Glycosuria, Renal: An autosomal inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of GLUCOSE by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The urinary loss of glucose can reach beyond 50 g/day. It is attributed to the mutations in the SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 encoded by the SLC5A2 gene.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.GlucosidesSodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.PhlorhizinFanconi Syndrome: A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.HexosesDiabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1: A transcription factor that regulates the expression of a large set of hepatic proteins including SERUM ALBUMIN; beta-fibrinogen; and ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN. It is composed of hetero- or homo-dimers of HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA and HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-BETA.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta: A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
  • Recently, of renal nerves in rats using wire hook electrodes at low sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were frequencies (0.5-10 Hz) showed increased renin secretion approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and water reabsorption, and decreased renal blood flow for patients with type 2 diabetes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been associated with the use of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is). (medscape.com)
  • Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have changed the management of type 2 diabetes, especially for those with established cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • Recently, two large randomized controlled trials which only included patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) or patients at high risk for CVD showed that two sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) significantly reduced hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), with an early separation in the survival curves for hHF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The investigations carried out therefore far on sodium glucose co transporter two inhibitors have elucidated new perspectives not only within the mechanism of diabetes, but additionally on prospective therapeutic applications of this expertise. (statpathway.com)
  • Existing diabetes and gestational diabetes were associated with higher offspring fasting glucose levels (0.24 mmol/L [95% CI 0.03-0.and 0.20 mmol/L [0.02-0. respectively). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA 1c 7.8 ± 0.8% [62 ± 9 mmol/mol], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 89 ± 19 mL ⋅ min −1 ⋅ 1.73 m −2 ) received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 90 weeks with frequent ( n = 11) assessments of body weight, eGFR, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This option switches the units for handling blood glucose values from mmol/L (the standard in some countries, e.g. the UK) to mg/dL (the standard in other countries, e.g. the USA). (mendosa.com)
  • In fasting adults, blood plasma glucose should not exceed 126 mg/dL or 7 mmol/L. Sustained higher levels of blood sugar cause damage to the blood vessels and to the organs they supply, leading to the complications of diabetes. (bionity.com)
  • All these mechanisms considerably reduce the level of blood glucose, so that it is maintained within its normal levels of between 4.0 and 7.0 mmol/l in the fasting state. (devtome.com)
  • Administration of uncooked cornstarch (1.25 g/kg body weight) at bedtime was associated with significant improvement of interstitial glucose levels (p (bvsalud.org)
  • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) endpoints at week 24 showed improvements in mean 24-h interstitial glucose levels for both dapagliflozin groups, compared to placebo, in both DEPICT studies. (adahighlights2018.com)
  • Bruns, Tim 2018-05-29 00:00:00 Background: The role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis has gained global interest. (deepdyve.com)
  • The role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis has recently gained renewed attention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Renal glucose managing and SGLT The purpose of your kidney in glucose balance continues to be insuf?ficiently appreciated, nonetheless, it is actually no significantly less crucial. (statpathway.com)
  • The Role of the Kidney in Glucose HomeostasisMaria Mota1, Eugen Mota2 and Ilie-Robert Dinu2 Department of Diabetes, Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova, Romania Department of Nephrology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova, Romania1. (amazonaws.com)
  • IntroductionIt is only in recent years that the attention was drawn on the important role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis. (amazonaws.com)
  • Early non-human studiesThe first researchers in this field, Bergman and Drury brought the first clues about the involvement of the kidney in glucose homeostasis in 1938 . (amazonaws.com)
  • VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(Marketwire - Feb. 23, 2012) - Sirona Biochem Corp. (TSX VENTURE:SBM)(PINKSHEETS:SRBCF)(FRANKFURT:ZSB), announced today its lead compound for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes was effective in lowering blood glucose levels in a well-established preclinical diabetic model. (marketwired.com)
  • After delivery , blood glucose levels in women with GDM usually return to normal or later on develop type 2 diabetes. (nurseslabs.com)
  • The current approach to the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to achieve the best possible glucose control. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to drugs that have indications for treatment of type 2 diabetes, several anti-obesity drugs have been studied in patients with type 2 diabetes, for their effects on both weight and glucose control. (diabetesjournals.org)