Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Drug Dosage Calculations: Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.GlycogenHyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).PhlorhizinHomeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.GlucosephosphatesStreptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.MethylglucosidesMuscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.TriglyceridesGlucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Fructosamine: An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.Glycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)PyruvatesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C57BLUridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Flowmeters: Devices used to measure the flow of fluids (see RHEOLOGY) or the AIR to measure RESPIRATION.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Deoxy SugarsSweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sulfonylurea CompoundsTolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Incretins: Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.HexosaminesAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.XyloseDiabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Glucose meter Schmalzel, JL; Steinke, JM; Randal, VT; Shepherd, AP (1989). "An optical hemoglobinometer for whole blood". The ... A hemoglobinometer is a medical measuring device of hemoglobin blood concentration. It can operate by spectrophotometric ...
"Mendor Portable Blood Glucose Meter Announced -". 15 March 2010. "New Cellphone-Like All-in-One Glucose Meter from Finland". " ... new type of blood glucose meter, which contains all required accessories and consumables (meter, lancet and strip) in one unit ... Just recently Mendor Discreet blood glucose meter was reviewed at Health Central by longtime Diabetes industry professional - ... Diabetes Mine reviewed a pre-release model of their Portable All-In-One Glucose meter and gave it "high marks on form factor ...
He invented the digital blood glucose meter. He has researched optoelectronics. He attended Dumbarton Academy. He gained a BSc ...
... currently supports syncing data from more than 30 blood glucose meters using a proprietary meter sync cable called the ... Patients can check their blood glucose meter for compatibility on the website. Glooko automatically pulls in data from popular ... Blood glucose monitoring Diabetes management software companies portal "Company: Viewing FDA as Partner Eased Clearance of ... Patients access charts and graphs of their blood glucose levels and can maintain a digital logbook of diet, fitness, biometric ...
It will also integrate data generated from a Bluetooth connected blood glucose meter. Bigfoot Biomedical's first clinical trial ... The Abbott FreeStyle® Libre does not require users to prick their finger to retrieve glucose values or calibrate the sensor. ... July 2017 saw Bigfoot announce a collaboration with Abbott Laboratories to integrate Abbott's FreeStyle® Libre glucose sensing ... giving smart dosing guidance based on previous glucose trends and insulin doses captured from the cap with a commercial launch ...
Blood glucose monitoring Tracking one's blood glucose level, usually by using a blood glucose meter. This was formerly ... Blood glucose meter A machine which electrochemically or coloristically, determines the current level of glucose in a blood ... Self-monitoring of blood glucose A way as person can test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. Also called home blood ... Postprandial blood glucose Blood taken 1-2 hours after eating to see the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Prediabetes A ...
It is used as this ingredient in many commercially available blood glucose meters for use by diabetics. Potassium ferricyanide ... as an electron transfer agent replacing an enzyme's natural electron transfer agent such as oxygen as with the enzyme glucose ...
The digital blood-glucose meter uses a glucose sensor inserted under the skin that measures glucose levels. A transmitter sends ... People with diabetes get a more complete picture of their glucose levels, which can lead to better treatment decisions and ... the glucose information from the sensor to a monitor that displays glucose levels on a screen and notifies the user if it ... "Continuous Glucose Monitoring - Insulin Pumps - Medtronic Diabetes". "Phillips Hue". "iRobot Roomba Vacuum Cleaning Robot". How ...
It was for a new blood glucose meter that would give a reading in 1 minute, using a single drop of blood, called the Ames ... The patient takes responsibility for blood sugar control including blood glucose testing up to 8 times per day. You have the ... so that when food is eaten there is insulin in the blood ready to lower the blood sugar rise from food, keeping blood sugars ... Same if you have normal blood sugars and got used to it, if your blood sugar reaches 120 mg/dl you may feel symptoms of ...
Medtronic has developed a digital blood glucose meter that allows health care providers and patients know about low levels. ...
... blood glucose meters. Interventions that can be sued to facilitate patient and family adherence in the inpatient pediatric ... assays of blood, urine, or saliva; self-report, health care provider ratings, pill counts, and a variety of monitoring devices ...
