concentrations are both repressors inactive, leading to a 10- to 20-fold induction of gene expression. Mig1p and Rgt1p act directly on HXT2 and HXT4 by binding to their promoters. This transcriptional regulation is physiologically very important to the yeast cell because it causes these glucose transporters to be expressed only in low-glucose media, in which they are required for growth. ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein of the liver, islet beta cells, intestine, and kidney epithelium. The encoded protein mediates facilitated bidirectional glucose transport. Because of its low affinity for glucose, it has been suggested as a glucose sensor. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to diseases, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013 ...
Glucose Transporter Inhibitor IV, WZB117 - CAS 1223397-11-2 - Calbiochem Glucose Transporter Inhibitor IV, WZB117, CAS 1223397-11-2, is a fast-acting, irreversible blocker of GLUT1 in RBCs. Also inhibits glucose transport in cancer cells (IC50 ~ 500 nM in A549 cells). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
We asked whether the well known starvation-induced impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) seen in isolated rat pancreas preparations also applies in vivo. Accordingly, fed and 18-24-h-fasted rats were subjected to an intravenous glucose challenge followed by a hyperglycemic clamp …
Acute and chronic effects of resveratrol (RSV) on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E β-cellsAcute effects of RSV (A). Following a 2h pre-incubation
We demonstrated the specificity of the GLUT4 antagonist, indinavir, in cultured cells and observed that inhibition of GLUT4 in endothelium-denuded mouse aortas reduced basal glucose uptake by approximately half, supporting the conclusion that GLUT4 is a major glucose transporter that participates in basal, as well as in insulin-stimulated, glucose uptake in VSMCs in vivo. We also found that GLUT4 and other glucose transporters specifically and differentially contribute to VSMC contraction. Moreover, this differential contribution to contraction varies depending on the contractile agonist. We also observed that GLUT4 expression in vessels from hypertensive animals was diminished, and that indinavir caused a less profound attenuation of maximal 5-HT-mediated contraction in these vessels. We have found that chronic knockout of the GLUT4 gene results in augmented arterial reactivity to the same agonists that elicited attenuated reactivity in response to indinavir. Similar increases in reactivity ...
In this study, echocardiography was used to monitor the progression of LV hypertrophy and to determine the timing for the study of glucose uptake and glucose transporter protein content. The observations derived from this investigation reveal that a decrease in glucose uptake rate is evident early in the transition from compensated to decompensated pressure-overload hypertrophy, as determined by an index of LV M/V ratio. The defect in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake precedes the downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA-2) and glucose transporter expression (GLUT-4 and GLUT-1).15 26 Under pathophysiological conditions such as hypertrophy or during ischemia and early reperfusion, a high rate of cardiac glucose metabolism may be crucial.27 28 29 Glucose transport is thought to be rate-limiting for glucose use. In the heart, 2 distinctive glucose transporters are responsible for glucose uptake across the plasma membrane. The GLUT-1 transporter, which is present in low levels in ...
The human glucose transporter Glut1 is used by many cells, especially red blood cells andbrain cell, to take up glucose and other necessary metabolites. Gentle chromatographic methods can be applied for analyses of Glut1 activities in lipid environments similar to the native one. For this purpose, methods for immobilization of cells, cytoskeleton-depleted red cell membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes in chromatographic gel media have been developed and refined. The vesicles and proteoliposomes were immobilized by freeze-thaw-induced fusion in dextran-grafted agarose gel beads (Superdex 200). The sheltered environment in microcavities kept the Glut1 active for repeated analyses over time periods up to three months at room temperature.. Frontal affinity chromatography, Hummel and Dreyer analyses and centrifugation methods revealed that the Glut1 affinities for inhibitors and D-glucose were highest in the cells andbecame successively lower upon cytoskeleton-depletion and subsequent solubilization ...
Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DHHC7 palmitoylates glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and regulates Glut4 membrane translocation. AU - Du, Keyong. AU - Murakami, Shoko. AU - Sun, Yingmin. AU - Kilpatrick, Casey L.. AU - Luscher, Bernhard. PY - 2017/2/17. Y1 - 2017/2/17. N2 - Insulin-dependent translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane plays a key role in the dynamic regulation of glucose homeostasis.Werecently showed that this process is critically dependent on palmitoylation of Glut4 at Cys-223. To gain further insights into the regulation of Glut4 palmitoylation, we set out to identify the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) involved. Here we report that among 23 mammalian DHHC proteins, DHHC7 is the major Glut4 PAT, based on evidence that ectopic expression of DHHC7 increased Glut4 palmitoylation, whereas DHHC7 knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes andDHHC7KOin adipose tissue and muscle decreased Glut4 palmitoylation. Moreover, inactivation of DHHC7 suppressed insulin-dependent Glut4 membrane ...
Cloning of the human glycine transporter type 1: molecular and pharmacological characterization of novel isoform variants and chromosomal localization of the gene in the human and mouse genomes.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed in ten normal subjects. Phenformin pretreatment flattened the glucose and insulin response to oral glucose loading but did not significantly alter the response to intravenous glucose. It is suggested that these results can best be explained by an inhibitory effect of the drug on the rate of intestinal glucose absorption.. ...
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Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta cells; may comprise part of the glucose-sensing mechanism of the beta cell. May also participate with the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter in the transcellular transport of glucose in the small intestine and kidney ...
Similar to what has been shown for the Na+-coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) (31), SGK1 stimulates the facilitated glucose transporter GLUT1 by enhancing transporter abundance in the plasma membrane. The effect requires the catalytical activity of the kinase. SGK1 shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus in a stimulus-dependent manner (38). The serum-induced nuclear import of SGK1 suggests that SGK1 acts at a transcriptional level. In fact, SGK1 has been shown to modulate the forkhead transcription factor FKHRL1 (39). Thus, SGK1 might regulate glucose transport in part by increasing GLUT1 transcript levels. However, the stimulation of glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes point to posttranscriptional regulation of GLUT1, as GLUT1 mRNA has been injected thus circumventing transcription. In addition, Western blotting of whole-cell lysates exclude GLUT1 regulation at a translational level.. SGK1 is not effective through phosphorylation of GLUT1, since the Ser-to-Ala mutation in the SGK consensus ...
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Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases in America and carries an enormous impact on public health, having reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Ty...
he action of GRP78/BiP. 1 Proapoptotic Action of a GRP78/BiP Peptidic Ligand Bag-1 is a family of four polypeptides with multifunctional domains that interacts
Sodium plays a pivotal role in enzyme operations, blood regulation and muscle contraction. It improves heart performance, nervous system and glucose absorption.
December 2005). "Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose transporter type 2 (glut2) and astrocyte-dependent glucose sensors ... Thus, astrocytes can fuel neurons with glucose during periods of high rate of glucose consumption and glucose shortage. A ... GluT type: these express glutamate transporters (EAAT1/SLC1A3 and EAAT2/SLC1A2) and respond to synaptic release of glutamate by ... GluR type: these express glutamate receptors (mostly mGluR and AMPA type) and respond to synaptic release of glutamate by ...
"Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose transporter type 2 (glut2) and astrocyte-dependent glucose sensors". Journal of ... Transporter/receptor classification[edit]. *GluT type: these express glutamate transporters (EAAT1/SLC1A3 and EAAT2/SLC1A2) and ... Thus, astrocytes can fuel neurons with glucose during periods of high rate of glucose consumption and glucose shortage. Recent ... Type 1: Antigenically Ran2+, GFAP+, FGFR3+, A2B5−, thus resembling the "type 1 astrocyte" of the postnatal day 7 rat optic ...
Bays, Harold (2013). "Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Targeting the kidney to improve glycemic control ... Idris, Iskandar; Donnelly, Richard (2009). "Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: An emerging new class of oral ... lowering the amount of glucose in the blood. Phlorizin was studied as a potential pharmaceutical treatment for type 2 diabetes ... Phlorizin is a competitive inhibitor of SGLT1 and SGLT2 because it competes with D-glucose for binding to the carrier; this ...
2001). "Sequence and functional analysis of GLUT10: a glucose transporter in the Type 2 diabetes-linked region of chromosome ... 2003). "Genetic variation of the GLUT10 glucose transporter (SLC2A10) and relationships to type 2 diabetes and intermediary ... SLC2A10 is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family, which plays a significant role in maintaining glucose ... Wood IS, Hunter L, Trayhurn P (2003). "Expression of Class III facilitative glucose transporter genes (GLUT-10 and GLUT-12) in ...
... which are responsible for glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter causes blood glucose to be eliminated ... improves serum glucose profiles in type 1 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 35 (11): 2198-200. doi:10.2337/dc12-0508. PMC 3476920. PMID ... November 2012). "Remogliflozin etabonate, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose transporter 2, ... Early studies in diabetics improved plasma glucose levels. Remogliflozin etabonate has been studied at doses up to 1000 mg. A ...
Marty N (2005). "Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose transporter type 2 (glut2) and astrocyte-dependent glucose sensors ... Klasifikacija transporter/receptor[uredi , uredi izvor]. *GluT tip ispoljva se kaoglutamatski transporteri (EAAT1/SLC1A3 i ... Preuzimanje i otpuštanje transmitera: Astrociti imaju plazmamembranske transportere, kao što je glutamatni transporter, za ... Embryol. 156 (2): 115-52. PMID 111580. doi:10.1007/BF00300010. *^ Misson JP, Edwards MA, Yamamoto M, Caviness VS (November 1988 ...
Milder, D. A.; Milder, T. Y.; Kam, P. C. A. (August 2018). "Sodium-glucose co-transporter type-2 inhibitors: pharmacology and ... Scheen, André J. (2014). "Pharmacodynamics, Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors for ... Glucose is later reabsorbed by passive transfer of endothelial cells into the interstitial glucose transporter protein. Ratios ... Hsia, Daniel S.; Grove, Owen; Cefalu, William T. (2016). "An update on sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors for the ...
"Insulin storage and glucose homeostasis in mice null for the granule zinc transporter ZnT8 and studies of the type 2 diabetes- ... cation transmembrane transporter activity. • zinc ion binding. • protein binding. • zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity ... "New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk". Nature Genetics. 42 (2): ... "Entrez Gene: SLC30A8 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8".. *^ a b c Flannick, Jason; et al. (2014). "Loss-of ...
... glucose transporter type 1 deficiency, episodic ataxia type 2, gluten ataxia, glutamic acid decarboxylase ataxia. Novel ... The three types of ataxia have overlapping causes, so can either coexist or occur in isolation. Cerebellar ataxia can have many ... Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory [such as ... Spinal disorders of various types may cause sensory ataxia from the lesioned level below, when they involve the dorsal columns ...
... but by glucose transporters that were inadequately mobilized in Type 2 patients, and has subsequently been developed by Doug ... was used to measure glucose pathways in Type 2 Diabetics as compared to controls. This showed that the flux of glycogen ... Yeast studies were conducted during the 1980s and their results were the basis of a Metabolic Control Analysis of glucose ... synthesis, which stored glucose as muscle glycogen, was controlled, not by Glycogen Synthase, as had been assumed, ...
Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a ... GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. The ... GLUT4, however, is still believed to be the primary transporter for glucose. Much like in other tissues, GLUT4 also responds to ... In order to increase glucose levels in the cell, GLUT4 is the primary transporter used in this facilitated diffusion. Although ...
