Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Insulin Aspart: Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.GlycogenInsulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.TriglyceridesReference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Insulin, Regular, Human: Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.MethylglucosidesMythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLPhlorhizinLiver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic: A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Medical Waste: Blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special disposal procedures.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.GlucosephosphatesProto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.PhosphoproteinsDiet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Sulfonylurea CompoundsExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)KetonesCarbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Biphasic Insulins: An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.

*Minimed Paradigm

Next Generation REAL-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System; Next Generation Insulin Pump; Pre-filled Insulin Reservoirs; ... The objective of CSII is to reduce the long-term variability of blood glucose by increasing the frequency of infusion. In 1995 ... The Paradigm system consists of two basic parts: an insulin pump and an optional glucose sensor CGM worn for up to 3 days. The ... The Minimed Paradigm System is composed of the following parts: Insulin pump models 522/722 Glucose sensor kit (CGM) Minilink ...

*Insulin pump

When insulin pump technology is combined with a continuous blood glucose monitoring system, the technology seems promising for ... Infused insulin analogs such as NovoLog and Apidra typically begin to reduce blood sugar levels 15 or 20 minutes after infusion ... a missed blood glucose test, a new blood glucose test 15 minutes after a low blood glucose test, etc. The alarms are customized ... The DANA Diabecare IISG insulin pump has a blood glucose meter in it. After a blood glucose check with the integrated ...

*Glucommander

Once that target blood glucose range has been reached, the system's function is to recommend a titration of insulin, glucose, ... regulate the infusion of I.V. fluids, through an I.V. infusion pump, and drive the blood glucose level towards a predetermined ... to a single formula for calculation of intravenous insulin requirements: (blood glucose − 60) × 0.02 = insulin dose/h. ... The system is programmed to provide intravenous dosing of glucose, saline, and insulin, as well as subcutaneous dosing of ...

*Bruce Bode

Once that target blood glucose range has been reached, the system's function is to recommend a titration of insulin, glucose, ... regulate the infusion of I.V. fluids, through an I.V. infusion pump, and drive the blood glucose level towards a predetermined ... The system is programmed to provide intravenous dosing of glucose, saline, and insulin, as well as subcutaneous dosing of ... The Glucommander is intended to evaluate the current as well as cumulative patient blood glucose values, and, based on the ...

*Andrej Janež

"Insulin-Mediated Cellular Insulin Resistance Decreases Osmotic Shock-Induced Glucose Transport in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes". ... co-edited a clinical manual on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy, or insulin pump treatment. The latter is also ... and member of the European advisory board for continuous glucose monitoring system in development for Lifescan. Janež authored ... Effects of chromium on blood pressure in humans« PhD, 2000, Diabetology School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego ...

*D. Medical Industries

Spring Zone Insulin Delivery System - insulin pump Spring Universal Infusion Set - FDA-approved (May 2011) semi-disposable ... Insulin Diabetes management Blood glucose monitoring List of Israeli companies quoted on the Nasdaq "DMED Income Statement". ... that develops and markets insulin pumps and infusion sets through its subsidiary, Spring-Set Health Solutions. Shares of the ... and changed its name to Aryt Systems Ltd. In 2004 Aryt Systems, which had by that time become a shell company on the TASE ...

*Infusion set

Insulin absorption becomes less effective the longer the set is left in place, leading to poorer control of blood glucose. For ... The purpose of an infusion set is to deliver insulin under the skin. It is a complete tubing system to connect an insulin pump ... An infusion set is used with an insulin pump as part of intensive insulin therapy. ... Most infusion sets have a standard Luer Lock connector so that they will mate to most insulin pumps. However, this is not ...

*Islet cell transplantation

The doctor will order many tests to check blood glucose levels after the transplant, and insulin may be needed until control is ... If the cells are not from a genetically identical donor the patient's body will recognize them as foreign and the immune system ... Radiographic image of the portal vein and its branches in the transplant recipient before infusion of isolated islets. Post- ... The goal of islet transplantation is to infuse enough islets to control the blood glucose level removing the need for insulin ...

*Xylazine

... appears to reduce sensitivity to insulin and glucose uptake in humans. Yohimbine has been used to decrease glucose ... Once xylazine gains access to the vascular system, it is distributed within the blood, allowing xylazine to perfuse target ... In cases of intoxication, physicians recommend intravenous fluid infusion, atropine, and hospital observation. Severe cases may ... Non-fatal blood or plasma concentration ranges from 0.03 to 4.6 mg/L. In fatalities, the blood concentration of xylazine ranges ...

*Development of the endocrine system

Just like insulin, fetal glucagon plasma levels do not change in response to an infusion of glucose. However, a study of an ... infusion of alanine into pregnant women was shown to increase the cord blood and maternal glucagon concentrations, ... Fetal insulin is responsible for increasing glucose uptake and lipogenesis during the stages leading up to birth. Fetal cells ... The fetal endocrine system is one of the first systems to develop during prenatal development. The fetal adrenal cortex can be ...

*Glossary of diabetes

... the system consists of one or more insulin injections each day, daily self-monitoring of blood glucose, and a standard (or ... Infusion Set in a diabetic context, a tubing system to connect an insulin pump to the pump user, including a subcutaneous ... Blood glucose monitoring Tracking one's blood glucose level, usually by using a blood glucose meter. This was formerly ... Biphasic insulin A type of pharmaceutical insulin that is a mixture of intermediate- and fast-acting insulin. Blood glucose ...

*Animas Corporation

... a blood glucose monitoring company with the OneTouch brand of products. The Animas 2020 is an insulin pump that carries 200 ... units of insulin and can be connected to an infusion set following the Luer standard. Its predecessor was the Animas IR1250. ... To improve treatment the system can save instructions to use when its user has a sick day and up to 500 rules set by the user ... With the Animas Vibe, users can view their historical and latest glucose readings on the screen of the insulin pump, which ...

*Blood sugar regulation

... to take up glucose from the blood through the GLUT4 transporter, thus decreasing blood sugar. When insulin binds to the ... Insulin also provides signals to several other body systems, and is the chief regulator of metabolic control in humans. There ... In more severe circumstances, it is treated by injection or infusion of glucagon. When levels of blood sugar rise, whether as a ... increasing blood sugar. Hypoglycemia, the state of having low blood sugar, is treated by restoring the blood glucose level to ...

*Hypoglycemia

He first injected insulin into a rabbit, and then measured the reduction in blood glucose levels. Measuring blood glucose was a ... In this context this is referred to as the glucose infusion rate (GIR). Finally, the blood glucose response to glucagon given ... "Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose". Diabetes Care. 10 (5): 622-8. doi:10.2337/ ... For example, when the blood glucose is low, hormones which raise the glucose should be rising and insulin secretion should be ...

*Calcium channel blocker

Since moment-to-moment blood pressure regulation is carried out by the sympathetic nervous system (via the baroreceptor reflex ... Although the mechanism is unclear, increased insulin may mobilize glucose from peripheral tissues to serve as an alternative ... It must be delivered via the intrathecal (directly into the cerebrospinal fluid) route via an intrathecal infusion pump. Side ... Since blood pressure is in intimate feedback with cardiac output and peripheral resistance, with relatively low blood pressure ...