Connected devices like insulin pumps, blood glucose meters, and wearable gadgets can all send data to a unified system. The ... with a significant average drop in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (18.6 mmHg and 6.4 mmHg respectively). The study ...
In recent times, the consensus error grid has been used increasingly by blood glucose meter manufacturers in their clinical ... was developed as a new tool for evaluating the accuracy of a blood glucose meter. ... A new consensus error grid to evaluate the clinical significance of inaccuracies in the measurement of blood glucose. Diabetes ...
Certain diabetes blood sugar meters measure the amount of glucose in the blood through its redox potential. As well as the ...
Test strips, a blood glucose meter and a structured testing plan are provided for self-monitoring and controlling blood glucose ... The Low Carb Program is an education program for people with Type 2 Diabetes, aimed at improving blood glucose control. The ... The Hypo Program is a free education program for people with insulin dependent diabetes, aimed at improving blood glucose ... BloodSugarSelfie to raise awareness for diabetes through people posting selfies with their blood glucose reading. Promoted ...
Glooko, produces a software for diabetes patients that also uses Internet-connected insulin pumps and blood glucose meters to ... study about half of the 262 people with type 2 diabetes enrolled in a 10-week trial were able to reduce their blood glucose ... WellDoc, produces a smartphone app called "BlueStar" that teaches patients when the ideal time to test blood sugar is. Virta ...
The Paradigm uses a one-way wireless radio frequency link to receive blood sugar measurements from select glucose meters. The ... But at the time there were few studies on the use of combined CSII and blood glucose monitoring. Also, no rapid-acting insulin ... The objective of CSII is to reduce the long-term variability of blood glucose by increasing the frequency of infusion. In 1995 ... series adds the ability to receive data from a mated continuous blood-glucose monitor. Although the pump can use these ...
... for determining the accuracy of blood glucose meters. The grid breaks down a scatterplot of a reference glucose meter and an ... accuracy of patient estimates of their current blood glucose as compared to the blood glucose value obtained in their meter. It ... was then used to quantify the clinical accuracy of blood glucose estimates generated by meters as compared to a reference value ... evaluated glucose meter into five regions: Region A are those values within 20% of the reference sensor, Region B contains ...
In 2000, Thompson was recognized for designing a non-invasive glucose meter and received the Diabetes World Humanitarian Award ... A non-invasive blood glucose measuring device • The Grapefruit Solution, a nutraceutical grapefruit-based compound which ...
... blood test results from a glucose meter diabetes logbooks basal and bolus settings for an insulin pump records of actual ... and future predictions of blood glucose levels, control screens for: insulin pump setup and control, continuous blood glucose ... The blood glucose readings are plotted at their level versus the time of day. Multiple days are plotted on top of each other, ... In this chart, it is also easy to see that the pump user had a meal at 3pm but forgot to test blood glucose beforehand. Example ...
POCT is often accomplished through the use of transportable, portable, and handheld instruments (e.g., blood glucose meter, ... POCT includes: blood glucose testing, blood gas and electrolytes analysis, rapid coagulation testing (PT/INR, Alere, Microvisk ... These tests require only a single drop of whole blood, urine or saliva, and they can be performed and interpreted by any ... fecal occult blood analysis, food pathogens screening, hemoglobin diagnostics (HemoCue), infectious disease testing and ...
One day, Paul noticed that his son Luke often loses his blood glucose meter, but not for a moment parted ways with the Nintendo ... to pursue the creation of children's blood glucose meters. Later Wessel ideas permeated Bayer, and the resulting system has ... The Meter is available in various colours to allow them to be distinguished. The Pokéwalker (ポケウォーカー, Pokewōkā) is a Poké Ball- ... There is a clip built into the Meter's battery door allowing it to be attached to a person's clothes or a dog's collar; a flat ...
