Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Glucose in blood.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.
Abstaining from all food.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.

Prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids desensitizes the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo in rats. (1/1573)

Prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to free fatty acids (FFAs) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in vitro. However, FFA inhibition of GSIS has not been clearly demonstrated in vivo. We examined the in vivo effect of prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs on GSIS using a two-step hyperglycemic clamp in rats treated with a 48-h intravenous infusion of either 20% Intralipid plus heparin (INT) (5 microl/min plus heparin, 0.1 U/min; n = 8), oleate (OLE) (1.3 microEq/min; n = 6), saline (SAL) (n = 6), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (vehicle for OLE; n = 5). Because there was no difference in any of the parameters between BSA and SAL rats, these groups were combined as control rats (CONT) (n = 11). At the end of the 48-h OLE/INT/CONT infusions, after an overnight fast, plasma glucose was clamped for 2 h at 13 mmol/l and for another 2 h at 22 mmol/l. Preclamp plasma FFAs were elevated twofold (P < 0.01) versus CONT with both INT and OLE (NS, INT vs. OLE). Preclamp glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were higher in INT than in CONT rats (P < 0.05), suggesting insulin resistance, but they were not different in OLE and CONT rats. The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from basal to 13 mmol/l were lower in OLE (336 +/- 72 pmol/l and 1.2 +/- 0.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) than in CONT (552 +/- 54 and 1.9 +/- 0.1) rats, but they were not different between CONT and INT rats (648 +/- 150 and 2.0 +/- 0.4). The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from 13 to 22 mmol/l were lower in both INT (1,188 +/- 204 pmol/l and 3.0 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and OLE (432 +/- 60 and 1.7 +/- 0.2, P < 0.001 vs. CONT or INT) rats than in CONT rats (1,662 +/- 174 and 5.0 +/- 0.6). In summary, 1) both INT and OLE decreased GSIS in vivo in rats, and 2) the impairing effect of INT on GSIS was less than that of OLE, which might be due to the different type of fatty acid (mostly polyunsaturated in INT versus monounsaturated as OLE) and/or to differential effects of INT and OLE on insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs can desensitize the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo, thus inducing a beta-cell defect that is similar to that found in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Acute vasoconstriction-induced insulin resistance in rat muscle in vivo. (2/1573)

Insulin-mediated changes in blood flow are associated with altered blood flow distribution and increased capillary recruitment in skeletal muscle. Studies in perfused rat hindlimb have shown that muscle metabolism can be regulated by vasoactive agents that control blood flow distribution within the hindlimb. In the present study, the effects of a vasoconstrictive agent that has no direct effect on skeletal muscle metabolism but that alters perfusion distribution in rat hindlimb was investigated in vivo to determine its effects on insulin-mediated vascular action and glucose uptake. We measured the effects of alpha-methylserotonin (alpha-met5HT) on mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, femoral blood flow, hindlimb vascular resistance, and glucose uptake in control and euglycemic insulin-clamped (10 mU x min(-1) x kg(-1)) anesthetized rats. Blood flow distribution within the hindlimb muscles was assessed by measuring the metabolism of 1-methylxanthine (1-MX), an exogenously added substrate for capillary xanthine oxidase. Alpha-met5HT (20 microg x min(-1) x kg(-1)) infusion alone increased mean arterial blood pressure by 25% and increased hindlimb vascular resistance but caused no change in femoral blood flow. These changes were associated with decreased hindlimb 1-MX metabolism indicating less capillary flow. Insulin infusion caused decreased hindlimb vascular resistance that was associated with increased femoral blood flow and 1-MX metabolism. Treatment with alpha-met5HT infusion commenced before insulin infusion prevented the increase in femoral blood flow and inhibited the stimulation of 1-MX metabolism. Alpha-met5HT infusion had no effect on hindlimb glucose uptake but markedly inhibited the insulin stimulation of glucose uptake (P < 0.05) and was associated with decreased glucose infusion rates to maintain euglycemia (P < 0.05). A significant correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between 1-MX metabolism and hindlimb glucose uptake but not between femoral blood flow and glucose uptake. The results indicate that in vivo, certain types of vasoconstriction in muscle such as elicited by 5HT2 agonists, which prevent normal insulin recruitment of capillary flow, cause impaired muscle glucose uptake. Moreover, if vasoconstriction of this kind results from stress-induced increase in sympathetic outflow, then this may provide a clue as to the link between hypertension and insulin resistance that is often observed in humans.  (+info)

Resistance to insulin's acute direct hepatic effect in suppressing steady-state glucose production in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (3/1573)

We and others have shown that insulin acutely suppresses glucose production in fasting nondiabetic humans and dogs, by both a direct hepatic effect and an indirect (extrahepatic) effect, and in diabetic dogs by an indirect effect alone. In type 2 diabetes, there is resistance to insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production, but it has not previously been determined whether the resistance is primarily at the level of the hepatocyte or the peripheral tissues. To determine whether the diabetic state reduces the direct effect of insulin in humans, we studied nine patients with untreated type 2 diabetes who underwent three studies each, 4-6 weeks apart. 1) Portal study (POR): intravenous tolbutamide was infused for 3 h with calculation of pancreatic insulin secretion from peripheral plasma C-peptide. 2) Peripheral study (PER): equidose insulin was infused by peripheral vein. 3) Half-dose peripheral insulin study (1/2 PER): matched peripheral insulin levels with study 1. In all studies, glucose was clamped at euglycemia, glucose turnover was measured with the constant specific activity method, and 3-[3H]glucose was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral insulin was lower in POR versus PER but slightly higher in POR versus 1/2 PER, although most of the difference could be accounted for by higher proinsulin levels in POR (stimulated by tolbutamide). Calculated portal insulin was approximately 1.3-fold higher in POR versus PER and approximately 2.2-fold higher in POR versus 1/2 PER. In the final 30 min of the clamp, glucose production reached a lower steady-state level in PER than in POR (4.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.5 pmol(-1) x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05), despite the higher hepatic insulin level in POR. In contrast with our studies in nondiabetic individuals, glucose production was not more suppressed at steady state in POR versus 1/2 PER (5.3 +/- 0.4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), despite much higher hepatic insulin levels in POR. In conclusion, this is the first study in patients with type 2 diabetes to characterize insulin resistance to the acute direct suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production.  (+info)

Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (4/1573)

The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.  (+info)

Serum leptin concentrations and their relation to metabolic abnormalities in human sepsis. (5/1573)

Circulating leptin concentrations are raised in animal models of inflammation and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sepsis on serum leptin concentration in humans and to examine the relationship between leptin and the metabolic consequences of sepsis. Resting energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and fasting serum leptin, plasma insulin, and cortisol concentrations were measured in 20 subjects with intra-abdominal sepsis and 20 healthy control subjects, before and during a 2-h period of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Fasting serum leptin concentrations were similar in septic and control subjects. In simple regression analysis, serum leptin concentrations correlated significantly with percent body fat in both septic patients (r = 0. 64, P < 0.005) and healthy subjects (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analyses additionally indicated that percent body fat, fasting plasma insulin, and plasma cortisol, but not sepsis, were significant and independent determinants of serum leptin concentration. No relationship between leptin and resting energy expenditure or insulin sensitivity was identifiable. A major metabolic role for leptin in human sepsis therefore appears unlikely.  (+info)

Differential effect of transdermal estrogen plus progestagen replacement therapy on insulin metabolism in postmenopausal women: relation to their insulinemic secretion. (6/1573)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on glucose and insulin metabolism of transdermal estrogen patches before and after the addition of cyclic dydrogesterone in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: We studied 21 postmenopausal women seeking treatment for symptomatic menopause. All patients received transdermal 50 micrograms/day estradiol for 24 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, 10 mg/day dydrogesterone were added. METHODS: During both regimens, insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations were evaluated after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT were expressed as area under the curve (AUC) and as incremental AUC; insulin sensitivity was expressed as mg/kg body weight. Fractional hepatic insulin extraction (FHIE) was estimated by the difference between the incremental AUC of the C-peptide and insulin divided by the incremental AUC of the C-peptide. Plasma hormone and lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Nine patients proved to be hyperinsulinemic and 12 were normoinsulinemic. Transdermal estrogen treatment significantly decreased the insulin AUC (P < 0.05) and the insulin incremental AUC in hyperinsulinemic patients; addition of dydrogesterone further decreased both the AUC and incremental AUC of insulin. Estrogen alone and combined with dydrogesterone evoked a significant increase in C-peptide AUC in hyperinsulinemic (79.2%) and normoinsulinemic (113%) patients. The treatment increased the values for FHIE and insulin sensitivity in all patients (P < 0.04) and in the hyperinsulinemic group (P < 0.01), whereas it did not affect such parameters in normoinsulinemic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal estrogen substitution alone and combined with cyclical dydrogesterone may ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in a selected population of postmenopausal women.  (+info)

Changes in luteinizing hormone and insulin secretion in polycystic ovarian syndrome. (7/1573)

Uncertainties regarding the pathogenetic changes underlying the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS patients in relation to luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Androgen assays, oral glucose tolerance tests, hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps and gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) tests were performed in 100 patients. Sixty-six patients scheduled as hyperinsulinaemic and 34 as normoinsulinaemic showed similar concentrations of LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH ratio, and LH response to GnRH testing. Hyperinsulinaemic subjects showed higher body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, testosterone and free androgen index levels compared with those of normoinsulinaemic subjects; when clustered in relation to their LH basal concentrations, the two groups obtained differed only in androstenedione concentrations. Considering both insulin and LH plasma concentrations, four groups were obtained. Hyperinsulinaemia and hyper-LH secretion were not related in 54% and coexisted in the same subjects in 26% of cases. Hyperinsulinaemia as well as hyper-LH secretion affected the expression of the syndrome; the insulinaemia was directly correlated with testosterone concentrations and all metabolic parameters that affected the free androgen index. The LH concentrations were related to androgen production and were independent of BMI and insulin concentrations. It is concluded that the degree of hormonal alteration is the final sum of such pathogenetic factors.  (+info)

Hyperlactatemia reduces muscle glucose uptake and GLUT-4 mRNA while increasing (E1alpha)PDH gene expression in rat. (8/1573)

An increased basal plasma lactate concentration is present in many physiological and pathological conditions, including obesity and diabetes. We previously demonstrated that acute lactate infusion in rats produced a decrease in overall glucose uptake. The present study was carried out to further investigate the effect of lactate on glucose transport and utilization in skeletal muscle. In chronically catheterized rats, a 24-h sodium lactate or bicarbonate infusion was performed. To study glucose uptake in muscle, a bolus of 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose was injected in basal condition and during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Our results show that hyperlactatemia decreased glucose uptake in muscles (i.e., red quadriceps; P < 0.05). Moreover in red muscles, both GLUT-4 mRNA (-30% in red quadriceps and -60% in soleus; P < 0.025) and protein (-40% in red quadriceps; P < 0.05) were decreased, whereas the (E1alpha)pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) mRNA was increased (+40% in red quadriceps; P < 0.001) in lactate-infused animals. PDH protein was also increased (4-fold in red gastrocnemius and 2-fold in red quadriceps). These results indicate that chronic hyperlactatemia reduces glucose uptake by affecting the expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in muscle, suggesting a role for lactate in the development of insulin resistance.  (+info)

