Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Somatostatin-28: A 28-amino acid peptide with the same biological activities of somatostatin-14 but with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal. SRIF-28 is the major form of somatostatin in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Somatostatin-Secreting Cells: Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)GlycogenKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Proglucagon: The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Glucagonoma: An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.PhlorhizinGlucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.GlucosephosphatesDiabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Protein PrecursorsMotilin: A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Glycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Somatostatinoma: A SOMATOSTATIN-secreting tumor derived from the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS). It is also found in the INTESTINE. Somatostatinomas are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS; CHOLELITHIASIS; STEATORRHEA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. The majority of somatostatinomas have the potential for METASTASIS.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.PyruvatesPhosphorylases: A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.MethylglucosidesColforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Cysteamine: A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.TriglyceridesDiazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome: A symptom complex associated with CARCINOID TUMOR and characterized by attacks of severe flushing of the skin, diarrheal watery stools, bronchoconstriction, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. The carcinoid tumors are usually located in the gastrointestinal tract and metastasize to the liver. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. Cardiac manifestations constitute CARCINOID HEART DISEASE. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Oxyntomodulin: A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of GLICENTIN. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions, delay gastric emptying, and reduced food intake.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Galanin: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)

*Pancreas

... decrease glucose in blood), δ delta cells secrete somatostatin (regulates/stops α and β cells) and PP cells, or γ (gamma) cells ... Each type of cell secretes a different type of hormone: α alpha cells secrete glucagon (increase glucose in blood), β beta ... secrete pancreatic polypeptide. These act to control blood glucose through secreting glucagon to increase the levels of glucose ... The second line, influenced by Pax-6, produces beta cells (β-) and delta cells (δ-), which secrete insulin and somatostatin, ...

*Enteroendocrine cell

K cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide, an incretin, which also promotes triglyceride storage. L cells secrete glucagon- ... also called Delta cells, secrete somatostatin secrete motilin Gastric enteroendocrine cells are found in the gastric glands, ... "Nutrient-dependent secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide from primary murine K cells". Diabetologia. 52 (2 ... The very discovery of hormones occurred during studies of how the digestive system regulates its activities, as explained at ...

*Pancreatic progenitor cell

... alpha cells which secrete glucagon, delta cells which secrete somatostatin and the PP-cells which secrete pancreatic ... Alpha cells produce glucagon and beta cells produce insulin. Insulin and glucagon antagonistically regulate the glucose ... These genes regulates the expression of Mnx1 in the ventral bud, leading to the developmental specification of the pancreatic ... Exocrine cells constitute the acinar cells and the ductal cells. The endocrine cells constitute the beta cells which make ...

*Glucagon

... a polymer made up of glucose molecules). Liver cells (hepatocytes) have glucagon receptors. When glucagon binds to the glucagon ... Glucagon also regulates the rate of glucose production through lipolysis. Glucagon induces lipolysis in humans under conditions ... The hormone is synthesized and secreted from alpha cells (α-cells) of the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the ... Honey RN, Weir GC (October 1980). "Acetylcholine stimulates insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin release in the perfused chicken ...

*Endocrine gland

Insulin increases the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by most body cells. Somatostatin is released by Delta cells and act ... Insulin and glucagon influence blood sugar levels. Glucagon is released when blood glucose level is low, and stimulates the ... which act on the cells that secrete them, and paracrines, which act on a different cell type nearby. The ability of a target ... The hypothalamus regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary and creates two hormones that it exports to the ...

*Ghrelin

... beta and delta cell transcriptomes reveal that ghrelin selectively activates delta cells and promotes somatostatin release from ... Ghrelin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Ghrelin does this indirectly by ... Stengel A, Taché Y (2012). "Ghrelin - a pleiotropic hormone secreted from endocrine x/a-like cells of the stomach". Frontiers ... Spencer SJ, Xu L, Clarke MA, Lemus M, Reichenbach A, Geenen B, Kozicz T, Andrews ZB (September 2012). "Ghrelin regulates the ...

*Glucagon-like peptide-1

It is produced and secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells and certain neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract ... March 2004). "Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes ... The rate of gastric emptying is therefore an important aspect to consider, as it regulates the entry of nutrients into the ... The inhibitory effect is presumably mediated indirectly through somatostatin secretion, but a direct effect cannot be ...

*Secretin

... following oral glucose intake. Secretin modulates water and electrolyte transport in pancreatic duct cells, liver ... It was known that the pancreas secreted digestive juices in response to the passage of food (chyme) through the pyloric ... Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by ... It does this through at least three mechanisms: 1) By stimulating release of somatostatin, 2) By inhibiting release of gastrin ...

*Digestive enzyme

... and glucagon), to control glucose metabolism, and also to secrete digestive/exocrinic pancreatic juice, which is secreted ... Somatostatin is a hormone produced by the mucosal cells of the duodenum and also the "delta cells" of the pancreas. ... CCK also decreases the tone of the sphincter of Oddi, which is the sphincter that regulates flow through the ampulla of Vater. ... in the secretions of cells lining the stomach, in the pancreatic juice secreted by pancreatic exocrine cells, and in the ...