... Blood Glucose Meters provide blood glucose test results in 5 seconds, offer alternative test site options, and ... OneTouch Meters OneTouch VerioIQ Meter OneTouch UltraMini Meter OneTouch Ultra2 Meter. ... OneTouch Ultra is a blood glucose monitoring device for people with diabetes and is the foundation product for LifeScan's ... Other OneTouch Ultra Meters include the OneTouch UltraSmart and the OneTouch UltraMini Meter (known as the OneTouch UltraEasy ...
The first goal is to regulate the cat's blood glucose by keeping the blood glucose values in a comfortable range for the cat ... Absolute numbers vary between pets, and with meter calibrations. Glucometers made for humans are generally accurate using ... A fasting glucose blood test will normally be suggestive of diabetes at this point. The same home blood test monitors used in ... The signs of diabetes mellitus are caused by a persistently high blood glucose concentration, which may be caused by either ...
GlucoMe, develops a blood glucose meter that provides an interface to the cloud through a phone or tablet to allow data ...
The Clarke Error Grid Analysis (EGA) was developed in 1987 to quantify clinical accuracy of patient estimates of their current blood glucose as compared to the blood glucose value obtained in their meter. It was then used to quantify the clinical accuracy of blood glucose estimates generated by meters as compared to a reference value. A description of the EGA appeared in Diabetes Care in 1987. Eventually, the EGA became accepted as one of the "gold standards" for determining the accuracy of blood glucose meters. The grid breaks down a scatterplot of a reference glucose meter and an evaluated glucose meter into five regions: Region A are those values within ...
... is a blood glucose monitoring device for people with diabetes and is the foundation product for LifeScan's OneTouch Ultra Family of blood glucose monitoring systems. OneTouch Ultra Blood Glucose Meters provide blood glucose test results in 5 seconds, offer alternative test site options, and various memory and flagging features. The results are displayed as plasma values. OneTouch Meters are sold in kits containing a carry case, a lancing device, control solution, sample quantities of lancets, and a replacement cap for use with the sampling device when using alternative site testing. The OneTouch Ultra 2 is similar in design and operation to the OneTouch Ultra Meter, but also offers Before and After Meal Flags, Comments, and a list style memory recall. ...
The first CGM system was approved by the FDA in 1999. Continued development has extended the length of time sensors can be worn, options for receiving and reading data, and settings for alerting users of high and low glucose levels. The first iteration of the Medtronic MiniMed took glucose readings every ten seconds with average readings reported every five minutes. Sensors could be worn for up to 72 hours.[3] A second system, developed by Dexcom, was approved in 2006. The sensor was approved for use for up to 72 hours, and the receiver needed to be within five feet for transmission of data. In 2008, the third model was approved, Abbott Laboratories' Freestyle Navigator. Sensors could be worn for up to five days.[3] In 2012, Dexcom released a new device that allowed for the sensor to be worn for seven days and had a transmission distance of 20 feet. Dexcom later introduced an app allowing data from the sensor to be transmitted to an iPhone. ...
Boris P. Kovatchev is a scientist at the University of Virginia, director of the UVA Center for Diabetes Technology, and a principal investigator of the JDRF Artificial Pancreas Project. He and his team of more than 25 investigators at UVA have been working on the integration of continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps to create a closed-loop system requiring little or no intervention by the user. He holds 38 patents for technology related to diabetes and blood glucose monitoring. In 2008, he became the first mathematician to be awarded the international Diabetes Technology Leadership Award, presented by the Diabetes Technology Society, and in 2013, he was awarded the prestigious Gerold & Kayla Grodsky Basic Research Scientist Award for leadership and innovation in type 1 diabetes. He received his Ph.D. in Mathematics from Sofia University, Bulgaria in 1989. "People to Know 2016: Boris Kovatchev, PhD". Lyon, Lindsay (30 ...
... ing refers to the measurement of blood glucose levels (required by people with diabetes to prevent both chronic and acute complications from the disease) without drawing blood, puncturing the skin, or causing pain or trauma. The search for a successful technique began about 1975 and has continued to the present without a clinically or commercially viable product. As of 1999[update], only one such product had been approved for sale by the FDA, based on a technique for electrically pulling glucose through intact skin, and it was withdrawn after a short time owing to poor performance and occasional damage to the skin of users. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in companies who have sought the solution to this long-standing problem. Approaches that have been tried include near infrared spectroscopy (measuring glucose through the skin using light of slightly ...
A postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in the blood after a meal. Glucose is mainly made from carbohydrate foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body. Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after eating. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin, which assists the body in removing glucose from the blood and storing it for energy. People with diabetes may not produce or respond properly to insulin, which causes their blood glucose to remain elevated. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, ...
... is a British-based brand and digital communication channel with over 650,000 members, providing digital therapeutics, news and information on diabetes, evidence-based education programmes, newsletters, cookbooks and a patient network that improves the health of people with diabetes, the Diabetes Forum. The Diabetes Forum connects people who have diabetes who share their own experiences in relation to diabetes and its associated complications. Through this, users generate data about the real-world nature of diabetes that helps other people with diabetes, researchers, pharmaceutical companies and non-profit organisations develop more effective products, services and care. Diabetes.co.uk was founded in 2002. In March 2014, Diabetes.co.uk launched the hashtag #BloodSugarSelfie to raise awareness for diabetes through people posting selfies with their blood glucose reading. Promoted through social media, the campaign raised money for JDRF UK ...
... s are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market, but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors. Keeping glucose levels in check is crucial to minimize the onset of the damage caused by diabetes. As a consequence, in conjunction with insulin administrations, the prime requirement for diabetic patients is to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels. The monitoring systems currently in general use have the drawback of below optimal number of readings, due to their reliance on a drop of fresh blood. Some continuous glucose monitors are ...
Self-monitoring is the use of sensors or tools which are readily available to the general public to track and record personal data. The sensors are usually wearable devices and the tools are digitally available through mobile device applications. Self-monitoring devices were created for the purpose of allowing personal data to be instantly available to the individual to be analyzed. As of now, fitness and health monitoring are the most popular applications for self-monitoring devices.[45] The biggest benefit to self-monitoring devices is the elimination of the necessity for third party hospitals to run tests, which are both expensive and lengthy. These devices are an important advancement in the field of personal health management. Self-monitoring healthcare devices exist in many forms. An example is the Nike+ FuelBand, which is a modified version of the original pedometer.[45] This device is wearable on the wrist and allows one to set a personal goal for a daily energy burn. It records the ...
Self-monitoring is the use of sensors or tools which are readily available to the general public to track and record personal data. The sensors are usually wearable devices and the tools are digitally available through mobile device applications. Self-monitoring devices were created for the purpose of allowing personal data to be instantly available to the individual to be analyzed. As of now, fitness and health monitoring are the most popular applications for self-monitoring devices.[42] The biggest benefit to self-monitoring devices is the elimination of the necessity for third party hospitals to run tests, which are both expensive and lengthy. These devices are an important advancement in the field of personal health management. Self-monitoring healthcare devices exist in many forms. An example is the Nike+ FuelBand, which is a modified version of the original pedometer.[42] This device is wearable on the wrist and allows one to set a personal goal for a daily energy burn. It records the ...
Self-monitoring is the use of sensors or tools which are readily available to the general public to track and record personal data. The sensors are usually wearable devices and the tools are digitally available through mobile device applications. Self-monitoring devices were created for the purpose of allowing personal data to be instantly available to the individual to be analyzed. As of now, fitness and health monitoring are the most popular applications for self-monitoring devices.[36] The biggest benefit to self-monitoring devices is the elimination of the necessity for third party hospitals to run tests, which are both expensive and lengthy. These devices are an important advancement in the field of personal health management.. Self-monitoring healthcare devices exist in many forms. An example is the Nike+ FuelBand, which is a modified version of the original pedometer.[36] This device is wearable on the wrist and allows one to set a personal goal for a daily energy burn. It records the ...