The present study was designed to quantitate the interaction between the decrease in target tissue insulin action seen in subjects with Type II diabetes and the mass action effect of glucose exerted via the prevailing hyperglycemic state. To this end, euglycemic glucose clamp studies were performed in 26 control subjects using insulin infusion rates of 15, 40, 120, 240, and 1,200 mU/M2 per min and in 10 Type II diabetic subjects using insulin infusion rates of 120 and 1,200 mU/M2 per min. The results of these euglycemic studies indicated that insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal was decreased in the Type II diabetics due to a combined receptor (rightward shift in the dose-response curve) and postreceptor defect in insulin action (decreased maximal response), whereas the decrease in insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output (HGO) was consistent with a defect in insulin binding (rightward shift in dose-response curve). Hyperglycemic glucose clamp studies were also performed ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) is a reliable surrogate measure of in vivo insulin sensitivity in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study, we compared insulin sensitivity as assessed by a 4-h euglycemic (approximately 5 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 300 pmol/l) clamp with HOMA in 115 subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: We found a strong correlation between clamp-measured total glucose disposal and HOMA-estimated insulin sensitivity (r = -0.820, P,0.0001), with no substantial differences between men (r = -0.800) and women (r = -0.796), younger (aged ,50 years, r = -0.832) and older (r = -0.800) subjects, nonobese (BMI ,27 kg/m2, r = -0.800) and obese (r = -0.765) subjects, nondiabetic (r = -0.754) and diabetic (r = -0.695) subjects, and normotensive ( r = -0.786) and hypertensive (r = -0.762) subjects. Also, we found good agreement between the two methods in the categorization of ...
Glucose Clamp Studies - Raptim Research can support Glucose Clamp Studies for our sponsor and we have experienced team to manage these studies at our setup. As per the regulatory requirements, the pharmacodynamic data on time-actions profiles using the Glucose Clamp procedure should be available for bio-similar insulin preparations, including pre-mixed insulins. In addition there is a general agreement among experts that the Glucose Clamp procedure is one of the best available solutions for the assessment of insulin action ...
Aims/hypothesis: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of central administration of melanotan II (MTII), a melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist, on hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of food intake and body weight. Methods: Over a period of 24 h, 225 ng of MTII was injected in three aliquots into the left lateral ventricle of male C57Bl/6 mice. The animals had no access to food. The control group received three injections of distilled water. Whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity were measured by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp in combination with [3H]glucose infusion. Glut4 mRNA expression was measured in skeletal muscle. Results: Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations under basal and hyperinsulinaemic conditions were similar in MTII- and placebo-treated mice. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucose disposal in the basal state were significantly higher in MTII-treated mice than in the control group (71±22 vs 43±12 μmol·min-1·kg-1, ...
The euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique (glucose clamp) has been used as the best method for evaluating insulin resistance. However, its technical difficulty has limited its clinical application especially in cardiovascular departments. Therefore, we evaluated glucose and insulin responses to the 75g-oGTT as a simple alternative to the glucose clamp test. In this study, IRI-60 and IRI-120, but not IRI-0 or HOMA-IR, were associated with the number of diseased coronary arteries and the presence of previous MI. When the analyses were limited to age matched male patients, the results were quite similar (data not shown). We cannot define the reason but this finding indicates the importance of evaluating the insulin response to the glucose challenge test.. Although post-challenge hyperinsulinaemia does not necessarily reflect insulin resistance, our finding was very consistent with previous studies that showed the relation between hyperinsulinaemia and the severity of CAD.9,10 Insulin ...
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study (N = 30) was conducted, applying the euglycemic clamp technique over a period of 36 h. In this multiple-dose to steady-state study, participants received once-daily subcutaneous administrations of either 0.4 (cohort 1) or 0.6 units·kg−1 (cohort 2) Gla-300 for 8 days in one treatment period and 0.4 units·kg−1 Gla-100 for 8 days in the other. Here we focus on the results of a direct comparison between 0.4 units·kg−1 of each treatment. PK and PD assessments performed on the last treatment day included serum insulin measurements using a radioimmunoassay and the automated euglycemic glucose clamp technique over 36 h. ...
Aims/hypothesis: The aim of the study was to investigate ectopic fat deposition and insulin sensitivity, in a parallel single-blinded randomised controlled trial, comparing Paleolithic diet alone with the combination of Paleolithic diet and exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty-two individuals with type 2 diabetes with BMI 25-40 kg/m(2) and 30-70 years of age followed a Paleolithic diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. In addition, study participants were randomised by computer program to either supervised combined exercise training (PD-EX group) or standard care exercise recommendations (PD group). Staff performing examinations and assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Thirteen participants were analysed in each group: hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were measured using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique combined with [6,6-H-2(2)]glucose infusion, and liver fat was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy; both analyses were ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) has been demonstrated to improve glucose homoeostasis in diabetic mice. However, no report has demonstrated the relationship of circulating BMP-9 levels with insulin resistance (IR) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between BMP-9 and IR in cross-sectional and interventional studies. Circulating BMP-9 levels were analysed by ELISA in 280 well-characterized individuals. Two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) were performed in 20 healthy subjects. Acute IR was induced by lipid infusion for 4 h in 20 healthy volunteers. Real-time (RT)-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of BMP-9. The effect of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (PEX168) on circulating BMP-9 was investigated in a 24-week treatment trial. Circulating BMP-9 levels were significantly higher in healthy subjects than ...
Healthy diet and physical activity are associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Little is known about whether they interact to improve CMR. The purpose of the present study was to determine the synergistic associations of diet quality and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) on CMR factors. The present study was an a posteriori analysis of two cross-sectional studies on 124 inactive non-diabetic postmenopausal women with a BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2. The following factors were measured: diet quality (assessed by the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI) from a 3 d food record); PAEE (doubly labelled water); body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan); lipoprotein profile (total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), non-HDL-C, total cholesterol:HDL-C, TAG, apoA1, apoB, apoA1:apoB and LDL-C:apoB); insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp); inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity ...
During insulin stimulation whole body glucose uptake is increased in trained compared with untrained humans. However, it is not known which tissue is responsible. Seven young male subjects bicycle trained one leg for 10 wk at 70% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2max). Sixteen hours after last exercise bout, a three-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (clamp 1) was performed (insulin levels, means +/- SE: 9 +/- 1, 53 +/- 3, 174 +/- 5, and 2,323 +/- 80 was microU/ml), with measurement of arteriovenous differences and blood flow in both legs. After 6 days of detraining subjects were restudied, having exercised the untrained leg 16 h before. VO2max for trained (T) and untrained (UT) legs was 52 +/- 2 vs. 44 +/- 2 ml.min-1.kg-1 (P , 0.05). In clamp 1 glucose uptake in T and UT legs was 1.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.5 +/- 0.1 mg.min-1.kg-1 (basal), 9.7 +/- 2.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 1.7 (P , 0.05) (step I), 19.2 +/- 2.8 vs. 14.3 +/- 2.0 (P , 0.05) (step II), and 22.8 +/- 2.3 vs. 18.6 +/- 2.2 (P , 0.05) (step III). During ...
Participants underwent 2 step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure and were infused with insulin according to a specified algorithm to reduce plasma glucose levels to approximately 100 milligram (mg)/deciliter (dL). In Step 1 of the clamp, each individuals insulin infusion rate during the last 2 hours of the overnight infusion was increased by 10 mU/square meter (m^2)/minute (min). During Step 2, all participants received an insulin infusion, at a rate of 120 mU/m^2/min ...
目前測量胰島素敏感性的方法有很多種,可分為直接測量及間接測量兩種方式,其中黃金標準就是直接測量的 glucos ...
Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic зажим, или инсулин зажим, является золотым стандартом для оценки действия инсулина...
Fresh tumor tissues and matched blood cells will be analyzed by large-panel (Berryoncology, lnc.) for multiple molecular biomarkers including mutations with sensitivity/resistance to targeted therapies, tumor mutational burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI) status, etc., Therapeutic approach and outcome will be followed-up to inspect the clinical benefit by large-panel analysis. In addition, selected samples will be analyzed by WES to assess the correctness of TMB estimated by large-panel ...
Multi-Accessory Clamp allows independent release of horizontal, vertical, and rotational functions, making it easy to adjust the position of accessories.
1. The effects of acutely raising blood ketone body levels to those seen after 72 h of starvation were examined in 10 subjects after an overnight fast. Metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio were measured with indirect calorimetry before and during an insulin-glucose clamp. Arteriovenous differences were measured across forearm and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue.. 2. In response to the clamp the respiratory exchange ratio rose from 0.82 to 0.83 during 3-hydroxybutyrate infusion and from 0.83 to 0.94 during control (saline) infusion (P , 0.001).. 3. Forearm glucose uptake at the end of the clamp was 4.02 ± 0.95 (3-hydroxybutyrate infusion) and 7.09 ± 1.24 mmol min−1 100 ml−1 forearm (saline infusion). Whole body glucose uptake at the end of the clamp was 72.8 ± 7.9 (3-hydroxybutyrate infusion) and 51.0 ± 3.0 (saline infusion) mmol min−1 kg−1 body weight−1.. 4. 3-Hydroxybutyrate infusion reduced the baseline abdominal venous-arterialized venous glycerol difference from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hierarchy of glycemic thresholds for counterregulatory hormone secretion, symptoms, and cerebral dysfunction. AU - Mitrakou, A.. AU - Ryan, C.. AU - Veneman, T.. AU - Mokan, M.. AU - Jenssen, T.. AU - Kiss, I.. AU - Durrant, J.. AU - Cryer, P.. AU - Gerich, J.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - To define glycemic thresholds for activation of counterregulatory hormone secretion, initiation of symptoms (autonomic and neuroglycopenic), and onset of deterioration of cognitive function, we measured indexes of these responses during glycemic plateaus of 90, 78, 66, 54, and 42 mg/dl in 10 normal volunteers, with the use of the hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique. Activation of glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone secretion began at arterialized venous plasma glucose concentrations of 68 ± 1, 68 ± 1, 65 ± 1, and 67 ± 2 (SE) mg/dl, respectively. Autonomic symptoms (anxiety, palpitations, sweating, irritability, and tremor) began at 58 ± 2 mg/dl, which was ...
OBJECTIVE:Mechanisms of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain ill-defined, contributing to sub-optimal therapies. Recognising skeletal muscle plays a key role in glucose homeostasis we investigated early insulin signalling, its association with aberrant transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) regulated tissue fibrosis. We also explored the impact of aerobic exercise on these molecular pathways. METHODS:A secondary analysis from a cross-sectional study was undertaken in women with (n=30) or without (n=29) PCOS across lean and overweight BMIs. A subset of participants with (n=8) or without (n=8) PCOS who were overweight completed 12-weeks of aerobic exercise training. Muscle was sampled before and 30 min into a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp pre- and post-training. RESULTS:We found reduced signalling in PCOS of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Exercise training augmented but did not completely rescue this signalling defect in women with PCOS. Genes in the TGFβ ...
In this study, we examined the genetic nature of various insulin-related phenotypes. We found that MCRI is a highly heritable trait and that specific haplotypes in the AMPD1 gene are closely linked to quantitative differences in the overall MCRI in our study population.. MCRI and M are independent predictors of fasting insulin concentration. Insulin-resistant nondiabetic subjects maintain normoglycemia by a compensatory increase in insulin secretion, which explains the negative correlation between insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin. In a similar vein, the negative correlation between MCRI and fasting insulin is consistent with the concept that once insulin clearance declines, insulin concentrations rise.. MCRI becomes of great interest because of the evidence presented herein that it is a highly heritable trait. In fact, it was more heritable in our study than M. To our knowledge, this is the first report assessing the heritability of MCRI. Insulin sensitivity/resistance is known to be ...
In insulin-stimulated circumstances, glucose disposal occurs mainly in skeletal muscle (22) and is mediated via the insulin-signaling cascade. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor to induce tyrosine kinase activity, followed by phosphorylation of IRS-1 on tyrosine residues, allowing for the recruitment of the p85/p110 phosphoinositol 3-kinase (96). More downstream, protein kinase B (Akt) is activated, which in turn will increase activity of both glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160). This latter step is required for the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. AS160 can also be phosphorylated independently from Akt (64).. There is no doubt that insulin-mediated glucose uptake decreases during short-term fasting, as shown by ITT studies (13, 82), OGTT/intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and meal studies (2, 27, 37, 49, 55), and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies (6, 21, 46, 69, 79, 101, 112, 114) (Table 2). Notwithstanding different study ...
We evaluated insulin secretion and insulin action with the hyperglycemic (125 mg/dl above basal) and euglycemic insulin (40 mU · m2 · min−1) clamps in seven moderately obese subjects before and after a 6-wk exercise training program. Thirty-nine normalweight, age-matched subjects served as controls. Both fasting plasma insulin concentration and glucosestimulated (hyperglycemic clamp) insulin secretion were significantly (P , .001) increased in the obese subjects. After the training program fasting insulin levels decreased by 26% (P , .01). Insulin secretion in response to hyperglycemia decreased by a similar percentage (P , .01). Nonetheless, total-body glucose metabolism increased significantly (P , .05) during the hyperglycemic clamp. With the euglycemic insulin clamp, obese subjects were shown to be significantly (P , .001) insulin resistant compared with controls. The decrease in total-body glucose uptake resulted from defects in both peripheral glucose disposal and suppression of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Változóban a petefészekrák hosszú távú kezelési stratégiája - A platinamentes intervallum jelentosége. AU - Zoltán, Hernádi. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - It was during the last 15 years when justified by clinical studies the sensitivity/resistance to anticancer chemotherapy was included in the setting of the prognostic factors of the ovarian cancer, while demonstrating a stronger correlation with the outcome than those factors known before. Remission and duration of remission after first-line chemotherapy are the two important components of sensitivity and their combinations measure its grade in a semi-quantitative manner. The chemotherapy sensitivity/resistance approach is based on the observations on ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum based chemotherapy. This agent in repeated adminstrations during the whole course of the disease is still a decisive component of the ovarian cancer chemotherapy. As a consequence there is always a platinum-free ...
Methods: Following medical examinations, 21 overweight (body mass index = 29 ± 1 kg·m-2) elderly (74 ± 1 yr) subjects were randomized to 1) HI, 2) MI, or a 3) nonexercising control group. Subjects enrolled in HI or MI completed a 12-wk exercise training regimen designed to expend 1000 kcal·wk-1. ISGD was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp pre- and postintervention. ISGD was corrected for hepatic glucose production (glucose Ra) using a constant rate infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and determined during the last 30 min of the clamp by subtracting glucose Ra from the exogenous glucose infusion rate. Nonoxidative glucose disposal was calculated using indirect calorimetry. Body composition testing was completed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry ...