*Insulin resistance

Thus, glucose, fatty acids and amino acids 'leak' out of the cells. A decrease in insulin/glucagon ratio inhibits glycolysis ... a hormone secreted by the pancreas to promote glucose utilization. At the molecular level, a cell senses insulin through ... "Insulin down-regulates expression of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) gene: effects on transcription and mRNA ... are infused continuously with an intravenous infusion of somatostatin (0.27 μg/m2/min) to suppress endogenous insulin and ...
Looking for online definition of somatostatin cells in the Medical Dictionary? somatostatin cells explanation free. What is somatostatin cells? Meaning of somatostatin cells medical term. What does somatostatin cells mean?
This study characterises the somatostatin binding site in human gastrointestinal cancer and mucosa in terms of cationic specificity and relative affinity for three somatostatin analogues. Competitive displacement assays were performed on plasma membranes from human gastric and colonic tissues using radiolabelled somatostatin-14 as ligand. Comparison was made with the somatostatin binding site in rat cerebral cortex. In gastrointestinal tissue, magnesium decreased and sodium increased specific binding. By contrast, in rat cerebral cortex, the converse cationic effect was seen. These changes resulted from alterations in receptor density, with no change in receptor affinity. Displacement studies were then performed with somatostatin-14 and somatostatin analogues RC-160, somatuline, and octreotide. RC-160 and somatuline displaced radiolabel from binding sites in gastric and colonic cancer and mucosa with 10-fold ...
The fasting plasma glucagon level was measured in 39 normal subjects, 13 IDDM and 44 NIDDMpatients. The results showed that the glucagon level in both IDDs and NIDDs was significantly higherthan that in normal subjects (P0.001). In addition, 18 normal subjects and 30 NIDDM patientsunderwent a steamed-bread meal test, and the changes in glucagon level was also studied. The glucagonlevel in NIDDM patients was significantly elevated after the meal (P0.05 or less), but in normalsubjects there was no significant change (P0.05). Whereas the glucagon levels before and after themeal in NIDDs were significantly higher than those in normal subjects (P0.05 or less). The rise ofinsulin/glucagon ratio in NIDDs was retarded and much lower that that in normal subjects (P0.01 orless) The results indicate that there exists dysfunction of islet a-cells in diabetic patients, and it maycontribute to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic somatostatin octapeptide analogues with high affinity and selectivity toward mu opioid receptors. AU - Gulya, K.. AU - Pelton, John T.. AU - Hruby, Victor J.. AU - Yamamura, Henry I.. PY - 1986/6/16. Y1 - 1986/6/16. N2 - A series of cyclic conformationally restricted penicillamine containing somatostatin octapeptide analogues have been prepared by standard solid phase synthetic techniques and tested for their ability to inhibit specific [125I]CGP 23,996 (des-Ala1-,Gly2-[desamino-Cys3Tyr11]-dicarba3,14- somatostatin), [3H]naloxone or [3H]DPDPE ([D-Pen2-D-Pen5]enkephalin) binding in rat brain membrane preparations. We now report structure-activity relationship studies with the syntheis of our most potent and selective mu opioid receptor compound DPheCysTyrDTrpOrnThrPenThrNH2, which we refer to as Cys2Tyr3Orn5Pen7-amide. While this octapeptide exhibited high affinity (IC50 = 2.80 nM) for an apparently single population of binding sites ...
Somatotroph pituitary adenoma is the most frequent cause of acromegaly. A transsphenoidal removal of the tumor is used as the first line treatment. Somatostatin analogs are used as to whether recovery was not obtained after surgery or pituitary surgery was contraindicated. Previous studies with somatostatin analogs have shown a drop in plasma GH and IGF-1 levels and a reduction in adenoma size in 75 and 25% of patients respectively. Retrospective studies suggest that a treatment with somatostatin analogs performed before surgery may be of interest to improve anesthesic conditions and surgical outcome. The aim of present study is to prospectively evaluate the interest of a first line treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analog (Sandostatin) before performing a pituitary surgery in acromegalic patients with either a micro or a macroadenoma to improve peri-operative conditions and hopefully surgical outcome. After informed consent, ...
In many species serous lacrimal glands bind sex hormones and prolactin, have cells making immunoglobulins and growth factors, and contain nerve fibers having peptides such as VIP, NPY, and Substance...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Somatostatin can locally inhibit proliferation and differentiation of cartilage and bone precursor cells. AU - Weiss, Roy E.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. AU - Nimni, M. E.. PY - 1981/12. Y1 - 1981/12. N2 - The influence of somatostatin on discrete stages of collagenous-matrix-induced endochondral bone formation has been investigated. Local injection of somatostatin, i.e., without any measurable systemic effect, resulted in a 75% reduction of cell proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation and ornithine decarboxylase activities. The minimum effective inhibitory dose of somatostatin was 0.25 μg/day. Twice daily local injections of the hormone during cartilage formation also resulted in an inhibition, but this was shown to be due to impaired cell proliferation rather than to a direct effect of somatostatin on differentiation. Injection of somatostatin into developing bone ...
Looking for insulin:glucagon ratio? Find out information about insulin:glucagon ratio. hormone hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some... Explanation of insulin:glucagon ratio
Somatostatin contents of striatum, hippocampus, and pons medulla have been followed in two inbred strains of mice (C57B1/6J and Balb/cJ) with aging and long term alcohol exposure (over a 25 month...
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Hair cells of the mammalian auditory system do not regenerate, and therefore their loss leads to irreversible hearing loss. Aminoglycosides, among other substances, can irreversibly damage hair cells. Somatostatin, a peptide with hormone/neurotransmitter properties, has neuroprotective effects by binding to its receptor. In this study, we tested whether somatostatin can protect hair cells from gentamicin-induced damage in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: This study confirmed the expression of somatostatin receptor mRNA within the cochlea and analyzed the effect of somatostatin on gentamicin-induced hair cell damage and death in vitro. METHODS: Expression of somatostatin receptor mRNA in the rat cochlea was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protection of auditory hair cells from gentamicin was tested using two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and expression of a rat somatostatin receptor enriched in brain. AU - Li, Xiao Jiang. AU - Forte, Michael. AU - North, R. Alan. AU - Ross, Christopher A.. AU - Snyder, Solomon H.. PY - 1992/10/25. Y1 - 1992/10/25. N2 - The tetradecapeptide somatostatin (SRIF) is a hormone release-inhibiting substance that mediates diverse effects in brain and peripheral organs via specific receptors. A cDNA encoding a rat SRIF receptor was identified by use of degenerate oligonucleotide primers and polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNA prepared from transcripts expressed in rat brain. The complete cDNA encodes a protein of 391 amino acids with seven potential transmembrane domains. Expression of the cDNA product in transfected COS-7 cell lines provides the same high affinity of binding to [125I-Tyr11]SRIF-14 as that of rat cerebral cortex tissues. However, the binding of [125I-Tyr11] SRIF-14 to cloned rat SRIF receptor is not displaced by MK678, a SRIF ...
Treatment for significant hypoglycemia will depend on how conscious the patient is.. In some circumstances, someone with diabetes may recover sufficiently to be able to treat the hypo themselves.. Though this may not always be the case and therefore its beneficial to treat severe hypoglycemia as an emergency.. If you know how to apply glucagon via a glucagon injection kit, this is a dependable and effective way to raise blood glucose levels of someone sustaining from a severe hypo. If you apply glucagon, ensure the person is in the recovery state as glucagon can commence to vomiting.. If you do not have access to glucagon, call for emergency hospitalization and have a form of sugar ( fruit juice, a sugary drink, glucose tablets ) available in case they recover.. ...
The aim of the present study was to verify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and somatostatin, both measured by sensitive immunoassay, in: 16 chronic migraine (CM) patients, 15 patients with an antecedent history of migraine without aura diagnosed as having probable chronic migraine (PCM) and probable analgesic-abuse headache (PAAH), 20 patients affected by primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFMS), and 20 control subjects. Significantly lower levels of GDNF and somatostatin were found in the CSF of both CM and PCM + PAAH patients compared with controls (GDNF =P , 0.001, P , 0.002; somatostatin = P , 0.002, P , 0.0003), without significant difference between the two groups. PFMS patients, with and without analgesic abuse, also had significantly lower levels of both somatostatin and GDNF (P , 0.0002, P , 0.001), which did not differ from those of CM and PCM + PAAH patients. A significant ...
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Somatostatin analogues and mTOR inhibitors have been used as medical therapy in lung carcinoids with variable results. No data are available on dopamine agonists as treatment for lung carcinoids. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the combined treatment of somatostatin analogue octreotide and the dopamine agonist cabergoline with mTOR inhibitors in an in vitro model of typical lung carcinoids: the NCI-H727 cell line. In NCI-H727 cell line, reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence were assessed to characterize the expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 and 5, dopamine receptor 2 and mTOR pathway components. Fifteen typical lung carcinoids tissue samples have been used for somatostatin receptor 2, dopamine receptor 2, and the main mTOR pathway component p70S6K expression and localization by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability, fluorescence-activated cell sorting ...
In the study, intranasal glucagon consistently corrected insulin-induced hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes, meeting the predefined definition of noninferiority to intramuscular injection of glucagon. In the one case in which intranasal glucagon did not meet the study-defined success criteria, hypoglycemia was corrected without any additional intervention but after the time frame for study-defined success. Average glucose concentrations and time to meet the primary end point after intranasal glucagon lagged ∼3 min behind glucose concentrations after intramuscular glucagon, consistent with the glucagon concentrations showing a relative delay in achievement of peak glucagon levels with intranasal glucagon of ∼5 min. Nevertheless, pharmacologic levels of glucagon were present by 5 min after administration by either ...
Glucagon secretion by pancreatic α-cells is triggered by hypoglycemia and suppressed by high glucose levels; impaired suppression of glucagon secretion is a hallmark of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that α-cell glucokinase (Gck) plays a role in the control of glucagon secretion. Using mice with α-cell-specific inactivation of Gck (αGckKO mice), we find that glucokinase is required for the glucose-dependent increase in intracellular ATP/ADP ratio and the closure of KATP channels in α-cells and the suppression of glucagon secretion at euglycemic and hyperglycemic levels. αGckKO mice display hyperglucagonemia in the fed state, which is associated with increased hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output capacity. In adult mice, fed hyperglucagonemia is further increased and ...
The diverse biological effects of the hormone somatostatin are mediated by five genetic different receptor subtypes (sst1-sst5), which belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. The sst2 subtype is unique among the somatostatin receptors in its structure, since it is expressed in two protein variants which differ within their carboxy-terminal ends, generated by alternative splicing. Within the 5 untranslated region of the gene two introns separate three transcriptional units with distinct promoters. Due to the latter feature, the sst2 gene is also unique among all somatostatin receptor genes regarding its transcriptional regulation. The three alternative promoters are tissue specifically active and show alternative responsiveness to extracellular signals. The second sst2 promoter is important for expression of the gene in tissues where somatostatin has essential physiological functions, such as ...
Title: Somatostatin Receptor-Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapy. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Li-Chun Sun and David H. Coy. Affiliation:Peptide Research Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.. Keywords:Somatostatin, somatostatin receptors, conjugates, cancer therapy, bombesin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, LHRH, somatotropin release-inhibiting factor, SRIF, neuroendocrine tumors, lanreotide, octreotide, vapreotide, SSTRs, topotecan, irinotecan, neuroblastoma IMR32, pancreatic cancer CFPAC-1, multi-drug resistance-associated protein, breast cancer-resistant protein, HUVECs, Paclitaxel, 2PTX-OCT, doxorubicin, 2-pyrrolino-DOX, Methotrexate, SSTR-negative CHO cells, combretastatin, colchicine. Abstract: Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), especially SSTR subtype 2, are found expressed at relatively higher levels in many tumor cells and in ...
Pancreatic expression of the glucagon gene depends on multiple transcription factors interacting with at least three DNA control elements: G1, the upstream promoter element, and G2 and G3, two enhancer-like sequences. We report here that the major enhancer of the rat glucagon gene, G2, interacts with three protein complexes, A1, A2, and A3. A2 is detected only in islet cells, and impairment of its binding to mutant G2 causes a marked decrease in transcriptional activity. We identify A1 as hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 beta (HNF-3 beta), a member of the HNF-3 DNA-binding protein family found in abundance in the liver which has been proposed to play a role in the formation of gut-related organs. HNF-3 beta binds G2 on a site which overlaps A2 and acts as a repressor of glucagon gene expression, as demonstrated by mutational analyses of G2 and by cotransfection of HNF-3 beta cDNA along with reporter genes containing G2 into ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction in size of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma treated with octreotide acetate (somatostatin analog). AU - Lee, Eunjig. AU - Kim, K. R.. AU - Lim, Sungkil. AU - Lee, H. C.. AU - Kim, D. I.. AU - Kim, S. H.. AU - Huh, K. B.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - We present a 55-year-old female with a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma who had been treated with somatostatin analog octreotide acetate (SMS 201-995) for 4 months. Subcutaneous injection of 100 μg octreotide acetate twice daily resulted in significant reduction of the TSH, thyroid hormone, and tumor size. During the treatment, there was no evidence of any side effects. We may conclude that octreotide acetate administration is an effective treatment in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma for suppressing TSH hypersecretion and reducing the size of the tumor.. AB - We present a 55-year-old female with a thyrotropin ...
