A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Glucose in blood.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Abstaining from all food.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Beta-cell gene expression and functional characterisation of the human insulinoma cell line CM. (1/340)

Animal insulinoma cell lines are widely used to study physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in glucose metabolism and to establish in vitro models for studies on beta-cells. In contrast, human insulinoma cell lines are rarely used because of difficulties in obtaining and culturing them for long periods. The aim of our study was to investigate, under different experimental conditions, the capacity of the human insulinoma cell line CM to retain beta-cell function, particularly the expression of constitutive beta-cell genes (insulin, the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT2, glucokinase), intracellular and secreted insulin, beta-cell granules, and cAMP content. Results showed that CM cells from an early-passage express specific beta-cell genes in response to glucose stimulation, in particular the insulin and GLUT genes. Such capacity is lost at later passages when cells are cultured at standard glucose concentrations. However, if cultured at lower glucose concentration (0.8 mM) for a longer time, CM cells re-acquire the capacity to respond to glucose stimulation, as shown by the increased expression of beta-cell genes (insulin, GLUT2, glucokinase). Nonetheless, insulin secretion could not be restored under such experimental conditions despite the presence of intracellular insulin, although cAMP response to a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin, was present indicating a viable system. In conclusion, these data show that the human insulinoma cell line CM, at both early-passage and late-passage, posseses a functional glucose-signalling pathway and insulin mRNA expression similar to normal beta-cells, representing, therefore, a good model for studies concerning the signalling and expression of beta-cells. Furthermore, we have previously shown that it is also a good model for immunological studies. In this respect it is important to note that the CM cell line is one of the very few existing human beta-cell lines in long-term culture.  (+info)

Sucrase-isomaltase and hexose transporter gene expressions are coordinately enhanced by dietary fructose in rat jejunum. (2/340)

We previously demonstrated that the levels of mRNAs of both sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and sodium/D-glucose transporter (SGLT1) are modulated by dietary sucrose in the rat jejunum. In the present study, we investigated whether the transcription of the gene coding SI is regulated by certain types of monosaccharides. Force-feeding a fructose and sucrose diet, (40% energy as fructose or sucrose) gave rise to parallel increases in the transcripts of SI and intestinal hexose transporters (SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2) within 12 h. Force-feeding a glycerol-containing diet also caused an enhancement of SI, SGLT1, and GLUT2 mRNA levels. However, feeding the diet containing glucose or alpha-methylglucoside generally did not increase the transcript levels of SI or the intestinal hexose transporters. Nuclear run-on assays revealed that fructose as well as sucrose increased the transcription of both SI and GLUT5 genes and that the transcription rates of these genes were unaffected by glucose. These results suggest that fructose (or a metabolite) is capable of increasing the mRNA levels of SI and hexose transporters in the small intestine and that transcriptional regulation might play a pivotal role in the carbohydrate-induced coordinate enhancement of SI and fructose transporter gene expression  (+info)

Neonatal diabetes mellitus with hypergalactosemia. (3/340)

We report the case of a male, small-for-gestational-age newborn who presented with failure to thrive, severe fluctuation of blood glucose concentrations, and increased serum concentrations of galactose. The infant responded well to a lactose-free diet supplemented with fructose, inulin and corn starch. The metabolic disorder disappeared within 6 months. The transient course, and results of a molecular analysis of the glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene seem to rule out Fanconi-Bickel syndrome.  (+info)

Comparative aspects of the function and mechanism of SUR1 and MDR1 proteins. (4/340)

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily proteins have divergent functions and can be classified as transporters, channels, and receptors, although their predicted secondary structures are very much alike. Prominent members include the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) and the multidrug transporter (MDR1). SUR1 is a subunit of the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel and plays a key role in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. SUR1 binds ATP at NBF1, and ADP at NBF2 and the two NBFs work cooperatively. The pore-forming subunit of the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel, Kir6.2, is a member of the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel family, and also binds ATP. In this article, we present a model in which the activity of the K(ATP) channel is determined by the balance of the action of ADP, which activates the channel through SUR1, and the action of ATP, which stabilizes the long closed state by binding to Kir6.2. The concentration of ATP could also affect the channel activity through binding to NBF1 of SUR1. MDR1, on the other hand, is an ATP-dependent efflux pump which extrudes cytotoxic drugs from cells before they can reach their intracellular targets, and in this way confers multidrug resistance to cancer cells. Both NBFs of MDR1 can hydrolyze nucleotides, and their ATPase activity is necessary for drug transport. The interaction of SUR1 with nucleotides is quite different from that of MDR1. Variations in the interactions with nucleotides of ABC proteins may account for the differences in their functions.  (+info)

Maternal hypothyroxinemia influences glucose transporter expression in fetal brain and placenta. (5/340)

The influence of maternal hypothyroxinemia on the expression of the glucose transporters, GLUT1 and GLUT3, in rat fetal brain and placenta was investigated. Fetal growth was retarded in hypothyroxinemic pregnancies, but only before the onset of fetal thyroid hormone synthesis. Placental weights were normal, but placental total protein concentration was reduced at 19 days gestation (dg). Immunoblotting revealed a decreased abundance of GLUT1 in placental microsomes at 16 dg, whereas GLUT3 was increased. Fetal serum glucose levels were reduced at 16 dg. In fetal brain, the concentration of microsomal protein was deficient at 16 dg and the abundance of parenchymal forms of GLUT1 was further depressed, whereas GLUT3 was unaffected. Northern hybridization analysis demonstrated normal GLUT1 mRNA levels in placenta and fetal brain. In conclusion, maternal hypothyroxinemia results in fetal growth retardation and impaired brain development before the onset of fetal thyroid function. Glucose uptake in fetal brain parenchyma may be compromised directly, due to deficient GLUT1 expression in this tissue, and indirectly, as a result of reduced placental GLUT1 expression. Though corrected by the onset of fetal thyroid hormone synthesis, these deficits are present during the critical period of neuroblast proliferation and may contribute to long term changes in brain development and function seen in this model and in the progeny of hypothyroxinemic women.  (+info)

A dietary intervention (high carbohydrate) during the neonatal period causes islet dysfunction in rats. (6/340)

Artificial rearing of 4-day-old rat pups on a high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula results in the immediate onset of hyperinsulinemia. To evaluate these early changes, studies on pancreatic function were carried out on 12-day-old HC rats and compared with age-matched mother-fed (MF) pups. The plasma insulin and glucagon contents were increased sixfold and twofold, respectively, in HC rats compared with MF rats. There was a distinct leftward shift in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretory pattern for HC islets. HC islets secreted insulin in the absence of any added glucose and in the presence of Ca(2+) channel inhibitors. The activities of glucokinase, hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were significantly increased in HC islets compared with MF islets. The protein contents of GLUT-2 and hexokinase were significantly increased in HC islets. These findings indicate that a nutritional intervention in the form of a HC formula only during the suckling period has a profound influence on pancreatic function, causing the onset of hyperinsulinemia.  (+info)

Insulin resistance and glucose transporter expression during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in the lamb. (7/340)

Three- to six-day-old lambs infused with 100 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1) insulin required greater amounts of glucose to maintain euglycemia during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp compared with 31- to 35-day-old insulin-infused lambs (15.87 +/- 3.47 vs. 4.30 +/- 1.11 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Endogenous glucose production persisted in both groups; however, the percent decrease compared with age-matched lambs receiving no insulin was greater in the younger group compared with the older group (53%, P < 0.001, vs. 34%, P < 0.01). The younger animals showed greater glucose utilization compared with the older animals (215 vs. 96%, respectively, P < 0.01). No effect of insulin was noted on GLUT-4 protein expression in either group. GLUT-2 expression was increased in older vs. younger lambs. Older insulin-infused lambs showed lower GLUT-2 expression than older 0 insulin-infused lambs [0.94 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.64 +/- 0.10 (OD) units, P < 0.005]. Increased sensitivity to insulin in the younger animals was not related to acute changes in GLUT-4 expression. Increased GLUT-2 expression with age, as well as decreased expression with hyperinsulinemia, is consistent with the development of an insulin-resistant state in the adult.  (+info)

The large intracytoplasmic loop of the glucose transporter GLUT2 is involved in glucose signaling in hepatic cells. (8/340)

The hypothesis that the glucose transporter GLUT2 can function as a protein mediating transcriptional glucose signaling was addressed. To divert the putative interacting proteins from a glucose signaling pathway, two intracytoplasmic domains of GLUT2, the C terminus and the large loop located between transmembrane domains 6 and 7, were transfected into mhAT3F hepatoma cells. Glucose-induced accumulation of two hepatic gene mRNAs (GLUT2 and L-pyruvate kinase) was specifically inhibited in cells transfected with the GLUT2 loop and not with the GLUT2 C terminus. The dual effects of glucose were dissociated in cells expressing the GLUT2 loop; in fact a normal glucose metabolism into glycogen occurred concomitantly with the inhibition of the glucose-induced transcription. This inhibition by the GLUT2 loop could be due to competitive binding of a protein that normally interacts with endogenous GLUT2. In addition, the GLUT2 loop, tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP), was located within the nucleus, whereas the GFP and GFP-GLUT2 C-terminal proteins remained in the cytoplasm. In living cells, a fraction (50%) of the expressed GFP-GLUT2 loop translocated rapidly from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to high glucose concentration and conversely in the absence of glucose. We conclude that, via protein interactions with its large loop, GLUT2 may transduce a glucose signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.  (+info)