Biopsy of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) lesions are recommended to confirm the diagnosis and re-evaluate hormone receptors (HR) and HER2 status. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) might serve as liquid biopsy, which could give insight into cancer heterogeneity. Paoletti and colleagues explored the feasibility of performing different markers related to endocrine therapy sensitivity/resistance using the CellSearch assay. They developed a multiparameter CTC-Endocrine Therapy Index (CTC-ETI), which is based on CTC enumeration and a highly validated semiquantitative analysis of CTC-ER, BCL-2, HER2, and Ki67 expression. CTC-ETI may serve as a real-time predictive factor for resistance to ET in patients with HR-positive MBC. ...
A surgical clamp applier and a detachable clamp for temporarily occluding a vessel are disclosed. The clamp applier is designed to allow a surgeon to place and remove the clamp using only one hand. The clamp applier has a dial, a button, and a pulley actuator all accessible on the handle of the applier. The dial is used to lock the clamp onto the applier and to remove the clamp from the applier. The button is used to allow the pulley actuator to be used to manipulate the lower jaw of the clamp with respect to the upper jaw of the clamp, thus varying the amount of pressure exerted by the clamp on the vessel. The pulley actuator actuates a pulley system which engages the clamp, thereby manipulating the lower jaw of the clamp with respect to the upper jaw in a scissors-like manner, allowing the surgeon to properly clamp the target vessel. Various shapes and sizes of clamps are used for various procedures, but the clamps are all compatible with the clamp applier.
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The 3M Value Index Score (VIS) is a population-centric value measure that complements existing quality and total cost-of-care (TCC) metrics.
I knew I should not have done it but the opportunity presented itself and I had to go for it. I have always been a fan of the Prancing Horse but have never...
اَللَّهُمَّ إِِنِّيْ أَعُوْذُبِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ لاَ يَنْفَعُ , وَمِنْ قَلْبٍ لاَ يَخْشَعُ , وَمِنْ نَفْسٍ لاَ تَشْبَعُ , وَمِنْ دَعْوَةٍ لاَ يُسْتَجَابُ لَهاَ ...
اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا نَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْعَجْزِ وَالْكَسَلِ وَنَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْجُبْنِ وَالْبُخْلِ وَنَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ غَلَبَةِ الدَّيْنِ وَقَهْرِ الرِّجَالِ ...
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Önnek fájdalmai, kellemetlen problémái vannak? Tartós vagy heves fájdalmakban szenved? A mágnesterápia segíthet. Nézze meg, miért javasolják az orvosok a mágnesterápiát.
Hougen, H. P., Jensen, E. T. & Klausen, B., sep. 1989, I : A P M I S. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica. 97, 9, s. 825-832 8 s.. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel › Forskning › fagfællebedømt ...
Acylcarnitine accumulation in skeletal muscle and plasma has been observed in numerous models of mitochondrial lipid overload and insulin resistance. Fish oil n3PUFA (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) are thought to protect against lipid-induced insulin resistance. The present study tested the hypothesis that the addition of n3PUFA to an intravenous lipid emulsion would limit muscle acylcarnitine accumulation and reduce the inhibitory effect of lipid overload on insulin action. On three occasions, six healthy young men underwent a 6-h euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp accompanied by intravenous infusion of saline (Control), 10% Intralipid® [n6PUFA (omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids)] or 10% Intralipid®+10% Omegaven® (2:1; n3PUFA). The decline in insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose infusion rate, muscle PDCa (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation) and glycogen storage associated with n6PUFA compared with Control was prevented with n3PUFA. Muscle acetyl-CoA accumulation was greater ...
Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We therefore investigated the effect of preterm birth at ~0.9 of term after antenatal maternal betamethasone on insulin sensitivity, secretion and key determinants in adulthood, in a clinically relevant animal model. Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion (intravenous glucose tolerance test) and whole-body insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were measured and tissue collected in young adult sheep (14 months old) after epostane-induced preterm (9M, 7F) or term delivery (11M, 6F). Glucose tolerance and disposition, insulin secretion, β-cell mass and insulin sensitivity did not differ between term and preterm sheep. Hepatic PRKAG2 expression was greater in preterm than in term males (P = 0.028), but did not differ between preterm and term females. In skeletal muscle, SLC2A4 (P = 0.019), PRKAA2 (P = 0.021) and PRKAG2 (P = 0.049) ...
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is associated with multi-organ (hepatic, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue) insulin resistance (IR). Exercise is an effective treatment for lowering liver fat but its effect on insulin resistance in NAFLD is unknown. We aimed to determine whether supervised exercise in NAFLD would reduce liver fat and improve hepatic and peripheral (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) insulin sensitivity.Sixty nine NAFLD patients were randomised to 16 weeks exercise supervision ( n =38) orcounselling ( n =31) without dietary modification.All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy to assess changes in body fat, and in liver and skeletal muscle triglyceride, before and following exercise/counselling. To quantify changes in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, a pre-determined subset ( n =12 per group) underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp pre- and post-intervention. Results are shown as mean (95% CI). Fifty participants (30 ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to explore whether fat cell size in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue is independently related to insulin action and adipokine levels.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fat cells were prepared from abdominal subcutaneous biopsies obtained from 49 type 2 diabetic and 83 non-diabetic subjects and from omental biopsies obtained from 37 non-diabetic subjects. Cell size and insulin action on glucose uptake capacity in vitro were assessed in isolated fat cells. Insulin sensitivity in vivo was assessed with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps. Fasting blood samples were collected and adipokines and NEFA were measured.. RESULTS: Negative correlations were found between subcutaneous fat cell size and insulin sensitivity assessed as M-value during clamp and as insulin action on glucose uptake in fat cells in vitro. This was seen in non-diabetic subjects after including age, sex and BMI in the analyses. No such relationship was found in type 2 diabetic ...
Objective: In this retrospective analysis of the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance database, a clamp data pooling project, a cardiovascular risk score (CVS) was assessed to verify whether hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance were independent cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate how menopause affected CVS and insulin resistance. Design: Information was obtained on whole-body glucose uptake (M), determined by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, normalized by fat-free mass (FFM), and insulin concentration (1) at a steady state. Body composition was estimated using a labeled water technique or bioimpedance. Other parameters measured included blood pressure, lipid levels, and waist-to-hip ratio. CVS was computed using a structural equation model that included age, body mass index, blood lipids, and blood pressure. The study population included 523 normal and overweight patients. Women were grouped according to fertility status, and men, according to age ...
The responses of dairy cattle to chromium (Cr) supplementation reported in the literature suggest that it has the potential to reduce the incidence of both mastitis and ketosis. The effect of Cr supplementation of pasture fed dairy cows in early lactation was studied. Ten lactating Jersey cows fitted with rumen fistula were infused with either Cr-yeast (n=4), casein (n=3) or buffer only (controls; n=3) directly into the abomasum. All cows were subjected to a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Preliminary results show that there was no effect of Cr supplementation on milk yield, cortisol and b-hydroxy butyrate concentrations and somatic cell counts ...
To date, there is no single test that can diagnose insulin resistance. A World Health Organization (WHO) consensus group concluded that the Insulin Sensitivity Index (SI) of the lowest 25 percent of a general population can be considered insulin-resistant. Insulin sensitivity shows ethnical- and gender-based variations.35-37 The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique, considered the gold standard for diagnosing insulin resistance, is impractical in a clinical setting. HOMA IR might be a more practical alternative as its value is calculated using an equation (Figure 4) and is considered to replicate the clamp technique.38. A HOMA IR cut-off value of 2.5 has been identified to diagnose metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.39 An Indian study of adults identified a cut-off value of 2.41 to diagnose insulin resistance.40. The OGTT with insulin measurements at fasting and two hours after 75g glucose ingestion is a practical approach to diagnose insulin resistance. WHO defines the upper ...
BACKGROUND: Impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle is implicated in the development of insulin resistance. However, potential differences in fatness and fitness may influence previous results. METHODS: Subjects (n=18) were divided into insulin-sensitive (IS) and insulin-resistant (IR) groups by median glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Weight, VO2max (maximal aerobic capacity), and percentage body fat were measured before and after 6 continuous weeks of aerobic exercise training at 55-70% VO2max (40 min/session, 4 d/wk). RESULTS: Age, percentage fat, and VO2max were not different between IS and IR groups at baseline. Expression of the nuclear encoded PGC1alpha and mitochondrial encoded gene COX1 were significantly lower in the IR group (P|0.05). Citrate synthase activity and protein levels of subunits from complexes I and III of the respiratory chain were also lower in the IR group (P|0.05). Insulin sensitivity and aerobic fitness were increased after exercise
Harvard Apparatus offers a complete Glucose Clamp Infusion System for rats or mice including syringe pumps, swivels, tethers and catheters. Multiple syringe pumps push glucose, insulin and a drug, tracer glucose or other fluids into a 3 or 4-way connector which combines and reaches the animal via one channel of a dual channel swivel. Blood samples are taken manually or with an automated sampler on
INTRODUCTION: Accurate assessment of muscle insulin sensitivity requires measurement of insulin concentration in interstitial fluid (ISF), but has proved difficult. We aimed to optimise measurement of ISF insulin concentrations in rat muscles in vivo using microdialysis. METHODS: Factorial experimental design experiments were performed in vitro to determine optimal conditions for insulin recovery with microdialysis probes. These conditions were tested in vivo, adjusted appropriately and used in lean and obese Zucker rats to compare ISF insulin concentrations basally and during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic (HE) clamp. RESULTS: Optimal conditions in vivo were: a 100kDa microdialysis probe inserted in muscle, perfused with 1% BSA, 1.5mM glucose in 0.9% sodium chloride at 1μl/min. Samples were collected into siliconised glass microvials. As a reference for insulin, we established a protocol of inulin infusion, beginning at -80min and reaching equilibrium within 60min. HE clamp, beginning at 0min, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dissociation between metabolic and vascular insulin resistance in aging. AU - Schulman, Ivonne Hernandez. AU - Zhou, Ming Sheng. AU - Jaimes, Edgar A.. AU - Raij, Leopoldo. PY - 2007/7. Y1 - 2007/7. N2 - Physiological actions of insulin via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in the endothelium serve to couple regulation of hemodynamic and metabolic homeostasis. Insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension increase in prevalence with aging. We investigated the metabolic and endothelial actions of insulin in 24- vs. 3-mo Sprague-Dawley rats. With the use of the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, the rate of glucose infusion necessary to maintain equivalent plasma glucose (5.5 mmol/l) was similar in 24- vs. 3-mo rats, as was fasting glucose (5.2 ± 0.33 vs. 4.4 ± 0.37 mmol/l; mean ± SE) and insulin (0.862 ± 0.193 vs. 1.307 ± 0.230 mg/l). Systolic blood pressure was higher in 24-mo rats (133 ± 5 vs. 110 ± 4 mmHg; P = 0.005). Endothelial ...
Identifying the mechanisms by which insulin regulates glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle is critical to understanding the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Our knowledge of these mechanisms is limited by the difficulty of obtaining in vivo intracellular data. To quantitatively distinguish significant transport and metabolic mechanisms from limited experimental data, we developed a physiologically based, multiscale mathematical model of cellular metabolic dynamics in skeletal muscle. The model describes mass transport and metabolic processes including distinctive processes of the cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data: intracellular metabolite concentrations and patterns of glucose disposal. Model variations were ...
Change to an isocaloric, low-fat diet in Type 1 diabetic patients during a 3-month period resulted in significant improvement in insulin sensitivity without improvement in glycaemic control. However, insulin sensitivity remained 33% lower than in control subjects.
Looking for online definition of euglycemic in the Medical Dictionary? euglycemic explanation free. What is euglycemic? Meaning of euglycemic medical term. What does euglycemic mean?
Vitek results showing the antibiotic sensitivity/resistance of E. coli MG1655 lac plus strain adapted through 1,000 generations to the combined exposure of LSMMG and background levels of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. 1000G = 100C = 1,000 generations of growth; S = sensitive; R = resistant; I = inconclusive; 10E, 20E … 110E = 10, 20 … 110 generations of adaptation erasure performed by growing the 1000G-BA strain in shaker flasks without any antibiotics. Download Table S3, PDF file, 0.05 MB. ...
Exercise increases insulin sensitivity, one of its greatest benefits. But carbohydrates after exercise inhibit its ability to improve insulin sensitivity.
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Việc Xưởng NH3 mở rộng của Tổng công ty Phân bón và Hóa chất (PVFCCo) đi vào vận hành thương mại đúng tiến độ và đúng vào lúc giá thị trường diễn biến tăng, làm cho niềm vui của PVFCCo được nhân đôi trước thềm năm mới Mậu Tuất 2018. Bên cạnh việc duy trì vị thế là doanh nghiệp sản xuất kinh doanh phân bón hàng đầu trong nước, PVFCCo còn chú trọng phát triển lĩnh vực sản xuất hóa chất, tập trung vào các sản phẩm hóa chất dầu khí, hóa chất chuyên dụng, với mục tiêu là
module example %inline %{ // Returns the matrix [1 2; 3 4]; double **create_matrix() { double **M; int i; M = (double **) malloc(2 * sizeof(double *)); for (i = 0; i , 2; i++) { M[i] = (double *) malloc(2 * sizeof(double)); M[i][0] = 2 * i + 1; M[i][1] = 2 * i + 2; } return M; } // Gets the item M(i, j) value double get_matrix(double **M, int i, int j) { return M[i][j]; } // Sets the item M(i, j) value to be val void set_matrix(double **M, int i, int j, double val) { M[i][j] = val; } // Prints a matrix (2, 2) to console void print_matrix(double **M, int nbRows, int nbCols) { int i, j; for (i = 0; i , 2; i++) { for (j = 0; j , 2; j++) { printf(%3g , M[i][j]); } printf(\n ...
An electrical meter with integral AC current clamp is known as a clamp meter, clamp-on ammeter, tong tester, or colloquially as an amp clamp. A clamp meter measures the vector sum of the currents flowing in all the conductors passing through the probe, which depends on the phase relationship of the currents. Only one conductor is normally passed through the probe. In particular if the clamp is closed around a two-conductor cable carrying power to equipment, the same current flows down one conductor and up the other; the meter correctly reads a net current of zero. As electrical cables for equipment have both insulated conductors (and possibly an earth wire) bonded together, clamp meters are often used with what is essentially a short extension cord with the two conductors separated, so that the clamp can be placed around only one conductor of this extension. A relatively recent development is a multi-conductor clamp meter with several sensor coils around the jaws of the clamp. This could be ...
An electrical meter with integral AC current clamp is known as a clamp meter, clamp-on ammeter, tong tester, or colloquially as an amp clamp. A clamp meter measures the vector sum of the currents flowing in all the conductors passing through the probe, which depends on the phase relationship of the currents. Only one conductor is normally passed through the probe. In particular if the clamp is closed around a two-conductor cable carrying power to equipment, the same current flows down one conductor and up the other; the meter correctly reads a net current of zero. As electrical cables for equipment have both insulated conductors (and possibly an earth wire) bonded together, clamp meters are often used with what is essentially a short extension cord with the two conductors separated, so that the clamp can be placed around only one conductor of this extension. A relatively recent development was a multi-conductor clamp meter with several sensor coils around the jaws of the clamp. This could be ...
A jaw-type surgical clamp having replaceable clamp members is disclosed. The jaws are pivotally movable and include telescoping attachment portions and anti-rotation surfaces. The clamp members connect to the attachment portions and include anti-rotation surfaces that engage the anti-rotation surfaces of the jaws to prevent rotation. Mutually engagable structures releasably lock the jaws and the clamp members together.