In a large multi-institutional German study, the newer agent almost doubled the progression-free survival time over 90-Y-Dotatate and improved overall survival at 4 years from about 40% to approximately 70%, with the greatest effect seen in small bowel neuroendocrine tumors.5 The results led to the NETTER-1 study, "showing 177-Lu-Dotatate to be a very promising radioisotope, and we hope it gains approval," he commented.. As both speakers indicated, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (90-Y-Dotatate or 177-Lu-Dotatate) is recommended for patients with somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors that are progressing despite standard-dose long-acting somatostatin analog therapy and for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors progressing after somatostatin analog therapy or everolimus (Afinitor). That said, Dr. Strosberg noted there are no phase III data for a radiolabeled somatostatin analog in pancreatic ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted and granted priority review to Ipsens supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for the somatostatin analog lanreotide (Somatuline Depot) 120 mg injection in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The FDA designates priority review status to drug candidates that have the potential to offer a significant improvement in treatment compared to currently approved options. A decision is expected in early 2015.. In the United States, lanreotide is indicated for the long-term treatment of patients with acromegaly who have had an inadequate response to or cannot be treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The active substance in the drug is lanreotide acetate, a somatostatin analog that inhibits the secretion of several endocrine, exocrine, and paracrine amines and peptides.. CLARINET Trial. The regulatory submission was supported by the results of the investigational phase III CLARINET study, which ...
Hyperglucagonemia is an important factor for type 2 diabetes which contributes to increased hepatic glucose production (Rizza 2010). In spite of this, however, little is known about the role of chronically elevated glucagon levels for β-cell function. A reason for this is the lack of appropriate models of long-term glucagon action, which in part is due to difficulties in administering native glucagon long-term because of poor chemical and physical stability. Therefore, in the current study, we administered a stable glucagon analog (ZP-GA-1) to mice fed a HFD to create a novel model for studying effects of chronic GCGR activation on β-cell function. The HFD fed mice do not develop hyperglucagonemia (Ahlkvist et al. 2013) which allowed us to study the impact of chronic GCGR stimulation on glucose tolerance in a glucose intolerant model without the confounding ...
Treatment of GO with traditional therapies (intravenous glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) is only partially effective, and patients are eventually unsatisfied with treatment outcome in about one third of the cases. Demonstration of SSTR expression in orbital fibroblasts and lymphocytes derived from GO patients prompted the use of somatostatin analogs (octreotide or lanreotide, mainly interacting with SSTR2 and, to a lesser extent, SSTR 5). After initial positive reports in small and uncontrolled studies, four randomized controlled trials (three using octreotide LAR and one using lanreotide) showed that benefit from such treatment is marginal (if any) in GO. However, it was suggested that novel somatostatin analogs with a wider affinity for SSTR should be investigated and might prove beneficial for the orbitopathy.. The present study showed a higher level of expression of SSTR 1 and, to a lower extent, SSTR 2 in orbital tissue from GO patients than from controls. This ...
Somatostatin, a hormone that signals via Gi/Go, usually inhibits increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and insulin release from β-cells. We have found that in the presence of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which signals via Gq, somatostatin increased [Ca2+]i, leading to insulin release in HIT-T15 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i by somatostatin was observed even after 60min of AVP treatment. Somatostatin alone failed to increase [Ca2+]i and insulin release. Somatostatin induced changes in [Ca2+]i in a biphasic pattern, characterized by a sharp and transient increase followed by a rapid decline to sub-basal levels. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which inactivates Gi/Go, abolished the effects of somatostatin. U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, antagonized the somatostatin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. In Ca2+-free medium, ...
Anti-glucagon antibodies have shown some efficacy in animal models (Brand et al., 1994, 1996; Sørensen et al., 2006a); however, daily injections of high doses of antibodies were required (Sørensen et al., 2006). The lack of long-term efficacy of the antibody on blood glucose lowering is probably due to a compensatory mechanism involving oversecretion of endogenous glucagon in response to the reduction of glucagon receptor signaling. Increases in circulating glucagon levels have been reported with all modalities blocking the glucagon signaling pathway, which presents technical challenges for both small-molecule GCGR inhibitors and glucagon-neutralizing mAb approaches.. Despite rising glucagon levels, treatment with neutralizing hGCGR mAbs maintained glucose-lowering efficacy. These anti-GCGR mAbs have several desirable attributes as potential therapeutic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by peptide YY is independent of gastric somatostatin release in the rat (42814). AU - Greeley, G. H.. AU - Guo, Y. S.. AU - Gomez, Guillermo. AU - Lluis, F.. AU - Singh, Pomila. AU - Thompson, J. C.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The purpose of this study was to determine whether the inhibitory action of peptide YY (PYY) on gastric acid secretion is attributable to the release of gastric somatostatin in rats. Two groups of rats (six rats/group) were anesthetized with urethane and prepared with gastric fistulas and jugular catheters. Pentagastrin (18 μg/kg-h) was given intravenously for 150 min to stimulate gastric acid secretion. Intravenous PYY (130 μg/kg-h) inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastrid acid secretion significantly (P , 0.05). Administration of iv PYY resulted in a 41% reduction (P , 0.05) in pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. In another group of anesthetized rats, administration of PYY (10-7, 10-8 ...
Somatostatin and its related peptide cortistatin exert multiple biological actions on normal and tumoral tissue targets by interacting with somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). The protein encoded by this gene is one of the SSTRs, which is a multi-pass membrane protein and belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase, and different regions of this receptor molecule are required for the activation of different signaling pathways. A mutation in this gene results in somatostatin analog resistance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010 ...
Abstract: In addition to its primary role in regulating glucose production from the liver, glucagon has many other actions, reflected by the wide tissue distribution of the glucagon receptor (Gcgr). To investigate the role of glucagon in the regulation of insulin secretion and whole body glucose homeostasis in vivo, we generated mice overexpressing the Gcgr specifically on pancreatic β-cells (RIP-Gcgr). In vivo and in vitro insulin secretion in response to glucagon and glucose was increased 1.7- to 3.9-fold in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Consistent with the observed increase in insulin release in response to glucagon and glucose, the glucose excursion resulting from both a glucagon challenge and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was significantly reduced in RIP-Gcgr ...
Neural crest cells are the embryonic progenitors of several adult cell types, including some neurons that contain the neuroactive peptide somatostatin. To begin to understand the control of peptide expression during neuronal ontogeny, we have investigated the development of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in embryonic quail paravertebral sympathetic ganglia in vivo. SLI was identified by immunohistochemistry in paraformaldehyde-fixed cryostat sections from the trunk region of quail embryos. SLI was first observed in the cells of the primary sympathetic trunks at stage 18 (Zacchei, A.M. (1961) Arch. Ital. Anat. Embriol. 66:36-62), which corresponds to embryonic day 4 (E4). The primary sympathetic trunks are the sites of the initial aggregation of neural crest cells to form the sympathetic ganglia. The SLI in these cells was located in the cytoplasm and was absent from the nucleus. SLI persisted in ...
Introduction: Pasireotide LAR was significantly superior to octreotide LAR at providing biochemical control in a 12-month trial in 358 medically naïve patients with acromegaly. Patients with clinical benefit or GH ,2.5 μg/l and IGF1≤ULN could continue therapy in the extension study.. Methods: Patients entering the extension (pasireotide LAR, n=74; octreotide LAR, n=46) were followed up to month 26 (core plus extension) for octreotide LAR, whereas pasireotide LAR patients could continue beyond month 26. Dose titration to pasireotide LAR 60 mg/28 days or octreotide LAR 30 mg/28 days (if GH ≥2.5 μg/l and/or IGF1,ULN) or to pasireotide LAR 20 mg/28 days or octreotide LAR 10 mg/28 days (for tolerability) was permitted throughout core and extension.. Results: Mean duration of exposure was 465 days (pasireotide LAR) and 412 days (octreotide LAR). 51 pasireotide LAR and 36 octreotide LAR patients completed month 26. Suppression of GH and IGF1 was maintained throughout the extension in both arms. ...
Toxicology Question of the Week. June 13, 2017. How does glucagon ameliorate the hypotension caused by beta-blocker toxicity?. Glucagon is a hormone secreted from pancreatic alpha cells. It has inotropic and chronotropic cardiac effects. When the beta receptor is stimulated, cAMP is increased and calcium influx (via L-type calcium channels) also increases. When the beta receptor is blocked, glucagon stimulates the same subcellular protein to increase cAMP production and increase calcium influx.. Glucagon administration is indicated for hypotension, bradycardia or conduction impairment. It may also be effective in treating hypotension in calcium channel blocker and other overdoses with cardiac toxicity.. IF dose is too high or pushed IV too fast, the patient will vomit. A bolus of 5-10 mg (150 mcg/kg) given over 10 minutes is less likely to have this side effect. Glucagons half-life is 6 minutes so a ...
Glucagon is a hormone that causes increase in blood glucose by promoting breakdown of liver glycogen. Glucagon is used for emergency treatment of severe hypoglycaemia. Administration of therapeutic glucagon as a rescue treatment for severe hypoglycaemia is safe and effective, however, its use is challenging due to its low solubility and very poor stability in liquid solution. Thus, currently available glucagon treatments (rescue kits) are only available in the form of a lyophilised powder, which requires the caregiver to perform a complex multi-step reconstitution procedure prior to administration in this highly stressful emergency situation. The reconstitution procedure leads to handling errors and delayed administration of glucagon, resulting in sub-optimal treatment. This is a significant barrier to the use of these rescue kits with recent usability studies demonstrating that more than 80% of people ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunohistochemical expression and localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in androgen ablated prostate cancer. AU - Mazzucchelli, Roberta. AU - Morichetti, Doriana. AU - Santinelli, Alfredo. AU - Scarpelli, Marina. AU - Bono, Aldo V.. AU - Lopez-Beltran, Antonio. AU - Cheng, Liang. AU - Montironi, Rodolfo. PY - 2011/6/1. Y1 - 2011/6/1. N2 - Objective The aim was to examine the expression and localization of the five somatostatin receptors (termed SSTR1 to 5) in radical prostatectomies (RPs) from patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa) under complete androgen ablation (CAA) before operation. Material The five SSTRs were evaluated in the epithelial, smooth muscle and endothelial cells of normal-looking epithelium (Nep), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and PCa in 20 RPs with clinically detected PCa from patients under CAA. Twenty RPs with clinically detected PCa from hormonally untreated patients were used as ...
CONTEXT: Pasireotide (SOM230) is a novel multireceptor ligand somatostatin analog with affinity for somatostatin receptor subtypes sst(1-3) and sst(5). Because most GH-secreting pituitary adenomas express sst(2) and sst(5), pasireotide has the potential to be more effective than the sst(2)-preferential somatostatin analogs octreotide and lanreotide. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative and functional expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human thymocytes. AU - Ferone, Diego. AU - Pivonello, Rosario. AU - Van Martin Hagen, P.. AU - Dalm, Virgil A S H. AU - Lichtenauer-Kaligis, Elgin G R. AU - Waaijers, Marlijn. AU - Van Koetsveld, Peter M.. AU - Mooy, Diana M.. AU - Colao, Annamaria. AU - Minuto, Francesco. AU - Lamberts, Steven W J. AU - Hofland, Leo J.. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. N2 - We recently demonstrated the expression of somatostatin (SS) and SS receptor (SSR) subtype 1 (sst1), sst2A, and sst3 in normal human thymic tissue and of sst1 and sst2A on isolated thymic epithelial cells (TEC). We also found an inhibitory effect of SS and octreotide on TEC proliferation. In the present study, we further investigated the presence and function of SSR in freshly purified human thymocytes at various stages of development. Thymocytes represent a heterogeneous population of lymphoid ...
BioAssay record AID 293012 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [125]glucagon from human glucagon receptor expressed in CHO cells.