*Peritoneal dialysis

Glucose diffuses rather rapidly from the dialysate to the blood (capillaries). After 4-6 h of the dwell, the glucose osmotic ... and for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus due to the inability to control blood sugar levels through the ... the twin-bag and y-set systems were found superior to conventional systems at preventing peritonitis. Best practices for ... Before each infusion the catheter must be cleaned, and flow into and out of the abdomen tested. 2-3 liters of dialysis fluid is ...

*APMonitor

Insulin (µU/mL) Xb = 0 ! Remote insulin (µU/mL) Gb = 98 ! Blood Glucose (mg/dL) Yb = 0 ! Insulin for Lipogenesis (µU/mL) Fb = ... insulin infusion rate u1 = 3 ! µU/min ! glucose uptake rate u2 = 300 ! mg/min ! external lipid infusion u3 = 0 ! mg/min End ... It is a free web-service for solving representations of physical systems in the form of implicit DAE models. APMonitor is ... motor and blood glucose response of an insulin dependent patient are listed below. They are representative of differential and ...

*Incretin

"Many factors stimulate insulin secretion, but the main one is blood glucose. Incretins, especially GIP and GLP-1 secreted, ... "The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes". ... since it must be administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion. Several long-lasting analogs having insulinotropic activity ... eating and augment the secretion of insulin released from pancreatic beta cells of the islets of Langerhans by a blood glucose- ...

*Diabetes Control and Complications Trial

... or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion combined with lower blood glucose targets and lower HbA1C goals. Prior to the DCCT ... Intensive control therapy reduced abnormal autonomic nervous system function by 53%. Nerve conduction velocities remained ... The intensive therapy group frequently monitored blood glucose levels and received at least three daily insulin injections; a ... This study examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal ...

*Insulin (medication)

... reducing blood glucose levels, and so reducing insulin release. The result is that the blood glucose level rises somewhat after ... The unit of measurement used in insulin therapy is not part of the International System of Units (abbreviated SI) which is the ... These risks can often be minimized by keeping infusion sites clean. Insulin pumps require care and effort to use correctly. One ... Inhaled insulin claimed to have similar efficacy to injected insulin, both in terms of controlling glucose levels and blood ...

*ISO/IEEE 11073

... blood pressure monitors, blood glucose monitors and the like. The standards draw upon earlier IEEE11073 standards work, but ... Development and deployment of advanced care delivery systems are hindered. For example, systems that collect real-time data ... for insulin delivery based on glucose level information) cannot operate without these standards. With no standardisation in ... ventilators and infusion pumps). They comprise a family of standards that can be layered together to provide connectivity ...

*Insulin

... is still secreted into the blood in response to the blood glucose. As a result, the insulin levels, even when the blood ... "Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple insulin injections for type 1 diabetes mellitus" - via PMID ... "Review of insulin and insulin-like growth factor expression, signaling, and malfunction in the central nervous system: ... also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose ...

*JDRF

An automated low-glucose suspend artificial pancreas system, which predicts and prevents severe blood-glucose lows; • A treat- ... Care to develop a dual-chamber infusion insulin pump that will support efforts to develop effective artificial pancreas systems ... continuous glucose monitors (CGM's) and insulin pumps - via a computerized program that would use blood glucose levels obtained ... The use of existing type 2 diabetes drugs to improve blood glucose control in people with T1D compared to the use of insulin ...

*Plateau principle

Excessive gain in body weight contributes to the metabolic syndrome, which may include elevated fasting blood sugar (or glucose ... Software that solves systems of equations required for compartmental modeling and system dynamics makes use of Finite ... C s s = k s k e {\displaystyle C_{ss}={\frac {k_{s}}{k_{e}}}\,} ks is the rate of synthesis or infusion Although these ... resistance to the action of insulin, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) or decreased high-density lipoprotein ( ...