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Microbial Syntrophy aims to understand the physiology and metabolic flexibility of microbial communities in relation to their environment.
Returns a new curve representing a substring of this curve. The startDistance and endDistance arguments specify the length along the curve which the substring should start and end at. If the endDistance is greater than the total length of the curve then any extra length will be ignored.. If z or m values are present, the output z and m will be interpolated using the existing vertices z or m values.. ...
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Im doing some practice problems, and this is from nursesaregreat.com: A procainamide drip is ordered (2 gm in 250 cc of D5W) to infuse at 4mg/kg/min. The patient weighs 165 lbs. Calculate the
Leica Biosystems has launched the new cooling unit called RM Cool Clamp for Leicas Rotation Microtoms (RM 2200 series). The RM Cool Clamp has been developed on the authority of Leica by INHECO and is now transferred to series production by INHECO.
... and correlates well with the gold-standard glucose clamp technique. When used for assessing the integrity of the hypothalamic- ... Glucose levels below 2.2 mmol/L are insufficient absent symptoms. The brain must register low glucose levels. In response, ... When used to assess insulin sensitivity, a standard dose of insulin is administered, and blood glucose is monitored with ... If extreme symptoms are present, glucose should be given intravenously. In subjects with no adrenal reserve an Addisonian ...
in Seattle Nick began collaborating with electrophysiologist Dan Cook, with whom he applied the new technique of patch clamping ... a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel and immediately recognized that this was a key component in the process of glucose- ...
... starch to glucose conversion and glucose to alcohol conversion occur in separate vats.[21] The breakdown of starch into glucose ... When World War II brought rice shortages, the sake-brewing industry was dealt a hefty blow as the government clamped down on ... 75% of today's sake is made using this technique, left over from the war years. There were even a few breweries producing "sake ... glucose or maltose) is called saccharification.[18] Yeast then turns this glucose into alcohol via fermentation.[16] ...
... was generated using linear regression against the M-value adjusted by lean body mass obtained from the glucose clamp technique ... from the euglycemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp study adjusted for age and gender as well as minimal model estimates of glucose ... It is estimated using fasting laboratory values including glucose (in mg/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL) and high-density ... Salvador Zubirán and validated against the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and the frequently-sampled intravenous glucose ...
... glucose clamp technique MeSH E01.450.150.100.355 - glucose tolerance test MeSH E01.450.150.100.450 - lactose tolerance test ... blood glucose self-monitoring MeSH E01.370.374.355 - glucose tolerance test MeSH E01.370.374.530 - ovarian function tests MeSH ... fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E01.450.495.225.230 - fluorescent antibody technique, indirect MeSH E01.450.495.225 ... enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique MeSH E01.450.495.410.380 - immunosorbent techniques MeSH E01.450.495.410.380.200 - ...
... a ring like structure associated with DNA replication and other phenomena Glucose clamp technique, a method for quantifying ... Clamp may refer to: Clamp (tool), a device used to hold an object in a fixed position Brick clamp, an early method of baking ... a sex toy Riser clamp, a device used to support vertical piping Storage clamp, an agricultural root crop storage Wheel clamp, a ... a member of the Robot Mafia in Futurama Clamp (surname), a surname Clamp (manga artists), stylized as CLAMP, an all-female ...
Glucose and insulin are both during fasting. This model correlated well with estimates using the euglycemic clamp method (r = ... both techniques use mathematical equations to describe the functioning of the major effector organs influencing glucose/insulin ... The approximation formulae above relate to HOMA and are crude estimates of the model near normal levels of glucose and insulin ... Hermans MP, Levy JC, Morris RJ, Turner RC (1999). "Comparison of tests of beta-cell function across a range of glucose ...
... as assessed by the hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, which may have potential therapeutic implications Hexokinase G6PC G6PC2 ... glucose 6-phosphatase-α), glucose 6-transporter (G6PT), and glucose 6-phosphatase-β (glucose 6-phosphatase-β or G6PC3) subunits ... and glucose 6-phosphatase-β, encoded by G6PC3. Glucose 6-phosphatase-α and glucose 6-phosphatase-β are both functional ... is an enzyme that hydrolyzes glucose 6-phosphate, resulting in the creation of a phosphate group and free glucose. Glucose is ...
The OGTT is less accurate than the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (the "gold standard" for measuring insulin ... The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how ... Blood plasma glucose between 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) and 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) indicate "impaired glucose tolerance", and ... If after 1 hour the blood glucose level is more than 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL), it is followed by a 100 g glucose dose. The ...
"What's a Glucose Clamp, Anyway?" Diabetes Health. Nov 7, 2007.[1] DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. "Glucose Clamp Technique: a ... The hyperinsulinemic clamps are often used to measure insulin resistance. The glucose clamp technique was developed by ... In human clinical trials, manual glucose clamps as well as the more modern method of automated glucose clamp find common use. ... "An Analysis of How to Measure Glucose during Glucose Clamps: Are Glucose Meters Ready for Research?" J. Diabetes Sci. Technol. ...
... with the help of a technique called "moisture gradient technique". Sistotrema brinkmannii produces β-1,3/1,4-glucanase which ... For instance, it converts Avicel containing microcrystalline cellulose to glucose at pH 4.0 and 65°C. It also forms white thin ... It is oxidase negative and the hyphae containing numerous clamps are oil-rich, contributing to its coarse granular appearance. ...
Electrical activity of pancreatic islets has been studied using patch clamp techniques. It has turned out that the behavior of ... Glucose/Insulin: activates beta cells and inhibits alpha cells. *Glycogen/Glucagon: activates alpha cells which activates beta ... and are important in the metabolism of glucose.[4] ...
The cell wall of S. salmonicolor contains fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose, however xylose is absent. Colonies grow in ... In its sexual state, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor produces dikaryotic hyphae with clamp connections. At the terminal end of the ... Diazonium blue B is a technique used to classify asexual yeasts as members of the Zygomycota, Basidiomycota or Ascomycota. The ... Induction of the sexual stage begins with anastomosis of compatible yeast cells to form dikaryotic hyphae with clamp ...
It is a type of glucose clamp technique. The test is rarely performed in clinical care, but is used in medical research, for ... This basic technique may be enhanced significantly by the use of glucose tracers. Glucose may be labeled with either stable or ... Insulin at eMedicine DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R (September 1979). "Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying ... Commonly used tracers are 3-3H glucose (radioactive), 6,6 2H-glucose (stable) and 1-13C Glucose (stable). Prior to beginning ...
A patch clamp is an electrophysiology technique used to study channels and transporters in cells by tracking the current that ... This is important in the small intestine and the kidney to prevent them from losing glucose. Symporters such as the sodium- ... This technique is used to better understand transporters mobility in the cell and its interactions with lipid domains and lipid ... This technique was perfected by Hodgkin and Huxley before the existence of channels and transporters was known. Besides its ...
... concentration decreases with blood glucose concentration in type I diabetes mellitus patients during hypoglycaemic clamps" ... 2009). "Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits" ... thus inhibiting the extent of glucose usage. In each case, the ineffective use of glucose as a source of energy leads to the ... the hormone which facilitates the uptake of glucose by cells; and type II diabetes, where the body becomes resistant to insulin ...
... high-resolution methods including the whole-islet patch-clamp technique which has helped to bridge the gap between patch-clamp ... Rorsman, P.; Berggren, P. O.; Bokvist, K.; Ericson, H.; Möhler, H.; Östenson, C. G. R.; Smith, P. A. (1989). "Glucose- ... MacDonald, P. E.; Joseph, J. W.; Rorsman, P. (2005). "Glucose-sensing mechanisms in pancreatic -cells". Philosophical ... Patch-clamp studies on pancreatic glucagon- and insulin-secreting cells (PhD thesis). Uppsala University. CS1 maint: ...
Perforated patch clamp technique was used having intracellular fluid inside the pipette and extracellular fluid in the bath ... Although the mechanism is unclear, increased insulin may mobilize glucose from peripheral tissues to serve as an alternative ... VGCCs were isolated and calcium current was recorded using patch clamp technique having ethanol as a treatment. Recordings were ... Voltage clamp recordings have been done on the aplysia neuron. ... at a voltage clamp of +30 mV. Results showed calcium current ...
Patch clamp techniques allow for the manipulation of the intracellular or extracellular ionic or lipid concentration while ... and the metabolism of glucose. All of these responses to a single stimuli aid in protecting the individual, whether the ...
Perforated patch clamp technique was used having intracellular fluid inside the pipette and extracellular fluid in the bath ... increased insulin may mobilize glucose from peripheral tissues to serve as an alternative fuel source for the heart (the heart ... VGCCs were isolated and calcium current was recorded using patch clamp technique having ethanol as a treatment. Recordings were ... Voltage clamp recordings have been done on the aplysia neuron. ... at a voltage clamp of +30 mV. Results showed calcium current ...
The procedure involves repeated, temporary cessation of blood flow to a limb to create ischemia (lack of oxygen and glucose) in ... temporary cross-clamping of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in dogs protected the LAD territory of the heart against ... and resulted in a surge of clinical interest in the technique.[citation needed] More than 10,000 patients worldwide have ... when they observed that cross-clamping on the right side of the heart (right circumflex artery) protected the left side of the ...
An example of an experimental technique which uses isolated cells is patch clamp electrophysiology, used to study how charged ... and glucose. The concentrations of these electrolytes must be carefully balanced, paying attention to osmotic pressure. The ... The techniques required to obtain isolated cells vary depending on the cell type required. Circulating cells such as blood ... A simple technique for dissociating cells involves cutting the tissue into small chunk before agitating the chunks in a ...
Sowerbutts AM, Lal S, Sremanakova J, Clamp A, Todd C, Jayson GC, et al. (August 2018). "Home parenteral nutrition for people ... Previously lipid emulsions were given separately but it is becoming more common for a "three-in-one" solution of glucose, ... Vars to complete the work necessary to make this nutritional technique safe and successful. In 2019 the UK experienced a severe ... For energy only, intravenous sugar solutions with dextrose or glucose are generally used. This is not considered to be ...
Glucose[edit]. Intravenous glucose is used in some Asian countries such as Korea as a pick-me-up, for "energy", but is not a ... The majority of the time, it is due to poor technique, but infrequently a poorly manufactured catheter may break from the hub ... a long sterile tube with a clamp to regulate or stop the flow; a connector to attach to the access device; and Y-sets to allow ... Asian immigrants to the United States are at risk if they seek intravenous glucose treatment. It may be had at store-front ...
In a complementary technique, peptide mass fingerprinting involves digestion of the native and modified protein with a protease ... This catabolic pathway consumes glucose and produces ATP, NADH and pyruvate. A key step for the regulation of glycolysis is an ... This slow rearrangement after binding often involves a conformational change as the enzyme "clamps down" around the inhibitor ...
Fick's laws of diffusion Nernst equation Bioelectronics Patch clamp Diffusion Scanning vibrating electrode technique ... glucose, Zn2+, Hg2+, and more that have been designed by individual laboratories. NMT measures how much, how fast, and in what ... Sun, T.; Xu, Y.; Li, P.; Yu, S.G.; Yin, L.P. (2007). "Non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique and its ... technique. There are also technologies SERIS and SIET that use this principle. Different samples need different amounts of ...
... has sought to clamp down on Radio Biafra with limited success. On 17 November 2015, the Abia state police command seized an ... hypertension and impaired glucose metabolism compared to controls born a short period after the famine had ended in the early ... how vaccine supply shortages during the Biafra smallpox campaign led to the development of the focal vaccination technique, ... BNL have also recorded series of security clamp down especially in Bakassi where soldiers of 'Operations Delta Safe' ...
Job conditions, application techniques and settings on equipment will influence actual coverage. Do not add water to this ... It can also be blown into a new wall construction by using temporary retainers or netting that is clamped in place then removed ... The word cellulose comes from the French word cellule for a living cell and glucose which is a sugar. Building insulation is ... Loose fill in walls is an antiquated technique of using cellulose in wall cavities. The home performance industry and its ...
Inability to clamp the distal arch, secondary to severe aortic atheromas, may also require DHCA to minimize stroke risk. ... Glucose is eliminated from all intravenous solutions to reduce the risk of hyperglycemia. In order for accurate hemodynamic ... These techniques are inexpensive but lack the precision needed to maintain target temperatures and require careful monitoring. ... This method would fall under conventional cooling techniques, in which cold saline and crushed ice are used to induce a state ...
Glucose[edit]. Intravenous glucose is used in some Asian countries such as Korea as a pick-me-up, for "energy," but is not a ... The majority of the time, it is due to poor technique, but infrequently a poorly manufactured catheter may break from the hub ... a long sterile tube with a clamp to regulate or stop the flow; a connector to attach to the access device; and Y-sets to allow ... Asian immigrants to the United States are at risk if they seek intravenous glucose treatment. It may be had at store-front ...
... the technique of patch-clamp uses isolated sections of natural or artificial membrane in much the same manner as voltage-clamp ... Diabetes and glucose toleranceEdit. Higher dietary intakes of magnesium correspond to lower diabetes incidence.[15] For people ... Second, the technique of two-electrode voltage-clamp allows the direct measurement of the ion flux across the membrane of a ... As this technique cannot distinguish between Mg2+ already present in the cell and that taken up during the experiment, only ...
... increases blood glucose to a lesser extent than sucrose (thus having a relatively low glycemic index[16]) so is used ... Intraoperative mannitol prior to vessel clamp release during renal transplant has been shown to reduce post-transplant kidney ... the required high operating temperatures and pressures are causes for hesitancy in the industrial use of this technique.[24] ... Eventually, it yields a syrup containing about 42% fructose, 52% glucose, and 6% maltose. Sucrose is simply hydrolyzed into an ...
The relative safety and risks of UV versus other disinfection techniques (which also entail risks) should be considered ... Oxidative/fermentation glucose test. *Phenylalanine deaminase test. *Reverse CAMP test. *Salt tolerance test ... Pinch clamp. *Retort stand. *Screw clamp. *Test tube holder. *Test tube rack ...
This catabolic pathway consumes glucose and produces ATP, NADH and pyruvate. A key step for the regulation of glycolysis is an ... In a complementary technique, peptide mass fingerprinting involves digestion of the native and modified protein with a protease ... "clamps down" around the inhibitor molecule. Examples of slow-binding inhibitors include some important drugs, such methotrexate ...
... "clamp-jaw" structure with an internal channel running along the full length.[6] Eukaryotic and archaeal RNA polymerases have a ... And also combinations of the above techniques. See also[edit]. *Alpha-amanitin ... UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. *Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Guanylyltransferase. *mRNA capping ...
DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R (September 1979). "Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and ... This basic technique may be enhanced significantly by the use of glucose tracers. Glucose may be labeled with either stable or ... Commonly used tracers are 3-3H glucose (radioactive), 6,6 2H-glucose (stable) and 1-13C Glucose (stable). Prior to beginning ... It is a type of glucose clamp technique. The test is rarely performed in clinical care, but is used in medical research, for ...
... using the sucrose gap voltage clamp technique.[4] ... total synthesis of tetrodotoxin from myo-inositol and D-glucose ... Most analytical techniques involve mass spectrometric detection following gas or liquid chromatographic separation.[62] ...