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Monogenic and polygenic mutations are important contributors in patients suffering from epilepsy, including metabolic epilepsies which are inborn errors of metabolism with a good respond to specific dietetic treatments. Heterozygous variation in solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1) and mutations of the GLUT1/SLC2A2 gene results in the failure of glucose transport, which is related with a glucose type-1 transporter (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is a treatable disorder of glucose transport into the brain caused by a variety of mutations in the SLC2A1 gene which are the cause of different neurological disorders also with different types of epilepsy and related clinical phenotypes. Since patients continue to experience seizures due to a pharmacoresistance, an early clinical diagnosis associated with specific genetic testing in SLC2A1 pathogenic variants in clinical phenotypes could predict pure drug response and might improve safety
Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) antibody | P11166 | Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1, Glucose transporter type 1, erythrocyte/brain (GLUT-1), HepG2 glucose transporter, GLUT1
Insulin and GLUT 4 - A signal transduction pathway. What is GLUT 4. Glucose transporter type 4, also known as GLUT4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLUT4 gene. GLUT4 is the...
There is a considerable resurgence of interest in the role of aerobic glycolysis in cancer; however, increased glycolysis is frequently viewed as a consequence of oncogenic events that drive malignant cell growth and survival. Here we provide evidence that increased glycolytic activation itself can be an oncogenic event in a physiologically relevant 3D culture model. Overexpression of glucose transporter type 3 (GLUT3) in nonmalignant human breast cells activated known oncogenic signaling...
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common reasons of cancer-related death with few biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 protein SLC2A1, also known as glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), has been associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in many human solid tumors. However, little is reported about its clinical significance and biological functions in GC. Here we observed a strong up-regulation of SLC2A1 in patients with GC and found that SLC2A1 was significantly correlated with depth of invasion and clinical stage. Additionally, over-expression of SLC2A1 in GC cells promotes cellular proliferation and metastasis in vitro and enhances tumor growth in vivo as well as enhancement of glucose utilization. Meanwhile, elevated SLC2A1 also contributes to tumor metastasis in vitro. Our results indicate SLC2A1 exhibits a pivotal role in tumor growth, metastasis and glucose metabolism, and also suggest SLC2A1 as a
Slim Fast Boosters Carb Cutter, with green tea extract, helps reduce calorie uptake and limits carb and sugar absorption. Take Slim Fast Carb Cutter before a carborhydrate-rich meal or snack to help limit carb and sugar absorption.
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS, OMIM 227810) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family (Santer et al. J Inherit Metab Dis 21:191-194, 1998). The typical clinical picture is characterized .... ...
Mann S, Beedie C, Balducci S, Zanuso S, Allgrove J, Bertiato F, Jimenez A.Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly prevalent condition with complications including blindness and kidney failure. Evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, with physical activity demonstrated to increase glucose uptake and improve glycaemic control. Proposed mechanisms for these effects include the maintenance and improvement of insulin sensitivity via increased glucose transporter type four production. The optimal mode, frequency, intensity and duration of exercise for the improvement of insulin sensitivity are however yet to be identified. We review the evidence from 34 published studies addressing the effects on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity of aerobic exercise, resistance training and both combined. Effect sizes and confidence intervals are reported for each intervention and meta-analysis presented. The quality of the evidence is tentatively graded, and recommendations for
Muscle, Skeletal;Muscle Proteins;Insulin Resistance;Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Glucose Transporter Type 4;Cystinyl Aminopeptidase;Aminopeptidases;Biological Transport;Monosaccharide Transport Proteins;Centrifugation, Density ...
KAZ L-Arabinose is a natural sugar blocker. It has GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status, and blocks sugar absorption to the body.
GLUT-1 was the first member of this family to be characterized. It is responsible for the basal glucose uptake needed for respiration in all cells. Expression levels of GLUT-1 in cell membranes vary inversely with glucose concentration. GLUT-1 can also transport other pentose and hexose sugars. Aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells requires high levels of glucose, and GLUT-1 has been targeted in cancer research. Alternate names include solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1 (SLC2A1); glucose transporter type 1, erythrocyte/brain; HepG2 glucose transporter; GLUT; PED; DYT9; DYT17; DYT18; EIG12; and GLUT1DS.. GLUT-3 has been studied in other cell types with specific glucose requirements, including sperm, preimplantation embryos, circulating white blood cells, and carcinoma cell lines. GLUT-3 is expressed in, and is the main transporter for, neuronal cells. GLUT-3 has both a higher affinity for glucose and at least a five-fold greater transport capacity than GLUT-1, GLUT-2, ...
Increase in waist size has been correlated with both a reduced disposal of glucose and an increase in the risk of diabetes. A similar relationship exists for adipocytes (AC). The expansion of AC occurs early in the progression of obesity. This expansion, known as adipocyte hypertrophy, is accompanied by a sequence of events that culminates in loss of the integrity of the cell resulting in dissemination of fat from AT into other tissue compartments. There is considerable evidence to show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) accumulate in visceral adipose tissue, which correlates with the development of insulin resistance.. New evidence suggests that the increased demand for lipid storage by nutritional excess leads to the conversion of the AC from a small multilocular cell with intact glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to a unilocular cell with a large lipid droplet and decreased GLUT4 translocation. Thus, insulin resistance at the AC level seems to be an early event in the meta-inflammatory ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Glucose Transporter GLUT6 Antibody (7E3). Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Glucose Transporter GLUT1 antibody [EPR3915]. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 62 publication(s)…
Rabbit polyclonal Glucose Transporter GLUT4 antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC, IM, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 74 publications…
Glucose Transporter GLUT1小鼠单克隆抗体可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC,Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被20篇文献引用并得到8个独立的用户反馈。
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab41525 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,ELISA,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,Dot,IHC-FrFl…Glucose Transporter…
G-allele of intronic rs10830963 in MTNR1B confers increased risk of impaired fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes through an impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release: studies involving 19,605 Europeans. ...
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Glucose transport across the chondrocyte membrane is essential for chondrogenesis and the development of the skeletal system. We have previously used RT-PCR to show that fully developed human articular chondrocytes express transcripts for the GLUT1 and GLUT9 glucose transporters. In this study we report on the expression and immunohistochemical localization of the GLUT1 and GLUT9 proteins in embryonic and mature ovine cartilage. We also provide Western blot evidence for GLUT1 and GLUT9 expression in mature ovine chondrocytes. Ovine embryos (developmental stages E32 to E36 and E42 to E45) were obtained from pregnant ewes humanely killed by injection with sodium pentobarbitone. Embryos were fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry. Polyclonal antibodies to GLUT1 and GLUT9 revealed that both transporters are expressed in developing chondrocytes in ovine embryos and in the superficial, middle and deep layers of ovine cartilage from mature animals. GLUT1 expression was observed in erythrocytes ...
Glucose Transporter GLUT6兔多克隆抗体(ab119272)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Glucose Transporter GLUT8 Rabbit anti-Mouse, Rat, Polyclonal, Novus Biologicals:: 100 µg; Unconjugated.
ISHIKAWA Nobuhisa , OGURI Tetsuya , ISOBE Takeshi , FUJITAKA Kazunori , KOHNO Nobuoki Japanese journal of cancer research : gann 92(8), 874-879, 2001-08-31 医中誌Web 参考文献32件 ...
GLUT5 antibody (solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose/fructose transporter), member 5) for WB. Anti-GLUT5 pAb (GTX47818) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Start the Sugar Blockers Diet and learn how to block sugar absorption by eating sweets, sipping wine, and snacking on fatty foods.
The facilitative glucose transport protein GLUT1 has important roles in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of human diseases
The regulation of blood glucose levels in humans, in response to insulin, is essential to survival. This response is mediated through the insulin responsive glucose transporter GLUT4. In response to insulin stimulation GLUT4 is trafficked from intracellular insulin sensitive stores (GSVs GLUT4 storage vesicles) to the plasma membrane of fat and muscle cells allowing uptake of glucose into these cells and lowering of plasma glucose levels. Previous work from our lab has identified that ubiquitination and subsequent deubiquitination of GLUT4 is required for entry and stability in GSVs. This balance of ubiquitination and deubiquitination in mammalian cells is carried out by E3 ligases and deubiqutinating enzymes (DUBs). It appears that E3 ligases allow for targeted entry of GLUT4 into insulin sensitive GSVs and that the DUB USP25 is required for GLUT4 to stably maintained in these GSVs. Using a model developed in our lab my thesis looked at key steps of ubiquitination and deubiquitination to try ...
PI3-kinase signal transduction in diabetes and cancer; molecular mechanisms of cancer cell metastasis and radiation/chemotherapy resistance; tumor suppressor genes with emphasis on NHERF scaffold proteins; transgenic mouse models Current studies in our lab focus on: -Identification of molecular signals targeting the activity and surface expression of insulin-sensitive glucose transport proteins (phosphorylation, ubiquitination, endosomal recycling) -Functional characterization and localization of facilitative glucose transporter GLUT12 in tumor cells -Role of nutrient (glucose) uptake in decreased sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy: contribution of glucose transporters to radiation survival, glucose transporter expression levels as a predictive marker of radioresistance -Significance of NHERF/Akt/SGK interaction in cancer cell growth and metastasis -Generation of transgenic mouse ...
Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2 ...
Transcription of the yeast HXT2 and HXT4 genes, which encode glucose transporters, is induced only by low levels of glucose. This low-glucose-induced expression is mediated by two independent repression mechanisms: in the absence of glucose, transcription of both genes is prevented by Rgt1p, a C6 zinc cluster protein; at high levels of glucose, expression of HXT2 and HXT4 is repressed by Mig1p. Only at low glucose concentrations are both repressors inactive, leading to a 10- to 20-fold induction of gene expression. Mig1p and Rgt1p act directly on HXT2 and HXT4 by binding to their promoters. This transcriptional regulation is physiologically very important to the yeast cell because it causes these glucose transporters to be expressed only in low-glucose media, in which they are required for growth. ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein of the liver, islet beta cells, intestine, and kidney epithelium. The encoded protein mediates facilitated bidirectional glucose transport. Because of its low affinity for glucose, it has been suggested as a glucose sensor. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to diseases, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013 ...
Glucose Transporter Inhibitor IV, WZB117 - CAS 1223397-11-2 - Calbiochem Glucose Transporter Inhibitor IV, WZB117, CAS 1223397-11-2, is a fast-acting, irreversible blocker of GLUT1 in RBCs. Also inhibits glucose transport in cancer cells (IC50 ~ 500 nM in A549 cells). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
We asked whether the well known starvation-induced impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) seen in isolated rat pancreas preparations also applies in vivo. Accordingly, fed and 18-24-h-fasted rats were subjected to an intravenous glucose challenge followed by a hyperglycemic clamp …
Acute and chronic effects of resveratrol (RSV) on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E β-cellsAcute effects of RSV (A). Following a 2h pre-incubation
We demonstrated the specificity of the GLUT4 antagonist, indinavir, in cultured cells and observed that inhibition of GLUT4 in endothelium-denuded mouse aortas reduced basal glucose uptake by approximately half, supporting the conclusion that GLUT4 is a major glucose transporter that participates in basal, as well as in insulin-stimulated, glucose uptake in VSMCs in vivo. We also found that GLUT4 and other glucose transporters specifically and differentially contribute to VSMC contraction. Moreover, this differential contribution to contraction varies depending on the contractile agonist. We also observed that GLUT4 expression in vessels from hypertensive animals was diminished, and that indinavir caused a less profound attenuation of maximal 5-HT-mediated contraction in these vessels. We have found that chronic knockout of the GLUT4 gene results in augmented arterial reactivity to the same agonists that elicited attenuated reactivity in response to indinavir. Similar increases in reactivity ...