Sep 2009). "Insulin storage and glucose homeostasis in mice null for the granule zinc transporter ZnT8 and studies of the type ... 2007). "The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen in human type 1 diabetes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC30A8 gene. ZNT8 is a zinc transporter related to ... Feb 2010). "New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk". Nature ...
... facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT-10/11) is a protein that ... "Cloning and characterization of glucose transporter 11, a novel sugar transporter that is alternatively spliced in various ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 11". Sasaki T, Minoshima S, Shiohama A, Shintani A, Shimizu A, Asakawa S, Kawasaki K, ... Shimizu N (December 2001). "Molecular cloning of a member of the facilitative glucose transporter gene family GLUT11 (SLC2A11) ...
... glucose transporter (GLUT)-4, POMC, 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and corticotrophin releasing hormone. Epigenetic ... Altered glucose utilization was detected in the grand-offspring of maternal rats fed a PR-diet during pregnancy and lactation, ... Offspring that were exposed to a high-fat or high-caloric maternal diet had increased levels of insulin, glucose and leptin. It ... Individuals with type-1 diabetes experience a pre-clinical diabetes phase characterized by autoimmunity against pancreatic ...
1999). "Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) gene in patients with glycogen storage diseases type 1b and 1c ... 1999). "Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (9): ... 1999). "Glycogen storage disease type Ib: structural and mutational analysis of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter ... 1999). "The putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase gene is mutated in essentially all cases of glycogen storage disease type ...
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found ... SGLT2 inhibitors, also called gliflozins, are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. SGLT2 is only found in kidney tubules ... These co-transporters are an example of secondary active transport. Members of the GLUT family of glucose uniporters then ... Half a century later this idea has turned into one of the most studied of all transporter proteins (SGLT1), the sodium-glucose ...
An example of facilitated diffusion is when glucose is absorbed into cells through Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in the human ... There are many other types of glucose transport proteins, some that do require energy, and are therefore not examples of ... "Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters". Nutrients. 8 (1): 43. doi:10.3390/nu8010043. ... Since glucose is a large molecule, it requires a specific channel to facilitate its entry across plasma membranes and into ...
... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A14 gene. Members of the glucose ... GLUTs show tissue and cell-type specific expression. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173262 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14". Retrieved 2011-10-23. Wu X, Freeze HH (December 2002). "GLUT14, a duplicon of ... are highly conserved integral membrane proteins that transport hexoses such as glucose and fructose into all mammalian cells. ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enter cells via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Ebola virus and Marburg virus use ... In some cell types the virus can enter the caveosomes directly from lipid rafts in non-coated vesicles. EV1 uses α2β1-integrin ... One type of microdomain is constituted by cholesterol and sphingolipids. They form because of the segregation of these lipids ... Both types have similar lipid composition (enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids). Flotillin and caveolins can recruit ...
GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they ... Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane ... Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, ... Thorens B (April 1996). "Glucose transporters in the regulation of intestinal, renal, and liver glucose fluxes". The American ...
She has also been involved in research on the GLUT4 transporter and its role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. 1994 ... Her research focuses on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Kahn graduated from Stanford University with a B.A. in 1972 and ... Her research focuses on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Her lab has identified signaling pathways involved in insulin ...
... through inhibition of the GLUT4 insulin-regulated transporter, thus keeping glucose from entering fat and muscle cells.[medical ... the same molecule can crystallize into more than one crystal type, or polymorph, each of which contains the same repeating ... This can lead to insulin resistance and cause problems for people with type 2 diabetes.[medical citation needed] Ritonavir ... 150 (2): 248-259. doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2005.06.007. "Kaletra FAQ". AbbVie's Kaletra product information. AbbVie. 2011. Archived ...
This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription ... This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 ... 2000). "The gene MAPK8IP1, encoding islet-brain-1, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes". Nat. Genet. 24 (3): 291-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 55 (2): 202-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5641. PMID 9933567. Yasuda J, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, et al. (2000). "The JIP Group of ...
Glucose enters the β-cells through the glucose transporters, GLUT2. These glucose transporters have a relatively low affinity ... Ulrich, Heather; Snyder, Benjamin; K Garg, Satish (2007). "Combining insulins for optimal blood glucose control in type 1 and 2 ... If the carbohydrates include glucose, then that glucose will be absorbed into the bloodstream and blood glucose level will ... at high blood glucose concentrations large quantities of glucose enter these cells. The glucose that enters the β-cell is ...
"Dietary and genetic control of glucose transporter 2 glycosylation promotes insulin secretion in suppressing diabetes". Cell. ... It has been proposed that the MGAT4A isoenzyme acts as a toggle for developing of type 2 diabetes. Mice that lack MGAT4A are ... If this mechanism also operates in human islets, MGAT4A may represent a link between type 2 diabetes and high-fat diet. GRCh38 ... Thorens B (Apr 2006). "A toggle for type 2 diabetes?" (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (15): 1636-8. doi:10.1056 ...
These include a fungal phosphate transporter PiPT, plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1, and the human glucose transporter GLUT1. ... Atypical MFS Transporter Families), suggesting there are at least 64 different families including SLC proteins of MFS type. Pao ... Deng D, Xu C, Sun P, Wu J, Yan C, Hu M, Yan N (June 2014). "Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1". Nature. ... Pascual JM, Wang D, Lecumberri B, Yang H, Mao X, Yang R, De Vivo DC (May 2004). "GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter ...
GeneReviews/NIH/UW entry on Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome. *Glucose+Transporter+Type+1 at the US National ... The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is ... Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate of about 50,000 times ... Lankford J, Butler IJ, Koenig MK (June 2012). "Glucose transporter type I deficiency causing mitochondrial dysfunction". ...
Additionally, exercise also increases expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), which will also help with diabetes ... Type I fibers are slow twitch, endurance fibers. This data agrees with human data that says the amount of type I fibers is ... Individuals with type II diabetes have hypermethylation of several genes within the muscle, like peroxisome proliferator- ... It also suggested that the amount of type 1 fibers is correlated with a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that is involved in ...
HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 share broad similarities in their ... "HTLV Type I and Type II". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2019-02-22. "Human T-cell leukemia virus ... Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ... Human T- leukemia, type 2 (HTLV-2) generally causes no signs or symptoms. Although HTLV-2 has not been definitively linked with ...
... s bind to some other proteins in addition to their hormone receptors (FXR and TGR5) and their transporters. Among ... Emerging evidence associates FXR activation with alterations in triglyceride metabolism, glucose metabolism, and liver growth.[ ... including types of cholestasis such as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, portosystemic shunt, and hepatic microvascular ... 43 (2): 247-57. doi:10.1172/JCI104909. PMC 289518. PMID 14162533.. *^ a b c d Fiorucci S, Mencarelli A, Palladino G, Cipriani S ...
This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... Radioligands that bind to dopamine receptors (D1,[14] D2 receptor,[15][16] reuptake transporter), serotonin receptors (5HT1A, ... Use of this tracer to explore the possibility of cancer metastasis (i.e., spreading to other sites) is the most common type of ... These radionuclides are incorporated either into compounds normally used by the body such as glucose (or glucose analogues), ...
"An improved procedure for protein staining in polyacrylamide gels with a new type of Coomassie Brilliant Blue". Analytical ... 209 (2): 258-266. doi:10.1006/abio.1993.1117. PMID 7682385.. *^ Bradford, Marion M. (1976). "A rapid and sensitive method for ... the absorbance change per unit mass of proteins varies with the type of the protein. [19] ... 213 (2): 407-413. doi:10.1006/abio.1993.1439. PMID 7694523.. *^ Schägger, H.; Jagow, G. (1991). "Blue native electrophoresis ...
Management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (PDF). American family physician. 2009, 79 (1): 29-36. PMID 19145963.. ... SGLT2抑制劑:鈉-葡萄糖共同運輸蛋白(sodium-glucose co-transporter 2):幫助患者直接將糖份排出體外。 ... 糖尿病的預防與治療方式包括維持均衡飲食、定期運動、戒菸、維持理想體重。對於糖尿病患者來說,血壓控制與腳
Classification of transporters can be found in Transporter Classification Database.[5]. As an example of the relationship ... Type V proteins are anchored to the lipid bilayer through covalently linked lipids. Finally Type VI proteins have both ... Glucose Permease. *Ion channels and Gates. *Gap junction Proteins. *G protein coupled receptors (e.g., Beta-adrenergic receptor ... Type III proteins have multiple transmembrane domains in a single polypeptide, while type IV consists of several different ...
... co-transporter type 2 in the thick ascending limb and the Na(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, ... Glucose, like mannitol, is a sugar that can behave as an osmotic diuretic. Unlike mannitol, glucose is commonly found in the ... TypesEdit. High ceiling/loop diureticEdit. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... Use of some drugs, especially stimulants, may also increase blood glucose and thus increase urination.[citation needed]. ...
It is used to treat harlequin-type ichthyosis, a usually lethal skin disease, and lamellar ichthyosis. It is a retinoid, ... Isotretinoin also directly and indirectly increases the translation of the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), leading to ... the most common type of which is hyperostotic changes (excessive bone growth), especially in growing children and adolescents.[ ... 26 (2): 124-8. doi:10.1159/000267402. PMID 8196934.. *^ Griffin JN, Pinali D, Olds K, Lu N, Appleby L, Doan L, Lane MA ( ...
SVCT1 and SVCT2 import the reduced form of ascorbate across plasma membranes.[102] GLUT1 and GLUT3 are glucose transporters, ... Yamada H, Yamada K, Waki M, Umegaki K (October 2004). "Lymphocyte and plasma vitamin C levels in type 2 diabetic patients with ... Rumsey SC, Kwon O, Xu GW, Burant CF, Simpson I, Levine M (July 1997). "Glucose transporter isoforms GLUT1 and GLUT3 transport ... UDP-glucuronic acid is formed when UDP-glucose undergoes two oxidations catalyzed by the enzyme UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase. ...
Starting with glucose, 1 ATP is used to donate a phosphate to glucose to produce glucose 6-phosphate. Glycogen can be converted ... This type of fermentation is known as alcoholic or ethanol fermentation. The ATP generated in this process is made by substrate ... Pyruvate is taken up by a specific, low Km transporter to bring it into the mitochondrial matrix for oxidation by the pyruvate ... Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 Pi + 2 ADP → 2 pyruvate + 2 H+ + 2 NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H+ + 2 H2O + energy. ...
... can also affect the body's electrolyte and glucose balance.[7] Though lung-related adverse effects are rare when ... Less typical side effects are those of the cardiovascular system, such as high blood pressure, various types of arrhythmia, and ... Interaction of nilotinib with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 may alter its hepatic disposition and can lead to transporter mediated drug- ... drug interactions.[12] Nilotinib is an inhibitor of OATP-1B1 transporter but not for OATP-1B3.[13] ...
The fat cells take up glucose through special glucose transporters (GLUT4), whose numbers in the cell wall are increased as a ... A reappraisal of the blood glucose homeostat which comprehensively explains the type 2 diabetes-syndrome X complex". Journal of ... Muscle cells also take glucose up through insulin-sensitive GLUT4 glucose channels, and convert it into muscle glycogen. ... Flat line is the set-point of glucose level and sine wave the fluctuations of glucose. ...