... is a series of insulin pumps manufactured by Medtronic for patients with diabetes mellitus. The pump operates with a single AAA battery and uses a piston-plunger pump to infuse a programmed amount of insulin into the patient through a length of tubing. The Paradigm uses a one-way wireless radio frequency link to receive blood sugar measurements from select glucose meters. The Paradigm RT (Real Time) series adds the ability to receive data from a mated continuous blood-glucose monitor. Although the pump can use these measurements to assist in calculating a dose of insulin, no actual change in insulin delivery occurs without manual user-intervention. In the United States, the device is regulated by a branch of the Food and Drug Administration. Insulin pumps are drug delivery devices used to treat patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The Minimed Paradigm REAL-Time and Continuous ...
... (also called stress diabetes or diabetes of injury) is a medical term referring to transient elevation of the blood glucose due to the stress of illness. It usually resolves spontaneously, but must be distinguished from various forms of diabetes mellitus. It is often discovered when routine blood chemistry measurements in an ill patient reveal an elevated blood glucose. Blood glucose can be assessed either by a bedside 'fingerstick' glucose meter or plasma glucose as performed in a laboratory (the latter being more efficacious). A retrospective cohort study by the Mayo Clinic held that bedside glucometry was a reliable estimate of plasma glucose with a mean difference of 7.9 mg/dL, but still may not coincide with every ...
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Blood Glucose Meter. Back to top Blood glucose meters are devices used to measure blood sugar levels and help monitor health ... There is an increase in demand for these effective metering solutions, as the self-monitoring glucose meter market was valued ...
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... levels with a portable blood glucose meter. A blood glucose met ... and essential ritual that involves measuring blood glucose ( ... Monitoring blood glucose for the diabetic is a regularly-performed ... levels with a portable blood glucose meter.. A blood glucose meter is used with lancets, test strips and a logbook. A lancet is ... Monitoring blood glucose for the diabetic is a regularly-performed and essential ritual that involves measuring blood glucose ( ...
... Blood Glucose Meter. (En español: Medidor de glucosa) ... is in the blood (also known as the blood glucose level). People who have diabetes often use a blood glucose meter to find out ... A blood glucose meter is a small, portable machine thats used to check how much glucose (a type of sugar) ...
Blood Glucose Meter. Blood Glucose Meter. (Medidor de glucosa en sangre). A blood glucose meter is a small, portable machine ... is in the blood (also known as the blood glucose level). People with diabetes often use a blood glucose meter to help them ... thats used to measure how much glucose (a type of sugar) ...
EASY TOUCH GCU 3 IN 1 FOR CHECK BLOOD SUGAR, COLLESTEROL AND HB. In a Count of 10 Seconds Blood Sugar Test Results Will Be Seen ... 1 EasyTouch blood test device. Likewise for Checking Orange Gout, and Blue Cholesterol. ... Autocheck Blood Glucose Cholesterol Uric Acid Gout Test Strip Meter Tools Kit ... Details about EasyTouch Gchb Cholesterol Glucose Hemoglobin Easy touch Blood Monitoring Meter. ...
Get low prices on diabetes supplies including Glucose Meters, Glucometers & Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems at Allegro Medical ... Glucose Meters - Glucometers - Blood Glucose Monitoring System Those who have diabetes or who are prone to hypoglycemia will ... Whether you are looking for easy to use talking meters, easy to read and use meters, or just about any other type of meter, you ... This medical device makes it possible to quickly and easily get an approximation of the concentration of glucose on the blood. ...
Get ratings, pricing, and performance on the OneTouch UltraMini blood glucose meter based on the features you care about. ... No one tests blood glucose meters like we do. ... The OneTouch UltraMini is part of the Blood Glucose Meter test ... In our lab tests, Blood Glucose Meter models like the UltraMini are rated on multiple criteria, such as those listed below. ... Accuracy: This is based on the average of differences between data from a particular blood glucose meter and parallel readings ...
No one tests blood glucose meters like we do. Get ratings, pricing, and performance for all the latest models based on the ...