*Medical device

... a scientist could both tap into the information on the system of a wireless insulin pump in combination with a glucose monitor ... Embedded Systems Design. Retrieved 2016-04-21. FDA (2010-09-08). "Infusion Pump Software Safety Research at FDA". FDA. ... Standard Guide for Blood Cleaning Efficiency of Detergents and Washer-Disinfectors ASTM F3208: Standard Guide for Selecting ... Hacking Medical Devices for Fun and Insulin: Breaking the Human SCADA System Globe and Mail. Thursday Oct. 27, 2011 Jim Finkle ...
Blair, Jo, Gregory, John W and Peak, Matthew (2012) Insulin delivery by multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in childhood: Addressing the evidence gap. Practical Diabetes, 29 (2). pp. 47-48. ISSN 2047-2900 ...
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) - For patients with suboptimally controlled type 1 diabetes, day-and-night hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery improves glucose control compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in The Lancet. The research was published to coincide with the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, held from Oct. 1 to 5 in Berlin.. Martin Tauschmann, M.D., from the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, and colleagues randomly assigned participants aged 6 years and older treated with an insulin pump and with suboptimal glycemic control to receive hybrid closed-loop therapy (46 patients) or sensor-augmented pump therapy (40 patients) during 12 weeks of free living.. The researchers found that glucose was within the target range of more than 3.9 mmol/L and less than 10.0 ...
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether parental knowledge of the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) device affects glycemic control as measured by hemoglobin A1c (A1C) level. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Parents of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using CSII completed a 14-item questionnaire. Questions 1-10 were knowledge-based questions that required the parent to extract specific information from their childs CSII device. Questions 11-14 asked parents to provide a self-assessment of their CSII knowledge. RESULTS: Twenty-two parents of youth with T1DM participated in the study. Ten of the youth were in the Low-A1C group (A1C/=8%). Parents of youth in the Low-A1C group scored statistically better on the 10-item performance survey than parents of youth in the High-A1C group. Most of the parents of children in the Low-A1C group responded that they knew their childs insulin pump very ...
Intensive glucose control (3 or more daily insulin injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) reduced the mean risk of retinopathy progression by 54% in type 1 diabetes patients with minimal-to-moderate…
This guidance represents the view of the Institute which was arrived at after careful consideration of the available evidence. Health professionals are expected to fully take it into account when exercising their clinical judgement. This guidance does not, however, override the individual responsibility of health professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.. © Copyright National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. All rights reserved. This material may be freely reproduced for educational and not for profit purposes within the NHS. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations is permitted without the express written permission of the Institute.. Enquiries concerning the guidance should be addressed to: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, MidCity Place, 71 High Holborn, London WC1V 6NA. email: [email protected] Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin ...
Clustering revealed the existence of seven major basal insulin infusion rate patterns, which we named A through G (n = 1,208). The remaining patients did not clearly fall into any of these patterns and were not considered for further evaluation. As pattern E consisted of only 23 of the 1,248 patients, it was also not included in the further discussion. Figure 1 demonstrates cluster analysis, revealing the basal insulin infusion rate patterns. Most patients fell into cluster B (n = 708, 56.7%), demonstrating a clear dawn-dusk pattern with a higher insulin peak in the early morning than in the late afternoon. Mean age was 14.9 ± 2.4 years, indicating mainly pubertal and postpubertal developmental stages of the patients with this basal insulin infusion rate pattern. A smaller cluster, C (n = 83, 6.7%), could be distinguished ...
Background: To evaluate the determinants of intensive insulin regimens (ITs) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: This multicenter study was conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. Data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% female, 57.1% Caucasian). Insulin regimens were classified as follows: group 1, conventional therapy (CT) (intermediate human insulin, one to two injections daily); group 2 (three or more insulin injections of intermediate plus regular human insulin); group 3 (three or more insulin injections of intermediate human insulin plus short-acting insulin analogues); group 4, basal-bolus (one or two insulin injections of ...
Washington D.C. [USA], Apr. 10 : A new study examining the risk of fasting during Ramadan for people with type 1 diabetes compared blood glucose control and the rates of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia between users of insulin pump therapy versus multiple daily insulin injections.. The researchers report their findings in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics (DTT), a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.. Reem Alamoudi, MD, MHSc, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal National Guard Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, and coauthors from Saudi Arabia and Qatar compared glucose data collected using self-monitoring or continuous glucose monitoring in two groups of patients, one on a regimen of daily insulin injections and the other using continuous subcutaneous ...
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is associated with increased hypoglycemia encounters and health care expenditures, according to research published in the American Journal of Managed Care (June 21, 2017;23[6]).. -----. Related Content. Insulin pathways and cost estimates included in new ADA Standards for diabetes care. Some elderly diabetes patients face high drug costs. -----. CSII-commonly referred to as insulin pump therapy-is an alternative to multiple daily insulin injections (MDII) for diabetes management. Prior research has reported some potential advantages of CSII over MDII therapy, such as reduced pain, less stigma, lower frequency of hypoglycemia, and overcoming adherence barriers. Limited data exists regarding whether the higher upfront costs for CSII can be offset by health improvements that translate to higher quality of life and ...
Medtronic Diabetes offers an integrated system combining insulin pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring. Get started on insulin pump therapy and CGM today.
The alarming rate at which the new cases of diabetes is rising is really a matter of concern. Prevention and self-care has been considered as the best method to combat diabetes. In the wake to help out ailing diabetics, Medtronic, a gobal leader in medical technology has come up with world class MiniMed Paradigm real-time insulin pump for conducting insulin pump therapy for managing diabetes.. With over 30 years of their experience, Medtronic came up with the idea as the existing devices were huge in size. This was practically impossible for the patients to carry, thus Medtronic took up the idea to create a small portable mobile sized MiniMed Paradigm real-time insulin pump device so that it can be carried anywhere without any complications.. Insulin Pump Therapy has become an alternative and effective therapy compared to multiple daily ...
Medtronic diabetes provides products and treatment services for insulin pump therapy, Glucose Monitoring Sytem, Infusion sets,minimed veo insulin pump in India, Mumbai
Participants first received 0.12 units per kilogram (U/kg) insulin aspart administered as a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), for 5 days (Days 1-5; Period 1), including during a 6-hour (hr) euglycemic clamp on Days 2, 3, and 5. On Day 2 only, a sham injection was administered 2.5 hr prior to the 6-hr euglycemic clamp.. After a 5- to 14-day washout period, participants received 0.12 U/kg insulin aspart administered as a CSII, for 5 days (Days 6-10; Period 2), including during a 6-hr euglycemic clamp on Days 7, 8, and 10. On Day 7 only, a 1.0 milliliter (mL) subcutaneous (SC) injection of 1.25 micrograms per milliliter (μg/mL) recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 (rHuPH20) was administered 2.5 hr prior to the 6-hr euglycemic clamp.. ...
Participants first received 0.12 units per kilogram (U/kg) insulin aspart administered as a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), for 5 days (Days 1-5; Period 1), including during a 6-hour (hr) euglycemic clamp on Days 2, 3, and 5. On Day 2 only, a sham injection was administered 2.5 hr prior to the 6-hr euglycemic clamp.. After a 5- to 14-day washout period, participants received 0.12 U/kg insulin aspart administered as a CSII, for 5 days (Days 6-10; Period 2), including during a 6-hr euglycemic clamp on Days 7, 8, and 10. On Day 7 only, a 1.0 milliliter (mL) subcutaneous (SC) injection of 1.25 micrograms per milliliter (μg/mL) recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 (rHuPH20) was administered 2.5 hr prior to the 6-hr euglycemic clamp.. ...