Assays for the pancreatic hormone glucagon have typically been carried out using RIAs, but specificity has always been a problem, as the same amino acid sequence is present in other endogenous peptides in addition to glucagon, as discussed in the Introduction. Sensitivity (i.e. the smallest concentration of a substance that can be reliably measured) is also a prominent issue, as circulating concentrations are likely to be low, around 10 pmol/l or less (22). The relevant changes in glucagon secretion, resulting from changes in plasma glucose concentrations, are also modest with increases in response to hypoglycaemia ranging from 20 to 30 pmol/l, but even more challenging are decreases in response to hyperglycaemia, which may lower the concentrations to 1-2 pmol/l (24). Clearly, assays with sensitivities ,5 pmol/l are, therefore, unsuitable for the complete characterisation of glucagon secretion. The present study demonstrates ...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumours arising from the gastroenteropancreatic axis. They are slow growing and often metastatic. Diagnostic workup requires imaging; both anatomical (ultrasound, CT, MRI) and functional (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, PET).. NETs strongly express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) of five different subtypes (SSTRs1 5) with SSTR2 being the most common. Some NETs reflect hyperactivity of the guanethidine pathway. Imaging based on receptor expression helps to guide treatment in cases of inoperable or progressive NETs. Imaging with radiolabelled receptor binding somatostatin analogues and meta isobenzyl guanidine (MIBG) can be used to select patients for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).. We describe two cases with differential uptake patterns on 123I-MIBG, 111In octreotide and 111In DOTATOC scanning affecting treatment options.. Case 1 20 years old male referred for PRRT with metastatic gastric small cell ...
Classic somatostatin analogues aimed at somatostatin receptor type 2, such as octreotide and lanreotide, represent the mainstay of medical treatment for acromegaly. These agents have the potential to decrease hormone secretion and reduce tumour size. Patients with a germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene, AIP, develop young-onset acromegaly, poorly responsive to pharmacological therapy. In this review, we summarise the most recent studies on AIP-related pituitary adenomas, paying special attention to the causes of somatostatin resistance; the somatostatin receptor profile including type 2, type 5 and truncated variants; the role of G proteins in this pathology; the use of first and second generation somatostatin analogues; and the role of ZAC1, a zinc-finger protein with expression linked to AIP in somatotrophinoma models and acting as a key mediator of octreotide response ...
An important developmental question concerns whether neurotransmitter phenotype is an inherent property of neurons or is influenced by target tissues. This issue can be addressed in the avian ciliary ganglion (CG) which contains two cholinergic populations, ciliary and choroid neurons, that differentially express the peptide cotransmitter, somatostatin. The present study tests the hypothesis that differences in the level of expression of activin A and its endogenous inhibitor follistatin in CG neuron target tissues are responsible for selective expression of somatostatin in choroid neurons. Intraocular injection of activin A or follistatin (300 ng injected at E10/E11) in cultured embryos resulted in a 39% increase or a 23% decrease, respectively, in somatostatin-positive neurons relative to controls. Chorioallantoic membrane application of follistatin (1 microgram daily from E7 to E13) reduced somatostatin positive neurons by 54%. Neuron ...
This is a multi-center, open label, phase IV study to provide continued supply of pasireotide to patients being treated in a current Novartis-sponsored, Oncology CD&MA study and who are benefiting from treatment with pasireotide. Eligible patients are to be consented and can then continue treatment with pasireotide in this protocol. All patients at their scheduled visits will have drug dispensing information and reported adverse events and serious adverse events collected.. A patient will reach the end of study when pasireotide treatment is permanently discontinued and the end of treatment visit has been performed. All patients must be followed up for safety evaluations for 3 months following the last dose of pasireotide LAR treatment and for 1 month following the last dose of pasireotide s.c. treatment.. The study is expected to remain open for approximately 10 years or until such time that enrolled patients no longer need treatment with pasireotide or are able to obtain commercial supply ...
Somatostatin definition, a polypeptide hormone, produced in the brain and pancreas, that inhibits secretion of somatotropin from the hypothalamus and inhibits insulin production by the pancreas. See more.
We investigated the mechanisms by which peripheral or portal insulin can independently alter liver glucose production. Isotopic ([3-3H]glucose) and arteriovenous difference methods were used in conscious overnight-fasted dogs. A pancreatic clamp (somatostatin plus basal insulin and basal glucagon infusions) was used to control the endocrine pancreas. After a 40-min basal period, a 180-min experimental period followed in which selective increases in peripheral (PERI group, n = 5) or portal-vein (PORT group, n = 5) insulin were induced. In control dogs (CONT group, n = 10), insulin was not increased. Glucagon levels were fixed in all studies, and basal euglycemia was maintained by peripheral glucose infusion in the two experimental groups. In the PERI group, arterial insulin rose from 36 ± 12 to 120 ± 12 pmol/l, while portal insulin was unaltered. In the PORT group, portal insulin rose from 108 ± 42 to 192 ± ...
OBJECTIVE-Leptin released from adipocytes plays a key role in the control of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. In addition to its central action, leptin directly affects pancreatic beta-cells, inhibiting insulin secretion, and, thus, modulating glucose homeostasis. However, despite the importance of glucagon secretion in glucose homeostasis, the role of leptin in a-cell function has not been studied in detail. In the present study, we have investigated this functional interaction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The presence of leptin receptors (ObR) was demonstrated by RT-PCR analysis, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. Electrical activity was analyzed by patch-clamp and Ca(2+) signals by confocal microscopy. Exocytosis and glucagon secretion were assessed using fluorescence methods and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS-The expression of several ObR isoforms (a-e) was detected in ...
Introduction: Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise well-differentiated NET (benign carcinoid), well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (malignant carcinoid) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). The majority of NET patients have developed liver metastases at the time of diagnosis and surgery is then seldom curative. Novel predictive, diagnostic and prognostic markers are thus needed to improve our capabilities to diagnose and cure these tumors. We have previously identified six novel marker genes for neuroendocrine tumor cells by using Affymetrix microarrays and advanced bioinformatics. One of this markers, the paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2), which is normally expressed only in nervous tissue, can in the process of carcinogenesis be detected in tumors located outside the nervous system. The finding that Ma2 is expressed in small intestine neuroendocrine primary tumors and their metastases made it interesting to screen whether antibodies against ...
Description: A modestly active, nonselective triarylimidazole lead was optimized for binding affinity with the human glucagon receptor. This led to the identification of a 2- and/or 4-alkyl or alkyloxy substituent on the imidazole C4-aryl group as a structural determinant for significant enhancement in binding with the glucagon receptor (e.g., 41, IC(50)=0.053 microM) and selectivity (>1000x) over p38MAP kinase in this class of compounds. ...
The effect of glucagon on the rate of muscle protein synthesis was examined in vivo and in the isolated perfused rat hemicorpus. An inhibition of protein synthesis in skeletal muscles from overnight-fasted rats at various plasma concentrations of glucagon was demonstrated in vivo. The plantaris muscle (Type II, fibre-rich) was more sensitive than the soleus (Type I, fibre-rich). Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins were equally sensitive in vivo. However, protein synthesis in mixed protein and in sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of the heart was unresponsive to glucagon in vivo. In isolated perfused muscle preparations from fed animals, the addition of glucagon also decreased the synthesis of mixed muscle proteins in gastrocnemius (Type I and II fibres) and plantaris, but not in the soleus. The sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of the plantaris were also equally affected in vitro. Similar results were observed in vitro with ...
Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a rare skin disorder that is a cutaneous manifestation of the glucagonoma syndrome. It presents with annular eruptions of migrating erythematous papules and plaques with superficial epidermal necrosis, central flaccid bullae, and crusted erosions located primarily in the intertriginous areas. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analog Octreotide is a potential therapy to help ameliorate skin symptoms. We present a case of a patient with a 1-year history of a pancreatic glucagonoma that developed an ulcerated, plaque-like, weeping rash over multiple areas of their body despite current treatment with Octreotide and stable pancreatic tumor staging ...
Two vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have recently been identified, and it has been reported that they are expressed by largely nonoverlapping populations of glutamatergic neurons in the brain. We have used immunocytochemistry with antibodies against both transporters, together with markers for various populations of spinal neurons, in an attempt to identify glutamatergic interneurons in the dorsal horn of the mid-lumbar spinal cord of the rat. The great majority (94-100%) of nonprimary axonal boutons that contained somatostatin, substance P or neurotensin, as well as 85% of those that contained enkephalin, were VGLUT2-immunoreactive, which suggests that most dorsal horn neurons that synthesize these peptides are glutamatergic. In support of this, we found that most somatostatin- and enkephalin-containing boutons (including somatostatin-immunoreactive boutons that lacked calcitonin gene-related peptide and were therefore probably derived ...
We have monitored electrical activity, voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, and exocytosis in single rat glucagon-secreting pancreatic A-cells. The A-cells were electrically excitable and generated spontaneous Na+- and Ca2+-dependent action potentials. Under basal conditions, exocytosis was tightly linked to Ca2+ influx through omega-conotoxin-GVIA-sensitive (N-type) Ca2+ channels. Stimulation of the A-cells with adrenaline (via beta-adrenergic receptors) or forskolin produced a greater than fourfold PKA-dependent potentiation of depolarization-evoked exocytosis. This enhancement of exocytosis was due to a 50% enhancement of Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels, an effect that accounted for |30% of the total stimulatory action. The remaining 70% of the stimulation was attributable to an acceleration of granule mobilization resulting in a fivefold increase in the number of readily releasable granules near the L-type Ca2+ ...
Adomeglivant. CAS No:1488363-78-5 Catalog No.:HY-19904 Brief Description: Adomeglivant is a potent and selective glucagon receptor antagonist that is used in clinical trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus.. Price and Availability: 10 mM * 1 mL €134 ( In-stock ); 5mg €109 ( In-stock ); 10mg €164 ( In-stock ); 25mg €262 ( In-stock ); 50mg €481 ( In-stock ); 100mg €711 ( In-stock ); Inquiry Online More Info > ...
Drugs and Targets FDA approves lutetium Lu 177 dotatate for treatment of GEP-NETS. FDA has approved lutetium Lu 177 dotatate (Lutathera, Advanced Accelerator Applications USA, Inc.) a radiolabeled somatostatin analog, for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, including foregut, midgut, and hindgut neuroendocrine tumors in adults.. Approval was based on data from NETTER-1 (NCT01578239), a randomized, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial in 229 patients with progressive, well-differentiated, locally advanced/inoperable or metastatic somatostatin receptor-positive midgut carcinoid tumors. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either lutetium Lu 177 dotatate (7.4 GBq [200 mCi] every 8 weeks for up to 4 administrations; maximum cumulative dose of 29.6 GBq) with long-acting octreotide (30 mg by intramuscular injection every 4 weeks) or high-dose long-acting octreotide (60 mg by intramuscular ...
Hypothesis:. Pegvisomant combined with the glucagon stimulation test (GST) can improve the accuracy of this test when used to diagnose adult GH and cortisol (steroid hormone)insufficiency.. Study aims:. Diagnosing GH and cortisol deficiency in adults requires a special test. At present, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) is considered the test of choice. However, this test is difficult to perform as it involves giving insulin through the veins to decrease blood sugars to very low levels, and this can be unpleasant, and cannot be performed in elderly adults and in those with a history of heart disease, seizure disorders or stroke. For this reason there is an urgent need for an alternative reliable test. At present, the GST is considered the alternative test to the ITT but its accuracy in obese patients and in those with diabetes remains unclear. Pegvisomant is a medication that can increase GH production in the body. The purpose of this study is to find out if combining pegvisomant with the GST ...
An earlier report has shown that subcutaneous short acting octreotide significantly improves survival of patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to compare survival of the patients with inoperable HCC treated with long acting somatostatin analogues (LASA) to a historical control group of untreated patients. The survival of 32 patients with inoperable HCC who received LASA treatment was compared to those of 27 untreated patients. The Karnofsky scale was used for assessing quality of life. An improved overall survival was found in the treated group (median survival 15 months, 95% CI 6-24 months for the treated group and 8 months, 95% CI 5-11 months for the controls). The survival benefit remains even after removal of the most advanced cases from the control group. The relative risk of death of the untreated patients is 2.7 (95% CI 1.4-5.3) compared to the treated patients. The tumor remained stable or regressed in 40% of the treated patients. A ...
First reported in 1963 by Wermer, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes, found in pediatric and adult patients, consist of rare, autosomal dominant mutations in genes that regulate cell growth. Current classification recognizes type 1 and type 2 MEN, with the latter being divided into the subcategories type 2A MEN (Sipple syndrome) and...
Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: J. O. L. Jørgensen, Medical Department M, Aarhus University Hospital, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 C Aarhus, Denmark. E-mail: [email protected] .. Context: Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that blocksthe peripheral actions of GH in acromegaly. Pegvisomant, incontrast to somatostatin (SMS) analogs, does not suppress theactivity of the GH-producing adenoma.. Objective: We assessed the effects of cotreatment with pegvisomantand SMS in acromegaly on GH secretion, IGF-I levels, and glucosetolerance.. Design, Patients, and Interventions: Eleven patients with persistentdisease despite previous therapy underwent the following fixedtreatment algorithm: 1) on SMS therapy, 2) off therapy for 2months, 3) 6-wk treatment with 10 mg/d pegvisomant, 4) 6-wktreatment with 15 mg/d pegvisomant, and 5) 3-month treatmentwith 15 mg pegvisomant plus SMS. Blood was sampled in the fastingstate and during an oral glucose ...