A higher glucose concentration results in more Hb A1c. Because the reaction is slow, the Hb A1c proportion represents glucose ... Also identifies the types of cells and organs in which the gene expression (data on Wood W.G., (1976). Br. Med. Bull. 32, 282.) ... Free hemoglobin is then cleared from the circulation via the hemoglobin transporter CD163, which is exclusively expressed on ... Because of the slow rate of Hb A combination with glucose, the Hb A1c percentage reflects a weighted average of blood glucose ...
This is done by having the mold with either glucose, sucrose, lactose, startch, or detrin, nitrate, ammonium salt, corn steep ... There are many different types of techniques to recover benzyl penicillin, aqueous two-phase extraction, liquid membrane ... 4 (2): 609-615. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00975. ISSN 2168-0485.. *^ "Use Extraction to Improve Penicillin G Recovery". ... Benzylpenicillin, also known as penicillin G, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.[2] This includes ...
Glut1 - glucose and L-dehydroascorbic acid transporter;. *Kidd antigen protein - urea transporter; ... The blood type (A, B, AB, or O) or the blood product is identified. This relates to the presence of antigens on the cell's ... The blood types of humans are due to variations in surface glycoproteins of red blood cells. Disorders of the proteins in these ... The blood type needs to be determined to prepare for a blood transfusion or an organ transplantation. ...
The greatest benefit of PET scanning is that different compounds can show blood flow and oxygen and glucose metabolism in the ... Scientists soon learned that the large blood flow changes measured by PET could also be imaged by the correct type of MRI. ... PET, however, retains the significant advantage of being able to identify specific brain receptors (or transporters) associated ... Many functions also involve multiple parts of the brain, meaning that this type of claim is probably both unverifiable with the ...
... is a medication used to treat many types of parasite infestations.[1] This includes head lice, scabies, river ... CC[[email protected]](C)[[email protected]@H]1[[email protected]](CC[[email protected]@]2(O1)C[[email protected]@H]3C[[email protected]](O2)C/C=C(/[[email protected]]([[email protected]](/C=C/C=C/4\CO[[email protected]]5[[email protected]@]4([[email protected]@H](C=C([[email protected]]5O)C)C(=O)O3) ... 34 (2): 195-203. doi:10.1093/jac/34.2.195. PMID 7814280.. *^ Keating J, Yukich JO, Mollenkopf S, Tediosi F (July 2014). " ... O)C)O[[email protected]]6C[[email protected]@H]([[email protected]]([[email protected]@H](O6)C)O[[email protected]]7C[[email protected]@H]([[email protected]]([[email protected]@H](O7)C)O)OC)OC)\C)C.C[[email protected]]1CC[[email protected]]2(C[[email protected]@H]3C[[email protected]](O2)C/C=C(/[[email protected] ...
thiamine pyrophosphate transporter activity. • thiamine transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... glycoprotein-associated/light or catalytic subunits of heterodimeric amino-acid transporters *SLC7A5 ... 93 (1-2): 40-2. doi:10.1159/000056945. PMID 11474176.. *^ Dolce V, Fiermonte G, Runswick MJ, Palmieri F, Walker JE (Mar 2001). ... 12 (2): 117-26. doi:10.1093/dnares/12.2.117. PMID 16303743.. *. Lindhurst MJ, Fiermonte G, Song S, et al. (2006). "Knockout of ...
Type 4: Hypomature hypoplastic enamel with taurodontism. Enamel has a variation in appearance, with mixed features from Type 1 ... SLC24A4 encodes a calcium transporter that mediates calcium transport to developing enamel during tooth development. Less is ... Carbohydrate metabolism: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Danon disease/ ... Type 2 - Hypomaturation. Enamel has sound thickness, with a pitted appearance. It is less hard compared to normal enamel, and ...
Sodium glucose transporter (SGLT2) inhibitors/"gliflozins". *Canagliflozin. *Dapagliflozin. *Empagliflozin. *Ipragliflozin. * ... P-type-selective: ω-Agatoxin IVA. *ω-Agatoxin IVB. *R-type-selective: SNX-482 ... N-[2-[4-(azepan-1-ylcarbamoylsulfamoyl). phenyl]ethyl]-5-methyl-1,2-oxazole-3-carboxamide ...
December 1996). "Immunohistochemical Localization of Facilitated-Diffusion Glucose Transporters in Rat Pancreatic Islets". ... "Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up". ... 4 (1): 2-9. doi:10.1097/00006676-198902000-00002. PMID 2654926.. *^ Y. Sato; T. Ito; N. Udaka; et al. ( ... Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster). ISBN 978-1-4391-9027-2.. *Robert C. Atkins (2004). Atkins for Life: The Complete Controlled ...
Mixed type[edit]. Causes of hyperuricemia that are of mixed type have a dual action, both increasing production and decreasing ... "SLC2A9 is a newly identified urate transporter influencing serum urate concentration, urate excretion and gout". Nat. Genet. 40 ... Hyperuricemia of this type is a common complication of solid organ transplant.[8] Apart from normal variation (with a genetic ... Causes of hyperuricemia can be classified into three functional types:[6] increased production of uric acid, decreased ...
... glucose transporters, including GLUT1, and the proton-driven oligopeptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2.[42][46] ... Tentative evidence shows melatonin may help reduce some types of headaches including cluster and hypnic headaches.[105][106] ... 22: 2. doi:10.4103/1735-1995.199092. PMC 5361446. PMID 28400824.. *^ a b c d e f g h Jockers R, Delagrange P, Dubocovich ML, ... 63 (2): 577-97. doi:10.1093/jxb/err256. PMID 22016420.. *^ "Australian Public Assessment Report for Melatonin" (PDF). www.tga. ...
Orexin neurons are excitatory, express the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2 (Rosin et al., 2003), and also produce ... glucose, the dynorphin peptides, and the appetite-regulating peptide hormones leptin and ghrelin, among others.[3][8] Notably, ... mediated destruction of these neurons in analogy with the autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting β-islet cells in type I ... including glucose, leptin, and ghrelin. They also receive inputs from limbic structures. Orexin neurons are, therefore, in a ...
The treatment for Type 1 diabetes/LADA is exogenous insulin to control glucose levels, prevent further destruction of residual ... and zinc transporter autoantibodies (ZnT8) are all associated with LADA; GADAs are commonly found in cases of diabetes mellitus ... is a form of diabetes that exhibits clinical features similar to both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D).[3][4] It ... This followed the concept that GAD autoantibodies were a feature of type 1 diabetes and not type 2 diabetes.[36] ...
In animals, it has been shown that different cell types maintain different concentrations of magnesium.[25][26][27][28] It ... Diabetes and glucose toleranceEdit. Higher dietary intakes of magnesium correspond to lower diabetes incidence.[15] For people ... To transport the Mg2+ ion into the vacuole requires a Mg2+/H+ antiport transporter (such as AtMHX). The H+-ATPases are ... Mg2+ ions close certain types of calcium channels, which conduct positively charged calcium ions into neurons. With an excess ...
... different types of drugs can be used or the ABC transporters themselves must be inhibited. For other types of drugs to work ... "Crystal structures of the ATPase subunit of the glucose ABC transporter from Sulfolobus solfataricus: nucleotide-free and ... ABC-type uptake permeases 3.A.1.1 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1 (CUT1) 3.A.1.2 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-2 (CUT2) 3.A ... The type II ABC importer fold is observed in the twenty TM helix-domain of BtuCD and in Hi1471, a homologous transporter from ...
Two members of the SLC gene family of transporter proteins, SLC19A2 and SLC19A3, are capable of the thiamine transport.[18] In ... Thiamine is a treatment for some types of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh disease.[1] ... Thiamine is required for metabolism including that of glucose, amino acids, and lipids.[2] ... 3 (4): 211-2. doi:10.1038/nchembio867. PMID 17334376.. *^ a b Frédérich M, Delvaux D, Gigliobianco T, Gangolf M, Dive G, ...
... glucose molecules move into the cell by facilitated diffusion, down its concentration gradient through the GLUT2 transporter.[ ... Type 1 diabetes[edit]. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, also known as insulin dependent diabetes, is believed to be caused by an auto- ... In beta cells, insulin release is stimulated primarily by glucose present in the blood.[3] As circulating glucose levels rise ... "Human and rat beta cells differ in glucose transporter but not in glucokinase gene expression". The Journal of Clinical ...
Meta-analysis type studies were not selected for this review. Conclusions: With an increasing prevalence and incidence of type ... Novel agents such as the Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors show promise in effectively lowering blood glucose. ... and add-on therapy to current glucose-lowering regimens that may not otherwise be providing sufficient glycemic control in T2DM ... in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A MEDLINE (1950-August 2014) literature review was performed. All ...
... levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients remain unclear. We therefore... ... Introduction Predictors for the effect of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors at lowering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ... Kalra S. Sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a review of their basic and clinical pharmacology. Diabetes Ther ... Yabe D, Nishikino R, Kaneko M, Iwasaki M, Seino Y. Short-term impacts of sodium/glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in Japanese ...
Insulin storage and glucose homeostasis in mice null for the granule zinc transporter ZnT8 and studies of the type 2 diabetes- ... Interactions Between Zinc Transporter-8 Gene (SLC30A8) and Plasma Zinc Concentrations for Impaired Glucose Regulation and Type ... Interactions Between Zinc Transporter-8 Gene (SLC30A8) and Plasma Zinc Concentrations for Impaired Glucose Regulation and Type ... Interactions Between Zinc Transporter-8 Gene (SLC30A8) and Plasma Zinc Concentrations for Impaired Glucose Regulation and Type ...
... transporter (SGLT) for therapy of type 2 diabetes : Pharmaceutical feature , PharmiWeb.com ... High interest in inhibitors of the novel target sodium-dependent glucose (co-) ... High interest in inhibitors of the novel target sodium-dependent glucose (co-) transporter (SGLT) for therapy of type 2 ... is a molecular target to directly induce glucose excretion and to safely normalise plasma glucose in the treatment of type 2 ...
... reducing blood glucose levels in patients with type- 2 diabetes. This article is meant to evaluate this class of medications ... Sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitors limit the reabsorption of glucose from glomerular filtrate in the kidneys, ... Sodium-Glucose Linked Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors in the Management Of Type-2 Diabetes: A Drug Class Overview P T. 2015 ... Sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitors limit the reabsorption of glucose from glomerular filtrate in the kidneys, ...
... glucose facilitated transporters (GLUT) and sodium dependent D-glucose co-transporters (SGLT). GLUT allows transport of glucose ... Glucose transporter and Na+/glucose cotransporter as molecular targets of anti-diabetic drugs. Curr Med Chem. 2004 ;11(20):2717 ... Skeletal muscle sodium glucose co-transporters in older adults with type 2 diabetes undergoing resistance training Francisco ... Castaneda F, Layne JE, Castaneda C. Skeletal muscle sodium glucose co-transporters in older adults with type 2 diabetes ...
Colocalization of GLUT2 glucose transporter, sodium/glucose cotransporter, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in rat kidney with ... Hypothalamic ependymal-glial cells express the glucose transporter GLUT2, a protein involved in glucose sensing. Journal of ... Modulation of Glucose Transporter Protein by Dietary Flavonoids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Fatemeh Hajiaghaalipour1* , ... Glucose-6-phosphatase; GK: Glucokinase; GLUT: Glucose transporter; GSIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; IR: Insulin ...
"Effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and Stages 3b-4 chronic ... Effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2... 2018-05-11 00:00:00 Nephrol ... Effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and Stages 3b-4 chronic ... Effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and Stages 3b-4 chronic ...