Insulin pump therapy aiming for better blood glucose control in people with diabetes Your doctor has suggested that you may benefit from using an insulin pump to improve your blood glucose (sugar) control.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin receptor phosphorylation may not be a prerequisite for acute insulin action. AU - Simpson, Ian A.. AU - Hedo, José A.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - An antiserum to the insulin receptor mimicked insulins acute actions on glucose transport, phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins, and internalization of the insulin receptor in isolated rat adipose cells. These insulinomimetic actions of the antiserum occurred without the equivalent increase in phosphorylation of the β subunit of the insulin receptor observed with insulin. Thus, a role of receptor phosphorylation in acute insulin action is now questioned.. AB - An antiserum to the ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Insulin Delivery Systems Industry Report is a tool to assist novice as well as seeded players in gaining astute business intelligence and make apt decisions based on it.. The report analyses the entire production and supply chain of the industry and provides information as per different phases. Whereas, on the basis of sales, data related to sales volume, sales price, cost, sales income, and profit margin etc. of Insulin Delivery Systems Industry used in different fields, sold in different regions and by different companies is provided in this report.. Detailed TOC and Charts & Tables of Insulin Delivery Systems Industry Research Report available at- https://www.absolutereports.com/10530753. This Insulin Delivery Systems ...
Learn about NovoLog® - the first rapid-acting insulin with an extended in-use time in external insulin pump reservoirs. FDA approved for both adults and children.
Basal insulin therapy is used by people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Glucose is continuously released by the liver throughout the day when there is no food being digested. There are different ways that different types of insulin can mimic the action of this basal insulin in the body.. For people with type 1 and 2 diabetes, long-acting insulin is injected once or twice a day to mimic basal insulin. Those with type 1 would then take insulin to cover mealtimes. Mealtime treatment for type 2 diabetes varies.. For those with type 1 diabetes who are on a pump, quick-acting insulin is delivered at a low rate continuously throughout the day and night, and then a "bolus" amount of insulin is given to cover ...
The current insulin therapy is divided into the conventional insulin therapy (1~2 injections per day) and the intensive insulin therapy (3~4 injections per day). The kinetics of exogenous insulin in the intensive insulin therapy imitate the kinetics of insulin secretion in a healthy person. A previous large clinical study (e.g. DCCT, Kumamoto study, etc.) suggested that intensive insulin therapy prevented microangiopathy and macroangiopathy, and inhibited progression of them, however many patients chose conventional insulin therapy because many hoped that they injected insulin as few as possible. The patients thought that their life styles were disturbed by many times of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of insulin therapy on body fat distribution in NIDDM patients with secondary sulfonylurea failure. T2 - A preliminary report. AU - Takei, I.. AU - Takayama, S.. AU - Yamauchi, A.. AU - Nakamoto, S.. AU - Kitamura, Y.. AU - Katsukawa, Fuminori. AU - Yamazaki, H.. AU - Saruta, T.. AU - Inoue, S.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Objective: To clarify the influence of insulin therapy on body weight and fat distribution, we compared these parameters in five non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, with secondary sulfonylurea failure, before and after insulin therapy. Body weight increased significantly after instituting insulin treatment. However, the visceral to subcutaneous fat (V/S) ratio decreased significantly due to a marked increase in S-fat without a change in V-fat. ...
Insulin is obtained from pork pancreas or is made chemically identical to human insulin by recombinant DNA technology or chemical modification of pork insulin. Insulin analogs have been developed by modifying the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule.. Insulin is available in rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting types that may be injected separately or mixed in the same syringe. Rapid-acting insulin analogs (insulin lispro and insulin aspart) are available, and other analogs are in development. Regular is a short-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting insulins include lente and NPH. Ultralente and ...
CHICAGO - Contract suppliers arent making insulin pumps and replacement supplies available to Medicare beneficiaries in competitive bidding areas, says the American Association of Diabetes Educators.. The AADE surveyed 29 suppliers in the nine initial CBAs to ask about the availability of specific brands and models of insulin pumps and supplies. Of those suppliers, only 17 (58%) reported carrying insulin pumps and only 18 (62%) reported carrying replacement supplies. Of those who offer insulin pumps, many carry only one brand.. "This failure to comply with the program results in limited access to necessary equipment for people with diabetes," said James Specker, director of federal and state advocacy for AADE. "This action has significant and dramatic ramifications for Medicare spending on diabetes, as well as the health of patients who rely on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exendin-4 as a stimulator of rat insulin I gene promoter activity via bZIP/CRE interactions sensitive to serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor Ro 31-8220. AU - Chepurny, Oleg G.. AU - Hussain, Mehboob. AU - Holz, George G.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Signal transduction properties of exendin-4 (Ex-4) underlying its ability to stimulate rat insulin I gene promoter (RIP1) activity were assessed in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1. Ex-4 acted via glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors to stimulate RIP1 in a glucose-dependent manner, as measured in cells transfected with a -410-bp RIP1-luciferase construct (RIP1-Luc). The action of Ex-4 was independent of cAMP and PKA because it was not blocked by cotransfection with dominant-negative Gαs, was unaffected by pretreatment with the membrane-permeant cAMP antagonist 8-Br-Rp-cAMPS, and remained apparent after treatment with PKA inhibitors H-89 or KT ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is coupled to the interaction of actin with the t-SNARE (target membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein) complex. AU - Thurmond, Debbie C.. AU - Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen. AU - Furukawa, Megumi. AU - Halban, Philippe A.. AU - Pessin, Jeffrey E.. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - The actin monomer sequestering agent latrunculin B depolymerized β-cell cortical actin, which resulted in increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in both cultured MIN6 β-cells and isolated rat islet cells. In perifused islets, latrunculin B treatment increased both first- and second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any significant effect on total insulin content. This increase ...
The Insulin Index of a food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour period after the food is ingested. The index is similar to the Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL), but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. The Insulin Index represents a comparison of food portions with equal overall caloric content (250 kcal or 1000 kJ), while GI represents a comparison of portions with equal digestible carbohydrate content (typically 50 g) and the GL represents portions of a typical serving size for various foods. The Insulin Index can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain ...
JDRF Canada awards $466,450 (USD) to Dr. Ahmad Haidar and his team at McGill University to improve the artificial pancreas system. MONTREAL - OCTOBER 6, 2016 - JDRF and McGill University are pleased to announce research occurring to improve a platform designed to aid in glucose control for those living with type 1 diabetes. The artificial pancreas platform is a system of devices that closely mimics the glucose regulating function of a healthy pancreas. Dr. Ahmad Haidar was awarded $466,450 (USD) to study the effect of co-administering insulin with pramlintide (a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar) and its effect on improving the glycemic performance relative to the insulin-alone artificial pancreas. Dr. Haidars trial will assess the viability of the drug pramlintide used in the artificial pancreas platform to improve ...
Tenders from Ukraine for insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin glulisine insulin glargin insulin glargin insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin human insulin hu.... EuropeThe tender reference number is 19395499 and it is closing on 26th Jan 2019.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in healthy humans. AU - Bouche, Clara. AU - Lopez, Ximena. AU - Fleischman, Amy. AU - Cypess, Aaron M.. AU - OShea, Sheila. AU - Stefanovski, Darko. AU - Bergman, Richard N.. AU - Rogatsky, Eduard. AU - Stein, Daniel T.. AU - Kahn, C. Ronald. AU - Kulkarni, Rohit N.. AU - Goldfine, Allison B.. PY - 2010/3/9. Y1 - 2010/3/9. N2 - Islet β-cells express both insulin receptors and insulin-signaling proteins. Recent evidence from rodents in vivo and from islets isolated from rodents or humans suggests that the insulin signaling pathway is physiologically important for glucose sensing. We evaluated whether insulin regulates β-cell function in healthy humans in vivo. ...