In this study, echocardiography was used to monitor the progression of LV hypertrophy and to determine the timing for the study of glucose uptake and glucose transporter protein content. The observations derived from this investigation reveal that a decrease in glucose uptake rate is evident early in the transition from compensated to decompensated pressure-overload hypertrophy, as determined by an index of LV M/V ratio. The defect in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake precedes the downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA-2) and glucose transporter expression (GLUT-4 and GLUT-1).15 26 Under pathophysiological conditions such as hypertrophy or during ischemia and early reperfusion, a high rate of cardiac glucose metabolism may be crucial.27 28 29 Glucose transport is thought to be rate-limiting for glucose use. In the heart, 2 distinctive glucose transporters are responsible for glucose uptake across the plasma membrane. The GLUT-1 transporter, which is present in low levels in ...
The human glucose transporter Glut1 is used by many cells, especially red blood cells andbrain cell, to take up glucose and other necessary metabolites. Gentle chromatographic methods can be applied for analyses of Glut1 activities in lipid environments similar to the native one. For this purpose, methods for immobilization of cells, cytoskeleton-depleted red cell membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes in chromatographic gel media have been developed and refined. The vesicles and proteoliposomes were immobilized by freeze-thaw-induced fusion in dextran-grafted agarose gel beads (Superdex 200). The sheltered environment in microcavities kept the Glut1 active for repeated analyses over time periods up to three months at room temperature.. Frontal affinity chromatography, Hummel and Dreyer analyses and centrifugation methods revealed that the Glut1 affinities for inhibitors and D-glucose were highest in the cells andbecame successively lower upon cytoskeleton-depletion and subsequent solubilization ...
Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DHHC7 palmitoylates glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and regulates Glut4 membrane translocation. AU - Du, Keyong. AU - Murakami, Shoko. AU - Sun, Yingmin. AU - Kilpatrick, Casey L.. AU - Luscher, Bernhard. PY - 2017/2/17. Y1 - 2017/2/17. N2 - Insulin-dependent translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane plays a key role in the dynamic regulation of glucose homeostasis.Werecently showed that this process is critically dependent on palmitoylation of Glut4 at Cys-223. To gain further insights into the regulation of Glut4 palmitoylation, we set out to identify the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) involved. Here we report that among 23 mammalian DHHC proteins, DHHC7 is the major Glut4 PAT, based on evidence that ectopic expression of DHHC7 increased Glut4 palmitoylation, whereas DHHC7 knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes andDHHC7KOin adipose tissue and muscle decreased Glut4 palmitoylation. Moreover, inactivation of DHHC7 suppressed insulin-dependent Glut4 membrane ...
Cloning of the human glycine transporter type 1: molecular and pharmacological characterization of novel isoform variants and chromosomal localization of the gene in the human and mouse genomes.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed in ten normal subjects. Phenformin pretreatment flattened the glucose and insulin response to oral glucose loading but did not significantly alter the response to intravenous glucose. It is suggested that these results can best be explained by an inhibitory effect of the drug on the rate of intestinal glucose absorption.. ...
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Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta cells; may comprise part of the glucose-sensing mechanism of the beta cell. May also participate with the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter in the transcellular transport of glucose in the small intestine and kidney ...
Similar to what has been shown for the Na+-coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) (31), SGK1 stimulates the facilitated glucose transporter GLUT1 by enhancing transporter abundance in the plasma membrane. The effect requires the catalytical activity of the kinase. SGK1 shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus in a stimulus-dependent manner (38). The serum-induced nuclear import of SGK1 suggests that SGK1 acts at a transcriptional level. In fact, SGK1 has been shown to modulate the forkhead transcription factor FKHRL1 (39). Thus, SGK1 might regulate glucose transport in part by increasing GLUT1 transcript levels. However, the stimulation of glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes point to posttranscriptional regulation of GLUT1, as GLUT1 mRNA has been injected thus circumventing transcription. In addition, Western blotting of whole-cell lysates exclude GLUT1 regulation at a translational level.. SGK1 is not effective through phosphorylation of GLUT1, since the Ser-to-Ala mutation in the SGK consensus ...
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Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases in America and carries an enormous impact on public health, having reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Ty...
he action of GRP78/BiP. 1 Proapoptotic Action of a GRP78/BiP Peptidic Ligand Bag-1 is a family of four polypeptides with multifunctional domains that interacts
Sodium plays a pivotal role in enzyme operations, blood regulation and muscle contraction. It improves heart performance, nervous system and glucose absorption.
Bays, Harold (2013). "Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Targeting the kidney to improve glycemic control ... Idris, Iskandar; Donnelly, Richard (2009). "Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: An emerging new class of oral ... lowering the amount of glucose in the blood. Phlorizin was studied as a potential pharmaceutical treatment for type 2 diabetes ... Phlorizin is an inhibitor of SGLT1 and SGLT2 because it competes with D-glucose for binding to the carrier; this action reduces ...
2001). "Sequence and functional analysis of GLUT10: a glucose transporter in the Type 2 diabetes-linked region of chromosome ... 2003). "Genetic variation of the GLUT10 glucose transporter (SLC2A10) and relationships to type 2 diabetes and intermediary ... SLC2A10 is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family, which plays a significant role in maintaining glucose ... Wood IS, Hunter L, Trayhurn P (2003). "Expression of Class III facilitative glucose transporter genes (GLUT-10 and GLUT-12) in ...
... which are responsible for glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter causes blood glucose to be eliminated ... improves serum glucose profiles in type 1 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 35 (11): 2198-200. doi:10.2337/dc12-0508. PMC 3476920. PMID ... November 2012). "Remogliflozin etabonate, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose transporter 2, ... Dutta D, Jindal R, Mehta D, Khandelwal D, Sharma M (Nov 2021). "Efficacy and safety of novel sodium glucose cotransporter-2 ...
Milder, D. A.; Milder, T. Y.; Kam, P. C. A. (August 2018). "Sodium-glucose co-transporter type-2 inhibitors: pharmacology and ... Scheen, André J. (2014). "Pharmacodynamics, Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors for ... Glucose is later reabsorbed by passive transfer of endothelial cells into the interstitial glucose transporter protein. Ratios ... Hsia, Daniel S.; Grove, Owen; Cefalu, William T. (2016). "An update on sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors for the ...
GP astrocytes possess high-capacity GLUT2-type glucose transporter proteins and appear to modulate the neuronal responses to ... December 2005). "Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose transporter type 2 (glut2) and astrocyte-dependent glucose sensors ... Thus, astrocytes can fuel neurons with glucose during periods of high rate of glucose consumption and glucose shortage. A ... GluT type: these express glutamate transporters (EAAT1/SLC1A3 and EAAT2/SLC1A2) and respond to synaptic release of glutamate by ...
... glucose transporter type 1 deficiency, episodic ataxia type 2, gluten ataxia, glutamic acid decarboxylase ataxia. Novel ... Spinal disorders of various types may cause sensory ataxia from the lesioned level below, when they involve the dorsal columns ... Cerebellar ataxia can have many causes despite normal neuroimaging.[citation needed] Any type of focal lesion of the central ... This results in a characteristic type of irregular, uncoordinated movement that can manifest itself in many possible ways, such ...
Glucose+Transporter+Type+2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short ... GLUT2 could reasonably be referred to as the "diabetic glucose transporter" or a "stress hyperglycemia glucose transporter." ... Glucose transporter Gwyn W. Gould; Helen M. Thomas; Thomas J. Jess; Graeme I. Bell (May 1991). "Expression of human glucose ... Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a ...
... but by glucose transporters that were inadequately mobilized in Type 2 patients, and has subsequently been developed by Doug ... was used to measure glucose pathways in Type 2 Diabetics as compared to controls. This showed that the flux of glycogen ... Yeast studies were conducted during the 1980s and their results were the basis of a Metabolic Control Analysis of glucose ... synthesis, which stored glucose as muscle glycogen, was controlled, not by Glycogen Synthase, as had been assumed, ...
Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a ... GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. The ... GLUT4, however, is still believed to be the primary transporter for glucose. Much like in other tissues, GLUT4 also responds to ... In order to increase glucose levels in the cell, GLUT4 is the primary transporter used in this facilitated diffusion. Although ...
Sep 2009). "Insulin storage and glucose homeostasis in mice null for the granule zinc transporter ZnT8 and studies of the type ... 2007). "The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen in human type 1 diabetes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC30A8 gene. ZNT8 is a zinc transporter related to ... Feb 2010). "New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk". Nature ...
... the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier. Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome has an ... "Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome". GeneReviews.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ... "Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program". ... GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, also known as GLUT1-DS, De Vivo disease or Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome, is an ...
... facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT-10/11) is a protein that ... "Cloning and characterization of glucose transporter 11, a novel sugar transporter that is alternatively spliced in various ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 11". Sasaki T, Minoshima S, Shiohama A, Shintani A, Shimizu A, Asakawa S, Kawasaki K, ... Shimizu N (December 2001). "Molecular cloning of a member of the facilitative glucose transporter gene family GLUT11 (SLC2A11) ...
... glucose transporter (GLUT)-4, POMC, 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and corticotrophin releasing hormone. Epigenetic ... Altered glucose utilization was detected in the grand-offspring of maternal rats fed a PR-diet during pregnancy and lactation, ... Offspring that were exposed to a high-fat or high-caloric maternal diet had increased levels of insulin, glucose and leptin. It ... Individuals with type-1 diabetes experience a pre-clinical diabetes phase characterized by autoimmunity against pancreatic ...
1999). "Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) gene in patients with glycogen storage diseases type 1b and 1c ... 1999). "Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (9): ... 1999). "Glycogen storage disease type Ib: structural and mutational analysis of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter ... 1999). "The putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase gene is mutated in essentially all cases of glycogen storage disease type ...
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found ... SGLT2 inhibitors, also called gliflozins, are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. SGLT2 is only found in kidney tubules ... These co-transporters are an example of secondary active transport. Members of the GLUT family of glucose uniporters then ... Half a century later this idea has turned into one of the most studied of all transporter proteins (SGLT1), the sodium-glucose ...
An example of facilitated diffusion is when glucose is absorbed into cells through Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in the human ... There are many other types of glucose transport proteins, some that do require energy, and are therefore not examples of ... "Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters". Nutrients. 8 (1): 43. doi:10.3390/nu8010043. ... Since glucose is a large molecule, it requires a specific channel to facilitate its entry across plasma membranes and into ...
... is a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor and works by removing sugar from the body with the urine ... Dapagliflozin, sold under the brand names Farxiga (US) and Forxiga (EU) among others, is a medication used to treat type 2 ... The glucose acts as an osmotic diuretic (this effect is the cause of polyuria in diabetes) which can lead to dehydration. The ... In the European Union it is indicated in adults: for the treatment of insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus as an ...
... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A14 gene. Members of the glucose ... GLUTs show tissue and cell-type specific expression. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173262 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14". Retrieved 2011-10-23. Wu X, Freeze HH (December 2002). "GLUT14, a duplicon of ... are highly conserved integral membrane proteins that transport hexoses such as glucose and fructose into all mammalian cells. ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enter cells via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Ebola virus and Marburg virus use ... In some cell types the virus can enter the caveosomes directly from lipid rafts in non-coated vesicles. EV1 uses α2β1-integrin ... One type of microdomain is constituted by cholesterol and sphingolipids. They form because of the segregation of these lipids ... Both types have similar lipid composition (enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids). Flotillin and caveolins can recruit ...
GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they ... Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane ... Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, ... Thorens B (April 1996). "Glucose transporters in the regulation of intestinal, renal, and liver glucose fluxes". The American ...
She has also been involved in research on the GLUT4 transporter and its role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. 1994 ... Her research focuses on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Kahn graduated from Stanford University with a B.A. in 1972 and ... Her research focuses on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Her lab has identified signaling pathways involved in insulin ...
This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription ... This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 ... 2000). "The gene MAPK8IP1, encoding islet-brain-1, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes". Nat. Genet. 24 (3): 291-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 55 (2): 202-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5641. PMID 9933567. Yasuda J, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, et al. (2000). "The JIP Group of ...
The description of first phase release is as follows: Glucose enters the β-cells through the glucose transporters, GLUT 2. At ... Ulrich H, Snyder B, Garg SK (2007). "Combining insulins for optimal blood glucose control in type I and 2 diabetes: focus on ... at high blood glucose concentrations large quantities of glucose enter these cells. The glucose that enters the β-cell is ... The cascade that leads to the insertion of GLUT4 glucose transporters into the cell membranes of muscle and fat cells, and to ...
"Dietary and genetic control of glucose transporter 2 glycosylation promotes insulin secretion in suppressing diabetes". Cell. ... It has been proposed that the MGAT4A isoenzyme acts as a toggle for developing of type 2 diabetes. Mice that lack MGAT4A are ... If this mechanism also operates in human islets, MGAT4A may represent a link between type 2 diabetes and high-fat diet. GRCh38 ... Thorens B (Apr 2006). "A toggle for type 2 diabetes?" (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (15): 1636-8. doi:10.1056 ...
These include a fungal phosphate transporter PiPT, plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1, and the human glucose transporter GLUT1. ... Atypical MFS Transporter Families), suggesting there are at least 64 different families including SLC proteins of MFS type. Pao ... Deng D, Xu C, Sun P, Wu J, Yan C, Hu M, Yan N (June 2014). "Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1". Nature. ... Pascual JM, Wang D, Lecumberri B, Yang H, Mao X, Yang R, De Vivo DC (May 2004). "GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter ...
HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 share broad similarities in their ... "HTLV Type I and Type II". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2019-02-22. "Human T-cell leukemia virus ... Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ... Human T- leukemia, type 2 (HTLV-2) generally causes no signs or symptoms. Although HTLV-2 has not been definitively linked with ...
GeneReviews/NIH/UW entry on Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome Glucose+Transporter+Type+1 at the US National ... The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is ... Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate of about 50,000 times ... Lankford J, Butler IJ, Koenig MK (June 2012). "Glucose transporter type I deficiency causing mitochondrial dysfunction". ...
It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that is ... The participation of HNF-1α in glucose metabolism and diabetes has been reported, including the involvement in GLUT1 and GLUT2 ... HNF-1α is involved in the promotion of hepatic organic cation transporters, which uptake certain classes of pharmaceuticals; ... HNF1A mutations can cause maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3, one of the forms of "monogenic diabetes", as well as ...
"Expression of hexokinases and glucose transporters in treated and untreated oesophageal adenocarcinoma". Histology and ... Sui D, Wilson JE (October 2000). "Interaction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4, Miz-1, leptin, lipocalin-type ... By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy ... Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. ...
... glucose transporter type 4 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.500.968 - glucose transporter type 5 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.750 - sodium- ... glucose transporter type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.500.750 - glucose transporter type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.500.875 - ... sodium-glucose transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.625.562.750 - sodium-glucose transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.625. ... sodium-glucose transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.500.750.750 - sodium-glucose transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.562.374 - ...
... p53 and glucose transporter-1 as predictors of malignancy in the development of gallbladder carcinomas". Bosn J Basic Med Sci. ... may have benefit in the prevention and treatment of these types of cancer. COX-2 expression was found in human idiopathic ... PTGS-2 is a sequence homodimer. Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) ... Wang Q1, He Y, Shen Y, Zhang Q, Chen D, Zuo C, Qin J, Wang H, Wang J, Yu Y. (2014). "Vitamin D inhibits COX-2 expression and ...
Type strain of Halobacterium salinarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Food (CS1 Afrikaans-language ... Although "H. salinarum" is unable to catabolize glucose, the transcription factor TrmB has been proven to regulate the ... Potassium levels are not at equilibrium with the environment, so H. salinarum expresses multiple active transporters that pump ... performed an analysis of all known types of halophilic bacteria, which yielded the finding that Park's bacteria contained six ...
Bouché C, Serdy S, Kahn CR, Goldfine AB (October 2004). "The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes". ... Metal micronutrients are taken up into organisms by specific transporters and bind to storage proteins such as ferritin or ... where it can be used for the production of glucose. Other than fat, glucose is stored in most tissues, as an energy resource ... Three types of photosynthesis occur in plants, C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation and CAM photosynthesis. These differ by ...
... glucose symporter uses the created Na⁺ gradient as a source of energy to import both Na⁺ and glucose, which is far more ... In many types of tissue, ATP consumption by the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases have been related to glycolysis. This was first discovered in ... Export of sodium ions from the cell provides the driving force for several secondary active transporters such as membrane ... This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential, affects transport, and ...
Several pathways for glucose catabolism are present in its genome, such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), the Entner ... When genes of unknown function on CII are disrupted, many types of auxotrophy result, emphasizing that the CII is not merely a ... SorX is the second 1O2 induced sRNA that counteracts oxidative stress by targeting mRNA for a transporter. It also has an ... Tao Y, Liu D, Yan X, Zhou Z, Lee JK, Yang C (2012). "Network Identification and Flux Quantification of Glucose Metabolism in ...
In animal models and a very small clinical trial, meldonium has been shown to reduce blood glucose concentrations, exhibit ... PDB: 3O2G​ Henry L, Leung IK, Claridge TD, Schofield CJ (August 2012). "γ-Butyrobetaine hydroxylase catalyses a Stevens type ... This complex is then transported through the inner mitochondrial membrane via a transporter protein called carnitine- ... "Protective effects of mildronate in an experimental model of type 2 diabetes in Goto-Kakizaki rats". British Journal of ...
Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ... The most widespread genotype is type A. Types B, D, E, F and G have only been isolated from Central Africa. Type C is only ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type ... a glucose transporter, on target cells. HTLV-1 is also associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and has been quite well ...
Feb 2013). "Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal and glucose transporter I- ... Some types of worms, such as leeches, also have an enlarged ganglion at the back end of the nerve cord, known as a "tail brain ... There are two types of sleep: REM sleep (with dreaming) and NREM (non-REM, usually without dreaming) sleep, which repeat in ... Three broad types of distinct brain activity patterns can be measured: REM, light NREM and deep NREM. During deep NREM sleep, ...
IGF type 1 receptor - IGF type 2 receptor - IgG - IgM - immediate-early protein - immune cell - immune system - immunoglobulin ... end ABC-Transporter Genes - abl gene - acetic acid - acetyl CoA - acetylcholine - acetylcysteine - acid - acidic fibroblast ... glucose - glutamate - glutamate receptor - glutamic acid - glutamine - glycerine - glycine - glycine receptor - glycolipid - ... interferon type I - interferon type II - interferon-alpha - interferon-beta - interleukin receptor - interleukin-1 receptor - ...
Madej, MG; Sun, L; Yan, N; Kaback, HR (18 February 2014). "Functional architecture of MFS D-glucose transporters". Proceedings ... Guan, L.; Mirza, O.; Verner, G.; Iwata, S.; Kaback, H.R. (2007). "Structural determination of wild-type lactose permease". Proc ... 25 (5). Madej, MG; Dang, S; Yan, N; Kaback, HR (9 April 2013). "Evolutionary mix-and-match with MFS transporters". Proceedings ... doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)68477-2. PMID 7028742. Foster, D. L.; Boublik, M.; Kaback, H. R. (1983). "Structure of the lac ...
Type IV LTA from Streptococcus pneumoniae represents a special case where both types intersect: after the tail is synthesized ... A set of enzymes and transporters named DltABCE that adds alanines to both wall and lipo-teichoic acids were found. Note that ... "Molecular interaction between lipoteichoic acids and Lactobacillus delbrueckii phages depends on D-alanyl and alpha-glucose ... Four types of WTA repeats have been named, as of 2013. Lipoteichoic acids follow a similar pattern of putting most variation in ...
This results in a substantial decrease in insulin responsiveness (i.e. to glucose) and in the death of insulin-producing cells ... Treatment of HL60 cells (a type of leukemia cell line) by a plant-derived organic compound called phorbol ester increased Sph ... To overcome this difficulty, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter C1 (ABCC1) serves as the "exit door" for S1P. On the ... a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. Regulation of the de novo synthesis of ceramide by palmitate may have a key role in ...
Corbet C, Feron O (July 2015). Corbet C, Feron O (eds.). "Metabolic and mind shifts: from glucose to glutamine and acetate ... refilling the citric acid cycle Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation. Integrity of healthy intestinal ... it is still possible that glutamine supplementation may be detrimental in some cancer types. Ceasing glutamine supplementation ... Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose Nitrogen ...
ISBN 978-0-323-29639-7. Hu T, Wang H (August 2021). "Hepatic Bile Acid Transporters in Drug‐Induced Cholestasis". Transporters ... Each type of FIH is a result of a different mutation. The three genes thought to be involved include APT8B1, which encodes for ... Intravenous glucose can also cause cholestasis as a result of increased fatty acid synthesis and decreased breakdown, which ... Relevant transporters implicated include BSEP, MDR3, MRP2-4, and NTCP. Cholestasis can result from competitive inhibition of ...
December 2000). "Mechanism by which metformin reduces glucose production in type 2 diabetes". Diabetes. 49 (12): 2063-9. doi: ... As a result of its low lipid solubility it requires the transporter SLC22A1 in order for it to enter cells. The logP of ... In addition to suppressing hepatic glucose production, metformin increases insulin sensitivity, enhances peripheral glucose ... and decreases the absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract. Increased peripheral use of glucose may be due to ...
Glucose molecules are bound in starch by the easily hydrolyzed alpha bonds. The same type of bond is found in the animal ... These molecules are exported from the plastid to the cytosol, maltose via the maltose transporter, which if mutated (MEX1- ... Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate ... The ADP-glucose is almost certainly added to the non-reducing end of the amylose polymer, as the UDP-glucose is added to the ...
... like glucose or vancomycin), in which case they may or may not have specific and non-specific transporters distributed on the ... The drug digoxin is an example of this type of drug. Steep dose-response curve: Small changes in the dosage of a drug produce ... These types of interactions may be more common than drug-drug interactions because herbal medicines often contain multiple ... For example, it is known that hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose) in an organism produces a release of catecholamines, which ...
"Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in ... It is these types of signals that provide a likely target for obesogens that have shown to have weight altering effects. ... Chen X, Margolis KJ, Gershon MD, Schwartz GJ, Sze JY (2012). "Reduced serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) function causes ... and altered glucose response pathways. Both phytoestrogen and DES exposed male mice did not develop obesity and, rather, showed ...
Types include: Type II disorders involve malfunctioning trimming/processing of the protein-bound oligosaccharide chain. Types ... Their biosynthetic pathway is very complex and involves a hundred or more glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, transporters and ... "A deficiency in dolichyl-P-glucose:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl alpha3-glucosyltransferase defines a new subtype of congenital ... distinguish between these subtypes in so called Type I and Type II patterns.[citation needed] Currently, twenty-two CDG Type-I ...
In addition, it blocks the glucose from leaking out - the cell lacks transporters for G6P, and free diffusion out of the cell ... depending on the tissue type). The liver is also capable of releasing glucose into the blood between meals, during fasting, and ... Glucose Hexokinase ATP ADP Glucose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate Phosphofructokinase-1 ATP ADP ... and will only phosphorylate the glucose entering the cell to form glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), when the glucose in the blood is ...