The new SGLT-2 inhibitors have been PBS listed as dual oral therapy in combination with either metformin or a sulfonylurea in ... A new drug class for lowering blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, as dual combination therapy with metformin or a sulfonylurea. ... Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors block glucose reabsortion in the kidneys, so efficacy is dependent on kidney ... SGLT2 is a low-affinity, high-capacity sodium-coupled glucose transporter located on the luminal side of the renal proximal ...
"Expression of insulin regulatable glucose transporters in skeletal muscle from Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients ... Expression of insulin regulatable glucose transporters in skeletal muscle from Type 2... Handberg, A.; Vaag, A.; Damsbo, P.; ... The expression of this glucose transporter isoform has not yet been investigated in muscle tissue from patients with Type 2 ... The expression of this glucose transporter isoform has not yet been investigated in muscle tissue from patients with Type 2 ...
Immunoblotting for the adipose-type (type 4) glucose transporter (GLUT) showed a 40% decrease in the membrane fraction of ... type" and "brain-type" glucose transporters in mice.. P C Liu and F Matsumura ... type" and "brain-type" glucose transporters in mice.. P C Liu and F Matsumura ... type" and "brain-type" glucose transporters in mice.. P C Liu and F Matsumura ...
Modulation of Glucose Transporter Protein by Dietary Flavonoids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Fatemeh Hajiaghaalipour1*✉, ... Keywords: Glucose transporter protein, insulin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, flavonoids, glucose uptake. ... Hajiaghaalipour F, Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Arya A. Modulation of Glucose Transporter Protein by Dietary Flavonoids in Type 2 ... The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 ...
Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels May Increase Because of Fat Mass Loss by Metformin or Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 ...
The increased filtered glucose load in diabetes results in increased glucose and sodium reabsorption by the SGLT2 transporter ... Normal-glucose-tolerant subjects have a Tm for glucose that is well above the filtered glucose load. This has major survival ... sodium-glucose co-transport, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition. Disclosure: Luke Norton, PhD, and Muhammad A ... glucose transport is mediated by sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) and is coupled to sodium reabsorption. The sodium ...
Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor on metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes Next Previous ... Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor on metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes Active, no longer ...
... or patients at high risk for CVD showed that two sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) significantly reduced ... Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Soc ... Association between sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors and a reduced risk of heart failure in patients with type 2 ... Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition with empagliflozin improves cardiac diastolic function in a female rodent model ...
... although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. The membrane potential of small intestinal epithelial cells ( ... Moreover, the absorption of glucose and homeostasis of Ca2+ in IEC are regulated by cation channels and transporters, such as ... In this review, we consider the involvement of these cation channels and transporters in the regulation of glucose uptake in ... The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na+/glucose cotransporter ( ...
There is a rising trend of overweight and obesity in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The prevalence of overweight and ... 2 This has been attributed to a general worldwide increase in prevalence of obesity and similar risk factors such as family ... obesity among newly diagnosed T1D subjects was 21-22% in the 2-19 year age group in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium and the ... Dual sodium-glucose co-transporter-1 and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors ...
... is responsible for moving both fructose and glucose out of the enterocyte across the basolateral membrane under basal ... Glucose / pharmacokinetics * Glucose Transporter Type 2 * Intestinal Absorption / physiology * Jejunum / metabolism* * Jejunum ... GLUT2 is the transporter for fructose across the rat intestinal basolateral membrane Gastroenterology. 1993 Oct;105(4):1050-6. ... Perfusion of the intestinal lumen with fructose or glucose saline for 4 hours produced a fourfold increase in maximal fructose ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Glucose Transporter GLUT2 protein. Ab112351 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ... Recombinant Human Glucose Transporter GLUT2 protein. See all Glucose Transporter GLUT2 proteins and peptides. ... Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane ...
... are licenced for initiation for glucose lowering in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with an estimated glomerular filtration ... Conclusions: Prescribing patterns of SGLT-2is for glucose lowering in T2DM in primary care generally concur with licenced ... Prescribing sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes in primary care: influence of renal function and ... Prescribing sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes in primary care: influence of renal function and ...
Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular targets for ... N2 - Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular targets ... AB - Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular targets ... abstract = "Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular ...
Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor treatments in type ... Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor treatments in type ... Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor treatments in type ... T1 - Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor treatments in ...
keywords = "Kidney, Sodium-glucose co-transport, Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition, Type 2 diabetes", ... inhibitors of the renal sodium glucose co-transporter have been developed to produce glucosuria and reduce the plasma glucose ... inhibitors of the renal sodium glucose co-transporter have been developed to produce glucosuria and reduce the plasma glucose ... inhibitors of the renal sodium glucose co-transporter have been developed to produce glucosuria and reduce the plasma glucose ...
Sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitor renal outcome modification in type 2 diabetes: evidence from studies in patients ... Sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitor renal outcome modification in type 2 diabetes: evidence from studies in patients ...
Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporters Inhibitors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The New Kids on the Block in the Era of Evidence- ... Inhibiting sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT1/SGLT2) in the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys is the latest novel ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global crisis. Asia has a young, economically productive population at high risk of the ... Poor blood glucose control and its associated risk factors resulting in disabling complications will have a catastrophic impact ...
Glucose passively enters β-cells through the glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2; also known as SLC2A2). Following glycolysis, ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... mitochondrial dysfunction and concurrent defects in glucose-dependent and glucose-independent Ca2+ handling. ... b , Disease type evolves in autosomal-dominant families from lung-predominant, which commonly manifests as idiopathic pulmonary ...
"Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose transporter type 2 (glut2) and astrocyte-dependent glucose sensors". Journal of ... Transporter/receptor classification[edit]. *GluT type: these express glutamate transporters (EAAT1/SLC1A3 and EAAT2/SLC1A2) and ... Thus, astrocytes can fuel neurons with glucose during periods of high rate of glucose consumption and glucose shortage. Recent ... Type 1: Antigenically Ran2+, GFAP+, FGFR3+, A2B5−, thus resembling the "type 1 astrocyte" of the postnatal day 7 rat optic ...
... relations between the changes in body weight and those of glycemic and non-glycemic parameters in drug-naïve subjects with type ... Canagliflozin: a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. ... Two Glucose-Lowering Mechanisms of Canagliflozin Depending on Body Weight Changes in Drug-Naïve Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes. ... Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are new oral hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that ...
GLUT2 Glucose transporter type 2, liver. *Glut2. *GLUT-2. *SLC2A2. *solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), ... What Are GluTs?Mammalian cell metabolism is incomplete without glucose . Glucose is a monosaccharide that is transported to the ...
  • Predictors for the effect of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors at lowering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients remain unclear. (springer.com)
  • A total of 302 consecutive type 2 diabetes patients who had been treated with SGLT2 inhibitors as monotherapy or add-on therapy to existing antidiabetic treatments were enrolled retrospectively. (springer.com)
  • After excluding 27 patients whose HbA1c levels could not be evaluated 3 months after treatment, the glucose-lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors were assessed in 275 patients by measuring HbA1c levels before and 3 months after treatment. (springer.com)
  • A plethora of SGLT inhibitors in the patent literature and seven compounds in early clinical development indicate an abundance of interest in the therapeutic use of SGLT inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (pharmiweb.com)
  • SGLT inhibitors do not intervene with glucose metabolism, thus being complementary to mainstream approaches to glucose regulation, i.e. (pharmiweb.com)
  • While SGLT-2 inhibitors block the reabsorption of glucose from the renal filtrate, SGLT1 inhibitors suppress absorption of glucose from the gut. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Most of the known SGLT inhibitors are selective for SGLT2, but there are also mixed type inhibitors and SGLT1 inhibitors. (pharmiweb.com)
  • SGLT2 inhibitors are also promising for other therapeutic uses such as obesity as they cause the net loss of calories from the body in form of glucose. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitors limit the reabsorption of glucose from glomerular filtrate in the kidneys, reducing blood glucose levels in patients with type- 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Most recently, inhibitors of the renal sodium glucose co-transporter have been developed to produce glucosuria and reduce the plasma glucose concentration. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Recently, two large randomized controlled trials which only included patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) or patients at high risk for CVD showed that two sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) significantly reduced hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), with an early separation in the survival curves for hHF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dual inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and SGLT2 may have a potential role as an add-on therapy to insulin. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Background: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) are licenced for initiation for glucose lowering in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recently, a new approach has emerged using sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors that decrease glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, increasing urinary glucose excretion. (uthscsa.edu)
  • While more long-term safety data are required to elucidate the benefit-risk profile of SGLT2 inhibitors, the rationale for their use in type 2 diabetes therapy is strong. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In addition to controlling blood glucose, SGLT inhibitors may also reduce weight and lower blood pressure. (benthamscience.com)
  • a substantive assessment of whether the existing list 2 conditions for SGLT2 inhibitors could be relaxed. (tripdatabase.com)
  • https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0804328 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843118?tool=bestpractice.com Trials are under way to investigate treatment of type 1 diabetes with dendritic cells, mesenchymal stem cells, cord blood transfusion, and immunomodulators currently approved for use in other diseases, such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor or tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. (bmj.com)
  • Persons with type 2 diabetes can manage their disorder with a meal plan, increased activity, oral antidiabetes agents such as insulin secretagogues, biguanides, alpha glucosidase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers, and insulin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular safety of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in direct comparisons with DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), or sulfonylureas, as used in routine practice. (bmj.com)
  • Multiple sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) that block renal reabsorption of glucose are now available for the management of type 2 diabetes in adults. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors cause substantially less weight loss than expected from the energy excreted via glycosuria. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Akt specific inhibitors API-2 and MK2206 could inhibit the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro, and induce 2-cell arrest at certain concentrations. (bireme.br)
  • Collectively, our work demonstrated the nuclear localization of p-Ser473-Akt during major ZGA, and Akt specific inhibitors API-2 and MK2206 which led to 2-cell arrest inhibited p-Ser473-Akt from translocating into the nucleus of 2-cell embryos with defective ZGA as well, implying p-Ser473-Akt may be a potential player in the major ZGA of 2-cell mouse embryos. (bireme.br)
  • Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a group of medications used for treating type 2 diabetes. (financialexpress.com)
  • DKA is usually more of a concern for people with type 1 diabetes, but this warning is for people with type 2 diabetes who are taking the SGLT2 inhibitors, as well as people with type 1 diabetes who take these medications off label. (endocrineweb.com)
  • SGLT2 inhibitors work in the proximal tubules of the kidney just beyond nephrons - the tiny filters within the kidneys - where they block the reabsorption of glucose back into the blood system. (endocrineweb.com)
  • A relatively new class of diabetes drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors received FDA approval in 2013 and 2014 for type 2 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The objective of this study is to compare the risk of serious adverse events associated with the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in comparison with the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors among patients with type 2 diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLT-2) inhibitors are novel glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of T2DM. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease proximal sodium reabsorption and decrease glomerular pressure and albuminuria in rodents and type 1 diabetes patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In rodents, SGLT-2 inhibitors also improved histopathological abnormalities associated with DKD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The current study aims to explore the clinical effects and mechanistics of SGLT-2 inhibitors on renal physiology and biomarkers in metformin-treated T2DM patients with normal kidney function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • SGLT-2 Inhibitors including Invokana (canagliflozin), Farxiga (dapagliflozin), Jardiance (empagliflozin) and Steglatro (ertugliflizin), are the newest class of oral medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (tcoyd.org)