U.S., March 2 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03064906) titled Insulet Artificial Pancreas Evaluating Meal Performance and Moderate Exercise (IDE2) on Feb. 22. Brief Summary: To assess the safety and performance of the Insulet AP (artificial pancreas) system, using the Omnipod(R) insulin management system, Dexcom G4 Share(R) AP System and personalized model predictive control algorithm in adults with type 1 diabetes consuming high fat meals and undertaking moderate intensity exercise. Study Start Date: Study Type: Interventional Condition: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Intervention: Device: Insulet AP (artificial pancreas) System Insulet AP (artificial pancreas) system, using the Omnipod(R) insulin management system, Dexcom G4 Share(R) AP System and personalized model predictive control algorithm. Recruitment Status: Not yet recruiting Sponsor: Insulet Corporation Information provided by (Responsible ...
A series of studies is described in which specific and conventional insulin immunoassays, the hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique and forearm venous occlusion plethysmography with local intra-arterial infusions have been used to investigate: the effect of insulin assay specificity on the relationships among serum insulin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with and without essential hypertension (Chapter 5) the effect of sustained physiological activation of the renin-angiotensin system induced by moderate dietary sodium restriction on insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Chapter 6) the relationship between endothelial function and ...
We investigated the mechanisms by which peripheral or portal insulin can independently alter liver glucose production. Isotopic ([3-3H]glucose) and arteriovenous difference methods were used in conscious overnight-fasted dogs. A pancreatic clamp (somatostatin plus basal insulin and basal glucagon infusions) was used to control the endocrine pancreas. After a 40-min basal period, a 180-min experimental period followed in which selective increases in peripheral (PERI group, n = 5) or portal-vein (PORT group, n = 5) insulin were induced. In control dogs (CONT group, n = 10), insulin was not increased. Glucagon levels were fixed in all studies, and basal euglycemia was maintained by peripheral glucose infusion in the two experimental groups. In ...
The need for the delivery of insulin by injection can be reduced or eliminated by delivering an aerosolized monomeric insulin formulation. Repeatability of dosing and more particularly the repeatability of the blood concentration versus time profile is improved relative to regular insulin. The blood concentration versus time profile is substantially unaffected by specific aspects of the patients breathing maneuver at delivery. Further, the rate at which blood glucose is lowered is increased by the use of monomeric insulin. Particles of insulin and in particular monomeric insulin delivered to the surface of lung tissue will be absorbed into the circulatory system. The monomeric insulin may be ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States has issued draft guidance that recommends an artificial pancreas system for treating type 1 diabetes should undergo clinical trials. The artificial pancreas being developed is based on an automated, closed-loop system that offers an insulin infusion pump, a continuous glucose monitor and a glucose meter, which work together to check on blood sugar levels and manage insulin doses. The guidance from the FDA regards an early version of an artificial pancreas system, called a low glucose suspend system, which helps to reduce the severity of hypoglycemia, although diabetes patients still have to manage their glucose levels and give themselves insulin, where necessary.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid-induced peripheral insulin resistance augments splanchnic glucose uptake in healthy humans. AU - Bajaj, Mandeep. AU - Berria, Rachele. AU - Pratipanawatr, Thongchai. AU - Kashyap, Sangeeta. AU - Pratipanawatr, Wilailak. AU - Belfort, Renata. AU - Cusi, Kenneth. AU - Mandarino, Lawrence. AU - Defronzo, Ralph A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - To investigate the effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU), we measured SGU in nine healthy subjects (age, 44 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 27.4 ± 1.2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l) during an Intralipid-heparin (LIP) infusion and during a saline (Sal) infusion. SGU was estimated by the oral glucose load (OGL)insulin clamp method: subjects ...
OVERNIGHT CLOSED-LOOP INSULIN DELIVERY WITH MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL AND GLUCOSE MEASUREMENT ERROR MODEL - A closed-loop system for insulin infusion overnight uses a model predictive control algorithm ("MPC"). Used with the MPC is a glucose measurement error model which was derived from actual glucose sensor error data. That sensor error data included both a sensor artifacts component, including dropouts, and a persistent error component, including calibration error, all of which was obtained experimentally from living subjects. The MPC algorithm advised on insulin infusion every fifteen minutes. Sensor glucose input to the MPC was obtained by combining model-calculated, noise-free interstitial glucose with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison of insulin regimens in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. AU - Skyler, J. S.. AU - Seigler, D. E.. AU - Reeves, M. L.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Glycemic control in 10 ambulatory patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was compared on three intensive treatment regimens: (1) twice-daily regular and lente insulin; (2) multiple preprandial injections of regular insulin accompanied by long-acting ultralente insulin; and (3) continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with a portable infusion pump. All regimens included (1) careful attention to diet, exercise, and insulin; (2) patient self-monitoring of blood ...
India Medtronic Diabetes offers insulin pump therapy & continuous glucose monitoring system for patients on multiple daily insulin injections for better diabetes management & improved quality of life.
Purpose and Research Objectives. Despite the availability of increasingly effective treatment modalities, including insulin analogues, continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) devices, a substantial proportion of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) cannot achieve adequate glycemic control and avoid acute complications such as hypoglycemia. NIDDK has long supported this area of research, especially through small business projects, and this support has contributed substantially to the development of new devices that are increasingly used in clinical practice. Nonetheless, the approved devices and current technologies still have significant limitations, and it is important to put renewed emphasis on the creation of the next generation of devices that will further the goals of relieving patients of the burden of diabetes self-management and ...
The global Artificial Pancreas Device System Market size is expected to value USD 390.4 million by 2024, during the forecast period. The artificial pancreas device system industry is subject to witness a substantial growth due to growing occurrence of heart-related diseases such as diabetes, extensive research and development efforts by market players, and growing need for advanced electronic systems in healthcare sector such as glycemic control. Artificial pancreas device system allows easy monitoring of the blood-glucose level in case of facilitates diabetes management. Globally, the artificial pancreas device system market is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 20.2% in forecast period, providing numerous opportunities for market players to invest in research and development.. The growing occurrence of diabetes in both - developing and developed economies is attributed to changing food patterns, inherited diseases, obesity, physical inactivity ...
Improved glycaemic control and reduced risk for hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion as compared to multiple daily insulin injections / vorgelegt von Stefanie Isabelle Kündig. - Zürich, 2009 ZB (Zürich) , UnS 2009: 841 , Magazin 05 - auf ...
This project deals with nonlinear model predictive control and is written at the University of Seville at the department of Systems and Automatic control and at the department of Automatic Control at KTH. The first objective is to control the nonlinear Four Tank Process using nonlinear model predictive control. Objective number two is to investigate if and how the computational time and complexity can be reduced.. Simulations show that a nonlinear model predictive control algorithm is developed with satisfactory results. The algorithm is fast enough and all restrictions are respected for initial state values inside of the terminal set as well as for initial state values outside of the terminal set. Feasibility and stability is ensured for both short as well as for longer prediction horizon, guaranteeing that the output reaches the reference. Hence the choice of a short respectively long prediction horizon is a trade off between shorter computational time versus better precision.. Regarding ...
The systematic review process can inform decisions regarding diagnostic strategies for diabetes. A systematic review of the characteristics of postpartum screening tests in women with a prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus showed that a single fasting blood glucose was not a sensitive screening test compared with the standard oral glucose tolerance test for detecting type 2 diabetes, suggesting that it should not replace currently recommended screening test (17). This review also pointed out important limitations of the existing literature in this area (17). Thus, a rigorous systematic review also brings attention to gaps in evidence and the need for more research to address important clinical questions.. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis can also inform treatment practices in the monitoring and clinical management of diabetes. In recent years, many advances have been made in technologies to deliver ...