37 years after he invented the digital blood glucose meter used on a daily basis by most people with diabetes. ... instead of producing and selling its own glucose meters. Since then, digital glucose meters have become a £12 billion to £50 ... instead of producing and selling its own glucose meters. Since then, digital glucose meters have become a £12 billion to £50 ... Inventor Of Digital Blood Glucose Meter Wins $2.57 Million From Unilever In UK Court ...
Español LCD Back-light Tiny Blood Sample Required (0.5µL) Quick & Accurate Result ( 5 Seconds) Pre & Post Meal records 4 Daily ... View more information at www.fora-shop.com/collections/blood-glucose-meter/products/test-ngo-voice-talking-meter ...
I havent been able to find out who makes Walmarts ReliOn blood glucose meter, Stephen. I do know that that its ReliOn Fast ... Even the priciest meters & strips had negative reviews due to inaccuracy. Is there something about glucose meters that just " ... In my own studies of meters using my own blood vs. the Hemocue, I liked the Bionime GM100 & GM550, the Contour Next meters, and ... be within plus or minus 15 mg/dl at blood glucose levels below 100 mg/dl and within plus or minus 15 percent at blood glucose ...
... meter speaks the room temperature, tells user to when to apply blood to test strip, speaks the blood glucose level, or states ... This talking blood glucose meter eliminates the need to calibrate your meter to the strip, which makes the unit easier to use ... that result is out of range.* speaks in either English, Spanish, French, and Arabic* Kit includes meter, carrying case, 1 ... Prodigy Autocode Talking Blood Glucose Monitoring Meter Kit. This talking blood glucose meter eliminates the need to calibrate ...
Wireless-enabled blood glucose meter developer Telcare has raised $2.5 million of a targeted $4 million equity offering, ... Bayer is bringing the Nintendo DS enabled blood glucose meter, Didget, to the US next month, according to a report in ... Telcare plans to offer its blood glucose meter offering (pending FDA clearance) to its customers at the same pricepoint of " ... According to an FDA filing, wireless-enabled blood glucose meter developer Telcare just received 510(k) clearance for its ...
Its accuracy standard for blood glucose meters is simple to state:. * 95 percent of the blood glucose test results have to fall ... FDA Evaluation of Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters and FDA Evaluation of Glucose Meters: Considerations for Use in the Home. ... The most important tool for most of us who have diabetes is our blood glucose meter. But usually we have no idea how inaccurate ... Now, the FDA generally approves new blood glucose meters on the basis of section 510(k). Consequently, its likely that some of ...
InsuLinx Blood Glucose Meters after finding that they display and store incorrect test results for dangerously high blood sugar ... Abbott Labs recalls blood glucose meters. Company says meters display incorrect readings. Share ... The Abbott Park, Ill., company said the meters will display and store readings for blood glucose levels of 1,024 milligrams per ... Abbott Laboratories is recalling its FreeStyle InsuLinx Blood Glucose Meters after finding that they display and store ...
Blood Glucose Meter. Say: blud gloo-kose me-tur. A blood glucose meter is a small, portable machine thats used to check how ... is in the blood (also known as the blood glucose level). People who have diabetes often use a blood glucose meter to find out ... Word! Blood Glucose Meter. Article Translations: (Spanish). ...
... Wed, 04/27/2011 - 16:20 -- Diabetesnet. Talking blood glucose meters provide a major benefit for ... The Voicemate says the meters blood glucose reading aloud only once. It has a repeat button, and a thumb wheel control for on/ ... The Accu-Chek Voicemate, now discontinued, is composed of the Accu-Chek® Advantage blood glucose meter, which is plugged into ... Also see the Voice of the Diabetic Resolution 2007 Regarding Access to Blood Glucose Meters. ...
Are reflectance meters necessary for home blood glucose monitoring? Br Med J 1980; 281 :912 ... Are reflectance meters necessary for home blood glucose monitoring?. Br Med J 1980; 281 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ... Are reflectance meters.... *Are reflectance meters necessary for home blood glucose monitoring? ...
... developer of the FDA-cleared cellular-enabled Telcare Blood Glucose Meter (BGM), to integrate blood glucose readings collected ... pharmaceutical company Sanofi Aventis announced that it has tapped medical device maker Agamatrix to create blood glucose meter ... According to the companies, the meter could be the first medical device plugin to connect to Apples iPhone. While Johnson &... ...