"Mild Type II diabetes markedly increases glucose cycling in the postabsorptive state and during glucose infusion irrespective ... "Opposite effects of acute hypoglycemia and acute hyperglycemia on glucose transport and glucose transporters in perfused rat ... the actin network inhibits insulin-dependent stimulation of glucose transport and prevents recruitment of glucose transporters ... "Increased activity of the glucose cycle in the liver: early characteristic of Type II diabetes". Proceedings of the National ...
Demirbilek H, Galcheva S, Vuralli D, Al-Khawaga S, Hussain K (May 2019). "Ion Transporters, Channelopathies, and Glucose ... These mutations have also been demonstrated to have a dominant-negative effect on wild-type protein trafficking, meaning that ... LQT1 may also affect glucose regulation. After ingesting glucose, those with LQT1 produce more insulin than would be expected, ... When the resistance diminishes, abnormally low blood glucose levels (hypoglycaemia) are sometimes seen. The LQT2 subtype is the ...
Lund, S; Holman GD; Schmitz O; Pedersen O (1995). "Contraction stimulates translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 in ... Type 1 diabetes only occurs when pancreatic beta-cell function is impaired. Hyperinsulinemia can be seen in a variety of ... As more GLUT4 receptors are present on the membrane more glucose is taken up into cells decreasing blood glucose levels which ... a threshold concentration of insulin is reached causing the cells to uptake glucose and therefore decreases blood glucose ...
PKB triggers the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT4) containing vesicles to the cell membrane, via the activation of ... The Insulin Receptor is a type of tyrosine kinase receptor, in which the binding of an agonistic ligand triggers ... Both diseases present with fluctuations of the glucose level: After a meal the glucose is initially very high, and then falls ... translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5), ...
... glucose transporters, including GLUT1, and the proton-driven oligopeptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Melatonin is ... Tentative evidence shows melatonin may help reduce some types of headaches including cluster and hypnic headaches. A 2013 ... Garaulet M, Qian J, Florez JC, Arendt J, Saxena R, Scheer FA (March 2020). "Melatonin Effects on Glucose Metabolism: Time To ... Specifically, taking exogenous melatonin shortly after a meal is correlated with impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, Rubio- ...
This specific type of therapy can help to educate the client and their family as to what exactly has been passed down from ... Hormones such as leptin and insulin, as well as nutrients, trigger the regulation of amino acid transporters in the placenta. ... a condition where the mother experiences insulin resistance during pregnancy to avoid low blood glucose levels. This is a ... This type of intergenerational trauma can be experienced and transmitted not only to children of veterans but also to their ...
Additionally, this action was dependent on extracellular glucose level. NaGly has been shown to inhibit the glycine transporter ... Sheskin T, Hanus L, Slager J, Vogel Z, Mechoulam R (February 1997). "Structural requirements for binding of anandamide-type ... "N-Arachidonyl-glycine inhibits the glycine transporter, GLYT2a". Journal of Neurochemistry. 99 (3): 781-6. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ... 166 (2): 424-435. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.071. PMC 4947008. PMID 27374330. Lin H, Long JZ, Roche AM, Svensson KJ, Dou FY, ...
Estimated glomerular filtration rateGlucose-loweringHbA1cPredictorsType 2 diabetes mellitus ... Predictors for the Treatment Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ...
... is type 2.1 Furthermore, its incidence is increasing, a further 79 million adults in the US have pre-diabetes and one in three ... the age of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is decreasing.2 Lifestyle interventions remain essential to the management of type 2 ... facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs), which function as passive transporters, and sodium glucose co-transporters (SGLTs), ... Glucose Control and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Clinical Trials of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor Treatments in Type ...
Benefits/risks of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin in women for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. June ...
... the transport of glucose into the blood is facilitated by GLUT2 (glucose transporter type 2) in the basolateral membrane. The ... Co-transport across the luminal membrane is facilitated by the protein sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). Once in the ... Patients with true glucose malabsorption also will have an immediate reduction in stool output when IV therapy is used instead ... Oral rehydration therapy is critical in managing specific types of diarrheal diseases. Acute Bloody Diarrhea (Dysentery) ...
Each glucose-lowering drug user was matched with a user of other glucose-lowering drugs in a 1:1 manner by propensity scores. ... No at-home glucose-lowering drugs showed a significant association with in-hospital death; the composite outcome of the need of ... In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19, at-home glucose-lowering drugs showed no significant ... death and each routine at-home glucose-lowering drug both individually and in combination with metformin in patients with type ...
Effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on estimated plasma volume in patients with type 2 ... A great deal has been learned about the non-glycaemic benefits associated with drug therapies for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since ... Evaluation of the effect of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin on morbidity and mortality of ... Evaluation of the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin on morbidity and mortality in ...
... involving the study of brain-derived extracellular vesicles and brain glucose metabolism, may predict the onset and/or the ... involving the study of brain-derived extracellular vesicles and brain glucose metabolism, may predict the onset and/or the ... Eny, K. M., Wolever, T. M., Fontaine-Bisson, B., and El-Sohemy, A. (2008). Genetic variant in the glucose transporter type 2 is ... Duelli, R., and Kuschinsky, W. (2001). Brain glucose transporters: relationship to local energy demand. News Physiol. Sci. 16, ...
Red raspberries (RR) contain various phytonutrients with potential for modulating insulin function, glucose, and lipid ... is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by glucose clearance abnormalities and insufficient insulin response. Left ... may offer clinically beneficial effects for the prevention and management of chronic diseases through improvements in glucose ... glucose transporter 4; G6Pase, glucose 6-phosphatase; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase; PKCθ, protein kinase C theta ...
Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose transporter type 2 and new possibilities for managing vascular age in patients with type 2 ... Obesity is also a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), a metabolic disorder featuring hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and ... Might be harmful to children, underweight people, the elderly, and type 1 diabetes and extreme hypertension patients ... Metabolic defects (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes) ...
At the end of each treatment the patients glucose control will be measured and information about their experience of the drug ... Type 2 Diabetes Drug: Sitagliptin - DPP4i Drug: Canagliflozin - SGLT2i Drug: Pioglitazone - TZD Phase 4 ... 600 patients with type 2 diabetes who have suboptimal glycaemic control on dual oral therapy will be recruited to a randomised ... The aim of this project is to identify subgroups of patients with type 2 diabetes that respond well or poorly to particular ...
Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 ... EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators: Empagliflozin and progression of kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 375: 323-334, ... The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin promotes osmotic diuresis via urinary glucose excretion and ... EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators: Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 373: ...
transporter. Disopyramide. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha. target. Disopyramide. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1. transporter. Mifepristone. Solute carrier organic anion transporter ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3. transporter. Pioglitazone. Solute carrier organic anion transporter ... A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor used to manage hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Also used to ...
The last few years have seen an explosion of evidence for the efficacy of sodium-glucose transporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i ... Advanced Search Search Help About NIOSHTIC-2 Feedback Terms: heart or cardiac or cardiovascular or cardiopulmonary or ... NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search. Search Results. New Search. ...
... oral dual inhibitor of two proteins responsible for glucose regulation known as sodium-glucose co-transporter types 1 and 2 ( ... Sotagliflozin has been studied in multiple patient populations encompassing heart failure, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and ... SGLT1 and SGLT2). SGLT1 is responsible for glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, and SGLT2 is responsible for ... the cardiovascular efficacy of sotagliflozin versus placebo when added to standard of care in 10,584 patients with type 2 ...
The SLC2A1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called the glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT1). Learn ... Klepper J. Impaired glucose transport into the brain: the expanding spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome ... Phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2013 Apr;13(4):342 ... The SLC2A1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called the glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT1). The GLUT1 ...
Effect of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibition on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Griffin, Tomás ... CollectionsBy Issue DateAuthorsTitlesSubjectsTypesThis CommunityBy Issue DateAuthorsTitlesSubjectsTypes ... View MoreSubjectACTIVATION (1)aldosterone (1)CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS (1)COTRANSPORTER 2 INHIBITORS (1)DIAGNOSIS (1)... View More ...
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors such as dapagliflozin may cause an increased risk for severe urinary tract ... Blood glucose monitoring is warranted in patients with type 2 diabetes prior to starting and during lorcaserin treatment. ... leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in ... leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in ...
"Glucose Transporter Type 4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Glucose Transporter Type 4" was a major or minor ... "Glucose Transporter Type 4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Glucose Transporter Type 4" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Glucose Transporter Type 4". ...
This review assesses NMAs that evaluate sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for treatment of T2DM and discusses ... A review of network meta-analyses that include sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors ... A review of network meta-analyses that include sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. ... Network meta-analyses (NMAs) are valuable ways to generate comparative effectiveness data for therapies available to treat type ...
Date Type:. Submission. Library of Congress Subject Heading:. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes--Treatment--Risk factors; Non- ... Background: The Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SLGT2) Inhibitors are the newest class of antihyperglycemic medications ... The integration of patient preferences into quantitative risk-benefit assessment of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors ... The integration of patient preferences into quantitative risk-benefit assessment of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors ...
To assess ABC-type drug transporter activity, we determined glucose-induced efflux of rhodamine 6G, as described previously (20 ... To start rhodamine 6G efflux, we added 250 μL PBS with 8 mmol/L glucose. We prepared control tubes with glucose-free PBS, ... Pfaller MA, Espinel-Ingroff A, Canton E, Castanheira M, Cuenca-Estrella M, Diekema DJ, et al. Wild-type MIC distributions and ... ABC-type efflux activity, as evidenced by Rhodamine 6G transport, was significantly greater among C. auris than C. glabrata ...
... facilitated glucose transporter, member 3, Glucose transporter type 3, brain ... Mammalian facilitative glucose transporter family: structure and molecular regulation. Pessin, JE, Bell, GI ...
Apple Polyphenol Phloretin Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth via Inhibition of the Type 2 Glucose Transporter and ... Huang, T. F., Sheu, J. R. & Teng, C. M., 1991, 於: Biochemical Journal. 277, 2, p. 351-357 7 p.. 研究成果: 雜誌貢獻 › 文章 › 同行評審 ... Chen, C. H., Tsai, M. C., Lin, H. C., Lee, H. C., Lee, C. Z. & Chung, S. D., 12月 2015, 於: Journal of Surgical Research. 199, 2 ... 1050-1051 2 p. (Studies in Health Technology and Informatics; 卷 290).. 研究成果: 書貢獻/報告
Inhibition of sodium-glucose ligand transporter type 2 (SGLT-2) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in myocardial ... AIMS: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have made considerable progress in the field of heart failure, but ... a type of SGLT2is) in the development of AF in rats with RHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats in the experimental group were ... 2. Design of single-phased magnesium alloys with typically high solubility rare earth elements for biomedical applications: ...
The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ... Emerging New Therapies for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists. Clinical ... The Role of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Clinical Therapeutics ... Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are both prevalent types of psychiatric illness in the United States. As second-generation ...