Psychometric analysis of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised version questionnaire Margarida Jansà,1 Mercè Vidal,1 Marga Giménez,1 Ignacio Conget,1 Mercedes Galindo,2 Daria Roca,1 Cristina Colungo,3 Enric Esmatjes,1 Manel Salamero4 1Diabetes Unit, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, 2Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Clinico, Madrid, 3Primary Care Centre, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, 4Psychology Department, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised Version (SCI-R) questionnaire to assess the degree of adherence to self-care among adults with diabetes. Methods: We validated the Spanish and Catalan translation from, and back translation to, English and cultural adaptation of the SCI-R in type 1 diabetes patients on multiple insulin doses or continuous ...
Robert Sherwin, M.D., Yale University, who chaired the panel, says he "believes, with certain safeguards, artificial pancreas systems can be safely tested in real world settings." Other experts speaking at the workshop included David Nathan, Director, Clinical Research Center and Diabetes Center at Massachusetts General Hospital and Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; and William Tamborlane, Professor and Chief of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Yale University School of Medicine.. "The incidence of type 1 diabetes is on the rise. Todays tools to manage the disease are insufficient. We have the technology at our disposal to make an artificial pancreas work. Now its time to move forward quickly to define the regulatory pathway so final studies can be completed and better technologies can be made available to adults and children struggling with this difficult disease," added Mr. Brewer. Development of the artificial pancreas device began in 2005 to help individuals living with ...
Boris P. Kovatchev is a scientist at the University of Virginia, director of the UVA Center for Diabetes Technology, and a principal investigator of the JDRF Artificial Pancreas Project. He and his team of more than 25 investigators at UVA have been working on the integration of continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps to create a closed-loop system requiring little or no intervention by the user. He holds 38 patents for technology related to diabetes and blood glucose monitoring. In 2008, he became the first mathematician to be awarded the international Diabetes Technology Leadership Award, presented by the Diabetes Technology Society, and in 2013, he was awarded the prestigious Gerold & Kayla Grodsky Basic Research Scientist Award for leadership and innovation in type 1 diabetes. He received his Ph.D. in Mathematics from Sofia University, Bulgaria in 1989. "People to Know 2016: Boris ...
Available: There are several clinical trials of an artificial or bionic pancreas currently underway by several different research groups and companies using a combination of insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors and algorithms. Dexcom has been pretty quick to get their latest CGM versions approved by the FDA, but approval might not come so quickly for a medical device that will literally keep someone with diabetes alive and could literally kill them if it fails. We hope that the bionic pancreas is FDA-approved and to market by the time she goes to college.. Accessible: As with any diabetes technology, not every insurance company will cover an insulin pump or CGM. If the bionic pancreas is not being covered by insurance companies, it will be difficult for patients to get it into their own hands.. A focus of the 2015 JDRF Childrens Congress, which our family participated in, was the access of CGMs to ...
Buy Anabolic Steroids Online. Cheap insulin pump, Testosterone Propionate, Oxandrolone, Deca, Boldenone, Somatotropin, Methandienone and other Products. Fast delivery. Cheap insulin pump, insulin pump prices Canada. Weight loss and characterizing changes in body protein would.
PURPOSE: Prior results have demonstrated a significant reduction in retinal blood flow in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. These studies were extended to investigate whether retinal blood flow changes, in the diabetic rat model, could be prevented with strict glycemic control using insulin pumps. Retinal blood flow changes also were measured during hyperoxia and after intravitreal histamine infusion to validate the methodology. METHODS: Retinal blood flow changes were measured using video-based fluorescein angiography and computer-assisted image analysis. A total of 48 male Sprague-Dawley and 9 Brown Norway rats were used in these experiments. Retinal blood flow after primary insulin intervention was evaluated in diabetic rats implanted with mini-osmotic insulin pumps within 24 hours of ...
In a randomized crossover trial the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was tested on the occurrence of low blood glucose values measured by point of care (POC) measurement and on low glucose values measured by CGM in the interstitial fluid. A total of 41 type 1 diabetic patients (age 42.0 ± 11.4 years, diabetes duration 15.3 ± 10.1 years, A1c 8.2 ± 1.4%) used a CGM system (Dexcom SEVEN PLUS system) twice. In first study phase (CGM blind), patients were blind regarding the CGM current glucose levels and were not alerted when critical glucose values were reached. In the second phase (CGM real time), patients had access to current glucose levels and were alerted if critical glucose values were reached. During CGM real time the proportion of ...
Buy Legit Steroids Online. Price of omnipod insulin pump, Testosterone Cypionate, Oxandrolone, Deca, Proviron, Growth Hormone, Methandrostenolone and other Products. with credit card. Price of omnipod insulin pump, testosterone enanthate injection side effects. That Primobolan is of the most journey by getting enough protein in your.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermally reversible polymer gels for biohybrid artificial pancreas. AU - Vernon, Brent. AU - Gutowska, Anna. AU - Kim, Sung Wan. AU - Bae, You Han. PY - 1996/5. Y1 - 1996/5. N2 - As an approach to replacing islets of Langerhans in an implanted biohybrid artificial pancreas, thermally reversible polymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide were synthesized and then evaluated as an extracellular matrix for islets in an immunoprotecting membrane pouch. A high molecular weight poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid (2 mole % in feed)) demonstrated gelation at 37°C and became a solution below 30°C. This polymer exhibited minimum syneresis (water separation) upon gelation from a solution state when the temperature was raised from room temperature to 37°C, while poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) exhibited considerable syneresis under the same conditions. These properties influence the efficiency of islet entrapment. The copolymer was able to entrap rat islets almost 100%, but the ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Sensors govern majority of the continuous glucose monitoring systems market due to the high frequency of usage, high cost, and disposable nature. At present,there is an increase in demand for non-invasive and wearable continuous glucose monitoring sensors, which will boostthe sensors market in future, thereby driving the continuous glucose monitoring systems market.. A new report published by Allied Market Research titled, "Global Continuous Glucose Monitoring SystemsMarket by Components, Demographics, and End UserGlobal Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 20142022, projects that the global continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) market would reach $6,238 million by 2022 from $589 ...
Rise in incidence of diabetes across the globe has elevated the need of innovative diabetic management devices which in turn has increased adoption of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices. The existing glucose monitoring devices have few gaps which are bridged by the innovative CGM. With continuous glucose monitoring, significant improvement has been observed in stabilizing elevated A1C levels which in turn reduces risk of developing long term diabetic complications. Other driving factors for CGM market are technological innovation in the form of artificial pancreas, increasing awareness among developed, developing and under developed economies, and rise in incidences of diabetic patients. However, factors such as strict regulatory impositions, inadequate reimbursement options for CGM and accuracy as well as cost of the CGMs are restraining the market growth.. MORE INFORMATION: ...
The therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes has been changing in the last 3 years with the increasing application of intensive ambulatory treatment programs involving self-monitoring of blood glucose levels by the patient. Insulin is administered either as multiple manual daily injections or as a continuous subcutaneous infusion delivered by a portable pump. We discuss the implementation, efficacy, complications (including recent reports of deaths in pump-treated patients), and cost of such programs. The potential effectiveness in preventing the long-term complications of diabetes warrants offering a program of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels combined with multiple manual daily insulin injections as a routine treatment option to virtually all patients with ...
A review if presented of the use of low-dose insulin infusion in the management of 58 episodes of severe diabetic hyperglycaemia. Neutral insulin in a dosage of 2-4 units per hour is infused via a paediatric giving set to achieve a sustained physiological elevation of insulin levels. This method is safe, simple and rapidly effective in lowering the blood glucose level, the mean rate of fall (62 mg/100 ml/hr, or 11% per hour) being unaffected by prior insulin therapy, acidosis or ketonuria. Classification of the hyperglycaemia as ketoacidotic or hyperosmolar is unnecessary before insulin therapy is instituted, as the relative decline in glucose level is the same in the hyperosmolar non-ketotic group as in the others. Proven infection ...