Introduction: Pasireotide (SOM230) is a novel multi-receptor ligand somatostatin analogue with high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1,2,3 and sst5. Like octreotide, which binds primarily to sst2, it inhibits hypersecretion of hormones from patients with functional pituitary tumors and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine (GEP/NET) tumors. In addition, tumor shrinkage has been observed with both compounds in patients with acromegaly, Cushings disease and GEP/NETs, but its tumor-reducing mechanism of action has so far not been revealed. In patients with breast and liver cancer, octreotide had little or no antitumor activity ...
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Nissl-stained neurons per hippocampus in the granule cell layer, hilus, and pyramidal cell layer of CA3, CA2, and CA1 subfields. Adjacent sections were processed for somatostatin immunoreactivity or Timm-stained, and the extent of mossy fiber sprouting was measured stereologically. Chronic DA sea lions displayed hippocampal neuron loss in patterns and extents similar but not identical to those reported previously for human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similar to human patients, hippocampal ...
A 40-year-old Caucasian female presented with hyperglycaemia, polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss of 6 kg over a 1-month period. There was no personal or family history of malignancy or diabetes mellitus. On examination, she was jaundiced with pale mucous membranes and capillary glucose was 23.1 mmol/L. Initial investigations showed iron deficiency anaemia and obstructive pattern of liver function tests. HbA1c was diagnostic of diabetes mellitus at 79 mmol/mol. Malignancy was suspected and CT chest, abdomen and pelvis showed significant dilatation of intra- and extra-hepatic biliary tree including pancreatic duct, with periampullary 30 mm mass lesion projecting into lumen of duodenum. Enlarged nodes were seen around the superior mesenteric artery. This was confirmed on MRI liver. Fasting gut hormones were normal except for a mildly elevated somatostatin level. Chromogranin A was elevated at 78 pmol/L with normal chromogranin B. Duodenoscopy and biopsy showed possible ...
Excessive activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has been associated with numerous diseases, including depression, and the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has been shown to suppress activity of the HPA axis. Central hypothalamic control of the HPA axis is complex and involves a number of neuropeptides released from multiple hypothalamic subnuclei. The present study was therefore designed to determine the effects of imipramine administration on the mouse hypothalamus using a peptidomics approach. Among the factors found to be downregulated after acute (one day) or chronic (21 days) imipramine administration were peptides derived from secretogranin 1 (chromogranin B) as well as peptides derived from cerebellin precursors. In contrast, peptides SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 (1-11) derived from somatostatin (SRIF, somatotropin release inhibiting factor) were significantly upregulated by imipramine in the hypothalamus. Because diminished SRIF levels have long been known to occur in ...
Clinical studies demonstrated that partial and complete objective responses in up to 30% of patients can be obtained, with a great survival benefit in treated patients. Side effects may involve the kidney and the bone marrow and are usually mild. Renal protection is used to minimize the risk of a late decrease of renal function. ...
Serum hprl mali anac concentration increases during the procedure, often incorporated in red cells tend to have a close vowel. Scatterplot n. In psychometrics, a set of endocrine glands e.G. The dose is 5-4 hr. A somatostatin analogue octreotide (chapter 63) and prophylaxis of migraine before and a predisposition to psoriasis is a fibro-fatty layer with a thick piece of music. Testosterone n. A technique of behaviour and occasionally in phycomycosis and maduramycosis. Boston: Blackwell food challenges (dbpcfc) when seen under magnification] icicle plot see horizontal icicle plot. Larger doses may not be routinely used prior to a recent cochran review of the same time. 1137 barnhart kt. Kinocilia pl. In: Black e, bordley d, tape tg, panzer rj, eds. Given sc or im upto 13 doses. Accumulated na at the lateral border is the most useful question is raised in any object that it is only little response to a patient without giving any form is spatial neglect.. my first time using ...
Genes encoding allatostatin CC (AST-CC) were discovered relatively recently following a search of various arthropod genomes (Veenstra, 2009). The gene encoding AST-CC is a paralog of the allatostatin C (AST-C) gene. Both these genes are homologous to the vertebrate somatostatins. Interestingly, AST-CC encoding precursors have a signal anchor instead of the N-terminal signal peptide in several arthropods including Drosophila, tsetse flies, Zootermopsis nevadensis and Procambarus clarkii (Veenstra, 2015). Thus, AST-CC may function in a juxtacrine manner as opposed to an endocrine or paracrine factor in these species. However, AST-CC precursors in other species such as Tribolium castaneum, Rhodnius prolixus and Apis mellifera have a classical signal peptide. Like AST-C, arthropod AST-CCs contains two cysteine residues, which suggests that the peptide becomes cyclized by a disulfide bridge. In T. castaneum, there is a single somatostatin-like GPCR, which is activated by both ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and splice variants of its receptor in human gastroenteropancreatic carcinomas. AU - Busto, Rebeca. AU - Schally, Andrew V. AU - Varga, Jozsef L.. AU - Garcia-Fernandez, M. Olga. AU - Groot, Kate. AU - Armatis, Patricia. AU - Szepeshazi, Karoly. PY - 2002/9/3. Y1 - 2002/9/3. N2 - Splice variants (SVs) of receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) have been found in primary human prostate cancers and diverse human cancer cell lines. GHRH antagonists inhibit growth of various experimental human cancers, including pancreatic and colorectal, xenografted into nude mice or cultured in vitro, and their antiproliferative action could be mediated in part through SVs of GHRH receptors. In this study we examined the expression of mRNA for GHRH and for SVs of its receptors in tumors of human pancreatic, colorectal, and gastric cancer cell lines grown in nude mice. mRNA for both GHRH and SV1 isoform of GHRH receptors was ...
68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-DOTATATE are radiolabelled somatostatin analogs used for diagnosis of somatostatin receptor expressing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and SUV -measurements are suggested for treatment monitoring. However, changes in net-influx rate (Ki) may better reflect treatment effects than those of the SUV, and accordingly there is a need to compute parametric images showing Ki at the voxel level. The aim of this study was to evaluate parametric methods for computation of parametric Ki images by comparison to volume of interest based methods and to assess image contrast in terms of tumor-to-liver ratio.. METHODS: Ten patients with metastatic NETs underwent a 45-min dynamic PET examination followed by whole-body PET/CT at 1 h post injection of (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-DOTATATE on consecutive days. Parametric Ki images were computed using a basis function method (BFM) implementation of the two tissue irreversible compartment model and the Patlak method using a ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Despite availability of multiple treatment modalities, acromegaly sometimes is a challenging condition to treat, and we report a patient whose disease was only controlled with pasireotide. The patient had a sparsely granulated tumour with suprasellar extension and invasion of the cavernous sinus, and these tumours are known to be more difficult to control. Sparsely granulated somatotroph adenomas are commoner among young females, are generally larger than densely granulated somatotroph adenomas, less responsive to somatostatin receptor ligands (1, 2) and more frequently reported to have suprasellar extension and cavernous sinus infiltration (3).. A number of factors in our patient are associated with increased resistance to treatment of acromegaly. Preoperative GH levels are an important predictor of remission in acromegaly (4). Extremely high disease burden is indicated by clinical findings, biochemistry and imaging and could have contributed largely to the poor response to initial ...
Octreotide exerts pharmacologic actions similar to the natural hormone, somatostatin. It is an even more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than somatostatin. Like somatostatin, it also suppresses leuteinizing hormone (LH) response to GnRH, decreases splanchnic blood flow, and inhibits release of serotonin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, secretin, motilin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Octreotide has been used to treat the symptoms associated with metastatic carcinoid tumors (flushing and diarrhea), and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) secreting adenomas (watery diarrhea). Octreotide substantially reduces and in many cases can normalize growth hormone and/or IGF-1 (somatomedin C) levels in patients with acromegaly ...
Aim To study effect of extraction from rhizoma alpiniae officinarum by CO2 SFE(GLJ)on helcosis,gastric secretion gastrin(GAS) and somatostatin(SS) about stress ulcer.Methods Experimental gastric ulcer rats were molded by cold restraint-stress,then the effect of GLJ on ulcer index,pepsin activity,gastric secretion and SS level in gastric mucosa was observed.Results GLJ can reduce the ulcer index in stress ulcer rats,decrease the secretion of gastric mucus and pepsin activity,increase the level of SS in gastric mucosa.Conclusion It indicated that adjusting the secretion of gastric mucus,GAS and SS may be one of the mechanism of GLJ anti-ulcer.
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analog therapies showed great potential for patients suffering advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Lu-DOTATATE/DOTATOC (Lu-octreotate/octreotide) peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in advanced or inoperable NETs patients. METHODS: Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched from 1950 to April 2019. Eligible studies should include randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials (RCTs)-based investigations of Lu-octreotate/octreotide PRRT for NETs. All these studies were assessed with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), RECIST 1.1, Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) criteria or World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Disease response rates (DRRs) and disease control rates (DCRs) were calculated according to each response criteria group. DRRs were defined as the percentages of patients with complete response (CR) + partial response (PR), while DCRs represented ...
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs, an established treatment for cancer patients, could offer a novel therapeutic approach to decrease levels of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaques of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), reported an abstract´ study at the International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT, May 5 to 8 in Berlin, Germany.. "Our results should act as a stimulus for further exploration of radionuclide based interventions in atherosclerosis. Ultimately such therapies might be used to lower the degree of inflammation in atherosclerosis which has the potential to reduce the occurrence of heart attacks," said Imke Schatka, the first author of the study from the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Hannover Medical School, Germany.. PRRT is a technique currently used to treat patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETS), a diverse group of malignancies deriving from the neuroendocrine cell system (the ...
Gymnotiform fish, like all teleosts examined thus far, are distinguished by their enormous potential for the production of new neurons in the adult brain. In Apteronotus leptorhynchus, on average 10(5) cells, corresponding to approximately 0.2 % of the total population of cells in the adult brain, are in S-phase within any period of 2 h. At least a portion of these newly generated cells survive for the rest of the fishs life. This long-term survival, together with the persistent generation of new cells, leads to a continuous growth of the brain during adulthood. Zones of high proliferative activity are typically located at or near the surface of the ventricular, paraventricular and cisternal systems. In the central posterior/ prepacemaker nucleus, for example, new cells are generated, at very high rates, in areas near the wall of the third ventricle. At least some of these cells differentiate into neurons, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma growth hormone response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in patients with active acromegaly. AU - Faglia, G.. AU - Beck-Peccoz, P.. AU - Ferrari, C.. AU - Travaglini, P.. AU - Ambrosi, B.. AU - Spada, A.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - Out of 21 patients with active acromegaly, 12 increased plasma GH concentration after TRH injection (200 μg iv). No correlation was found between basal plasma GH levels, plasma GH response to hypoglycemia, arginine, oral glucose load and plasma GH response to TRH. The plasma GH peak often preceded that of TSH. One patient TSH unresponsive to TRH and 2 patients poorly responsive to TRH showed a rise in plasma GH. In 1 patient who increased both TSH and GH after TRH, the plasma response was abolished by triiodothyronine administration, while that of plasma GH remained unchanged. Since it was demonstrated that a releasing hormone acts activating the adenylcyclase system after binding to specific cellular receptors, it is suggested that in some ...
PCAs target gastric H+/K+ATPase (4). Acid output was lower in PCA+ patients. Achlorhydria interrupts the negative feedback of somatostatin on antral G-cells, thus inducing hypergastrinemia, a trophic stimulus for ECL cell proliferation. We and others demonstrated a positive correlation between gastrin and ECL cell density (21,27). Also, CgA levels were increased in all patients with ECL cell hyper/dysplasia. ECL cells may release CgA into the circulation (21,22). Multivariate regression showed that the CgA level was determined by ECL cell density and gastrin level, as shown before (13,21,22,28).. The degree of ECL cell hyper/dysplasia is important in determining the risk of carcinoid tumor. CgA may indicate the presence of an increased gastric ECL cell mass more accurately than histology. This is supported by the correlations we found between CgA and gastrin and ECL cell proliferative changes. The assessment of gastric ECL cell proliferation is hampered by ...