  • Inhibitors of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) are a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs (OADS) whose efficacy is independent of insulin sensitivity and secretion. (springer.com)
  • SGLT2 inhibitors improve glycemic control through a reduction in filtered glucose reabsorption and a resultant increase in urinary glucose excretion. (springer.com)
  • Canagliflozin is an anti-diabetes drug belongs to the gliflozin class or sodium-glucose transport subtype two inhibitors. (medindia.net)
  • In a thirty-month study carried out in type 2 Diabetes patients, canagliflozin showed a significant decrease in heart failure, when compared with other anti-diabetes drugs or non-SGLT2 inhibitors. (medindia.net)
  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors provide a novel avenue for hemoglobin A1C reduction. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Multiple second-line agents are available for optimizing treatment, including sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, insulin, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Three SGLT2 inhibitors are currently approved by the FDA for treatment of type 2 diabetes, including canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin ( Table 1 ). (uspharmacist.com)
  • Canagliflozin (CNF) and dapagliflozin (DPF) are the first sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors to be approved for clinical use. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors share common structural features, notably a glycoside moiety, investigation of drugs in this class for effects on UGT to identify (or exclude) potential drug-drug interactions is warranted. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Meta-analysis explores safety and efficacy of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Cardiac and Renal Effects of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors in Diabetes: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Impact of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. (edu.qa)
  • A recent study ties DPP-4 inhibitors to a higher incidence of IBD or inflammatory bowel disease in those with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Dapagliflozin is part of a class of type 2 diabetes drugs called SGLT-2 inhibitors marketed in the US as Farxiga. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • We therefore aimed to elucidate these predictors in type 2 diabetes patients after 3 months of SGLT2 treatment. (springer.com)
  • We show that type 2 diabetes patients who received the greatest glucose-lowering effect with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment were those with preserved renal function (high baseline eGFR) and high baseline HbA1c levels. (springer.com)
  • Although both SLC30A8 rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism and plasma zinc concentrations have been associated with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), their interactions for IGR and T2D remain unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Considering the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), it can be described as a complex disorder because of the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SGLT2 is a molecular target to directly induce glucose excretion and to safely normalise plasma glucose in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (pharmiweb.com)
  • type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (nih.gov)
  • We examined the expression of the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter system (hSGLT3) in skeletal muscle of Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. (medsci.org)
  • Approximately 90-95% of people who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. (medsci.org)
  • The causes of type 2 diabetes are numerous and complex, but physical inactivity is an important factor. (medsci.org)
  • People with type 2 diabetes have been shown to have defective insulin-dependent glucose transport in skeletal muscle [ 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • This review highlights the recent findings on beneficial effects of flavonoids in the management of diabetes with particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the role of these compounds in modulating glucose transporter proteins at cellular and molecular level. (ijbs.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease marked by a high level of blood glucose due to insufficient or inefficient insulin secretory response [ 1 , 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Type 2 DM (T 2 DM) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is one of the most common types of DM, accounted for 90-95% of the diabetic cases worldwide. (ijbs.com)
  • In adipocytes from individuals with Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance has been shown to be associated with a depletion of glucose transporters. (deepdyve.com)
  • Similarly, streptozotocin induced diabetes causes a diminished expression of the insulin regulatable glucose transporter in rat adipocytes. (deepdyve.com)
  • The expression of this glucose transporter isoform has not yet been investigated in muscle tissue from patients with Type 2 diabetes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, the decreased glucose disposal in Type 2 diabetes is not associated with a diminished number of insulin regulatable glucose transporters. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition to its central role in the development of microvascular complications, hyperglycemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, i.e. glucotoxicity. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Progressive beta-cell failure and side effects associated with therapy, such as hypoglycemia and weight gain, present obstacles to the achievement of optimal durable glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Individuals with type 2 diabetes suffer from increased morbidity and mortality secondary to both macrovascular (heart attack, stroke, and amputation) 1 and microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) 2 complications. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 4,5 Insulin resistance and progressive beta-cell failure represent the two core defects that characterize subjects with type 2 diabetes. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Progressive beta-cell failure, weight gain, and hypoglycemia represent major obstacles for the achievement of tight glycemic control and HbA1c ≤6.5-7% in patients with type 2 diabetes. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 3 Therefore, the development of novel medications that effectively lower the plasma glucose level, produce durable glycemic control, and are not associated with hypoglycemia and weight gain are needed for the management of type 2 diabetes patients. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • In particular, HF is a major comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is caused by diverse pathogenic factors such as the cardiotoxic tetrad of coronary artery disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, or hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is an unmet need for adjunctive non-insulin-based therapies in type 1 diabetes (T1D). (touchendocrinology.com)
  • There is a rising trend of overweight and obesity in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (touchendocrinology.com)
  • The prevalence of overweight and obesity among newly diagnosed T1D subjects was 21-22% in the 2-19 year age group in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium and the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Is there a need for adjunctive therapy in type 1 diabetes? (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Currently available medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes have limitations, and many patients do not achieve glycemic control. (uthscsa.edu)
  • These drugs have been shown to effectively reduce blood glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ) levels in phase III clinical trials when used as monotherapy and as add-on therapy to other diabetes medications, including insulin. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Norton, L, DeFronzo, RA & Abdulghani, M 2011, ' Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition - A novel strategy for glucose control in type 2 diabetes: Glucose control in type 2 diabetes ', European Endocrinology , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 30-35. (dasmaninstitute.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global crisis. (benthamscience.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the changes in body weight and those of glycemic and non-glycemic parameters in drug-naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin monotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Effects of the Antidiabetic Drugs on the Age-Related Atrophy and Sarcopenia Associated with Diabetes Type II. (benthamscience.com)
  • Farxiga (dapagliflozin) is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, heart failure and chronic kidney disease (CKD). (drugs.com)
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes, Farxiga works by stopping glucose being reabsorbed back into the body via the kidneys, which leads to more glucose being excreted when a person urinates. (drugs.com)
  • Dapagliflozin, a novel, selective SGLT2 inhibitor, improved glycemic control over 2 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugs.com)
  • Farxiga approved in the US for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in patients at risk of progression with and without type-2 diabetes. (drugs.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 different doses of canagliflozin compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have reduced kidney function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease modulated by cytotoxic T cells. (bmj.com)
  • GAD treatment and insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • [94] Rewers M, Gottlieb P. Immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes: human trials and a look into the future. (bmj.com)
  • Teplizumab for treatment of type 1 diabetes (Protégé study): 1-year results from a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. (bmj.com)
  • Teplizumab preserves C-peptide in recent-onset type 1 diabetes: two-year results from the randomized, placebo-controlled Protégé trial. (bmj.com)
  • https://www.doi.org/10.2337/db13-0236 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23801579?tool=bestpractice.com In one study of patients who did not have diabetes, but who were at high-risk (≥2 type 1 diabetes auto-antibodies and dysglycaemia), teplizumab delayed progression to clinical disease. (bmj.com)
  • An anti-CD3 antibody, teplizumab, in relatives at risk for type 1 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • https://www.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1902226 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31180194?tool=bestpractice.com The US Food and Drug Administration has granted teplizumab breakthrough therapy designation for the prevention or delay of clinical type 1 diabetes in at-risk individuals, which may expedite the review process for approval of this drug. (bmj.com)
  • Is "Leptin Resistance" Another Key Resistance to Manage Type 2 Diabetes? (benthamscience.com)
  • Tissue-specific dysregulation of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate transporter production in db/db mice as a model of type 2 diabetes. (ad-astra.ro)
  • These findings suggest that increased hepatic H6PDH and G6PT production contribute to 11β-HSD1 upregulation of local glucocorticoid action that may be related to the development of type 2 diabetes. (ad-astra.ro)
  • a type of diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin resistance in appropriate hepatic glucose production and impaired insulin secretion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Maturity onset diabetes of young is a rare type 2 diabetes, and an autosomal-dominant inheritance is clearly established. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the two major types of diabetes mellitus, characterized by late age of onset (30 years or older), insulin resistance, high levels of blood sugar, and little or no need for supple-mental insulin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • also known as diabetes mellitus type 2. (abcam.com)
  • Setting Nationwide sample of patients with type 2 diabetes from a large de-identified US commercial healthcare database (Optum Clinformatics Datamart). (bmj.com)
  • Participants Three pairwise 1:1 propensity score matched cohorts of patients with type 2 diabetes 18 years and older who initiated canagliflozin or a comparator non-gliflozin antidiabetic agent (ie, a DPP-4i, a GLP-1RA, or a sulfonylurea) between April 2013 and September 2015. (bmj.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Despite some early indication of benefit, 2 there was no definitive evidence from interventional studies that glucose lowering therapy would improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes until recently. (bmj.com)
  • Empagliflozin, a highly selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, was the first glucose-lowering agent to demonstrate a reduction in cardiovascular (CV) death in patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The finding led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to extend the indication for empagliflozin to include reducing the risk of CV death in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA 1c 7.8 ± 0.8% [62 ± 9 mmol/mol], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 89 ± 19 mL ⋅ min −1 ⋅ 1.73 m −2 ) received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 90 weeks with frequent ( n = 11) assessments of body weight, eGFR, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glycemic control is still the mainstay of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, as a level of HbA 1c of 7% or below has been associated with a reduction in both microvascular and macrovascular complications ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (annals.org)
  • Healthy lifestyle choices - including diet, exercise and weight control - provide the foundation for managing type 2 diabetes. (drugs.com)
  • The list of medications for type 2 diabetes is long and potentially confusing. (drugs.com)
  • Several classes of type 2 diabetes medicines exist. (drugs.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with metformin and sulphonylurea: a randomis. (nih.gov)
  • Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (nih.gov)
  • Defects in this gene are a cause of pancreatic agenesis, which can lead to early-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), as well as maturity onset diabetes of the young type 4 (MODY4). (genecards.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Type II diabetes mellitus and Regulation of beta-cell development . (genecards.org)
  • They are not approved for type 1 diabetes (studies are underway) but diabetes experts contacted by EndocrineWeb say the drugs are frequently prescribed off-label for type 1 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
  • With the increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), many more patients with DKD may be expected in the coming years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Large-sized prospective randomized clinical trials suggest that intensified glucose and blood pressure control, may halt the progression of DKD, both in type 1 diabetes and T2DM. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To date, the potential renoprotective effects and mechanisms of these agents have not been sufficiently detailed in human type 2 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Treatment with the SGLT-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, as compared to the sulfonylurea (SU) derivative gliclazide, may confer renoprotection by improving renal hemodynamics, and decreasing blood pressure and body weight in type 2 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With newer medication options available now for treating type 2 diabetes, Dr. Edelman answers a common question about how they can be included in a diabetes management regimen with regard to metformin. (tcoyd.org)