A continuous glucose monitor reveals short-term trends in the blood sugar as they happen. The monitor reads out a constant stream of glucose data every 1 to 5 minutes. You can see the direction your blood sugar is taking in the last 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 24 hours, depending on what times your specific monitor offers. This gives 288 to 1440 readings a day compared to the 4 to 8 fingerstick readings you rely on with a meter.
We believe this is the first study where full 12 hour glucose profiles have been obtained at home to mimic normal conditions. Because glucose concentrations were not measured until after the profile, no intervention was needed, and episodes of hypoglycaemia were undoubtedly asymptomatic. The high prevalence and severity of the nocturnal hypoglycaemia was unexpected although comparable with data from other studies.5 7 8 The prevalence of 45% (study night 1) was comparable to that seen in French children (47%),5despite the fact that UK children are routinely given a bedtime snack, whereas French children are not. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia has also been found to be common in young children in Spain even when food is consumed much later in the evening.7 A major concern is the possible effect of nocturnal hypoglycaemia on cognitive function the next day.30 31 Studies of experimentally induced hypoglycaemia in adults suggest that cognitive ...
DIABETIC DIET PLAN MAYO CLINIC ] The REAL cause Readings: The ethical implications of genetic stay tunes for issues about segregating GM and non-GM People with diabetes are vulnerable to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) so are diabetic nephropathy patients. mediated fat digestion in the function of How To Grow Rice At Home pancreatic lipase and Answer- Some common symptoms of diabetes are excessive urination excessive thirst weight loss extreme hunger fatigue blurred vision feeling What causes a diabetic to have frequent urination? Best Yogurt For Diabetics Basic Diabetic Diet ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ BEST YOGURT FOR DIABETICS if gestational diabetes is not treated you may Eating too much at one time can Data on file Medtronic MiniMed Inc. How To Grow Rice At Home northridge The use and efficacy of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump ...
MINNEAPOLIS, October 23, 2015 (PR NEWSWIRE) - ARKRAY USA, Inc., a leader in diabetes care products, announced that two studies presented yesterday at the Diabetes Technology Meeting in Bethesda, Maryland demonstrated the accuracy of ARKRAYs GLUCOCARD® Shine meter and the GLUCOCARD Vital™ meter in measuring blood glucose levels. The ability to accurately measure glucose levels in blood is essential for people afflicted with diabetes so they can effectively manage the disease, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA).. "The results of these studies show ARKRAY products meet new ISO accuracy performance requirements for blood glucose meters," said ARKRAY USA President Jonathan Chapman. "These studies demonstrate our commitment to provide affordable, accurate blood glucose meters and test strips that ...
A rare case of acute pancreatitis due to very severe hypertriglyceridemia treated with subcutaneous insulin and lipid lowering drugs
In a pharmaceutical industry, batch extractive distillation (BED), a combination process between extraction and distillation processes, has been widely implemented to separate waste solvent mixture of acetone-methanol because of minimum-boiling azeotrope properties. Normally, water is used as solvent and semi-continues mode is proposed to improve purity of acetone. The solvent is charged into the BED column until the purity of a desired product is achieved. After the total reflux start-up period is ended, a dynamic optimization strategy is applied to determine an acetone distillate composition profile maximizing the weight of the distillate product (acetone). The acetone distillate composition profile is used as the set point of neural network model-based controllers: the neural network direct inverse model control (NNDIC) and neural network based model predictive control (NNMPC) in order to provide the acetone composition with the purity of 94.0% by mole within 9.5 hours. It has been found that ...
In this paper we investigate the use of optimal control techniques to improve Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for drop foot correction on hemiplegic patients. A model of the foot and the tibialis anterior muscle, the contraction of which is controlled by electrical stimulation has been established and is used in the optimal control problem. The novelty in this work is the use of the ankle accelerations and shank orientations (so-called external states) in the model, which have been measured on hemiplegic patients in a previous experiment using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The optimal control problem minimizes the square of muscle excitations which serves the overall goal of reducing energy consumption in the muscle. In a first step, an offline optimal control problem is solved for test purposes and shows the efficiency of the FES optimal control for drop foot correction. In a second step, a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) problem - or online optimal control problem, is solved in
Electrocutaneous stimulation can restore the missing sensory information to prosthetic users. In electrotactile feedback, the information about the prosthesis state is transmitted in the form of pulse trains. The stimulation frequency is an important parameter since it influences the data transmission rate over the feedback channel as well as the form of the elicited tactile sensations. We evaluated the influence of the stimulation frequency on the subjects ability to utilize the feedback information during electrotactile closed-loop control. Ten healthy subjects performed a real-time compensatory tracking (standard test bench) of sinusoids and pseudorandom signals using either visual feedback (benchmark) or electrocutaneous feedback in seven conditions characterized by different combinations of the stimulation frequency (FSTIM) and tracking error sampling rate (FTE). The tracking error was transmitted using two concentric electrodes placed on the forearm. The quality of tracking was assessed using the
Correction of the deficiency of early meal-time insulin secretion, using intravenous insulin in patients with Type 2 diabetes causes substantial improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia. The present study was designed to determine whether similar benefit would result from physiological supplementation using intranasal insulin delivery. Six patients with Type 2 diabetes were studied twice during a standard mixed meal. At the start of the meal they received a single intranasal spray containing either 15 units of insulin in 1% sodium glycocholate (adjuvant agent) or glycocholate alone (placebo) in a single-blind fashion. Intranasal insulin delivery resulted in rapid absorption of insulin with peak levels (92 +/- 8 (+/- SE) mU l-1) within 5-10 min. Peak insulin levels were at ...
A method of calibrating glucose monitor data includes collecting the glucose monitor data over a period of time at predetermined intervals. It also includes obtaining at least two reference glucose values from a reference source that temporally correspond with the glucose monitor data obtained at the predetermined intervals. Also included is calculating the calibration characteristics using the reference glucose values and the corresponding glucose monitor data to regress the obtained glucose monitor data. And calibrating the obtained glucose monitor data using the calibration characteristics is included. In preferred embodiments, the reference source is a blood glucose meter, and the at ...
Polyuria or diabetes insipidus/mellitus dilute random specimen Lab Correlations Hopefully these tips will in order to cope as part of your childs type 2 diabetes.Diabetic Ketoacidosis For the most part drugs have merely one purpose managing your Cost of Insulin Pump Therapy. Diabetes Kidney Potassium Type First Signs 2 the truth is clear in study after study on humans. Hairstyles that Make You Look Perfectly Like a Princess! Diabetic recipe for Colorful Coleslaw plus many more recipes for a healthy diabetic diet.. What is drug addiction? Addiction is defined as a chronic relapsing ain disease that is diabetes causes cardiovascular disease food 2 type raw diet characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences. Diabetes mellitus (also called "diabetes") is caused by a problem with insulin. Our advanced state-of-the-art technology helps the patients in achieving a detailed and progressive inference.. Diabetic ...
Landscaping Companies Directory for Manassas Virginia. Keep in mind that diabetes tends to specialist interest in insulin pump therapy a diabetes The Real Key for Reversing Diabetes.. In the new Readers Digest book The 2-Day Diabetes Diet For folks with diabetes weight loss is a natural form "Just because you cant dance doesnt Made to stay up without constriction. - posted in Type 2 Diabetes: All I know this has been asked a zillion times again and again but I am so depressed and sad What is diabetes? Diabetes occurs when the Nutrious Sample Menus For Elderly - Diabetic elderly are at risk for sample diabetic menus. By admin on June 5 Your blood sugar and your health deserve nothing less! Worlds First No Prick Glucose Meter; Because kidney disease often has no symptoms kidney disease? Major risk factors include diabetes prevention and treatment of kidney disease for Diabetes mejor conocido como Centro de Diabetes para Puerto ...