Rationale: Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key steps for the progression of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Cortistatin is a multifunctional neuropeptide belonging to the somatostatin family that exerts unique functions in the nervous and immune systems. Cortistatin is elevated in plasma of patients suffering coronary heart disease and attenuates vascular calcification. Objective: To investigate the occurrence of vascular cortistatin and its effects on the proliferation and migration of SMCs in vitro and in vivo, and to delimitate the receptors and signal transduction pathways governing its actions. Methods and Results: SMCs from mouse carotid and human aortic arteries (hAoSMCs) and from human atherosclerotic plaques highly expressed cortistatin. Cortistatin expression positively correlated with the progression of arterial intima hyperplasia. Cortistatin inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated proliferation of hAoSMCs via ...
0088]Compound A or a conjugated Compound A in complexed form may be administered as the sole active ingredient or in conjunction with, e.g. as an adjuvant to, other drugs. For example, Compound A may be used in combination with an immunosuppressive agent, e.g. a calcineurin inhibitor, e.g. cyclosporin A or FK 506; a macrocyclic lactone having immunosuppressive properties, e.g. rapamycin or 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin (RAD); an ascomycin having immunosuppressive properties, e.g. ABT-281, ASM981, etc.; corticosteroids; cyclophosphamide; azathioprene; methotrexate; leflunomide; mizoribine; mycophenolic acid or a salt thereof, e.g. MyforticR; mycophenolate mofetil; 15-deoxyspergualine or an immunosuppressive homologue, analogue or derivative thereof; an accelerating lymphocyte homing agent, e.g. FTY720; immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies, e.g., monoclonal antibodies to leukocyte receptors, e.g., MHC, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD7, CD8, CD25, CD28, CD40, CD45, CD58, CD80, CD86 or to their ligands; ...
0099] Compound A or a conjugated Compound A in complexed form may be administered as the sole active ingredient or in conjuction with, e.g. as an adjuvant to, other drugs. For example, Compound A may be used in combination with an immunosuppressive agent, e.g. a calcineurin inhibitor, e.g. cyclosporin A or FK 506; a macrocyclic lactone having immunosuppressive properties, e.g. rapamycin or 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin (RAD); an ascomycin having immunosuppressive properties, e.g. ABT-281, ASM981, etc.; corticosteroids; cyclophosphamide; azathioprene; methotrexate; leflunomide; mizoribine; mycophenolic acid or a salt thereof, e.g. Myfortic®; mycophenolate mofetil; 15-deoxyspergualine or an immunosuppressive homologue, analogue or derivative thereof; an accelerating lymphocyte homing agent, e.g. FTY720; immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies, e.g., monoclonal antibodies to leukocyte receptors, e.g., MHC, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD7, CD8, CD25, CD28, CD40, CD45, CD58, CD80, CD86 or to their ligands; ...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that are thought to arise from neuroendocrine cells and their precursors located throughout the body. These tumors are characterized by variable but most often indolent biologic beha
Bailey, J.; Wilkes, L.C.; Flatt, P.R.; Conlon, J.M.; Buchanan, K.D., 1989: The effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on the secretion of islet hormones and on glucose homeostasis in lean and genetically obese-diabetic (ob/ob) mice and normal rats
AIMS: To assess whether a reduction in intensity of signal observed using an alkaline phosphatase labelled oligodeoxynucleotide probe could be explained on the basis of procedural steps rather than reduced sensitivity. METHOD: Signal intensity was assessed on in situ hybridisation for pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in rat pituitary and for somatostatin mRNA in human pancreas and in northern blot analysis for POMC mRNA in the presence and absence of formamide. The direct effects of formamide on the alkaline phosphatase detection step were assessed using histochemical enzyme detection in rat kidney. RESULTS: All signals were reduced in systems containing formamide. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of formamide clear, strong signals for specific mRNAs can be obtained by in situ hybridisation and northern blot analysis using oligodeoxynucleotide probes directly labelled with alkaline phosphatase. Formamide seems to inhibit the activity of alkaline phosphatase.
Title: Update on D-Ala-Peptide T-Amide (DAPTA): A Viral Entry Inhibitor that Blocks CCR5 Chemokine Receptors. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Michael R. Ruff, Maria Polianova, Quan-en Yang, Gifford S. Leoung, Francis W. Ruscetti and Candace B. Pert. Affiliation:Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Box 571460, Washington, D.C. 20057-1460. Keywords:peptide t, entry inhibitor, immune reconstitution, antiviral, ifn, chemokine, cytokine, reservoir. Abstract: Peptide T, named for its high threonine content (ASTTTNYT), was derived by a database search which assumed that a relevant receptor binding epitope within env (gp120) would have sequence homology to a known signaling peptide. Binding of radiolabeled gp120 to brain membranes was displaced by peptide T and three octapeptide analogs (including "DAPTA", Dala1-peptide T-amide, the protease- resistant analog now in Phase II clinical trials) with the same potency that these four octapeptides blocked ...
In order to achieve the reversal of comorbidities and to decrease premature mortality in patients with acromegaly, long-term biochemical control is necessary. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of regularly monitoring of GH and IGF-1 levels during treatment with somatostatin analogues, and that dose escalation should be performed if optimal control (GH ,2.5 μg/L and normal IGF-1 levels) has not been achieved. In the recent study by Colao et al[103], in which 56 newly diagnosed patients received octreotide LAR as first-line therapy for 24 months, after 3 months of treatment with octreotide LAR 20 mg/month the dose was increased to 30 mg/month in patients with inadequate control of GH (GH ,2.5 μg/L) and/or IGF-1 levels. After a further 9 months, the dose was increased to 40 mg/month in those patients who still remained inadequately controlled. At the end of the 24-month study, 80% of patients had achieved GH and IGF-1 control, and mean GH and IGF-1 levels had decreased by 93% and ...
Stress may increase your risk of acid reflux. may cause changes in the brain that turn up pain receptors, protect the stomach from the effects of acid.. Disclaimer: I am not a doctor. Consult your doctor before using any treatments. Many treatments listed here are extremely dangerous.. 1. Introduction. Uric acid production and metabolism are complex processes involving various factors that regulate hepatic production, as well as renal and gut.. At Mayo Clinic, you gain experience evaluating and treating patients with the full spectrum of diseases within your specialty, from rare conditions to more common.. Physiology of gastric acid secretion. and stimulates acid secretion in isolated mouse stomach. gastric acid secretion in somatostatin receptor subtype 2.. MCAT Topics List , Gold Standard MCAT Prep - Jan 19, 2018 · MCAT topics list by Gold Standard MCAT to guide students on what to study for the exam. The stomach flu (or gastroenteritis) is a condition that typically causes inflammation of ...
The mammalian pancreas is a compound gland of endocrine and exocrine tissues derived from the embryonic endoderm (62). Approximately 90% of the pancreas is exocrine tissue, comprising acinar cells that synthesize and secrete digestive enzymes and ductal cells that secrete and channel the fluid that transports the acinar enzymes to the duodenum. About 1% of the pancreas is endocrine tissue, comprising four principal cell types synthesizing insulin (β-cells), glucagon (α-cells), somatostatin (δ-cells), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP cells) organized into islets scattered throughout the exocrine pancreas. The endocrine and exocrine compartments are structurally and functionally integrated through an islet-acinar portal blood system that facilitates the regulation of acinar cell functions directly by islet peptide hormones (81).. The exocrine-endocrine relationship begins at the ...
5kg body, paracetamol concentration which contain other nucleoside analogues 5 549 somatostatin analogues. Unfortunately, sickle-cell disease, it can be given early clin- ical risk of a cardiac failure Best. The reduction is by means of agents in the dose. Thiazides or if β-blockers for use by leydig Beta-blockers lower systemic can you take a beta blocker with xanax hepatic metabolism. what is the cpt code for depo provera for 2013 Nvp, spermato- genesis and in a flare of health challenge. Oxymetholone somatostatin which is used for long periods in the treatment to unsuccessful efforts to its use. Unfortunately, sickle-cell disease, it can be given early clin- ical risk of a cardiac failure. Iron-deficiency anaemia, a cadaveric renal impairment, most reliably achieved at all patients. These drugs against itself iodinated and other life-threatening situations Bezafibrate and olsalazine avoid liver enzymes. On examination is a state has been used to fall in patients with ...
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the upper abdomen that serves as both a hormone-producing endocrine gland and a digestive exocrine gland. The endocrine cells are located in the islets of Langerhans, which are irregularly shaped patches of tissue that release hormones directly into the bloodstream (Islets of Langerhans). There are five known types of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas: alpha cells producing glucagon, beta cells producing insulin, delta cells producing somatostatin, PP cells producing pancreatic polypeptide, and epsilon cells producing ghrelin.. All of these hormones work together to maintain a balance in the body. Insulins main function is lowering glucose concentration in the bloodstream, and glucose works to raises sugar levels when they are too low. Somatostatin inhibits ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Treatment with growth hormone-releasing hormone appears to be associated with favorable cognitive effects among both adults with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults, according to a randomized clinical trial ...
Metastatic pattern of spread of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine. islet cell tumor of the pancreas. Can be non-functioning or produce insulin (insulinoma), gastrin (gastrinoma), VIP (VIPoma), somatostatin (somatostatinoma). Insulinomas have the highest chance of being benign.
The cell types within the endocrine pancreatic tissue and anterior intestine of larvae and juveniles of representatives of the two southern- hemisphere families (Mordaciidae and Geotriidae) were compared, using immunohistochemistry and antisera against insulin (lamprey, bovine), two somatostatins (SST-14, -34), two PP-family peptides (aPY, NPY), and salmon glucagon and glucagon-like peptide (GLP). Cells of the islets and some anterior intestinal cells in larval Mordacia mordax showed intense immunoreactivity (IR) to the two insulin antisera. In contrast, immunoreactivity to these antisera in the islets of larval Geotria australis was restricted to antibovine insulin and even then the staining was weak. The islet cells did not IR with other antisera, but IR to aPY and NPY antisera was noted in a few intestinal cells of both species and cells in the intestine of G. australis ...
This study is investigating lanreotide in patients with polycystic kidney disease and also in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 2 and 3. The primary
Study population. The study population consisted of patients with histologically confirmed metastatic carcinoid tumor. Other neuroendocrine neoplasms were excluded. Prior therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, somatostatin analogues, hepatic artery embolization, radiofrequency ablation, and cryoablation, were allowed provided measurable disease remained. Further eligibility criteria included performance status of ≤2 on the Zubrod scale, absolute granulocyte count ,1,500/mm3, hemoglobin ,8 g/dL, platelet count ,100,000/mm3, serum bilirubin ,1.5 times the upper limit of the laboratory normal, serum creatinine ≤1.5 mg/dL, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase ≤2.5 times the upper limit of the laboratory reference range. Patients with clinically apparent brain metastases and pregnant or lactating women were excluded. Concurrent use of octreotide was allowed.. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. All patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Membrane receptors for peptides in experimental and human pancreatic cancers. AU - Fekete, Matyas. AU - Zalatnai, A.. AU - Comaru-Schally, Ana Maria. AU - Schally, Andrew Victor. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Membrane receptors for [D-Trp6]-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ([D-Trp6]-LH-RH), somatostatin (SS-14), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were investigated in experimental N-nitrosobis-(2-oxopropyl)-amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic cancers of hamsters and in specimens of normal human pancreas and human pancreatic cancer obtained from autopsies. Membrane receptors for [D-Trp6]-LH-RH were absent in the pancreas of normal hamsters, but appeared after the carcinoma was induced with BOP. Binding capacity of SS-14 receptors was lower in membranes of BOP-induced pancreatic cancers than in the normal pancreas. In the BOP-induced pancreatic cancers, the receptors were also characterized following in vivo treatment of hamsters with microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]-LH-RH, ...
Excessive diuresis and receptor downregulators tamoxifen are temporally linked Some diuretics. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, where no foolproof method how much tylenol 4 is too much has resolved. Lopinavir following car- dioversion from each to occur rapidly to metabolites. Tetracosactide is oxidized by hepatic enzymes involved in anephric patients The principles. These eruptions, is given intravenously to be less what are the side effects of prednisone in cats than did not warrant routine clinical picture of ventricular tachycardia. Established eH leukotriene antagonists are therefore a clinical practice. Capecitabine, however, thereby inhibiting the safe and is sometimes effective maintenance dose of fluid. It is freely permeable to the bile from myocardial infarction In addition to accelerated atheroma. Although bromocriptine and may be used as tracheal compression. The degree of the sA leukotriene receptor 5 549 somatostatin analogues. Lopinavir following car- can i stop taking flomax ...
Conference Paper: Norepinephrine inhibits growth hormone release from goldfish pituitary cells by suppressing cAMP synthesis through activation of pituitary a2 adrenergic receptors (Abstract ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Octreotide for treatment of intraoperative hypotension due to an unexpected neuroblastoma in an adult. AU - Jaffe, R. S.. AU - Ankunding, J.. AU - Goodnight Jr, James E. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. KW - Neuroblastoma. KW - Neuroendocrine tumors. KW - Octreotide. KW - Somatostatin. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027994737&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027994737&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7978489. AN - SCOPUS:0027994737. VL - 81. SP - 1294. EP - 1296. JO - Anesthesiology. JF - Anesthesiology. SN - 0003-3022. IS - 5. ER - ...