  • SGLT2s are currently only approved for use in the U.S. for type 2 diabetes, but a lot of people with type 1 are taking them off label with positive results. (tcoyd.org)
  • The newest classes of diabetes meds to treat type 2 are pulling more than double duty, helping to better control blood sugars, protect the heart, lower body weight and prevent chronic kidney disease. (tcoyd.org)
  • The stresses of life during COVID-19 are difficult enough, but imagine having type 1 diabetes. (tcoyd.org)
  • With newer medication options available now for treating type 2 diabetes, Dr. Edelman answers a. (tcoyd.org)
  • Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (springer.com)
  • Point out that canagliflozin is the first sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved to treat type 2 diabetes in the U.S. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Canagliflozin is the first sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved to treat type 2 diabetes in the U.S. , and it works by dumping excess blood sugar into the urine. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Researchers have hypothesized that this increased urinary glucose excretion leads to a decline in calories, and hence a reduction in body weight, possibly even in patients who don't have type 2 diabetes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • To test canagliflozin's impact on weight loss, Bays and colleagues conducted a 12-week phase IIb trial in 376 patients who were overweight or obese but didn't have type 2 diabetes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In contrast, data suggest SGLT2 and GLUT2 mRNA in kidney are down-regulated in type 2 diabetes, but not to statistically significant level. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Merck and Pfizer are also collaborating to bring an SGLT2 rival drug, ertugliflozin, to market as well as on two combinations containing the drug to treat type 2 diabetes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • One of the most feared repercussions of type 2 diabetes mellitus is the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. (dovepress.com)
  • The "Look AHEAD" trial enrolled 5,145 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes to an intensive lifestyle intervention and had a primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for angina during a maximum follow-up of 13.5 years (median follow-up 9.6 years). (dovepress.com)
  • 1 The trial concluded that an intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on weight loss did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. (dovepress.com)
  • Moreover, the trial highlighted the contemporary cardiovascular (CV) event rates in patients with type 2 diabetes. (dovepress.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of one islet cell type - the insulin-producing β-cells. (biologists.org)
  • Canaglifozin found to significantly lower the risk for heart failure in type 2 diabetes patients. (medindia.net)
  • Type 2 diabetes patients were assessed for the risk of heart failure, particularly in patients with established or high risk for cardiovascular disease. (medindia.net)
  • Canagliflozin is an antidiabetic (sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor), prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet and exercise. (medindia.net)
  • Phlorizin was studied as a potential pharmaceutical treatment for type 2 diabetes, but has since been superseded by more selective and more promising synthetic analogs, such as empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research finds that a change to a low-carb Mediterranean Diet can significantly reverse and reduce type 2 diabetes incidence, even more than a low-fat diet - which also reduces risk. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Could the long sought-after cure for type 1 diabetes be as close as your kitchen cupboard? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 20 years of age were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes accounts for nearly 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 2 Diabetes is associated with numerous long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications. (uspharmacist.com)
  • With new medications regularly coming to the market for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the question of medication selection revolves around hemoglobin A1C reduction potential, risk of cardiovascular adverse effects, and risk of hypoglycemia. (uspharmacist.com)
  • While it was previously thought that DKD generally manifested first with abnormal urine albumin excretion rate, it is now shown that it presents by a reduction in GFR in setting of normal urine albumin excretion in a sizable minority of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Hypertension: In people with type 1 diabetes, increase in urine albumin excretion is closely correlated with the onset of hypertension. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In comparison, approximately 40% of people with type 2 diabetes are hypertensive at diagnosis of diabetes and in nearly half of these patients, hypertension predates microalbuminuria. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Furthermore, among people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension is strongly associated with obesity. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Other microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy): Most people with type 1 diabetes and DKD have DR, which usually precedes kidney disease. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Association between DR and DKD is less predictable in type 2 diabetes. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • People with type 2 diabetes with DR and proteinuria are most likely to have DKD, while ~30% of type 2 diabetics without DR may have kidney disease due to other etiology. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • There are two possible types of diabetes mellitus. (hindawi.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, results from an absolute lack of insulin due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Type 2 or non-insulin-dependent diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • What is the single highest risk factor for type 2 diabetes? (brainscape.com)
  • Can diet make a difference to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes? (brainscape.com)
  • Why does type 2 diabetes develop? (brainscape.com)
  • What is the initial hyperinsulinaemic phase of type 2 diabetes? (brainscape.com)
  • What leads to hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes? (brainscape.com)
  • What is the onset of type 2 diabetes? (brainscape.com)
  • What are the three phases of type 2 diabetes progression? (brainscape.com)
  • What happens during the hyperinsulinaemia phase in type 2 diabetes? (brainscape.com)
  • Philip R. Schauer, MD presented, "What Is the Evidence in Support of Metabolic Surgery for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes? (endocrineweb.com)
  • The June 2016 issue of Diabetes Care , contains an article by Cefalu, Rubino, and Cummings, entitled, "Metabolic Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes: Changing the Landscape of Diabetes Care. (endocrineweb.com)
  • 1 The article contains a joint statement by international diabetes organizations on metabolic surgery in the treatment algorithm for type 2 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Though additional studies are needed to further demonstrate long-term benefits, sufficient clinical and mechanistic evidence supports inclusion of metabolic surgery among antidiabetes interventions for people with type 2 diabetes and obesity. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Dr. Schauer cited a 2014 comparison of composite complication rates for surgeries undergone by patients with type 2 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Type II diabetes: clinical aspects of molecular biological studies. (springer.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for more than 90% of all cases of diabetes, is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance ( American Diabetes Association, 2012 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Consequently, type 2 diabetes results in significant morbidity and mortality, which in turn have important social and economic consequences. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Such beneficial blood glucose-lowering actions of GLP-1 indicate a usefulness of the hormone as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the last four issues, we discussed a new software that can go through over 6 million possible treatments using anywhere from 1 to 5 drugs for an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • ESRD in Type 1 Diabetes: What Has Changed? (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Although the risk of end-stage renal disease remains high for individuals with type 1 diabetes, lifetime likelihood of ESRD has substantially decreased over the last 50 years. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Can Metformin Lower A1c For Patients With Type 1 Diabetes? (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Insulin resistance has been proposed as one of the causes of poor glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes who have excess weight or obesity. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems (CGMS) are big news and many experts say they will revolutionize diabetes management. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Effects of empagliflozin on the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease: an exploratory analysis from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME randomised, placebo-controlled trial. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BACKGROUND In a pooled analysis of short-term trials, short-term treatment with the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin reduced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and prevalent albuminuria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is understood that chromium is necessary for blood glucose control, but controversial as to whether additional chromium is beneficial in treatment of Type 2 diabetes. (livestrong.com)
  • 3) Botanicals: Botanicals for treatment of Type 2 diabetes are still under investigation, but they show promise. (livestrong.com)
  • Many patients with type 2 diabetes are interested in participating in the latest research regarding their condition. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Does Dapagliflozin Regress Left Ventricular Hypertrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Impact of Long Alimentary Limb or Long Biliary Limb Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Type 2 Diabetes Remission in Severely Obese Patients. (cardiosmart.org)
  • 1. Endocrine disorders in patients with common diseases (diabetes mellitus and/or obesity and/or hypertension) 2. (unimi.it)
  • Dr. Kibbey is interested in the mechanisms of insulin secretion by beta-cells and the pathogenesis of beta-cell exhaustion in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (yale.edu)
  • The notable exceptions are MafA and Brn4 ( 13 ), with a deficiency only observed in adult MafA −/− mice, which were glucose intolerant and developed diabetes ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Further analyses from the cardiovascular outcome trial of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor ertugliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes helped better define positive effects the drug had on preserving renal function, and also gave a tantalizing hint that this drug, and hence possibly the entire SGLT2 inhibitor drug class, may benefit patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, the other drugs in the class have, for example, received a U.S. labeled indication to reduce cardiovascular death (empagliflozin) or major cardiovascular disease events (canagliflozin) in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease, or to reduce heart failure hospitalizations (dapagliflozin). (medscape.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has an intersecting underlying pathology with thyroid dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • It was shown that surgical removal of parts of thyroid gland had an ameliorative effect on the restoration of glucose tolerance in hyperthyroid patients suffering from coexisting diabetes [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There is a deep underlying relation between diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unmanaged pro diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, may induce a "low T3 state" characterized by low serum total and free T3 levels, increase in reverse T3 (rT3) but near normal serum T4 and TSH concentrations [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Jardiance (empagliflozin) tablets as an addition to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 26 million people and accounts for more than 90 percent of diabetes cases diagnosed in the United States. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Jardiance provides an additional treatment option for the care of patients with type 2 diabetes,' said Curtis J. Rosebraugh, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Office of Drug Evaluation II in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The drug's safety and effectiveness were evaluated in seven clinical trials with 4,480 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving Jardiance. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Jardiance has been studied as a stand-alone therapy and in combination with other type 2 diabetes therapies including metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone, and insulin. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Researchers have found that the anti-anginal drug called ranolazine may help those not only with angina but type 2 diabetes, as well. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • ITCA 650 is exenatide in an osmotic mini-pump, a type 2 diabetes medication. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • The FDA has approved Novo Nordisk's new type 2 diabetes drug-the once-weekly semaglutide, marketed as Ozempic. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Can Dapagliflozin Help Some With Type 1 Diabetes Improve A1c? (diabetesdaily.com)
  • A recent study checked out the effects of canagliflozin for people with type 2 diabetes and heart disease risks. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • The FDA has approved of AstraZeneca's Bydureon BCise (exenetide extended-release) injectable drug for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Theoretical safety concerns about increased glucosuria by SGLT2 inhibtion do not appear to be relevant as patients with familial renal glucosuria by an inherited defective form of SGLT2 have normal kidney function, are not hypoglycemic and have no pathology caused by the transporter defect. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Inhibiting sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT1/SGLT2) in the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys is the latest novel therapeutic pathway in managing the disease. (benthamscience.com)
  • When the drug inhibits SGLT2 it stops the sodium-powered process that allows the body to reabsorb glucose. (drugs.com)
  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), a low-affinity, high-capacity transporter located on the brush-border of cells in the S1-S2 segment of the proximal convoluted tubule, is the most important mediator of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Of these, the low-affinity high-capacity SGLT2 accounts for approximately 90% of glucose reabsorption under normal circumstances. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Jardiance is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Conclusions: Prescribing patterns of SGLT-2is for glucose lowering in T2DM in primary care generally concur with licenced indications according to recommended renal thresholds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A number of clinical trials ( 11 - 25 ) have shown that blocking renal glucose reabsorption leads to a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA 1c through a generalized relief of glucose toxicity that does not depend on insulin action or secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • this reduces renal glucose transport, lowering the amount of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human mesenchymal stromal cells broadly modulate high glucose-induced inflammatory responses of renal proximal tubular cell monolayers. (pubfacts.com)