Inhibition of the transporter reduces blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes patients. Interestingly, administration of SGLT2 ... SGLT2 inhibition removes glucose from the body and triggers ketosis, whereas traditional treatment controls blood glucose level ... SGLT2 is a sodium/glucose cotransporter responsible for glucose reabsorption in the kidney. ... the capacity for glucose-derived ATP production is rather limited in adult hearts (27). Increased glucose uptake and metabolism ...
11] "Insulin receptor and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT 4) mutations and polymorphisms in a Welsh type 2 (non- ... 23] "Insulin receptor and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT 4) mutations and polymorphisms in a Welsh type 2 (non- ... 19] "Role of SGK1 kinase in regulating glucose transport via glucose transporter GLUT4." Jeyaraj S.et.al. 17382906. [20] "Mass- ... 10] "Molecular scanning of insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) gene in NIDDM subjects." Choi W.H.et.al. 1756912. [ ...
Insulin resistance impairs postprandial glucose uptake through glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and is the primary defect ... and this is achieved by insulin-mediated trafficking of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to the cell membrane. The eight- ... The calcium-transporting type 2C member 1 ATPase, SPCA1, is a Golgi-localized Ca2+-uptake transporter thought to support Golgi ... encodes a glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit that converts glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose, and has been linked with ...
Glucose Transporter Type 2 - Preferred Concept UI. M0208875. Scope note. A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed ... Glucose Transporter Type 2 Entry term(s). GLUT 2 Protein GLUT-2 Protein GLUT2 Protein SLC2A2 Protein Solute Carrier Family 2, ... 2006; GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER TYPE 2 was indexed under MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORT PROTEINS 2003-2005, & under MEMBRANE TRANSPORT ... Transporteur de glucose de type 2 Entry term(s):. GLUT 2 Protein. GLUT-2 Protein. GLUT2 Protein. SLC2A2 Protein. Solute Carrier ...
  • Recently, a new approach has emerged using sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors that decrease glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, increasing urinary glucose excretion. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • While more long-term safety data are required to elucidate the benefit-risk profile of SGLT2 inhibitors, the rationale for their use in type 2 diabetes therapy is strong. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • After propensity matching, 249 patients on metformin, 105 on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, 129 on insulin, 127 on metformin/dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, 34 on metformin/sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, and 67 on metformin/insulin were selected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Are SGLT-2 Inhibitors the Future of Heart Failure Treatment? (springer.com)
  • Previous cardiovascular outcome trials for sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have demonstrated significant favourable outcomes for cardiovascular disease, heart failure hospitalisation and all-cause mortality. (springer.com)
  • The trials will add substantially to our understanding of SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment of HFrEF and may have major implications for the treatment of people with HFpEF. (springer.com)
  • In this article we discuss the rationale for using SGLT-2 inhibitors in people with heart failure and explore the potential findings and importance of the ongoing EMPEROR-preserved and EMPEROR-reduced trials. (springer.com)
  • Cardiovascular outcome trials have shown considerable improvement in heart failure hospitalisation and other cardiovascular outcomes in people using sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • The EMPEROR trials will considerably add to our understanding of the future role for SGLT-2 inhibitors in people with heart failure, particularly HFpEF. (springer.com)
  • The last few years have seen an explosion of evidence for the efficacy of sodium-glucose transporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to slow progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). (cdc.gov)
  • Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. (pdr.net)
  • This review assesses NMAs that evaluate sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for treatment of T2DM and discusses potential issues in conducting and interpreting NMAs. (ihe.se)
  • Background: The Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SLGT2) Inhibitors are the newest class of antihyperglycemic medications available on the market. (mun.ca)
  • To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the current state of knowledge surrounding post-market safety concerns of the SGLT2 inhibitors, including acute kidney injury (AKI), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), urinary tract infection (UTI), bone fracture and amputation, in patients with type 2 diabetes. (mun.ca)
  • MR antagonists have been reported to show significant antialbuminuric effects when added to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. (nature.com)
  • Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes: cardiovascular and kidney effects, potential mechanisms and clinical applications. (thelancet.com)
  • All of these diabetes drugs are Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, an increasingly popular class of Type-2 diabetes medicines. (druginjurylaw.com)
  • In June 2021 it was reported that Invokana, Farxiga, Jardiance, and other drugs in the Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors class, are associated with an increased risk of retinal vein occlusion. (druginjurylaw.com)
  • Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes: Are clinical trial benefits for heart failure reflected in real-world clinical practice? (bvsalud.org)
  • Empagliflozin, also known as JARDIANCE, is the third FDA-approved agent sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • SGLT2 inhibitors for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Petrie JR. SGLT2 inhibitors and renal complications in type 1 diabetes. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • ABCD announcement regarding SGLT-2 inhibitors in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are overweight or obese, antidiabetic medications that have additional actions to promote weight loss (such as glucagonlike peptide-1 [GLP-1] analogs or sodium-glucose-linked transporter-2 [SGLT-2] inhibitors) are suggested, in addition to the first-line agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, metformin. (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and calcium channel blockers, rather than beta-adrenergic blockers, should be considered as first-line therapy for hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are obese. (medscape.com)
  • glucosidase inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, bromocriptine, and bile acid sequestrants. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical Evidence and Proposed Mechanisms for Cardiovascular and Kidney Benefits from Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter-2 Inhibitors. (qxmd.com)
  • These guidelines update the WHO Package of Essential NCD Interventions (WHO PEN) for primary care in low-resources settings recommendations for managing hyperglycaemia, reviewing several newer oral agents: dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors), sodiumglucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2 inhibitors) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Some ACE inhibitors have been found to slow the process that leads to kidney damage in many people with type 2 diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently available medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes have limitations, and many patients do not achieve glycemic control. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • These drugs have been shown to effectively reduce blood glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in phase III clinical trials when used as monotherapy and as add-on therapy to other diabetes medications, including insulin. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Diabetes imposes a substantial burden on societies worldwide: approximately 25 million individuals in the US have diabetes, of which more than 95 % is type 2.1 Furthermore, its incidence is increasing, a further 79 million adults in the US have pre-diabetes and one in three US adults could have diabetes by 2050. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 1 In addition, the age of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is decreasing. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 5 Furthermore, the incidence of CV mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes has not substantially decreased in the last decade. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Benefits/risks of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin in women for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • Our main objective was to examine the association between in-hospital death and each routine at-home glucose-lowering drug both individually and in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We selected all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine's registry of COVID-19 patients (SEMI-COVID-19 Registry). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the close relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 and the limited evidence on the role of glucose-lowering drugs, prospective studies are needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is well known that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may negatively impact clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by glucose clearance abnormalities and insufficient insulin response. (mdpi.com)
  • TriMaster: Study of a DPP4 Inhibitor, SGLT2 Inhibitor and Thiazolidinedione as Third Line Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of this project is to identify subgroups of patients with type 2 diabetes that respond well or poorly to particular drugs based on particular clinical characteristics such as their weight or kidney function, to enable better targeting of treatment for a particular individual. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 600 patients with type 2 diabetes who have suboptimal glycaemic control on dual oral therapy will be recruited to a randomised double-blind crossover study of a DPP4 inhibitor, SGLT2 inhibitor and thiazolidinedione. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study is a phase 4 randomised double-blind crossover study of a DPP4 inhibitor, SGLT2 inhibitor and thiazolidinedione as third line therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes who have suboptimal glycaemic control on dual therapy with metformin and a sulphonylurea. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A sulfonylurea drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used in adjunctly with diet and exercise for the management of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • A biguanide antihyperglycemic used in conjunction with diet and exercise for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • A thiazolidinedione indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to maintain glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. (drugbank.com)
  • A sulfonylurea medication used in Type 2 Diabetes to sensitize pancreatic beta cells and stimulate insulin release. (drugbank.com)
  • A thiazolidinedione used adjunctively with diet and exercise to normalize glycemic levels in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • An oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • A GLP-1 agonist used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • An amylin analog used for the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to preprandial insulin therapy in patients without adequate glycemic control of insulin therapy. (drugbank.com)
  • A rapid-acting form of insulin used for glycemic control in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • A sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (drugbank.com)
  • SCORED was a multi-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase 3 study evaluating the cardiovascular efficacy of sotagliflozin versus placebo when added to standard of care in 10,584 patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease with eGFR of 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m 2 of body-surface area, and risks for cardiovascular disease. (stockhouse.com)
  • SOLOIST-WHF was a multi-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase 3 study evaluating the cardiovascular efficacy of sotagliflozin versus placebo when added to standard of care in 1,222 patients with type 2 diabetes who had recently been hospitalized for worsening heart failure. (stockhouse.com)
  • For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in combination with diet and exercise. (pdr.net)
  • saxagliptin is not indicated for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and should not be used for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). (pdr.net)
  • Perreault L, Skyler JS, Rosenstock J. Novel therapies with precision mechanisms for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Network meta-analyses (NMAs) are valuable ways to generate comparative effectiveness data for therapies available to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (ihe.se)
  • 2. To estimate the strength of preferences, relative importance, and trade-offs that Canadians with type 2 diabetes make between characteristics of glucose-lowering medications using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). (mun.ca)
  • 9] "Analysis of the gene sequences of the insulin receptor and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT-4) in patients with common-type non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (tcdb.org)
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most common chronic liver disease in the US, partly due to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. (jbc.org)
  • Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018: a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). (bmj.com)
  • 2019 update to: management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018 - a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). (bmj.com)
  • The natural history of progression from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. (bmj.com)
  • Trends in incidence of total or type 2 diabetes: systematic review. (bmj.com)