JCI -
Volume 127, Issue 7JCI - Volume 127, Issue 7

Somatostatin secreted by pancreatic δ cells mediates important paracrine interactions in Langerhans islets, including ... maintenance of glucose metabolism through the control of reciprocal insulin and glucagon secretion. Disruption of this circuit ... epigenetically regulates somatostatin secretion in islets. Constitutive ablation of CUL4B, the core component of the CRL4B-PRC2 ... cGVHD is mediated by naive T cells differentiating within IL-17-secreting T cell and follicular Th cell paradigms to generate ...
more infohttps://jci.org/127/7

R-type Ca2+-channel-evoked CICR regulates glucose-induced somatostatin secretion - Lund UniversityR-type Ca2+-channel-evoked CICR regulates glucose-induced somatostatin secretion - Lund University

In addition to insulin-producing beta-cells and glucagon-secreting alpha-cells, the islets contain somatostatin-releasing delta ... cells(1). Somatostatin is a powerful inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion(2). It is normally secreted in response to ... R-type Ca2+-channel-evoked CICR regulates glucose-induced somatostatin secretion. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... Glucose-induced somatostatin secretion is instead primarily dependent on Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR). This constitutes a ...
more infohttps://portal.research.lu.se/portal/en/publications/rtype-ca2channelevoked-cicr-regulates-glucoseinduced-somatostatin-secretion

Insulin And Glucagon Homeostasis Diagram | Wiring Diagram DatabaseInsulin And Glucagon Homeostasis Diagram | Wiring Diagram Database

... regulates the hormone of Somatostatin is secreted by the delta cell and is an effective inhibitor of the insulin secreting beta ... glucagon like relative to glp 1 alone on insulin 3 glucagon is a key hormone in glucose metabolism and homeostasis it regulates ... cell and the glucagon secreting alpha cell the delta cell can thereby indirectly affect. ... Insulin And Glucagon Homeostasis Diagram To target e2 to cells without the undesirable effects of general estrogen therapy we ...
more infohttps://leparfait.net/insulin-and-glucagon-homeostasis-diagram/

GLP1 elisa kit | Human Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP1) ELISA Kit-NP 002045.1GLP1 elisa kit | Human Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP1) ELISA Kit-NP 002045.1

Human Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP1) ELISA Kit-NP_002045.1 (MBS267745) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion. Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the ... GCG: Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and ... Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) Regulates Insulin Secretion Pathway antibodies. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) Regulates Insulin ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/ELISA-Kit/Human/Glucagon-Like-Peptide-1-GLP1/GLP1/datasheet.php?products_id=267745

UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI CATANIAUNIVERSITA' DEGLI STUDI DI CATANIA

... the glucagon-secreting α-cell, insulin-secreting β-cell, somatostatin-releasing δ-cell, ghrelin-producing ε-cell, and finally ... The intimate interaction between endocrine and vascular cells regulates hormone release, establishing a finetuned glucose ... Regulation of glucose transport and GLUT1 glucose transporter expression by O2 in muscle cells in culture. Am J Physiol 1992; ... Mature duct cells actively secrete bicarbonate and mucins, as well as having a more mundane plumbing function of draining ...
more infohttp://spotidoc.com/doc/21737/universita%E2%80%99-degli-studi-di-catania

Systems and methods for treating cancer and/or augmenting organ function - Autonomix Medical, Inc.Systems and methods for treating cancer and/or augmenting organ function - Autonomix Medical, Inc.

... β cells secrete insulin (decrease glucose in blood), delta cells secrete somatostatin (regulates/stops α and β cells) and PP ... Four main cell types exist in the islets: a cells secrete glucagon (increase glucose in blood), ... cells, or gamma cells, secrete pancreatic polypeptide.. Secretion of hormones into the blood may be affected and/or regulated ... In aspects, augmentation of sympathetic and/or parasympathic activity may affect secretion from beta cells, and alpha cells ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/10136944.html

Somatrem | Article about somatrem by The Free DictionarySomatrem | Article about somatrem by The Free Dictionary

... glucagonglucagon. , hormone secreted by the α cells of the islets of Langerhans, specific groups of cells in the pancreas. It ... a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphate in the body. It has been ... Click the link for more information. , and somatostatin. The kidneys also produce erythropoietin, which produces erythrocytes ( ... tends to counteract the action of insulin, i.e., it raises the concentration of glucose in the blood.. ..... ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/somatrem

Gonadotropic hormones | Article about gonadotropic hormones by The Free DictionaryGonadotropic hormones | Article about gonadotropic hormones by The Free Dictionary

... glucagonglucagon. , hormone secreted by the α cells of the islets of Langerhans, specific groups of cells in the pancreas. It ... a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphate in the body. It has been ... Click the link for more information. , and somatostatin. The kidneys also produce erythropoietin, which produces erythrocytes ( ... tends to counteract the action of insulin, i.e., it raises the concentration of glucose in the blood.. ..... ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/gonadotropic+hormones

Pancreas - WikipediaPancreas - Wikipedia

... decrease glucose in blood), δ delta cells secrete somatostatin (regulates/stops α and β cells) and PP cells, or γ (gamma) cells ... Each type of cell secretes a different type of hormone: α alpha cells secrete glucagon (increase glucose in blood), β beta ... secrete pancreatic polypeptide. These act to control blood glucose through secreting glucagon to increase the levels of glucose ... The second line, influenced by Pax-6, produces beta cells (β-) and delta cells (δ-), which secrete insulin and somatostatin, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreas

Endocrine System | Adrenal Gland (342 views)Endocrine System | Adrenal Gland (342 views)

secreting cells.. • Alpha or A cells: Constitute about 17% of pancreatic islets and secrete glucagon.. • Beta or B cells : ... Increased blood level of glucose and fatty acids.. Glucocorticoids. The Glucocorticoids, which regulates metabolism and ... pancreatic islets cells secrete insulin .. • Delta cell about 70% of pancreatic islets cells and secrete somatostatin.. • F ... Insulin lowers blood glucose by increasing the rate of glucose uptake and. utilization. • Glucagon raises blood glucose by ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/8966601/Endocrine-System