Nokia has partnered with Entra Health Systems to allow linking of a Bluetooth wireless enabled glucose meter with more than 50 ... Bluetooth Blood Glucose Meter Now Interoperable With Nokia Phones. April 7th, 2010 Editors Medicine, Net News, Pediatrics ... Seems like its time to get rid of that redundant screen on the blood glucose meter and make it into a purely test and transmit ... Nokia has partnered with Entra Health Systems to allow linking of a Bluetooth wireless enabled glucose meter with more than 50 ...
Glucogrip for Automatic Blood Glucose Metering. October 9th, 2009 Medgadget Editors Medicine, Pediatrics ... Relative Health Limited Complete Cuff-Less Blood Pressure Trial. OpenMD.com Lists Top 750 Health Websites. Treatment of ...
  • Market Research Store added new research report on 'Global Blood Glucose Meter Accessories Market 2016 - Market Size,Trends and Forecast'to their offerings. (sbwire.com)
  • Global Blood Glucose Meter Accessories Industry Research Report 2016 also focuses on development policies and plans for the industry as well as a consideration of a cost structure analysis. (sbwire.com)
  • On October 11, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued two final guidance documents describing studies and criteria that FDA recommends when submitting premarket notifications (510(k) Notices) for blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs). (hoganlovells.com)
  • Users who have the OmniPod Insulin Management System with built-in FreeStyle Blood Glucose Meter should refer to Abbott's earlier letter for recommended actions or visit https://www.abbottdiabetescare.com/press-room/2014/2014-b.htm . (newsinferno.com)
  • This is the meter that was provided with my Medtronic MiniMed Paradigm 722 insulin pump and carries Medtronic branding. (medium.com)
  • You can use the tactile "Up", "Down" and "Repeat" buttons to search testing data, to set your meter and to hear the information again. (maxiaids.com)
  • Shanks has long been acknowledged as the glucose meter's inventor, and it helped earn him a Fellowship of the Royal Society (an important acknowledgement from one of the world's most prestigious scientific organizations) in 1984 and a knighthood in the Order of the British Empire in 2012. (forbes.com)
  • The Voicemate says the meter's blood glucose reading aloud only once. (diabetesnet.com)
  • Since then, digital glucose meters have become a £12 billion to £50 billion ($15.39 billion to $64.13 billion) market, but the licensing has only brought Unilever a reported ₤24 million ($30.78 million). (forbes.com)
  • But while Shanks gets the well-earned bragging rights, Unilever holds the patents, which means they have the right to the profits from licensing and sales of digital glucose meters. (forbes.com)
  • " DarioHealth is a personalized, pocket-sized, all-in-one digital glucose meter coupled with a mobile app to manage diabetes quickly, efficiently and accurately. (geardiary.com)
  • When your number is too high, so is your blood glucose. (empowher.com)
  • High Tech Features - "Can I connect blood glucose meter to PC via USB or use Bluetooth?" . (diabetesdaily.com)
  • I got 2 bad meters from the same company, both read about 40 high. (diabeticconnect.com)
  • Your meter uses low and high range limits to tell you when your result is below, above or within the limits that you set in the meter. (onetouch.com)
  • An external laboratory formulated two known glucose solutions for us (one a low and the other a high solution). (choice.com.au)
  • There was a high correlation between the lab value and the magnitude of the difference, (lab minus POC value) indicating that the higher the true glucose value, the greater the difference between the lab and the POC value. (nih.gov)
  • Our diabetes research group wish is developing a low-cost, minimal-contact intervention tailored for people in the community who have had a blood test that is indicative of IGR/high risk for type 2 diabetes, in order to encourage behaviour change for diabetes prevention. (findaphd.com)
  • The service is called the Telstra Diabetes Management Online Service in Australia, and it includes Entra's MyGlucoHealth Wireless meter, Bluetooth technology and the user's mobile phone. (mobihealthnews.com)