  • The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na + /glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. (mdpi.com)
  • A growing line of evidence suggests that cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ) can regulate the absorption of glucose by adjusting GLUT2 and SGLT1. (mdpi.com)
  • Luminal perfusion in vivo with glucose and fructose before vesicle preparation was used to assess modulation of GLUT2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • These data indicate that the one transport protein, GLUT2, is responsible for moving both fructose and glucose out of the enterocyte across the basolateral membrane under basal conditions. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the polyphenol phloretin inhibits a protein called glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) plays a role in advanced-stage cell growth in certain types of cancer . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The sugar transporter GLUT2, present in several tissues of the gut-brain axis, has been reported to be involved in the control of food intake. (physiology.org)
  • GLUT2 is a sugar transporter sustaining energy production in the cell, but it can also function as a receptor for extracellular glucose. (physiology.org)
  • However, the contribution of the receptor function over the transporter function of GLUT2 in the control of food intake remains to be determined. (physiology.org)
  • Thus, we generated transgenic mice that express a GLUT2-loop domain, blocking the detection of glucose but leaving GLUT2-dependent glucose transport unaffected. (physiology.org)
  • Inhibiting GLUT2-mediated glucose detection augmented daily food intake by a mechanism that increased the meal size but not the number of meals. (physiology.org)
  • Our data provide evidence that glucose detection by GLUT2 contributes to the control of food intake by the hypothalamus. (physiology.org)
  • The sugar transporter receptor, i.e., "transceptor" GLUT2, may constitute a drug target to treat eating disorders and associated metabolic diseases, particularly by modulating its receptor function without affecting vital sugar provision by its transporter function. (physiology.org)
  • By contrast, GLUT2, a high-capacity, high- K m transporter isoform ( 6 ), when associated with an efficient glucokinase, sustains fluxes of higher glucose concentrations. (physiology.org)
  • GLUT2 is present in brain areas involved in the control of food intake, whereas the exact nature of GLUT2-expressing cells remains unclear since GLUT2 has been identified in neurons, astrocytes, and tanycytes ( 1 , 2 , 17 , 28 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • Nevertheless, it is not known whether GLUT2 is present in the glucose-sensitive neurons expressing orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides ( 26 ). (physiology.org)
  • Pdx1 has also been proposed to be a master regulator of β cell activity, in part based on the severe diabetic phenotype observed upon deletion of this factor from β cells in animals, a phenotype at least caused by reduced insulin and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expression ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cellular glucose uptake requires transport proteins because it does not freely permeate the plasma membrane [ 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • This is of concerned given that skeletal muscle plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, primarily due to its effect on postprandial glucose uptake [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In this review, we consider the involvement of these cation channels and transporters in the regulation of glucose uptake in the small intestine. (mdpi.com)
  • Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular targets for cancer therapy. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • However, glucose uptake is decreased in the late stages of hypertrophy when ventricular dilatation and failure are present. (ahajournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that impaired glucose uptake would be evident early in the progression of hypertrophy and associated with the onset of ventricular dilatation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Glucose uptake rate, as determined by 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measuring 2-deoxyglucose conversion to 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate, was measured in isolated perfused hearts obtained from banded rabbits when M/V ratio had increased by 15% from baseline (compensated hypertrophy) and by 30% from baseline (early-decompensated hypertrophy). (ahajournals.org)
  • In age-matched control animals, the rate of glucose uptake was 0.61±0.08 μmol · g of wet weight −1 · 30 min −1 (mean±SEM). (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions -Glucose uptake rate is maintained during compensated hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, coinciding with severe hypertrophy, preceding ventricular dilatation, and glucose transporter protein downregulation, glucose uptake is significantly decreased. (ahajournals.org)
  • they are responsible for most of the uptake of glucose under basal conditions and in response to insulin stimulation, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 We previously showed that the glucose uptake rate is impaired in hearts with decompensated pressure-overload hypertrophy when ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction have occurred in response to thoracic aortic banding. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are several mechanisms responsible for the blood glucose-lowering effects of American ginseng, including slowing digestion of food, improvement of glucose uptake into cells and increasing insulin secretion. (livestrong.com)
  • Cancers require high amounts of glucose to grow and survive, and dogma is that uptake is facilitated by passive glucose transporters (GLUTs). (pnas.org)
  • This isoform maybe responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. (covalab.com)
  • Dr. Bogan's research seeks to understand how GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is regulated in adipose and muscle. (yale.edu)
  • His laboratory developed and used a functional screen to identify TUG as a major regulator of GLUT4 trafficking and glucose uptake. (yale.edu)
  • To mobilize these vesicles, insulin stimulates the release of GLUT4 from TUG, thus targeting GLUT4 to the cell surface and enhancing glucose uptake. (yale.edu)
  • Defective insulin secretion leads to various metabolic aberrations in T2DM, spanning from hyperglycemia due to defective insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and upregulated hepatic glucose production, along with dyslipidaemia, which includes impaired homeostasis of fatty acids, triglycerides, and lipoproteins [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor works by blocking the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule found to lower the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly in patients who have a strong history of heart disease . (medindia.net)
  • It works by blocking the reabsorption of glucose (blood sugar) by the kidney, increasing glucose excretion, and lowering blood glucose levels in diabetics who have elevated blood glucose levels. (fiercepharma.com)
  • However, in virtually all clinical trials, the observed weight loss has been consistently less than expected from the amount of urinary glucose excretion ( 25 , 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The authors found that the drug did indeed do its job, significantly increasing urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner compared with placebo. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Empagliflozin (EMPA), a SGLT-2i, increases urinary glucose excretion, and reduces blood pressure (BP) and body weight. (ahajournals.org)
  • Effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2. (deepdyve.com)
  • Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2. (drugs.com)
  • and (2) distinct glucose-lowering pathways may exist with canagliflozin, reducing insulin resistance in those who lose weight and enhancing β-cell function, as well as reducing insulin resistance, possibly via the decreased FFA levels, in those who do not lose weight. (springer.com)
  • Canagliflozin may possess distinct, dual glucose-lowering mechanisms depending on body weight changes as follows. (springer.com)
  • 11 In each trial, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose decreased with canagliflozin use. (uspharmacist.com)
  • In multivariable models, which incorporated effects of empagliflozin on hematocrit, fasting glucose, uric acid, and urine albumin:creatinine ratio, the combined changes from baseline provided 85.2% mediation, whereas updated mean analyses provided 94.6% mediation of the effect of empagliflozin on CV death. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Visit 2 is the same as Visit 1 except empagliflozin 25 mg will be administered both mornings, at least 30 minutes before eating breakfast and participants will continue empagliflozin 25 mg once every morning, at least 30 minutes before eating breakfast, at home until they return in 13 +/- 2 days for Visit 3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial studied the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. (dovepress.com)
  • Early adaptive changes in hypertrophy include increased ventricular mass-to-cavity volume ratio (M/V ratio) and increased dependence on glucose for energy metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • In light of the potential role of glucose metabolism in maintaining contractile function during the progression of pressure-overload hypertrophy, we hypothesized that impaired glucose transport occurs early in the progression to ventricular dilatation. (ahajournals.org)
  • A glucose-signaling pathway is indeed triggered, independently of glucose metabolism, through its large cytoplasmic loop domain. (physiology.org)
  • Dr. Shulman's research is focused on understanding the regulation of glucose and fat metabolism in humans and its dysregulation in patients with T2DM. (yale.edu)
  • To this end, his group has developed several magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods to examine intracellular glucose and fat metabolism non-invasively in humans. (yale.edu)
  • Collectively, these hormones regulate both fuel and energy metabolism, with insulin and glucagon essential to controlling glucose homeostasis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hyper- and hypothyroidism have been associated with insulin resistance which has been reported to be the major cause of impaired glucose metabolism in T2DM. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrient status, as a modifiable factor, could influence glucose homeostasis and thus represent an important target for T2D prevention and management ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the absorption of glucose and homeostasis of Ca 2+ in IEC are regulated by cation channels and transporters, such as Ca 2+ channels, K + channels, Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers, and Na + /H + exchangers. (mdpi.com)
  • The role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis has recently gained renewed attention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose-sensitive neurons are localized in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis, mainly the hypothalamus and hindbrain (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • In this study, we have compared ClC-5 KO mice with age and gender matched wild-type (WT) control mice to investigate if the underlying cause of manifested glycosuria is an impairment of glucose homeostasis and/or an alteration in expression levels of proximal tubule (PT) glucose transporters. (elsevier.com)
  • Although most antidiabetic drugs target insulin secretion or insulin action, modulation of glucose homeostasis provides an alternative approach to glycemic control. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The kidney plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis through the absorption of filtered glucose. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A second area of research uses transgenic and gene knockout mouse models to study proteins involved in GLUT4 targeting, to determine if insulin acts through similar mechanisms in fat and in muscle, and to test the importance of these pathways for overall glucose homeostasis. (yale.edu)
  • Glucose transport proteins are divided in two groups: glucose facilitated transporters (GLUT) and sodium dependent D-glucose co-transporters (SGLT). (medsci.org)
  • Shelterin complex components are made up of six component proteins - telomere repeat-binding factor 1 (TRF1), TRF2, repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1), TRF1-interacting nuclear protein 2 (TIN2), TIN2-interacting protein 1 (TPP1) and protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) - which are essential for telomere protection and for regulating telomere elongation. (nih.gov)
  • these include the multiplication of sarcomeres, 2 a switch to immature isoforms of contractile proteins, 3 and greater dependence on transsarcolemmal calcium influx for excitation-contraction coupling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Specific membrane proteins that passively transport glucose down a concentration gradient achieve this process. (ahajournals.org)
  • SLC5A2 encodes a member of the sodium glucose cotransporter family which are sodium-dependent glucose transport proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Protein expression levels of these transporters were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. (medsci.org)
  • We conclude that regulation by TCDD of glucose transport activity in mice is an aryl, hydrocarbon receptor-dependent process and that the adipose-type GLUT4 appears to be regulated at the mRNA level, whereas the brain-type GLUT1 is affected mainly at the protein level. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The maximal rate of transport for fructose was 1100 pmol/mg protein/s and the Michaelis constant was 16 mmol/L. Fructose and glucose could completely inhibit the transport of each other. (nih.gov)
  • Glucose transporter protein expression was the same in all groups. (ahajournals.org)
  • A glucose sensitive regulator of insulin transcription includes a glucose response element (GIRE) of a liver-pyruvate (L-PK) gent promoter, and an insulin-sensitive element of an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) basal promoter. (google.com)
  • said glucose response element is inserted upstream of said insulin-sensitive element in an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) basal promoter. (google.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator of several genes, including insulin, somatostatin, glucokinase, islet amyloid polypeptide, and glucose transporter type 2. (genecards.org)
  • The encoded nuclear protein is involved in the early development of the pancreas and plays a major role in glucose-dependent regulation of insulin gene expression. (genecards.org)
  • Translocator protein (TSPO), formerly known as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), has been described in several tissues and characterized as one of the main elements of steroidogenesis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These pathways include protein kinase A (PKA), Ca 2+ /calmodulin-regulated protein kinase (CaMK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, Akt ), and atypical protein kinase C-ζ (PKC-ζ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Facilitative glucose transporter. (abcam.com)