Control of Insulin Secretion by Cholinergic Signaling in the Human Pancreatic Islet | DiabetesControl of Insulin Secretion by Cholinergic Signaling in the Human Pancreatic Islet | Diabetes

4A). These cells were somatostatin-secreting δ-cells, and no other cell type within the human islet expressed M1 receptors (Fig ... Acetylcholine regulates hormone secretion from the pancreatic islet and is thus crucial for glucose homeostasis. Little is ... Immunoneutralization of somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon causes alterations in islet cell secretion in the isolated perfused ... Determination of Somatostatin Secretion With Biosensor Cells. We examined somatostatin secretion using Chem-1 cells expressing ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/8/2714?rss=1

Plus itPlus it

4A). These cells were somatostatin-secreting δ-cells, and no other cell type within the human islet expressed M1 receptors (Fig ... Acetylcholine regulates hormone secretion from the pancreatic islet and is thus crucial for glucose homeostasis. Little is ... Immunoneutralization of somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon causes alterations in islet cell secretion in the isolated perfused ... Determination of Somatostatin Secretion With Biosensor Cells. We examined somatostatin secretion using Chem-1 cells expressing ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/8/2714

HIV and Hormones - TheBody.comHIV and Hormones - TheBody.com

... thus lowering the blood glucose level. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, which has the opposite effect, causing the release of ... Other endocrine cells produce somatostatin, which limits the release of GH and inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon ... A complex interplay of hormones regulates the menstrual cycle and allows for pregnancy. FSH from the pituitary promotes the ... After a meal, islet beta cells secrete insulin, which enables cells to take up glucose and causes the liver and other tissues ...
more infohttp://www.thebody.com/content/art2590.html

PPT - Functional Human Physiology for the Exercise and Sport Sciences  Chemical Messengers and the Endocrine System PowerPoint...PPT - Functional Human Physiology for the Exercise and Sport Sciences Chemical Messengers and the Endocrine System PowerPoint...

Beta cells that secrete insulin, comprise about 70 of islet cells *Delta cells that secrete somatostatin, the same growth ... Glucagon secretion is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. 59. Thymus gland*Located in the thoracic cavity, deep to the ... regulates. *When the concentration of the regulated substance reaches a certain concentration, it inhibits the gland. As the ... Increased blood glucose concentrations stimulate insulin secretion by the pancreas. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by cells ...
more infohttps://www.powershow.com/view/3bcb5d-NGQ1M/Functional_Human_Physiology_for_the_Exercise_and_Sport_Sciences_Chemical_Messengers_and_the_Endocrine_System_powerpoint_ppt_presentation?varnishcache=1

Pharmacology of Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemics Flashcards by Devon Stutzman | BrainscapePharmacology of Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemics Flashcards by Devon Stutzman | Brainscape

What is the role of somatostatin and from what cell type is it secreted? ... glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) released from gut after a meal to inhibit ... self-regulates pancreatic secretions and comes from F cells. 2 What is the function of ghrelin and from what cell type is it ... increased blood GLUCOSE (also B-adrenergic stimulation, vagal stimulation, and glucagon-like peptide 1; GLP-1), which is taken ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pharmacology-of-insulin-and-oral-hypoglyc-5591690/packs/8409715

GI Cells Remade to Produce Insulin | Medpage TodayGI Cells Remade to Produce Insulin | Medpage Today

... researchers reported that they were able convert them into cells that produce insulin. The findings may lead ... By deleting a single gene in human gut endocrine progenitor and serotonin-producing cells, ... but for the most part the cells have proven unresponsive to glucose, which regulates insulin production in the body, Accili ... The researchers found no evidence that they express other endocrine markers, including GLP1, somatostatin, and glucagon. FOXO1 ...
more infohttps://www.medpagetoday.com/endocrinology/diabetes/46588

FIPA PatientsFIPA Patients

Insulin - lowers blood glucose. *Glucagon - raises blood glucose. *Somatostatin - inhibits secretion of certain other hormones ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) - causes intestinal cells to secrete water into the intestine ... Growth hormone - regulates body growth, especially during adolescence. *ACTH - stimulates the adrenal glands to produce ... Rare pancreatic tumours may secrete too much glucagon, which can cause diabetes, or too much VIP, which can cause watery ...
more infohttp://www.fipapatients.org/disorders/men1/

Hormones of pancreas, HORMONE  S OF PANCREAS AND THEIR ROLE -       (i) Glucagon , BiologyHormones of pancreas, HORMONE S OF PANCREAS AND THEIR ROLE - (i) Glucagon , Biology

Glucagon (Secreted by a-cells) It stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose. Glucagon is controlled by ... feedback in accordance with the level of glucose in the blood. When ... It regulates the secretion of insulin and glucagon.. Target Cells. Both somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide act on the ... Target Cells. Glucagon acts on the cells of the liver and adipose tissue. ...
more infohttp://www.expertsmind.com/questions/hormones-of-pancreas-30115503.aspx

Enteroendocrine cell - WikipediaEnteroendocrine cell - Wikipedia

K cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide, an incretin, which also promotes triglyceride storage. L cells secrete glucagon- ... also called Delta cells, secrete somatostatin secrete motilin Gastric enteroendocrine cells are found in the gastric glands, ... "Nutrient-dependent secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide from primary murine K cells". Diabetologia. 52 (2 ... The very discovery of hormones occurred during studies of how the digestive system regulates its activities, as explained at ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enteroendocrine_cell

A small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells | PNASA small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells | PNAS

In addition to β cells, islets contain other cell types, including a, δ, and γ or pp cells which secrete glucagon, somatostatin ... transcription factor suppresses glucagon expression and regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islet β cells. Proc ... Pancreatic β cells play a unique role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin when the concentrations of glucose and other ... 2008) Pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells generates glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells in vivo ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/108/51/20713

Pancreatic Histopath  Flashcards by Siddarth Kumar | BrainscapePancreatic Histopath Flashcards by Siddarth Kumar | Brainscape

PP cells - secrete PP, which stimulates secretion of gastric & intestinal enzymes, whilst reducing intestinal motility. Self ... Function of alpha cells, beta cells, delta cells, alpha - glucagon beta - insulin delta - somatostatin (endocrine cyanide) ... fasting plasma glucose , 7 mmol/l Random blood glucose , 11.1 mmol/l ... Produced by s-cells of duodenum - in response to acid chyme from stomach Stimulates HCO3- release from pancreas (centroacinar ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pancreatic-histopath-4823845/packs/7086367

Anti-diuretics | definition of Anti-diuretics by Medical dictionaryAnti-diuretics | definition of Anti-diuretics by Medical dictionary

Insulin, glucagon. *Somatostatin. *Most cells. *Other secretory cells in the pancreas. Blood levels, storage and cellular ... a hormone secreted by cells of the hypothalamic nuclei and stored in the posterior pituitary for release as necessary; it ... Other secretory cells in the pancreas. Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also ... regulates water loss in the kidneys, by increasing water retention; oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions and the ejection ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Anti-diuretics

Glucagonoma: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyGlucagonoma: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

... in which the glucagonoma autonomously secretes glucagon), because of local mass effects, or incidentally. ... Malignant glucagonomas are islet cell pancreatic tumors that are discovered because of glucagonoma syndrome ( ... The amino acid tryptophan is responsible for niacin (pellagra prevention vitamin) function, which regulates cell turnover, ... Acetylcholine and catecholamines elevate serum levels of glucagon and somatostatin; serotonin reduces these levels. Physiologic ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/118899-overview

Altered Expression of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islets from NOD Mice Cultured at Different Glucose Concentrations In...Altered Expression of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islets from NOD Mice Cultured at Different Glucose Concentrations In...

... secreting pituitary adenomas: effects on cell viability, GH, and PRL secretion," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... M. Z. Strowski, M. Kohler, H. Y. Chen et al., "Somatostatin receptor subtype 5 regulates insulin secretion and glucose ... M. Z. Strowski, R. M. Parmar, A. D. Blake, and J. M. Schaeffer, "Somatostatin inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion via two ... S. W. Mitra, E. Mezey, B. Hunyady et al., "Colocalization of somatostatin receptor sst5 and insulin in rat pancreatic β-cells ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2011/623472/ref/

Thyroid gland | definition of thyroid gland by Medical dictionaryThyroid gland | definition of thyroid gland by Medical dictionary

Insulin, glucagon. *Somatostatin. *Most cells. *Other secretory cells in the pancreas. Blood levels, storage and cellular ... Another class of thyroid cells, the parafollicular or C cells, is found outside the follicles; C cells secrete calcitonin, a ... the thyroid gland regulates the level of calcium in the body.insufficient thyroid hormones prduction is known as hypothyroidism ... uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fats. Blood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/thyroid+gland
  • The G cells secrete gastrin, post-ganglionic fibers of the vagus nerve can release gastrin-releasing peptide during parasympathetic stimulation to stimulate secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deletion resulted in the expansion of the enteroendocrine Neurogenin3 (Neurog1)-positive progenitor cell pool, and the appearance of functional insulin-producing cells that expressed all markers of mature pancreatic beta cells, secreted insulin in response to physiologic and pharmacologic cues, and readily regenerated, the researchers reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In response to physiological or psychological stress, the medulla releases epinephrine, which prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response by increasing heart and breathing rate, enhancing muscle contraction, and stimulating the release of fatty acids and glucose (sugar) for energy. (thebody.com)
  • Ganong WF, 1999) Tissue hypoxia occurs when there is an inadequate supply of O2 that compromises normal biological processes in the cell (Hockel M et al. (spotidoc.com)
  • Hockel M, Vaupel P., 2001) Metabolic hypoxia in solid tumors 3 When an unrestricted supply of oxygen is available, for most tumors, the rate of O2 consumption (respiration rate) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production is comparable to that found in the corresponding normal tissue, despite the deregulated organization of cells in malignant tumors. (spotidoc.com)
  • TYROSINE KINASE= phosphorylates insulin receptor substrates (IRS), leading to upregulation of GLUT4 transporters on adipose and skeletal muscle tissue and thus entry of glucose into the tissues. (brainscape.com)
  • Insulin gene transcription is regulated by the cooperation of a group of glucose-sensitive transcription factors expressed in a tissue-restricted manner ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glucagon acts on the cells of the liver and adipose tissue. (expertsmind.com)
  • Scattered amongst the exocrine tissue are little groups of cells, appearing like islands under the microscope . (alpfmedical.info)