A memory clamp (also called a "reality clamp") is a generic name for a type of physical memory aid designed be worn on the ... This mnemonic technique plus others are effective because they allow the learner to apply their own knowledge to enhance their ... There is some evidence glucose consumption may have a positive impact on memory performance, though not in young adults. ... "Reality Clamp". Ukon, Ricky. "Proclamation of Rick Yukon's Intellectual Property in Reality Clamp discovery". Space Force 7. ...
Kiser used this technique to achieve successful 7 hours in vitro storage of a dog kidney, when the kidney had been flushed at 5 ... In Cohen's study the best 8 day stored kidneys consumed glucose at the rate of 2.3 μmol/g/day and 4.9 μmol/g/day respectively ... It has been shown by Bergstrom that 50% of a dog's kidney's cortical cells ATP content is lost within 1 minute of clamping the ... He based his technique on the observation by Keller that the loss of electrolytes from a kidney during storage could be ...
For the ranges of charge values see: Orders of magnitude (charge) Ammeter Clamp meter Galvanometer D'Arsonval galvanometer ... Electrocardiograph records the electrical activity of the heart Glucose meter for obtaining the status of blood sugar. ... using the impulse excitation technique: A small mechanical impulse causes the sample to vibrate. The vibration depends on ...
The symptoms of claudication ensue when the artery spasms, or clamps down on itself, creating an obstruction. Similar to ... Kannel WB, McGee D (1979). "Diabetes and glucose tolerance as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study". ... As of 2017, two randomized clinical trials are being conducted to better understand the optimal revascularization technique for ... Pathologic changes occurring in small vessels may be more sensitive to chronically elevated glucose levels than is ...
In metabolism research, Tritium and 14C-labeled glucose are commonly used in glucose clamps to measure rates of glucose uptake ... Beta emitters, including 3H and 14C, may be used when it is feasible to use sampling techniques to detect the presence of the ... The power of the technique is due to the fact that radioactive decay is much more energetic than chemical reactions. Therefore ... Kraegen EW, Jenkins AB, Storlien LH, Chisholm DJ (1990). "Tracer studies of in vivo insulin action and glucose metabolism in ...
Using the proper, intramuscular-injection technique for olanzapine pamoate helps to decrease the risk of PDSS, though it does ... Treatment with olanzapine (like clozapine) may result in increased weight gain and increased glucose and cholesterol levels ... euglycemic clamp". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 88 (12): 5875-80. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021884. PMID ... "quite impressed by the magnitude of weight gain on olanzapine and implications for glucose." Lilly had threatened Egilman with ...
Some species have paxillae and in some, the main pedicellariae are clamp-like and recessed into the skeletal plates. This group ... They vary between species and are typically formed from up to six sugar molecules (usually glucose and galactose) connected by ... Microscopy Research and Technique. 55 (6): 365-368. doi:10.1002/jemt.1184. PMID 11782068. S2CID 31052874.CS1 maint: multiple ...
"Whats a Glucose Clamp, Anyway?" Diabetes Health. Nov 7, 2007.[1] DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. "Glucose Clamp Technique: a ... The hyperinsulinemic clamps are often used to measure insulin resistance. The glucose clamp technique was developed by ... In human clinical trials, manual glucose clamps as well as the more modern method of automated glucose clamp find common use. ... "An Analysis of How to Measure Glucose during Glucose Clamps: Are Glucose Meters Ready for Research?" J. Diabetes Sci. Technol. ...
... euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely ... Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance.. DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. ... Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to ... Because the plasma glucose concentration is held constant, the glucose infusion rate is an index of glucose metabolism. Under ...
Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in ... Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in ... Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in ... Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in ...
... euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely ... hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin ( ... Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose ( ... euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely ...
Indices based on log-transformed plasma glucose and insulin levels are recommended in subjects with IGT. ... The gold standard in measuring insulin resistance is glucose clamp, but this method is difficult to apply in large studies. ... Results: With clamp technique, we demonstrated a decrease in insulin sensitivity in both obese groups vs controls, and also in ... Comparison of simple indices of insulin sensitivity using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique Med Sci Monit. 2004 ...
Plasma glucose was clamped at 5.6 mmol/L, with a variable-rate infusion of 20% dextrose based on arterialized plasma glucose ... Measurement of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity by the clamp technique.. Participants underwent hyperglycemic and ... Plasma glucose was measured by the glucose oxidase method with a glucose analyzer (YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH), and the ... Effect of strength training on glucose tolerance and post-glucose insulin response. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984;16:539-543pmid: ...
Glucose Clamp Technique. Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test. Adiponectin. Cytokines. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Glucose Metabolism Disorders. Metabolic Diseases. Insulin. Hypoglycemic Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... increase of insulin secretion as measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test [ Time Frame: one month, six months, one year ] ... Increase of insulin sensitivity as measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. [ Time Frame: one month, six months and one ...
Other: Glucose clamp technique. Interventional. *University of Aarhus. Other. *Allocation: Randomized. *Intervention Model: ... Last planned average post-prandial glucose prior to delivery. Average of three main meals. ...
In the present study 14 middle aged men with impaired glucose tolerance and low glucose-stimulated insulin values received 2 ... Nor was the peripheral insulin sensitivity, measured by the euglycemic clamp technique, significantly affected. In the ... In the present study 14 middle aged men with impaired glucose tolerance and low glucose-stimulated insulin values received 2 ... Effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity, glucose tolerance and blood pressure Diabetes Res. 1989 Jul;11(3):141-7. ...
Glucose Clamp Technique * Humans * Insulin Resistance * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism ... Results: Insulin sensitivity was measured by a 3-hour 80 mU/m2 per minute hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (100 mg/dL). As ... expected, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower glucose disposal (4.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.5 +/- 2.8 mg/min per kilogram fat-free ...
DeFronzo, R.A.; Tobin, J.D.; Andres, R.: Glucose clamp technique. A method for qualifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am ... Rojdmark, S.; Anderson, D.E.H.; Hed, R.; Sundblad, L.: Effect of verapamil on glucose response of intravenous infecting glucose ... II Impairment of glucose tolerance by verapamil in the conscious dog. Pharmacology 20: 196-202, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... DeFronzo, R.A.S Pathogenesis of glucose intolerance in uremia. Metabolism 27: 1866-1880, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
32Brehm A & Roden M (2009) Glucose clamp techniques. In Clinical Diabetes Research, Methods and Techniques, pp. 43-67 [Roden M ... 25DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD & Andres R (1979) Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. ... by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 ... 2008) Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice. FASEB J 22, 2416-2426. ...
Plasma glucose was measured by the glucose oxidase technique in a Beckman glucose analyzer during the clamp procedure (Beckman ... DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J ... Keywords: Obesity; adiponectin; insulin resistance; weight loss; gastric bypass; HDL-cholesterol; glucose clamp technique ... In the clamp studies, plasma glucose did not change during the insulin infusion. The plasma insulin levels reached during the ...
Glucose Clamp Technique. Humans. Insulin / metabolism. Middle Aged. Obesity / diet therapy*, metabolism, psychology. Overweight ... insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; fasting plasma levels of glucose, lipids, leptin, ghrelin, and ... Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Composition / physiology. Body Mass Index. Calorimetry, Indirect / methods. Cross-Sectional ...
Determination of blood glucose concentration is one of the most important measurements in clinical chemistry worldwide. ... Glucose Clamp Technique. Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is ... Participants will perform blood glucose monitoring (BGM) over the course of 14 days and, in parallel, wear continuous glucose ... Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Sichuan, China.. Our goals were to screen newborns and ...
Glucose Clamp Technique. Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is ... Glucose Tolerance Test. A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes ... Blood Glucose Self-monitoring. Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or ... The renal threshold for glucose (RTg) corresponds to a blood glucose of ~180 mg/dL, but in hospitals patients are often ...
Glucose Clamp Technique. Insulin / blood. Insulin Resistance / physiology*. Male. Plethysmography. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. ... Using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique, the rate of glucose infusion necessary to maintain equivalent plasma ... Blood Glucose / metabolism. Blood Pressure / drug effects*. Fasting / blood. Fructose / administration & dosage*, pharmacology ... Fasting plasma glucose (171+/-10 versus 120+/-10 mg/dL), plasma insulin (1.8+/-0.5 versus 0.7+/-0.1 microg/L), and plasma ...
Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp technique. There was a strong positive ... The level of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is associated with glucose metabolism in nondiabetic women and men, and the ... To further assess the relationship between SHBG levels and glucose metabolism, we measured serum concentrations of sex hormones ... and studied the relationship between these variables and parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism. ...
1979) Glucose clamp technique: A method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol 237:E214-E223. ... A) Glucose infusion rates (GIR) during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps in previously untrained individuals before (white ... Glucose infusion rates.. Physical training has been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance and to improve glucose metabolism (5 ... with measurement of insulin sensitivity by glucose infusion rates (GIR) during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (18). As ...
Procedure: Glucose clamp technique euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with target blood glucose of 90 mg/dl (5 mmol/l), followed ... Procedure: Glucose clamp technique euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with target blood glucose of 90 mg/dl (5 mmol/l), followed ... Procedure: Glucose clamp technique euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with target blood glucose of 90 mg/dl (5 mmol/l), followed ... Procedure: Glucose clamp technique Drug: Amisulpride Drug: Olanzapine Drug: Placebo Not Applicable ...
Glucose clamp techniques. *Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic or hyperglycemic o Co-infusion of somatostatin with or without ... Translation Core human studies services include phenotyping (i.e. GTT, clamp studies, tracer studies), and access to a biobank ...
DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Anders R: Glucose clamp technique: a model for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J ... Whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was determined using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (27). A ... Plasma glucose concentration was kept constant by a variable 20% glucose infusion that was adjusted after plasma glucose ... of glucose disposal after glucose infusion (1,2). Insulin-mediated glucose uptake and utilization is markedly impaired in ...
catecholamines, glucose-clamp technique, hypoglycaemia, thermogenesis This content is only available as a PDF. ... Effects of Blood Glucose Concentration on Thermogenesis and Glucose Disposal during Hyperinsulinaemia I. W. Gallen; I. W. ... 3. During the final 30 min of each hyperinsulinaemic clamp, the rates of glucose disposal (53.5 ± 1.4 versus 38.2 ± 1.0 μmol ... 4. Plasma noradrenaline rose during the clamp to significantly higher levels at a blood glucose concentration of 4.5 mmol/l ( ...
Aims/hypothesis Both insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction play a role in the transition from normal glucose tolerance ( ... NGT) to Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) through impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).... ... DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. (1979) The glucose clamp technique. A method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance ... Analytical techniques. Plasma glucose was measured by the glucose oxidase reaction (Beckman Glucose Analyzer, Fullerton, Calif ...
6. De Fronzo R, Tobin JD & Andres R (1979). Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. ... To reevaluate insulin resistance by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and by the clamp technique, newborn male ... In the clamp studies the blood glucose concentration was held constant at basal levels by a variable glucose infusion using the ... Figure 2 - Blood glucose concentration and glucose infusion rates during the insulin clamp studies performed in control (A) and ...
Glucose Clamp Technique. *Glycosaminoglycans (urine) *Humans. *Hyperglycemia (complications) *Hyperinsulinism. *Insulin ( ... After euglycemia, insulin resistance improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the glucose infusion rate during the clamp ... Before and after iv insulin treatment, insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and a muscle ... biopsy was taken for measurement of UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-glucose, and UDP-galactose levels. Also, isoelectric focusing ...
Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. Ejection fraction is related to ... In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was ... In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was ... and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. When considering LV metabolism, age and RVEF were associated also with ...
Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance DEFRONZO R. ... Insulin resistance in sepric rats - a study by the glucose clamp technique IOCHIDA LC. ... Manual feedback technique for the control of blood glucose concentration ANDRES R. ... Insulin antibody does not cause insulin resistance during glucose clamping TOMINAGA M. ...
Glucose clamp technique : a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance DEFRONZO RA ... Influences of glucose loading and of injected insulin on hepatic glucose output STEELE R. ... Hypoglycemic agent YM440 suppresses hepatic glucose output via gluconeogenesis by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase activity in ... Severe hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance as evidenced by euglycemic clamps in genetically obese fa/fa rats TERRETTAZ J ...
Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol 1979;237:E214-23. ... If the fasting glucose levels are elevated, UCPCR will not correlate so well with HOMA-IR as elevated glucose will start to ... The minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin levels during intravenous or oral glucose loading allows assessment without ... Role of glucose and insulin resistance in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: results of a 25-year follow-up study. Lancet ...
  • This hyperglycemic plateau is maintained by adjustment of a variable glucose infusion, based on the rate of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the plasma glucose concentration is held constant, the glucose infusion rate is an index of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merrill, J.P.: Glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in uremic, predi abetic, and normal subjects. (springer.com)
  • DeFronzo, R.: Lack of effect of parathyroid hormone on hepatic glucose metabolism in the dog. (springer.com)
  • It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Many studies have revealed alteration in glucose metabolism in trauma and proportional relation of its high level to the degree of injury (6). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The level of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is associated with glucose metabolism in nondiabetic women and men, and the finding of low SHBG levels is suggested to be a predictor of the development of type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • To further assess the relationship between SHBG levels and glucose metabolism, we measured serum concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG in 23 well characterized diabetic men, and studied the relationship between these variables and parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Physical exercise exerts numerous favorable effects on general health ( 4 ) and specifically has been shown to improve glucose metabolism in the insulin-resistant state ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mitochondria, however, are also the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are inevitable by-products of oxidative glucose metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • This receptor may also interfere with glucose metabolism and insulin action. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • AMPK has been proposed as a major metabolic switch that phosphorylates key target proteins along diverse metabolic pathways, including hepatic lipid metabolism, adipocyte lipolysis, and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and glucose transport ( 19 , 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, the cardiovascular and noradrenaline responses during the infusions may be linked and dependent upon the hyperinsulinaemia, whereas some other aspect of glucose metabolism influences the thermogenic response. (portlandpress.com)