  • 7. Kahn SE, Cooper ME, Del Prato S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future. (bmj.com)
  • Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002-2012. (bmj.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes: prevention in people at high risk. (bmj.com)
  • Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. (bmj.com)
  • Gestational diabetes: predictors of subsequent disordered glucose metabolism. (bmj.com)
  • Highlights of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2022 Annual Meeting include new data on weight loss with the blockbuster twincretin tirzepatide and on the effects of dapagliflozin on heart failure in people with diabetes, as well as updated guidelines for type 2 diabetes management. (medscape.com)
  • This year, in particular, there's a focus on past, present, and future trends in type 2 diabetes management, along with the co-occurring conditions of obesity, heart failure, and metabolic fatty liver disease. (medscape.com)
  • On September 22, new data will be presented from the DELIVER trial on the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin (Farxiga) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, comparing data for participants with diabetes, prediabetes, and normoglycemia. (medscape.com)
  • On September 21, a symposium will provide new data for the dual glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) agonist tirzepatide, approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States in May with the brand name Mounjaro. (medscape.com)
  • The degree of weight loss seen with this new twincretin has furthered discussion about the concept of remission in type 2 diabetes, Rydén noted. (medscape.com)
  • That will also be the subject of the Diabetologia symposium on September 21, entitled, "Remission of type 2 diabetes - fact or fiction? (medscape.com)
  • That appears to be the 'magic bullet' where you can achieve type 2 diabetes remission. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease have few therapeutic options besides insulin. (thelancet.com)
  • Dulaglutide versus insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (AWARD-7): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. (thelancet.com)
  • Liraglutide and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes. (thelancet.com)
  • The renal hemodynamic effect of SGLT2 inhibition in patients with type 1 diabetes. (thelancet.com)
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition stimulates distal tubular natriuresis and increases in circulating SDF-1α 1-67 in patients with type 2 diabetes. (thelancet.com)
  • Empagliflozin and progression of kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. (thelancet.com)
  • Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes. (thelancet.com)
  • To date, one third of people who have died in hospital in England and tested positive for the coronavirus have also had diabetes, most of them type 2. (rcni.com)
  • Among people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, men, black or Asian people, and those living in more deprived areas are at even greater risk of dying of COVID-19. (rcni.com)
  • About 90% of diabetes cases in the UK are type 2 which, like type 1, poses serious risks to health if not properly managed, particularly when coupled with obesity. (rcni.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by diet but will often require additional medication. (rcni.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes is common and serious. (rcni.com)
  • Risk factors include being overweight or inactive, and a family history of type 2 diabetes. (rcni.com)
  • Once seen mainly in people aged over 40, type 2 diabetes has recently become more common in younger people, teenagers and children. (rcni.com)
  • Many people have the condition without realising it, but serious conditions such as heart disease, stroke and retinopathy can develop if type 2 diabetes is not addressed. (rcni.com)
  • But are the dangers associated with type 2 diabetes likely to multiply because of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown? (rcni.com)
  • In the borough of Harrow where she works, and which has a high proportion of South Asian residents, more than 21,000 people have type 2 diabetes. (rcni.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. (medsci.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. (medsci.org)
  • The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing "westernization" or modernization. (medsci.org)
  • Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. (medsci.org)
  • Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. (medsci.org)
  • The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes. (medsci.org)
  • There are two primary forms of diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes mellitus, T1DM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM). (medsci.org)
  • These defects are all characteristic of patients with type-2 diabetes. (transhumanist.ru)
  • Adipositas-assoziierter Typ-2-Diabetes (T2D) ist eines der größten Gesundheitsprobleme der Welt. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Investigational and emerging treatments are attempting to achieve certain outcomes in order to have a "place at the table" in the management of type 2 diabetes. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • In August 2014, a new drug was approved for the management of type 2 diabetes. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • In a patient with type 2 diabetes, the kidney is dysfunctional and responds to hyperglycemia through glucose reabsorption. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • These agents will not become a common first-line agent for type 2 diabetes, as metformin remains the superior agent. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • Systemic inflammation and oxidative burden in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causes deleterious cardiovascular outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It's sometimes referred to as "active fat", because it can actively increase risks of serious health problems such as heart attack, heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, raised blood pressure, breast and colorectal cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. (tryondailybulletin.com)
  • This can lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes. (tryondailybulletin.com)
  • We provide a summary on the unprecedented withdrawal of dapagliflozin's license in Type 1 diabetes by AstraZeneca. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • We also provide a summary from a national survey of 52 sites in the United Kingdom, with 70% respondents reporting clinically significant benefits following dapagliflozin use in type 1 diabetes. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • We describe some of the challenges faced by clinicians supporting people with type 1 diabetes using dapagliflozin. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes drug was withdrawn because of a "commercial conflict of interest," charity argues. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes: The DEPICT-1 52-Week Study. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes (the DEPICT-2 Study): 24-week results from a randomized controlled trial. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Empagliflozin as adjunctive to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes: the EASE trials. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Deeks ED. Sotagliflozin: A review in type 1 diabetes. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Dapagliflozin and cardiovascular Outcomes in type 2 diabetes. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE).Dapagliflozin with insulin for treating type 1 diabetes, 2019. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Huang Y, Jiang Z, Wei Y. Efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in type 1 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Dapagliflozin (Forxiga): no longer authorised for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes. (cocites.com)
  • Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy. (cocites.com)
  • Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
  • In obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who require insulin therapy, at least one of the following is suggested: metformin, pramlintide, or GLP-1 agonists to mitigate associated weight gain due to insulin. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of the study was to describe recent medication patterns and changes in medication patterns and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). (cdc.gov)
  • Reducen la glucemia al impedir la reabsorción de la glucosa en el riñón, y se usan en el tratamiento de la DIABETES MELLITUS TIPO II. (bvsalud.org)
  • They lower blood sugar by preventing the reabsorption of glucose by the kidney and are used in the treatment of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Glipizide and can induce hypoglycemia hospitalization despite such circumstances 2 diabetes. (manguerascartagenasas.com)
  • Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • Blood glucose management has an important role in preventing the development and progression of complications in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of the guidelines is to provide public health guidance on pharmacological agents for managing hyperglycaemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes for use in primary health-care in lowresource settings. (bvsalud.org)
  • These guidelines consider their use as second- and third- line treatment for hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The guidelines also present new recommendations on the selection of type of insulin (analogue versus human insulin) for adults with type 1 diabetes and in adults with type 2 diabetes for whom insulin is indicated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes are becoming common among children and adolescents, are related to cardiometabolic risk and have been presented as a public health problem, requiring attention from the early stages of life 1,2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Elevated levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia) also have implications for the pathogenesis of obesity and have been linked to deteriorated glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes 5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Some lifestyle changes, including weight reduction, increased levels of physical activity and changes in eating habits can prevent, or at least delay, the onset of type 2 diabetes 2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Do CGMs Really Help People with Type 2 Diabetes? (asweetlife.org)
  • Did a Common Cholesterol Drug Reverse One Teen's Type 1 Diabetes? (asweetlife.org)
  • Got Type 1 Diabetes? (asweetlife.org)
  • Should I Screen My Child for Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease? (asweetlife.org)
  • CDC Decides That Type 1 Diabetes is High Risk. (asweetlife.org)
  • Diabetes is a serious condition where your blood glucose level is too Blood Sugar Monitor how often to check blood sugar does your blood sugar drop when you re hungry high. (esaunggul.ac.id)
  • Based on the total amount of glucose the cells Protein blood sugar type 2 diabetes took in, the researchers deduced that glucose was taken into the cell by individual GLUT4 molecules as well as Horny goat weed blood sugar by clustered GLUT4. (coolpon.net)
  • If you don t have Blood Sugar Level Chart Printable diabetes, your pancreas senses when glucose has entered your bloodstream and releases the right amount of insulin, so the glucose can Blood Sugar Levels Normal get into your cells. (coolpon.net)
  • She then undertook her research fellowship with Profs Robert Sherwin and Bill Tamborlane, learning techniques for investigating human metabolism, studying changes in insulin sensitivity in childhood and adolescence and starting her life-long interest in the issues of hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes treatments. (insulin100.com)
  • She worked with Prof Khalida Ismail to work on aspects of mental health in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and she developed the UK's DAFNE programme, a structured education programme for flexible insulin self-management for adults with type 1 diabetes, which reduced severe hypoglycemia, with colleagues in Sheffield, North Tyneside and Germany. (insulin100.com)
  • Currently Prof Amiel is working on the use of cognitive therapies to improve impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia and on a project exploring the impact of Black African ethnicity on metabolic dysregulation in the development of type 2 diabetes. (insulin100.com)
  • Prof Amiel has contributed to national and international guidelines, chairing the 2015 revision of the UK's NICE guidelines for the diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in adults and contributing to international position statements on the role of surgery in the management of type 2 diabetes, among others. (insulin100.com)
  • She is an active member of the International Hypoglycaemia Study Group and continues to work with charities and other bodies to improve outcomes of type 1 diabetes, including in her current role as Chairman of Diabetes UK's Strategic Research Advisory Group (SRAG). (insulin100.com)
  • Whither the Future of Insulin Management in Type 2 Diabetes? (insulin100.com)
  • The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin promotes osmotic diuresis via urinary glucose excretion and therefore, might offer a novel treatment option for SIAD. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therapeutisch werden standardmäßig Medikamente zur Senkung des Blutzuckerspiegels (Inhibitoren des Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteron-Systems (RAAS), Metformin, Inhibitoren des Natrium-Glucose-Transporters-2 (SGLT2) und des Blutdrucks (Erstlinien Therapie mit Inhibitoren des RAAS, sekundäre Therapie mit Statinen sowie Nikotinentwöhnung und salzarme Ernährung) eingesetzt. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In healthy individuals, approximately 90 percent of the filtered glucose is reabsorbed by SGLT2 in the proximal renal tubule. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • Empagliflozin is a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, which will decrease blood glucose levels secondary to the process of glucosuria in which glucose is excreted in the urine. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • Empagliflozin is a highly selective sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2-i) which was primarily introduced as a glucose-lowering agent for the treatment of T2DM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of the glucose transporter SGLT2 with dapagliflozin in pancreatic alpha cells triggers glucagon secretion. (cocites.com)