  • Defects of SLC2A1, which encodes a facilitative glucose transporter with very broad substrate specificity, cause GLUT1 deficiency syndrome type 2. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • T 2 DM affects several major organs, including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys leading to disabling or even life-threatening complications such as cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and nephropathy [ 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • In severely hyperglycemic patients, the kidneys play a protective role by excreting the excess filtered glucose load. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It lowers blood sugar by increasing glucose the kidneys excrete. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While the importance of SGLT1 in glucose absorption has been systemically studied in detail, little is currently known about the regulation of SGLT1 activity by cation channels and transporters. (mdpi.com)
  • SGLT1 mRNA is highly and significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This finding suggests that hSGLT3, an insulin-independent glucose transporter, is activated with exercise and it may play a significant role in glycemic control with muscle contraction. (medsci.org)
  • However, despite significant advances in the availability of more physiological insulin preparations, insulin delivery devices including continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, most patients fail to achieve glycemic targets. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Despite the wide range of antihyperglycemic drugs available, current therapeutic strategies fall short of optimal glycemic control, especially in patients with long-standing T2DM with complications and/or multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • GLUT allows transport of glucose down its concentration gradient, while SGLT transports glucose against its concentration gradient. (medsci.org)
  • Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT) 1 and 2, located in the proximal convoluted tubule, are together responsible for almost all glucose reabsorption. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In normal-glucose-tolerant subjects virtually all of this glucose is completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • A similar decrease in the brain-type GLUT1 was observed in the plasma membrane fraction of brain tissues isolated from the same animals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • After a Farxiga tablet is swallowed, it is rapidly absorbed by the body and maximum blood plasma concentrations of the drug are reached within 2 hours. (drugs.com)
  • Physicians now recognize that zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence and severity of diarrheal disease, and an ORS of reduced osmolarity (i.e., proportionally reduced concentrations of sodium and glucose) has been developed for global use. (cdc.gov)
  • At least four types of neurons, excited or inhibited by low or high glucose concentrations, can modulate their firing rate in response to variations in glucose concentrations ( 31 , 38 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • nevertheless, these transporters get saturated at low glucose concentrations ( 6 ). (physiology.org)
  • When administered to type 2 diabetic subjects, these peptides exert multiple antidiabetogenic effects: they stimulate insulin secretion, they lower fasting concentrations of blood glucose, and they attenuate the elevation of blood glucose concentration that is typically observed following ingestion of a meal. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dark green leafy vegetables contain magnesium, which may decrease fasting glucose and improve HDL concentrations. (livestrong.com)
  • 2) Magnesium: A meta-analysis (a study that combines results of multiple independent studies) found that oral magnesium supplementation may decrease fasting glucose and improve HDL (high-density lipoprotein, or good cholesterol) concentrations. (livestrong.com)
  • Cinnamon contains polyphenol polymers that act like insulin and this may explain why cinnamon has been found to lower blood glucose concentrations. (livestrong.com)
  • 2) American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) has been found to decrease post-meal blood glucose concentrations in both Type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics. (livestrong.com)
  • The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 expression in pancreatic β cells and increasing expression and promoting translocation of GLUT-4 via PI3K/AKT, CAP/Cb1/TC10 and AMPK pathways. (ijbs.com)
  • Immunoblotting for the adipose-type (type 4) glucose transporter (GLUT) showed a 40% decrease in the membrane fraction of adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice treated with 116 micrograms/kg TCDD for 40 hr. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This means that the specific radioactive imaging probe for SGLTs, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[ 18 F]fluoro- d -glucopyranoside, may be used along with positron-emission tomography to diagnose and stage pancreatic and prostate cancers, tumors in which the GLUT probe 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy- d -glucose has questionable utility. (pnas.org)
  • Exercise, the major physiological activator of muscle glucose transport, regulates the expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle [ 3 , 4 ], and induces its translocation from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane [ 5 , 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Expression of insulin regulatable glucose transporters in skeletal muscle from Type 2. (deepdyve.com)
  • Exercise and skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 expression: molecular mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pancreas secretes insulin but the virus decreases secretion of insulin which regulates glucose levels, thus increasing sugar levels in patients. (financialexpress.com)
  • Identification of Epac as an intermediary linking the GLP-1-R to the stimulation of insulin secretion has led to an appreciation that the blood glucose-lowering effect of GLP-1 might be reproduced using pharmacological agents that activate cAMPGEFs in a direct and selective manner. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Poor blood glucose control and its associated risk factors resulting in disabling complications will have a catastrophic impact on patients with T2DM, their families, society, the healthcare system and the economy. (benthamscience.com)
  • The most probable mechanism leading to T2DM in thyroid dysfunction could be attributed to perturbed genetic expression of a constellation of genes along with physiological aberrations leading to impaired glucose utilization and disposal in muscles, overproduction of hepatic glucose output, and enhanced absorption of splanchnic glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • A healthy lifestyle such as diet, exercise and weight control can provide the foundation for managing of T 2 DM, however anti-diabetic agents are required to regulate blood glucose levels in the serious conditions. (ijbs.com)
  • These antioxidants have been proposed as potential anti-diabetic drugs by acting as biological targets involved in T 2 DM development. (ijbs.com)
  • Moreover, we highlighted the anti-diabetic effects of the flavonoids in the management of T 2 DM, through modulating glucose transporters, with particular emphasis on the investigations and recent findings. (ijbs.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on hepatic glycogen synthesis and FoxO1 transcriptional activity in type 2 diabetic rats and the mechanism underlying these effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Magnesium upregulates insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type-2 diabetic rats. (annals.org)
  • Molecular Interaction of Anti-Diabetic Drugs With Acetylcholinesterase (show AChE ELISA Kits ) and Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The current literature on cardiovascular event rates in type 2 diabetic patients is summarized as follows. (dovepress.com)
  • The macrovascular event rate in type 2 diabetic patients was found to be on par with being a cardiovascular disease risk equivalent (~20% at 10 years). (dovepress.com)
  • 2. Differential effects of hypoglycemic therapies on survival in diabetic patients with COVID 19. (unimi.it)
  • presence of glucose in the urine, as in diabetics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clinical trial results show that the amount of glucose removed via urine increases after just one dose. (drugs.com)
  • While the glucose is left to be excreted in the urine, the salt goes to work in the distal tubule to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization in patients with symptomatic heart failure by making it easier for the heart to work. (drugs.com)
  • As a result these drugs reduce blood sugar levels and make the glucose stay in urine. (endocrineweb.com)
  • In the process, they can also act as diuretics - both by allowing more fluid out with the extra glucose as well as by also secreting excess sodium into urine. (endocrineweb.com)
  • these visits will also include blood work for exosome markers and brain MRS. In addition, placement of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) along with a 34-hour urine collection will be carried out. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Glycosuria is an indication of elevated blood glucose levels and a condition in which excess glucose is excreted in the urine. (medindia.net)
  • Phosphorylated by the SAPK2 pathway at high intracellular glucose concentration. (abcam.com)
  • Cohort 1 had 823 patients with hypertension participating in a 12-week randomized ambulatory BP monitoring trial with mean (SD) age 60.2 (9.0) yrs, HbA1c 7.9 (0.7)%, office systolic BP (SBP) 142 (12) mmHg and BMI 32.6 (5.1) kg/m 2 . (ahajournals.org)
  • Cohort 2 pooled 2476 patients from four 24-week phase III randomized trials with age 55.6 (10.2) yrs, HbA1c 8.0 (0.9)%, office SBP 129 (15) mmHg and BMI 28.7 (5.5) m/kg 2 . (ahajournals.org)
  • Diseases associated with PDX1 include Mody, Type Iv and Pancreatic Agenesis 1 . (genecards.org)
  • We have identified a new mechanism to import glucose into pancreatic and prostate cancer cells, namely active glucose transport mediated by sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs). (pnas.org)
  • For example, Pdx1 is necessary for the growth of the endocrine and exocrine compartments, with pancreatic agenesis observed in pdx1 mutant mice ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inhibition of phosphorylated Ser473-Akt from translocating into the nucleus contributes to 2-cell arrest and defective zygotic genome activation in mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. (bireme.br)
  • Genome-wide association studies ( 17 - 21 ) and a recent meta-analysis of 36 studies have demonstrated that allele C of the SLC30A8 rs13266634 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and T2D ( 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Particularly involved in glucose-dependent regulation of insulin gene transcription. (abcam.com)
  • Adult islet MafA levels appear to be a sensitive barometer of β-cell function, since many key metabolic and cellular effectors, such as glucose ( 20 , 26 , 53 , 58 ), fatty acids ( 18 ), and insulin ( 52 ), greatly impact MafA expression. (asm.org)
  • Both insulin resistance and deficiency leads to hyperglycemia due to altered glucose transport into the cells. (medsci.org)
  • The absorption of glucose is electrogenic in the small intestinal epithelium. (mdpi.com)
  • The activity of this, or a closely related carrier, is rapidly upregulated by the presence of hexoses in the intestinal lumen, explaining the potentiation of fructose absorption by luminal glucose and obviating any need to involve apical disaccharidases. (nih.gov)
  • Below what blood glucose concentration is it critical hypoglycaemia? (brainscape.com)
  • May also participate with the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter in the transcellular transport of glucose in the small intestine and kidney. (abcam.com)
  • These medications offer a unique mechanism of action by blocking glucose reabsorption in the kidney. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 60 m/min/1.73m 2 , represents a measure of kidney damage that is complementary to albuminuria. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • 5 There are periods of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia with marked daily fluctuations in blood glucose. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • However, it takes multiple doses of once-daily Farxiga to decrease a patient's blood glucose or sugar levels, meaning that it may take a week for Farxiga to take full effect. (drugs.com)
  • However, you may need medications to achieve target blood sugar (glucose) levels. (drugs.com)
  • 7.0%, change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and systolic blood pressure, and per cent change in body weight, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (weeks 26 and 52). (nih.gov)
  • These agents seem to exert pleiotropic actions 'beyond glucose control', including reduction of blood pressure and body weight. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A small sensor will be inserted in participants upper arm for 4 weeks to measure blood glucose. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure is common among those who are prediabetic or have type-2 diabetics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Now this famously common spice has been proven to reduce hypertension - in addition to balancing blood glucose levels. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Physical activity exerts pronounced effects on substrate utilisation and insulin sensitivity, which in turn potentially lowers blood glucose and lipid levels. (springer.com)
  • There was no change in blood glucose at 1.8 g/d, but a definite improvement at 3 g/d. (livestrong.com)
  • The A1c dropped from 7.4 to 6.8 percent in individuals who had persistent elevated blood glucose levels the previous three months. (livestrong.com)
  • Type 2 diabetics who are taking glucose-lowering medications are at especially great risk of hypoglycemia, or very low blood sugar levels, and therefore need to remain mindful of potential side effects of supplements and herbs. (livestrong.com)
  • Can Adding Trulicity to Type 2 Treatment Regimen Improve Blood Sugars? (diabetesdaily.com)
  • may comprise part of the glucose-sensing mechanism of the beta cell. (abcam.com)
  • In adipose tissue a slight recovery was observed by 30 days, but in the brains of treated animals glucose transport was significantly decreased even at the latest time. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Simultaneously, qRT-PCR results revealed that 2.0 mol/L API-2 treatment significantly downregulated the mRNA pattern of MuERV-L and eIF-1A, two marker genes of ZGA, suggesting a defect in ZGA compared with that of control group. (bireme.br)
  • 1,2 This has been attributed to a general worldwide increase in prevalence of obesity and similar risk factors such as family history, ethnicity, and sedentary lifestyle may be contributory. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 4 In addition, an increase occurs in glucose use as a substrate for energy production. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, intensive glucose lowering or use of specific antihyperglycemic drugs has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Q. Type 2 Diabetics solution My uncle is suffering from type 2 diabetics and i want to know that is there any permanent solution for type 2 diabities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1) Cassia cinnamon in studies cut Type 2 diabetics' and pre-diabetics' fasting glucose levels by 10 to 29 percent. (livestrong.com)
  • Activates insulin, somatostatin, glucokinase, islet amyloid polypeptide and glucose transporter type 2 gene transcription. (abcam.com)
  • Using these methods they have demonstrated that defects in insulin stimulated glucose transport and muscle glycogen synthesis are the major factors responsible for insulin resistance. (yale.edu)
  • Their mean body mass index (BMI) at baseline was 37 kg/m 2 and 93% fell into the obese category. (medpagetoday.com)