  • Insulin response (OGTT) and insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic insulin clamp) were evaluated in 388 subjects in the San Antonio Metabolism (SAM) study (138 NGT, 49 IGT and 201 T2DM). (springer.com)
  • The San Antonio Metabolism (SAM) study was designed to examine the major determinants (insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity) of glucose homeostasis [ 1 , 2 ] in the population of South Texas, which is comprised primarily of Mexican Americans and Caucasians. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to determine predictors of RV glucose uptake (GU) and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) and (2) to compare them to predictors of LV metabolism in healthy middle-aged men. (frontiersin.org)
  • Insufficient Islet Compensation to Insulin Resistance vs. Reduced Glucose Effectiveness in Glucose-Intolerant Mice", American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oct. 2002, 283, E738-E744. (patentgenius.com)
  • skeletal muscle plays an essential role in whole body energy metabolism and is the major tissue responsible for insulin-mediated glucose uptake ( 10 ). (physiology.org)
  • The areas covered in this mini review include studies that have used isotopic tracer methods and/or euglycemic clamp studies to investigate substrate metabolism during the above common physiologic stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this mini review, we will discuss sexual dimorphism in glucose and lipid metabolism during different metabolic states while concentrating on in vivo mechanistic studies that have used isotopic tracer methods and/or hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp studies to investigate gender-based differences in substrate metabolism during fasting, hypoglycemia, or exercise. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, metabolic changes during basal and short term fasting involved a sexual dimorphism in lipid but not glucose metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abstract To determine whether the combination of obesity and hypertension results in additive defects in oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism and the association of these changes with altered hemodynamic actions of insulin, we studied 11 abdominally obese hypertensive, 6 abdominally obese normotensive, and 7 lean normotensive nondiabetic subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Whereas the global impairment in glucose metabolism suggests the presence of an early defect or defects, including reduced tissue perfusion, systemic and regional hemodynamic responses to insulin were not altered. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the principal objectives of this study were to determine whether the combination of obesity and hypertension has additive and deleterious effects on glucose metabolism and to determine whether these defects are linked with resistance to the vasodilator actions of insulin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Insulin resistance (IR) is an early indicator of impaired glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes [ 5 ] and pre-teen IR can predict future impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent epidemiological findings suggest that high levels of dietary acid load can affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • Abnormal Renal, Hepatic, and Muscle Glucose Metabolism following Glucose Ingestion in Type 2 Diabetes. (amazonaws.com)
  • The reabsorption of glucose is ensured by the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2, responsible for the reabsorption of 90% of glucose, and SGLT1, that reabsorbs the remaining glucose [3].Despite the large amount of data regarding the implication of the kidneys in glucose homeostasis, this organ is often overlooked as a key player in glucose metabolism. (amazonaws.com)
  • The levels of both transporters were of a similar order of magnitude in whole muscle tissue (GLUT1/GLUT4 ratio varied from 0.1 to 0.6), suggesting that both may have an important physiological role in regulating muscle glucose metabolism. (garvan.org.au)
  • Marked changes in GLUT1 expression with alterations in the metabolic state, such as prolonged fasting, may play an important role in cardiac glucose metabolism. (garvan.org.au)
  • Rather, a higher leg lactate release and lower glucose oxidation with intralipid infusion may suggest a metabolic feedback regulation of glucose metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Sirtuin 1 may regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Resumo em inglês The authors give a general overview on the cerebral glucose metabolism, with special reference to brain injury, including intake, blood-brain barrier properties for glucose transport, oxidative metabolism and energetic needs during the head trauma. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The evidences of the presence of ischemia and hypoxia in those situations and the relationships with the cerebral glucose metabolism are discussed. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone and glucose homeostasis. (rusmedserv.com)
  • Yet analysis of hepatic glucose metabolism revealed that prednisolone did alter glycogen balance by reducing glycogen synthase flux under hyperinsulinemic as well as hyperglycemic conditions. (eur.nl)
  • Our data indicate that prednisoloneinduced adverse effects on glucose metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice do not reflect impaired insulin sensitivity but may be caused by other changes in the hormonal regulatory network controlling glucose metabolism such as fibroblast growth factor 21 and leptin. (eur.nl)
  • The three main SCFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, differentially alter host metabolism ( 2 , 3 ), and it appears that propionate exerts the most beneficial metabolic outcome as body weight changes via gastric bypass associate with rises in propionate ( 4 ), mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with propionate improves glucose tolerance ( 5 ), and delivery of propionate to the colon of obese humans reduces weight gain ( 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When the steady-state is achieved, the glucose infusion rate equals glucose uptake by all the tissues in the body and is therefore a measure of tissue insulin sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under these steady-state conditions of euglycemia, the glucose infusion rate equals glucose uptake by all the tissues in the body and is therefore a measure of tissue sensitivity to exogenous insulin. (nih.gov)
  • Skeletal muscle is the principal site of glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions, accounting for ∼75% of glucose disposal after glucose infusion ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin-mediated glucose uptake and utilization is markedly impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes ( 2 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These data demonstrate that MSG-obese rats develop insulin resistance to peripheral glucose uptake. (scielo.br)
  • The strongest determinants of RVFFAU were exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake), resting heart rate, LVEF, and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Insulin resistance is a core defect in DM2, oc-curring in peripheral tissues (skeletal muscles and adipose tissue) leading to decreased glucose uptake anddisposal,andinliverleadingtoincreasedhepatic glucose production. (hormones.gr)
  • In-vitro studies have provided evidence that R-(+)-ALA can specifically activate two important molecules of the insulin signaling pathway-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) with subsequent enhancement of glucose uptake via the glucose transporter system in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. (hormones.gr)
  • Those who require lower amounts of glucose, indicating lower uptake of glucose into muscle cells, were considered insulin resistant, he said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • 1 It was classically described as resistance to insulin mediated glucose uptake in peripheral cells. (springer.com)
  • Our aim was to study glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 in relation to in vivo glucose uptake in rat cardiac and skeletal muscle. (garvan.org.au)
  • GLUT4 correlated very strongly (r2 = 0.97) with maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (Rg' max. (garvan.org.au)
  • A distinct difference in regulation of the two transporters was evident in heart: in 5 h-fasted rats, basal glucose uptake and GLUT1 levels in heart were very high and both were reduced, by 90 and 60% respectively, by 48 h fasting. (garvan.org.au)
  • In conclusion, the high association of muscle GLUT4 content with insulin responsiveness in different muscles, and the preservation of both with fasting, supports a predominant role of GLUT4 in insulin-mediated glucose uptake. (garvan.org.au)
  • GLUT1 may play an important role in mediating cardiac muscle glucose uptake in the basal metabolic state. (garvan.org.au)
  • The offspring of type 2 diabetic patients were characterized by an ~60% lower rate of muscular glucose uptake and 30% lower rates of resting muscular ATP synthesis rate. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have previously shown that overnight fasted women have higher insulin-stimulated whole body and leg glucose uptake despite a higher intramyocellular triacylglycerol concentration than men. (nih.gov)
  • Intralipid infusion causes less insulin resistance of muscle glucose uptake in women than in men. (nih.gov)
  • Glucose infusion rate and insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake in women and men in the control (□) and intralipid (■) trial. (nih.gov)
  • C: Insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake during the 120-min clamp in the control trial. (nih.gov)
  • E: Insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake the last 30 min of the clamp. (nih.gov)
  • F: Delta insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake the last 30 min of the clamp expressed as the difference between the control and the intralipid trial. (nih.gov)
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanisms, rat L6 myotubes were used.Glucose uptake was measured by using 2-[3H]-Deoxy-Glucose (2-DG) and specific inhibitors, as well as phosphorylation status of key kinases, were used to determine the implicated signaling pathway. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Additionally, in vitro results showed a synergistic effect between APE and insulin as well as increased glucose uptake through GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This involves measuring insulin-induced glucose uptake whilst the blood glucose concentration is maintained at a steady concentration (via glucose infusion). (dermnetnz.org)
  • After adjustment for adiposity, CCS had higher total cholesterol level (154.7 versus148.3 mg/dL, P =.004), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (89.4 versus 83.7 mg/dL, P =.002), and triglyceride level (91.8 versus 84 mg/dL, P =.03) and were less insulin sensitive (insulin stimulated glucose uptake, measure of insulin resistance, adjusted for lean body mass 12.1 versus 13.4 mg/kg/min, P =.002) than control subjects. (umn.edu)
  • Insulin resistance Metabolic Score for Insulin Resistance Homeostatic model assessment Diabetes mellitus Diabetes management Linda von Wartburg, "What's a Glucose Clamp, Anyway? (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the primary cause for type 2 diabetes is still unknown, insulin resistance is an early defect in the pathogenesis of this metabolic disorder, as it is observed already in normal glucose-tolerant relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes ( 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PI 3-kinase activation is necessary but not sufficient for metabolic actions of insulin ( 16 , 17 ), suggesting that novel cascades contribute to the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of 5′ -AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to contribute to the regulation of insulin-independent glucose transport in skeletal muscle in response to exercise/contraction or factors that induce metabolic stress ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Measurements were made of glucose infusion rate and respiratory gas exchange from which glucose storage and oxidation and metabolic rate were calculated. (portlandpress.com)
  • These mechanisms include a series of autonomic nervous system (ANS), neuroendocrine and metabolic responses that increase glucose availability by stimulating initially hepatic (later renal) glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and enhanced lipolysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • 16 Although 4 of the criteria proposed by the ATP III to diagnose the metabolic syndrome-glucose intolerance, a high triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure-parallel the abnormalities that comprise syndrome X, 8,11 there are 2 important differences between the 2 concepts. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 The role of insulin resistance as one of the major contributors to the metabolic syndrome is underlined in the World Health Organization definition, which requires impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes and/or insulin resistance together with two other risk factors for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. (hormones.gr)
  • In addition, higher incidence of diabetes, insulin resistance, or impaired glucose control have been found in subjects with elevated metabolic acid load markers. (mdpi.com)
  • The Role of the Kidney in Glucose HomeostasisMaria Mota1, Eugen Mota2 and Ilie-Robert Dinu2[1] Department of Diabetes, Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova, Romania[2] Department of Nephrology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova, Romania1. (amazonaws.com)
  • But the awareness of the renal mechanisms of glucose control is likely to increase due to the development of new types of glucose-lowering drugs that target this metabolic pathway [4].2. (amazonaws.com)
  • The "Selfish Brain" theory has been reinforced in central aspects by the DFG supported Clinical Research Group "Selfish Brain: brain glucose and metabolic syndrome" using experiments carried out on both healthy and diseased test subjects. (academic.ru)
  • Resumo em inglês During germination and development of corn seeds the metabolic flow is intense, the synthesis and degradation of sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and hydrolysis of starch, besides to the decrease in abscisic acid (ABA) concentration are some of the major events. (worldwidescience.org)
  • This team-approach is not only used for pharmacodynamic assessments of blood-glucose lowering agents, but also for other investigational objectives the clamp technique can be used for, e.g. the assessment of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function (hyperglycemic glucose clamps) and hypoglycaemia counter-regulation (hypoglycemic glucose clamps) or metabolic fluxes using stable isotope dilution techniques and sometimes muscle or fat biopsies . (profil.com)
  • ProSciento's Automated Glucose Clamp technology, now in its second generation, is the result of having refined technical capabilities over nearly two decades of dedicated metabolic research. (prosciento.com)
  • Among the potential mechanisms, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the byproducts of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, exhibit correlative beneficial metabolic effects in humans and rodents, including improvements in glucose homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Is was measured by a 2h manual hyperinsulinaemic (insulin infusion rate-40mU/m 2 body surface area/min) euglycaemic (blood glucose kept at 5mmol/l) clamp technique and expressed as a glucose disposal rate (M) and insulin sensitivity index (IsI). (hormones.gr)
  • Intralipid infusion reduced whole-body glucose infusion rate by 26% in women and 38% in men (P (nih.gov)
  • A: Glucose infusion rate the last 30 min of the clamp. (nih.gov)
  • B: Delta glucose infusion rate the last 120 min of the clamp, expressed as the difference between the control and the intralipid trial. (nih.gov)
  • In the control trial, insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia was 54 ± 5 and 56 ± 5 μmol · min−1 · kg−1 LBM in women and men, respectively (Fig. 1A). (nih.gov)
  • In this scenario, the operator is not required to make frequent judgments about the glucose infusion rate required to maintain the target glucose concentration and, thus, the potential for operator bias and inter-operator variability is largely eliminated. (prosciento.com)
  • Glucose clamp technique is a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hyperglycemic clamps are often used to assess insulin secretion capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1] DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. "Glucose Clamp Technique: a Method for Quantifying Insulin Secretion and Resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose intolerance is, therefore, usually encountered in uremic patients in whom both impaired tissue sensitivity to insulin and impaired secretion of the hormone co-exist (5,10). (springer.com)
  • Then, a combined glucose clamp study will be performed in order to test the effects of these drugs on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subsequently, measurements of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are performed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique followed by hyperglycemic clamp. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In all subjects the insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (ΔI/ΔG÷IR) was calculated as the ratio of the increment in plasma insulin to the increment in plasma glucose during the OGTT divided by insulin resistance, as measured during the clamp. (springer.com)