  • Finally, we brief novel findings suggesting how biomarkers of brain insulin resistance, involving the study of brain-derived extracellular vesicles and brain glucose metabolism, may predict the onset and/or the progression of cognitive decline. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we will discuss novel evidence suggesting that both brain-derived extracellular vesicles and brain glucose metabolism may represent novel biomarkers of BIR able to predict and follow up cognitive decline. (frontiersin.org)
  • Supply and demand in cerebral energy metabolism: the role of nutrient transporters. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cancer cells have distinctive demands for intermediates from glucose metabolism for biosynthesis and energy in different cell cycle phases. (jbc.org)
  • Whey peptides exacerbate body weight gain and perturb systemic glucose and tissue lipid metabolism in male high-fat fed mice. (metabolismlab.com)
  • Cardiac expression of human type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase increases glucose metabolism and protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in male mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • After conducting several cross-sectional surveys with schoolchildren and observing their high prevalence of overweight and other risk factors , supported with scientific evidence, it was decided to carry out intervention programs with this population and evaluate their effects on health parameters, including those associated with glucose metabolism. (bvsalud.org)
  • In animals, açai supplementation and exercise led to benefits in exercise tolerance and improvements in several hemodynamic parameters, as well as significant improvements in liver markers and glucose metabolism. (bvsalud.org)
  • Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 7;41(2):255-323. (bmj.com)
  • 2020 Feb;63(2):221-8. (bmj.com)
  • The authors studied the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin, which promotes osmotic diuresis via urinary glucose excretion, in a randomized trial of 87 hospitalized patients with SIAD-induced hyponatremia who were also treated with standard fluid restriction. (asnjournals.org)
  • Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition in heart failure: potential mechanisms, clinical applications, and summary of clinical trials. (thelancet.com)
  • Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Potential Complication of Treatment With Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition. (cocites.com)
  • Klepper J. Impaired glucose transport into the brain: the expanding spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucose transporter-1 deficiency syndrome: the expanding clinical and genetic spectrum of a treatable disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome tests available. (bcm.edu)
  • ABCD announcement: Dapagliflozin (Forxiga): no longer authorised for treatment of type 1 diabetesmellitus. (bjd-abcd.com)
  • Though numerous GLUT isoforms (1-14) have been identified and characterized, only some of these transporters are expressed in the brain and can be involved in neuronal homeostasis and brain function ( Duelli and Kuschinsky, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Puede funcionar como sensor de GLUCOSA para regular la liberación de INSULINA y la HOMEOSTASIS de la glucosa. (bvsalud.org)
  • It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS . (bvsalud.org)
  • We also show that Ipf1/Pdx1 is required for the expression of FGFR1 signalling components in beta-cells, indicating that Ipf1/Pdx1 acts upstream of FGFR1 signalling in beta-cells to maintain proper glucose sensing, insulin processing and glucose homeostasis. (transhumanist.ru)
  • Mammalian facilitative glucose transporter family: structure and molecular regulation. (reactome.org)
  • Cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and smoking, were studied as well as degree of blood glucose control. (who.int)
  • In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The major hexose transporter, Htr1 (mediates the active uptake of hexoses by sugar:H+ symport. (lbl.gov)
  • The supplement uses clinically studied ingredients to help maintain healthy blood sugar levels and aid the management of glucose uptake. (coolpon.net)
  • Compared with glucose-limited condition, under Pi-limited aerobic condition, the budding yeast S. cerevisiae up-regulated 292 genes and activated a regulatory mechanism known as the PHO pathway, leading to an increased expression of multiple genes involved in Pi acquisition and uptake [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The SLC2A1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called the glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The GLUT1 protein is embedded in the outer membrane surrounding cells, where it transports a simple sugar called glucose into cells from the blood or from other cells for use as fuel. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the brain, the GLUT1 protein is involved in moving glucose, which is the brain's main energy source, across the blood-brain barrier. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The GLUT1 protein also moves glucose between cells in the brain called glia, which protect and maintain nerve cells (neurons). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Having less functional GLUT1 protein reduces the amount of glucose available to brain cells, which affects brain development and function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The erythrocyte/brain hexose facilitator, glucose transporter-1, Gtr1 or Glut1. (lbl.gov)
  • The diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin, means the pancreas has to work harder to produce more insulin to transport the same amount of glucose from the bloodstream into muscles, and other tissues. (tryondailybulletin.com)
  • Blood sugar or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of a human or animal. (coolpon.net)
  • Glucose is the main energy source used by brain cells and its transport across the plasma membrane is mediated by a specific family of membrane proteins known as glucose transporters (GLUTs) ( Shepherd and Kahn, 1999 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 2] "Human GLUT4/muscle-fat glucose-transporter gene. (tcdb.org)
  • 4] "Identification of the 5' end of the gene encoding a human insulin-responsive glucose transporter. (tcdb.org)
  • 10] "Molecular scanning of insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) gene in NIDDM subjects. (tcdb.org)
  • Heterogeneous mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene ( FGFR2 ) cause a range of craniosynostosis syndromes. (transhumanist.ru)
  • The GLUT-1 XbaI gene polymorphism in the glucose transporter has been suggested in the development of DN. (who.int)
  • GLUT4 is the primary glucose transporter in adipose and skeletal muscle tissues, and its cellular trafficking is regulated by insulin signaling. (tcdb.org)
  • 5] "A Leu-Leu sequence is essential for COOH-terminal targeting signal of GLUT4 glucose transporter in fibroblasts. (tcdb.org)
  • 6] "The insulin-sensitive glucose transporter, GLUT4, interacts physically with Daxx. (tcdb.org)
  • 1] "Cloning and characterization of the major insulin-responsive glucose transporter expressed in human skeletal muscle and other insulin-responsive tissues. (tcdb.org)
  • 11] "Insulin receptor and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT 4) mutations and polymorphisms in a Welsh type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic population. (tcdb.org)
  • The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) initially emerged in China in December 2019 and quickly spread around the world, causing a global pandemic [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is NSGC 2019 Conference Highlights Part 2, click here for part 1. (patientworthy.com)
  • Insulin-releasing and metabolic effects of small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • These two types of fatty tissue play very different metabolic roles. (priceplow.com)
  • [145] found an apparently clear correlation between plasma QTP concentrations and D 2 receptor occupancy in a study that used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, CGI and SAS to assess clinical outcomes. (researchgate.net)
  • Treatment outcomes of ICB in cohort 2 appeared inferior to those in the three pivotal trials, with a response rate of 11.3% and median progression\free survival of 1 1.67?months. (ecologicalsgardens.com)
  • For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. (lbl.gov)
  • Diet, exercise, and behavioral modification should be included in all obesity management approaches for body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m 2 or higher. (medscape.com)
  • 1] Elevated serum and urine glucose levels, as well as defective host immune factors, are major predisposing factors. (medscape.com)
  • Three factors must be present for the development of renal emphysema-excess tissue glucose, impaired tissue perfusion, and a gas-producing bacterium. (medscape.com)
  • diabetic patients requiring glucose-lowering therapy aged 30 years or over have a CV risk comparable to nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 2, 3] diabetic topathy include vesicourethral reflux and recurrent UTIs. (medscape.com)
  • T2DM is the most common form of DM, which accounts for 90% to 95% of all diabetic patients [ 1 ] and is expected to increase to 439 million by 2030 [ 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Polymorphism of organic cation transporter 2 improves glucose-lowering effect of metformin via influencing its pharmacokinetics in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. (cdc.gov)
  • A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The glucose/fructose:H+ symporter, STP13 (sugar transport protein 13). (lbl.gov)
  • At the end of each treatment period, fasting blood will be taken to measure glycaemic response (HbA1c), fasting glucose and insulin concentrations trough drug levels and to confirm continued eligibility. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Substances which lower blood glucose levels. (drugbank.com)
  • Guo X, Geng M, Du G. Glucose transporter 1, distribution in the brain and in neural disorders: its relationship with transport of neuroactive drugs through the blood-brain barrier. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Although T2DM patients are generally independent of exogenous insulin, they may need it when blood glucose levels are not well controlled with diet alone or with oral hypoglycemic drugs. (medsci.org)
  • The kidney desires to excrete excessive, filtered glucose in order to restore normal levels of glucose in the blood. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • We aim in our work to study the prevalence risk factors and degree of blood glucose of CVD risk factors in diabetics in two dif- control. (who.int)
  • Acetylsalicylic acid to monitor blood sugar in glucose tolerance. (manguerascartagenasas.com)
  • Type 2 DM that presents during childhood or adolescence, healthy blood sugar at 50 typically how often to check blood sugar Normal Blood Sugar as an autosomal dominant trait in which there is diminished but not blood sugar reading 90 a1c absent insulin production by the pancreas. (esaunggul.ac.id)
  • Veterinarians commonly adjust the insulin dose based on a blood glucose curve. (coolpon.net)
  • For example, you might eat a snack before physical activity to prevent low blood Blood Sugar Level Chart Printable glucose. (coolpon.net)
  • A condition that develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells which are the main transporters of oxygen to organs causing symptoms like fatigue. (cdc.gov)
  • Then, we analyzed the effects on waist circumference, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index and uric acid compared to a control group of 19 overweight adolescents who did not receive any intervention. (bvsalud.org)
  • A total of 2666 patients were found in the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry, 1297 on glucose-lowering drugs in monotherapy and 465 in combination with metformin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A membrane assay that indirectly measures the activity of efflux transporters. (atpasepathway.com)
  • erdafitinib will increase the level or effect of saxagliptin by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. (medscape.com)
  • lasmiditan increases levels of saxagliptin by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. (medscape.com)
  • however, there is a high interindividual variability in vascular disease onset and associated mortality ( 2 ). (jacc.org)
  • Limited evidence exists on the role of glucose-lowering drugs in patients with COVID-19. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each glucose-lowering drug user was matched with a user of other glucose-lowering drugs in a 1:1 manner by propensity scores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For 2 weeks after abametapir application, avoid taking drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates. (medscape.com)
  • 1,2 The variations in the response to treatment may be due to several factors such as illness, differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, environmental factors and genetic factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Negative autoregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 expression characterizing cranial development in cases of Apert (P253R mutation) and Pfeiffer (C278F mutation) syndromes and suggesting a basis for differences in their cranial phenotypes. (transhumanist.ru)
  • Mean D(2) receptor occupancies of 41 and 30% were observed at quetiapine doses of 750 and 450 mg/day. (researchgate.net)
  • A better, but not perfect, correspondence was observed between D 2 receptor dissociation and plasma QTP half-life. (researchgate.net)
  • 136] found a clear curvilinear relationship between 5-HT 2A receptor occupancy and plasma QTP concentrations, but only a weak relationship between plasma QTP concentrations and D 2 receptor occupancy. (researchgate.net)
  • The background of depression is especially affected by the CB1 receptor and endocannabinoid anandamide (2,3). (hamppumaa.fi)
  • Disturbance in the regulation of the CB1 receptor leads to a reduced ability to enjoy pleasure, a passive tolerance to stress and a higher susceptibility to develop depression-like symptoms (2). (hamppumaa.fi)
  • The CB1 receptor has a clear role in terminating the stress response mediated by the HPA axis (2,4). (hamppumaa.fi)
  • Dopamine transporter scanning or SPECT is also available to confirm dementias with parkinsonism ( 3 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Dopamine D(2) and 5HT(2A) occupancies were determined using [(11)C] raclopride and [(11)C] N-methylspiperone as ligands, respectively, and PET imaging. (researchgate.net)