  • An advantage of the SAM study is that it allows one to compare abnormalities in insulin secretion following the normal route (oral) of glucose administration and insulin sensitivity, as measured directly with the euglycaemic insulin clamp, in the same individual in two major ethnic groups, Mexican Americans and Caucasians. (springer.com)
  • Vitamin D, insulin secretion, sensitivity, and lipids: results from a case-control study and a randomized controlled trial using hyperglycemic clamp technique. (nih.gov)
  • Sensory nerve desensitization by resiniferatoxin improves glucose tolerance and increases insulin secretion in Zucker DiabeticFatty rats and is associated with reduced plasma activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV", European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 509, No. 2-3, pp. 211-217 (2005). (patentgenius.com)
  • Na+-D-glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 is Pivotal for Intestinal Glucose Absorption and Glucose-dependent Incretin Secretion. (amazonaws.com)
  • Hyperglycemic glucose clamps assess insulin secretion characteristics or urinary glucose excretion dynamics. (prosciento.com)
  • The optimum individual method to assess insulin physiology uses glucose disposal rate during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp studies, 3 , 4 which require infusions of insulin and glucose and cannot be used at a population level. (bmj.com)
  • Among subjects with different PP1 G subunit genotypes, there was no difference in blood pressure, serum cholesterol, plasma glucose and insulin levels, and glucose disposal rate estimated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 2 3 4 Nonoxidative glucose disposal (ie, glycogen synthesis) has been found to represent an important site of insulin resistance in essential hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • The regulatory G subunit of the glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 G subunit) is a key protein in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis by insulin and thus regulation of nonoxidative glucose disposal. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, this situation begin changing rapidly with the introduction of methods to quantify insulin-mediated glucose disposal, 5,6 and it soon became clear 7,8 that the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were, in Himsworth's terms, "insulin insensitive. (ahajournals.org)
  • Abdominal obesity is associated with defects in insulin-regulated oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal as well as in insulin suppression of hepatic glucose production. (ahajournals.org)
  • Evidence for resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal has been observed in several studies comparing nonobese hypertensive patients with weight-matched normotensive control subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 2 3 4 In contrast to the relatively consistent adverse effect of hypertension on glucose disposal in nonobese patients, the studies are more evenly divided between those that observed greater insulin resistance in obese hypertensive subjects than in obese normotensive subjects 5 6 7 8 9 and those that did not. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 15 16 17 Our group has shown that abdominal obesity is associated with marked abnormalities of insulin-mediated glucose disposal compared with that in equally obese individuals with gluteofemoral obesity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the degree to which obese hypertensive and obese normotensive subjects were matched largely by chance for body fat distribution may explain why some studies observed differences of insulin-mediated glucose disposal while others did not. (ahajournals.org)
  • Other reports indicate that hypertension is associated with resistance to the vasodilator actions of insulin, which purportedly contribute to the defect of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20 21 However, hypertension in nonobese patients is associated with a defect in nonoxidative glucose disposal, 2 whereas a reduced delivery of glucose and insulin would represent an early defect that would likely impair both oxidative and nonoxidative glucose utilization. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of long-term oral administration of L-carnitine on insulin sensitivity, glucose disposal, plasma leptin concentrations and acylcarnitine spectrum both in plasma and urine. (ugent.be)
  • Glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity were measured by means of the euglycemichyperinsulinemic clamp technique. (ugent.be)
  • Insulin sensitivity of whole-body and leg glucose disposal was studied in 16 young well-matched healthy men and women infused with intralipid or saline for 7 h. (nih.gov)
  • The target values for plasma glucose concentrations for the investigation and diagnosis of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose, and the realization that small incremental changes in glucose concentr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 0.05), although the absolute changes were not significantly different (+ 0.17 ± 0.06 and +0.14 ± 0.05 nmol/l at blood glucose concentrations of 4.5 and 3.5 mmol/l, respectively). (portlandpress.com)
  • 0.01) at both blood glucose concentrations. (portlandpress.com)
  • Plasma glucose concentrations were shown to be lower, while free fatty acids (FFA) and lipolysis higher in women compared to men after fasting. (frontiersin.org)
  • General responses to fasting are gender-neutral, and include increases in plasma fatty acid and ketones, and a decrease in plasma glucose concentrations ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. (springer.com)
  • Intralipid did not impair insulin or AMPK signaling in muscle and subcutaneous fat, did not cause accumulation of muscle lipid intermediates, and did not impair insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity in muscle or increase plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines.In vitro glucose transport in giant sarcolemmal vesicles was not decreased by acute exposure to fatty acids.Leg lactate release was increased and respiratory exchange ratio was decreased by intralipid. (nih.gov)
  • High concentrations of exogenous glucose are believed to promote accumulation of ABA, causing delay in the germination and development of seedlings, while lower concentrations stimulated the germination and (mais) development. (worldwidescience.org)
  • In our studies it was verified that 800 µM glucose stimulated the germination and initial development of the common corn genotype and delayed severely or softly for sweet corn (su1) genotypes, probably due to different glucose endogenous concentrations of each genotype. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Simple indices derived from fasting levels of glucose and insulin-especially the homeostasis model assessment and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index-are the most commonly used tools for estimating IR. (aacc.org)
  • Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. (mdpi.com)
  • Hence, lowering dietary acid load may be relevant for improving glucose homeostasis and prevention of type 2 diabetes development on a long-term basis. (mdpi.com)
  • Available literature suggests that poor acid load control may contribute to impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, but it is not sufficiently supportive to fully elucidate the issue and additional well-designed studies are clearly needed. (mdpi.com)
  • CLAMS), whole body glucose homeostasis (euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique in conscious mice), exercise intervention (running wheels), and behaviour. (ki.se)
  • IntroductionIt is only in recent years that the attention was drawn on the important role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis. (amazonaws.com)
  • Role of the Kidney in Normal Glucose Homeostasis and in the Hyperglycaemia of Diabetes Mellitus: Therapeutic Implications. (amazonaws.com)
  • The Role of Kidney in Glucose Homeostasis - SGLT2 Inhibitors, a New Approach in Diabetes Treatment. (amazonaws.com)
  • Early non-human studiesThe first researchers in this field, Bergman and Drury brought the first clues about the involvement of the kidney in glucose homeostasis in 1938 [5]. (amazonaws.com)
  • One of the most lethal and prevalent chronic diseases is diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by dysfunction of glucose homeostasis. (jmir.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether adverse effects of prednisolone on glucose homeostasis are aggravated in mice with compromised insulin sensitivity due to a high-fat diet by applying various methods to analyze changes in insulin sensitivity in mice. (eur.nl)
  • We further demonstrate that an ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent neuronal network is necessary for ileal propionate and long chain fatty acid sensing to regulate glucose homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings highlight the potential to manipulate fatty acid sensing machinery in the ileum to regulate glucose homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Of note, these results are associative indications of intestinal FFAR2 regulating blood glucose levels via GLP-1, but to date, no one has addressed a direct causative role of intestinal FFAR2 activation in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To this end, we have characterized the role of the proximal small intestine in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, whereby duodenum and jejunum sensing mechanisms lower hepatic glucose production (GP) via a gut-brain-liver neuronal network involving gut peptide signaling ( 14 , - 18 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Scribner, B.H.: Glucose intolerance in patients on long-term intermittent dialysis. (springer.com)
  • DeFronzo, R.A.S Pathogenesis of glucose intolerance in uremia. (springer.com)
  • DeFronzo, R.: Role of parathyroid hormone in the glucose intolerance of chronic renal failure. (springer.com)
  • Chantier, C-: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and glucose intolerance in children with uremia. (springer.com)
  • The goal of the SAM study was to relate the severity of glucose intolerance to the severity of beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in muscle and the liver. (springer.com)
  • However, this philanthropic response on the part of the pancreatic beta cell was not without cost, and insulin-resistant/hyperinsulinemic individuals were more likely to have some degree of glucose intolerance, a high plasma triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol concentration, and elevated blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • The major components of MS (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance) were evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of children at age 6, 7, 9, and 11 years who were LGA ( n = 84) or AGA ( n = 95) offspring of mothers with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). (aappublications.org)
  • For Cox analyses, we defined MS as ≥2 of the following 4 components: obesity, hypertension (systolic or diastolic), glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia (elevated triglyceride levels or low HDL levels). (aappublications.org)
  • These characteristics, which occur in the absence of glucose intolerance, are associated with an increased risk for macroangiopathy. (annals.org)
  • On treatment there was a transient increase of both the peak and the late insulin response to intravenous glucose while neither intravenous nor oral glucose tolerance were consistently altered. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the present study was to reevaluate insulin resistance in MSG-obese rats using the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. (scielo.br)
  • The minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin levels during intravenous or oral glucose loading allows assessment without the use of intravenous insulin, but still necessitates multiple blood samples. (bmj.com)
  • An alternative technique is the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT), while the oldest method is the insulin tolerance test. (aacc.org)
  • body mass index, 37.6±0.9 kg/m 2 , mean±SEM), we measured beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (Finapres technique), heart rate (ECG), postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography at a peroneal nerve), and venous plasma norepinephrine (high-performance liquid chromatography) at rest and during baroreceptor stimulation and deactivation induced by increases and reductions of blood pressure via stepwise intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside. (ahajournals.org)
  • This technique in combination with a continuous intravenous glucose monitoring system may be applied in future studies to investigate the effect of aggressive intraoperative glucose control on outcome after cardiac surgery. (lww.com)
  • The gold standard assessments of insulin resistance are dynamic tests carried out in research settings using the glucose or insulin clamp techniques or the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. (cap.org)
  • This study performed a systematic review of the impact of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour lasting ≤7 days on markers of cardiometabolic risk (insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, glucose, and lipid levels) in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, we conducted a systematic review examining the impact of uninterrupted sedentary behaviour lasting ≤7 days (operationally defined as an "acute" bout) on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and lipid, glucose, and insulin levels in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • To be included in this paper, a study had to examine at least one of the following risk markers in humans: insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin, glucose, or lipid levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Insulin sensitivity and blood glucose kinetics were analyzed with state-of-the-art stable isotope procedures in different experimental conditions. (eur.nl)
  • Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. (frontiersin.org)
  • The high blood sugar is a controlled and compensatory phenomenon, the object of which is to facilitate the utilization of glucose by the tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Relationship of Kidney Function to the Glucose Utilization of the Extraabdominal Tissues. (amazonaws.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes: medlineplus medical encyclopedia, Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. (amazonaws.com)
  • Large-sized prospective randomized clinical trials suggest that intensified glucose and blood pressure control, may halt the progression of DKD, both in type 1 diabetes and T2DM. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diabetes in pregnancy carries significant pregnancy specific risks and requires frequent glucose monitoring to reduce these risks. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The blanket protocol covers the execution of the Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program that will consist of a series of similar accuracy sub-s. (bioportfolio.com)
  • High blood glucose levels in surgical patients with and without diabetes are associated with increased risk of medical complications and death. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Two-thirds of patients with diabetes avoid regularly monitoring their blood glucose levels because of the painful and invasive nature of current blood glucose detection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We determined in vitro effects of insulin and/or AICAR exposure on glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from nondiabetic men and men with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, insulin- and AICAR-stimulated responses on glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content were impaired in subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vivo studies using a nuclear magnetic resonance technique provide evidence that the major rate-limiting impairment in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is localized at the level of glucose transport ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, in vitro studies have directly shown that insulin-stimulated glucose transport is markedly reduced in isolated skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes ( 4 , 9 , 10 ) and insulin-resistant morbidly obese (BMI ∼50 kg/m 2 ) subjects with or without type 2 diabetes ( 11 ), as well as in women with gestational diabetes ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, reduced skeletal muscle glucose transport may be among the early factors accounting for increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction play a role in the transition from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) through impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). (springer.com)
  • DPPIV Activity is Decreased and Glucose Tolerance Improved by Sensory Nerve Denervatiion in the ZDF Rat", Diabetes, 2001, 50(Supplement 2), 2167-PO, Abstract. (patentgenius.com)
  • In the course of these 3 presentations, 1-3 he provided evidence that "diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the essential lesion is a diminished ability of the tissue to utilize glucose. (ahajournals.org)
  • The insulin clamp is considered the gold standard to measure insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes," Sinaiko said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Relatives of persons with type 2 diabetes were insulin resistant but had normal glucose tolerance. (annals.org)
  • That can be evaluated by the euglycemic clamp technique in both normal subjects and diabetic patients (type 1 and 2 diabetes). (scirp.org)
  • Glucose Transporters in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Cells Isolated from the Urine of Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. (amazonaws.com)
  • Six new cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (3%), 38 with abnormal fasting glucose (19%) and 33 with abnormal blood pressure (16.5%): 23 participants with pre-hypertension, 7 in stage 1 and 3 in stage 2 were detected. (medigraphic.com)
  • Identification of persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: do we need the oral glucose tolerant test? (medigraphic.com)
  • Patients with well controlled diabetes did not differ statistically from those with poorly controlled diabetes regarding the median glucose threshold for dysfunction in visual-spatial skills, visual-motor skills, or global cognition. (annals.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia in an elderly population. (cap.org)
  • The paucity of data on the expanding role of continuous glucose monitoring and other new technologies has also attracted criticism from some commentators and diabetes advocacy groups. (lww.com)
  • Purnell, J , Martin, J & Gillingham, M 2018, ' Comparison of Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems for Use in Insulin Clamp Studies During Either Intralipid or Glycerol Co-infusions ', Journal of diabetes science and technology , vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 232-233. (elsevier.com)
  • The objective of this paper is to review recent efforts to use artificial intelligence techniques to assist in the management of diabetes, along with the associated challenges. (jmir.org)
  • Euglycemic glucose clamps assess time-action profiles and pharmacodynamics of insulins, insulin analogs and other diabetes drug candidates. (prosciento.com)
  • 11 Instead, the majority of insulin-resistant individuals continue to secrete enough insulin to maintain normal or near-normal glucose tolerance. (ahajournals.org)
  • twelve subjects with normal glucose tolerance served as a control group in terms of insulin sensitivity (Is). (hormones.gr)
  • Nor was the peripheral insulin sensitivity, measured by the euglycemic clamp technique, significantly affected. (nih.gov)
  • Peripheral insulin sensitivity (Rd) was determined with hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, whereas hepatic sensitivity [HOMA (Homoeostasis Model Assessment) %S] was based on basal glucose and insulin values. (portlandpress.com)
  • The ability of APE to improve whole peripheral insulin sensitivity was also assayed in a chronic study by using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Kaov's experiments with crossed circulation, controlled perfusion of brain for central and peripheral chemoreceptors separation, galvanic clamp, pupilar reflex loop opening, rebreathing techniques. (cvut.cz)
  • Remarkably, using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hyperglycemic clamp techniques, neither hepatic nor peripheral insulin resistance was worsened in the group that was treated with prednisolone. (eur.nl)
  • In addition, prednisolone-treated high-fat diet-fed mice appeared less insulin sensitive by detailed analysis of basal glucose kinetics. (eur.nl)
  • Hypoglycemic clamps assess counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia and the pharmacodynamics of glucagon analogs. (prosciento.com)
  • Hyperglycemic clamp technique: The plasma glucose concentration is acutely raised to 125 mg/dl above basal levels by a continuous infusion of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique: The plasma insulin concentration is acutely raised and maintained at 100 μU/ml by a continuous infusion of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Participants will perform blood glucose monitoring (BGM) over the course of 14 days and, in parallel, wear continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Can Continuous Glucose Measurements Help Diabetic Patients Treated With an Implantated Pump? (bioportfolio.com)
  • During this study, we propose to assess the utility of Continuous Glucose Measurements (CGM) in a group of Type 1 diabetic patients treated with an implanted insulin pump. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Baseline measurements were made for 30 min, followed by a 90 min continuous insulin infusion (100 m-units min −1 m −2 ), during which the arterialized venous blood glucose concentration was maintained at 4.5 mmol/l (euglycaemia) or 3.5 mmol/l (mild hypoglycaemia). (portlandpress.com)
  • observed that 5 days of continuous bed rest produced deleterious changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels and reduced insulin sensitivity [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This is mainly achieved through the continuous determination of both glucose and the blood dilution factor so that confounding factors like disturbances in blood flow are taken into account and are automatically corrected. (profil.com)
  • The hyperglycemic clamp, which requires maintaining a high blood sugar level by perfusion or infusion with glucose, is a way to quantify how fast beta-cells respond to glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hyperinsulinemic clamp is also called euglycemic clamp, meaning a normal blood sugar level is maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The presence of elevated blood glucose also impedes normal host defences against infection and impairs the normal inflammatory response (7.8). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here we will investigate the effect of sulforaphane, provided as a broccoli sprout extract (BSE) on blood glucose in pre-diabetic individuals without metformin treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Over the short-term, high blood glucose can. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The renal threshold for glucose (RTg) corresponds to a blood glucose of ~180 mg/dL, but in hospitals patients are often encountered who are hyperglycemic but urine glucose test-strip negative, who rem. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These changes may be due, in part, to alterations in the blood glucose concentration. (portlandpress.com)
  • This study investigates the effect of variation in the blood glucose concentration on the thermogenic and cardiovascular responses to a hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamp. (portlandpress.com)
  • 0.01), were all greater with a blood glucose concentration of 4.5 mmol/l than of 3.5 mmol/l. (portlandpress.com)
  • 0.05) at a blood glucose concentration of 3.5 mmol/l. (portlandpress.com)
  • The basal blood glucose concentration did not differ between the two experimental groups. (scielo.br)
  • One day before the test, the animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight) and indwelling catheters were inserted into the right jugular vein for glucose infusion and into the right femoral artery for blood sampling. (scielo.br)
  • Glucose (0.75 g/kg body weight) was quickly injected and blood samples for insulin and glucose evaluations were drawn 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 min after injection. (scielo.br)
  • Basal blood glucose levels were similar in MSG-obese and control rats. (scielo.br)
  • In these interventional dynamic techniques, blood samples are collected serially. (aacc.org)
  • Some others can be derived from oral glucose tolerance testing using fasting and non-fasting blood samples. (aacc.org)
  • Conventional stepwise treatment of DM2 generally focuses on controlling blood glucose concentration. (hormones.gr)
  • 1 Comprehensive treatment strategy of DM2 should consequently aim to produce good blood glucose control and to reduce cardiovascular risk. (hormones.gr)
  • This clamp technique infuses insulin and glucose into the blood and measures the resulting glucose and insulin levels. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In addition, Self-monitored blood glucose levels were comparable. (scirp.org)
  • To address both the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and post-prandial blood glucose (PPBG), the premix insulin formulations provide a combination of both rapid/short-acting and intermediate/long-acting insulins in a fixed ratio, in a single injection. (scirp.org)
  • Insulin also helps move glucose (blood sugar) into cells, where it can be stored and used for energy. (amazonaws.com)
  • These agents seem to exert pleiotropic actions 'beyond glucose control', including reduction of blood pressure and body weight. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • i.e. brain areas that control blood glucose and fat feedback loops and which for various reasons can not correctly process the signals from the cerebral hemispheres for controlling the energy supply of the brain. (academic.ru)
  • The output is "SSPG" or Steady-State Plasma Glucose, which is the level of blood glucose that results from "clamping" circulating insulin at a standardized level. (blogspot.com)
  • The higher your blood glucose (SSPG) is at a given level of circulating insulin, the more insulin-resistant you are. (blogspot.com)
  • An insulin tolerance test (ITT) is a medical diagnostic procedure during which insulin is injected into a patient's vein, after which blood glucose is measured at regular intervals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apple polyphenols could represent a novel nutritional approach in the management and control of blood glucose, especially in type 2 diabetics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Glycemic monitoring is the providence of hemoglobin A1c measurements and self-monitoring of blood glucose. (cap.org)
  • Low insulin levels result in raised blood glucose. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Blood glucose may be high despite normal or increased amounts of insulin. (dermnetnz.org)
  • On the other hand, T1D patients have severe impairments in insulin production, and must use external insulin exclusively to manage their blood glucose (BG). (jmir.org)
  • The automated clamp technique has the advantage of continuously measuring blood glucose and adjusting glucose infusion rates (GIR) every minute via a feedback algorithm implemented in the device. (profil.com)
  • But also for drugs with a slower onset and a longer duration of action (e.g. basal insulins) it will be of utmost importance to achieve a good clamp quality, i.e. keeping blood glucose levels during the clamp as close as possible to the target level. (profil.com)
  • Technically, each deviation from the blood glucose target indicates that the chosen GIR was not optimal. (profil.com)
  • Thereby, ClampArt ® provides more reliable blood glucose results and reduces both glucose and GIR fluctuations. (profil.com)
  • Insulin sensitivity was measured by a 3-hour 80 mU/m2 per minute hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (100 mg/dL). (nih.gov)
  • Meanwhile, the plasma glucose concentration is held constant at basal levels by a variable glucose infusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma glucose concentration is held constant at basal levels by a variable glucose infusion using the negative feedback principle. (nih.gov)
  • In lean NGTs with a 2-h plasma glucose concentration (2-h PG) between 5.6 and 6.6 and between 6.7 and 7.7 mmol/l, there was a progressive decline in ΔI/ΔG÷IR compared with NGTs with a 2-h PG less than 5.6 mmol/l. (springer.com)
  • After glucose load, glucose concentration at minute 4 reached significantly higher values in MSG-obese than in control rats. (scielo.br)
  • Increase of insulin sensitivity as measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study, we compared insulin sensitivity as assessed by a 4-h euglycemic (approximately 5 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 300 pmol/l) clamp with HOMA in 115 subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The insulin clamp technique was used to produce a stepwise decline in plasma glucose from 5.0 to 2.2 mmol/L over 3 hours. (annals.org)
  • and counterregulatory hormone measurements were done at glucose decrements of 0.6 mmol/L. (annals.org)
  • Glucose levels below 2.2 mmol/L are insufficient absent symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp technique. (nih.gov)
  • Clinically, hyperinsulinemic-eugly- cemic clamp is the gold-standard method to assessment of insulin sensitivity. (scirp.org)
  • Study design: CCS in remission ≥5 years from cancer diagnosis (n = 319, age = 14.5 years) and their siblings (control subjects, n = 208, age = 13.6 years) participated in this cross-sectional study of CV risk, which included physiologic assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp). (umn.edu)
  • External quality assessment schemes for glucose measurements in Germany: factors for successful participation, analytical performance and medical impact. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Biochemical testing included measurements of postprandial glucose and insulin levels and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels at 6 and 7 years and of fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol levels at 9 and 11 years. (aappublications.org)
  • A published algorithm calculates glucose requirements based on glucose measurements obtained minute-by-minute or at five-minute intervals. (prosciento.com)
  • Nineteen lean (CT BMI:21.2 ± 0.3 kg.m 2 ), 14 overweight/class II obese (OB/OW BMI: 29.7 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ) and 8 morbidly obese (OBIII BMI: 56.4 ± 3.6 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, adiponectin, and lipids. (scielo.br)
  • However, the decrement in glucose and surge in lipids is significantly greater in women than in men. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperglycemic clamp technique. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin and AICAR increased glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content to a similar extent in control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Importantly, exposure of type 2 diabetic skeletal muscle to a combination of insulin and AICAR increased glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content to levels achieved in control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our studies highlight the potential importance of AMPK-dependent pathways in the regulation of GLUT4 and glucose transport activity in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of AMPK is an attractive strategy to enhance glucose transport through increased cell surface GLUT4 content in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PI 3-kinase is involved in insulin-, but not contraction-stimulated, glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, glucose transporters (GLUT4) have been shown to be decreased in insulin-sensitive tissues of MSG-obese mice (5). (scielo.br)
  • The role of GLUT4 glucose transporter expression. (rusmedserv.com)
  • In the earliest stage, insulin resistance can only be detected with the euglycaemic insulin clamp technique which is considered as the gold standard. (dermnetnz.org)
  • In addition there is a general agreement among experts that the euglycaemic glucose clamp procedure is the best available method for the assessment of insulin action. (profil.com)
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice were considered not to be insulin resistant from data obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests. (scielo.br)
  • In human clinical trials, manual glucose clamps as well as the more modern method of automated glucose clamp find common use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma glucose disappearance rate(kitt: %/min) after iv injection of regular insulin(0.1U/kg) was determinecl and compared to insulin sensitivitv indices(M, M/I) of euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test. (koreamed.org)
  • There was a highly significant correlations between the Kitt value derived from SITT and M or M/I derived from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test. (koreamed.org)
  • Insulin sensitivity was determined with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. (nih.gov)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by AICAR (5-amino-imidazole carboxamide riboside) is correlated with increased glucose transport in rodent skeletal muscle via an insulin-independent pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In skeletal muscle, glucose transport can be activated by distinct and separate pathways mediated by insulin, insulin-mimicking agents, and insulin-like growth factors, as well as by muscle contraction (exercise), cellular stress, and hypoxia ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • estimated using the glucose clamp plus 2-deoxy[3H]glucose bolus technique) in six skeletal muscles and heart. (garvan.org.au)
  • Thyroid hormone increases basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. (rusmedserv.com)
  • Fasting plasma glucose (171+/-10 versus 120+/-10 mg/dL), plasma insulin (1.8+/-0.5 versus 0.7+/-0.1 microg/L), and plasma triglycerides (39+/-2 versus 30+/-2 mg/dL) were modestly but significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When the plasma insulin response to oral glucose is related to the glycaemic stimulus and severity of insulin resistance, there is a progressive decline in beta-cell function that begins in "normal" glucose tolerant individuals. (springer.com)
  • Plasma glucose was measured with a glucometer 4 (Ames, Elkhart, IN) and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay (7). (scielo.br)
  • 17 ) demonstrated that in overweight Asian adolescents improvements in insulin sensitivity index (oral glucose tolerance test) were similar between aerobic and resistance training, and the improvements in the exercise training groups did not differ from those with diet alone. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Primary and secondary endpoints Serum insulin, C-peptide and glucose at fasting (0), 30, 60, 90 and 120 min were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). (bmj.com)
  • Oral glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp technique), and fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels after a mixed meal. (annals.org)
  • Matsuda M, DeFronzo R. Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing. (springer.com)
  • 11 Oral glucose tolerance tests have also been used to estimate insulin sensitivity. (cap.org)
  • The standard 75g oral glucose tolerance test was performed to determine the glucose tolerance status. (koreamed.org)
  • We here report that one of the main bacterially produced SCFAs, propionate, activates ileal mucosal free fatty acid receptor 2 to trigger a negative feedback pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in healthy rats in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These beneficial effects of physical exercise on insulin resistance involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced expression of glucose transporters and translocation of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane independent of insulin ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLT-2) inhibitors are novel glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of T2DM. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We evaluated the relationship among 20/(fasting C-peptide × fasting plasma glucose), HOMA-IR and QUICKI indices in type 2 diabetic patients. (scirp.org)
  • Insulin resistance was calculated by using of 20/(fasting C-peptide × fasting plasma glucose), HOMA-IR and QUICKI indices. (scirp.org)