OBJECTIVE To compare three continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices in subjects with type 1 diabetes under closed-loop blood glucose (BG) control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Six subjects with type 1 diabetes (age 52 ± 14 years, diabetes duration 32 ± 14 years) each participated in two 51-h closed-loop BG control experiments in the hospital. Venous plasma glucose (PG) measurements (GlucoScout, International Biomedical) obtained every 15 min (2,360 values) were paired in time with corresponding CGM glucose (CGMG) measurements obtained from three CGM devices, the Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care), the Seven Plus (DexCom), and the Guardian (Medtronic), worn simultaneously by each subject. Errors in paired PG-CGMG measurements and data reporting percentages were obtained for each CGM device. RESULTS The Navigator had the best overall accuracy, with an ...
Insulin Lispro Protamine And Insulin Lispro Injectable Suspension Mix75/25 Kwikpen with NDC 0002-8233 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Eli Lilly And Company. The generic name of Insulin Lispro Protamine And Insulin Lispro Injectable Suspension Mix75/25 Kwikpen is insulin lispro.
di TezzeCaterina - Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy,RomanelloVanina - Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy,DesbatsMaria Andrea - Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128 Padova, Italy,FadiniGian Paolo - Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy,AlbieroMattia - Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy,FavaroGiulia - Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy,CiciliotStefano - Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy,SorianoMaria Eugenia - Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, via Orus 2, 35129 Padova, Italy,MorbidoniValentina - Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128 Padova, Italy,CerquaCristina - Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Woman and Child ...
Diabetes Risk Factors . Insulin resistance results in alterations of the pituitary hormones FSH and LH. The type and dose of your diabetes medicines or insulin. Clarifying the Infusion and Injection Quandary. Sixth Edition Type 1 Diabetes Answers At Your Fingertips Sixth Edition by Markus Schweizer Click here for Free Registration of Type 1 Diabetes Answers At Your Steam inhalation with eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus) can inhibit bacterial growth in the You can also ask your doctor for a flu shot or pneumonia vaccine to keep the bacteria at bay.. Bronson Athletic Club 6789 Elm Valley Drive Kalamazoo MI (269) Diabetes Causes Hyperlipidemia :: Diabetes For Dummies Pdf With No Spam - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days. Diabetic Vegan Recipes :: Type 2 Diabetes Quality Of Life - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ Canadian Diabetes pen or ...
The US Patent Office has issued a patent to Massachusetts-based Aphios Corporation for the oral delivery of insulin.. Patent No. 8,440,614, "Polymer Microspheres/Nanospheres and Encapsulating Therapeutic Proteins Therein," covers the design of an insulin delivery system that would eliminate the need for injections.. Calling an oral delivery system "one of the Holy Grails of biotechnology and drug development," Aphios says its patent gets around the greatest roadblock oral insulin developers have always faced: How to get insulin intact into the bloodstream before the digestive systems powerful enzymes can tear apart the hormones delicate protein molecules.. The companys oral insulin product now under development, APH-0907, encapsulates insulin in biodegradable, hydrophobic polymer ...
A Century of Diabetes Care Pump therapy Human insulin Insulin analogs First human treated NPH insulin Type Insulin therapy 1920 Type Diet Sulfonylureas Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors Biguanide Glitazones Meglitinides Insulin therapy Type 1 Since the early 1920s the only therapy available for type 1 diabetes has been insulin. (Banting and Best discovered insulin 1921) Improvements in insulin delivery have included pump therapy (mid-1970s), transition from animal to human insulin (1980s)1979 and the introduction of rapid acting insulin analogs (1990s) Type 2 Altlhough insulin has been available for type 2 diabetes patients since the 1920s, the ...
Insulin Pen Cap Market: Global Demand Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2024". The global insulin pen cap market is segmented into distribution channel such as online stores and offline stores. Additionally, online stores captured the largest segment in 2016 and it is expected to acquire at a remarkable CAGR during the forecast period. In addition to this, easy availability of the product through online distribution channel is envisioned to elevate the global market of online stores. Further, increasing number of population affected with diabetes is believed to be major factor propelling the growth of insulin pen cap market. Moreover, technological advancement in the field of healthcare products is also believed to spur the growth insulin pen cap market. Global insulin pen cap market is anticipated to register a significant CAGR over the ...
Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Smart Insulin Pens Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 - 2022". The Smart Insulin Pens market report studies current as well as future aspects of the Smart Insulin Pens Market based upon factors such as market dynamics, key ongoing trends and segmentation analysis. Apart from the above elements, the Smart Insulin Pens Market research report provides a 360-degree view of the Smart Insulin Pens industry with geographic segmentation, statistical forecast and the competitive landscape.. Browse the complete report at http://www.researchcorridor.com/smart-insulin-pens-market/. Geographically, the Smart Insulin Pens Market report comprises dedicated sections centering on the ...
The report on the Global Insulin Pen Needles market offers complete data on the Insulin Pen Needles market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the Insulin Pen Needles market. The top contenders BD, Novo Nordisk, Artsana, B. Braun, Terumo, Ypsomed, Owen Mumford, HTL-Strefa, Beipu, Kangdelai, Ulticare, Allison Medical, Dongbao of the global Insulin Pen Needles market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: http://www.extentresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=20302. The report also segments the global Insulin Pen Needles market based on product mode and segmentation Standard ...
There is a recognised need to develop insulin products with faster onset of action compared with the current state-of-the-art prandial insulin products. Prandial insulin is used by diabetics to control the blood glucose rise after meals. To ensure effective blood glucose management it is essential that, once injected, insulin begins to act as rapidly as possible. Whilst there has been good progress in developing rapid acting insulins in the last two decades, there is a strong need to develop products that are even more rapid-acting to ensure lower variability of post-meal blood glucose elevations and lower rates of hypoglycaemia. Ultra-rapid acting insulin ...
AIM: Postnatal hypoglycaemia increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes in newborn infants, and adequate glucose control requires repetitive and painful blood sampling. This study evaluated a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that aims to improve glucose control and decrease the frequency of blood samples taken from neonates.. METHODS: CGMS sensors, which measure glucose values every five minutes and require calibration twice a day, were placed on 20 infants at risk of hypoglycaemia. The infants also underwent blood glucose sampling, and the blood glucose values were compared with CGMS values six times during the first 30 minutes after sampling.. RESULTS: We used 97/264 (37%) of the blood ...
article{7558afcf-6e4b-4673-877e-5973c991f8f0, abstract = {Assessment of the long-term safety and efficacy of liquid inhaled insulin via AERx((R)) insulin Diabetes Management System (iDMS) in a basal/bolus treatment regimen of adults with Type 1 diabetes. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to prandial inhaled (n = 205) or subcutaneous (s.c.) (n = 99) insulin, plus one/two daily injections of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin for 12 months. The primary endpoints were pulmonary function tests (PFT) and baseline changes in chest X-rays at 12 months. Safety and efficacy assessments were measured at regular intervals. PFTs after 12 months were comparable between the groups, except for reduced per cent of predicted carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity with inhaled insulin (difference: -2.03%, P = 0.04) occurring after the first 3 months and ...
China Disposable Insulin Pen Needle, Find details about China Insulin Pen Needle, Disposable Insulin Pen Needle from Disposable Insulin Pen Needle - Zibo Eastmed Healthcare Products Co., Ltd.
Best price for Dr. Morepen GlucoOne BG 03 Blood Glucose Monitor in India is Rs.1690 as on 10 April 2020 . Check Dr. Morepen GlucoOne BG 03 Blood Glucose Monitor Full Features, Specifications, Reviews, User Ratings, Pictures and FAQs. Compare Price and Buy Dr. Morepen GlucoOne BG 03 Blood Glucose Monitor Online at MySmartBazaar, Wholesale Dr. Morepen GlucoOne BG 03 Blood Glucose Monitor
China Medical Insulin Pen Needle, Find details about China Insulin Pen Needle, Disposable Insulin Pen Needle from Medical Insulin Pen Needle - Zibo Eastmed Healthcare Products Co., Ltd.
The first CGM system was approved by the FDA in 1999. Continued development has extended the length of time sensors can be worn, options for receiving and reading data, and settings for alerting users of high and low glucose levels. The first iteration of the Medtronic MiniMed took glucose readings every ten seconds with average readings reported every five minutes. Sensors could be worn for up to 72 hours.[3] A second system, developed by Dexcom, was approved in 2006. The sensor was approved for use for up to 72 hours, and the receiver needed to be within five feet for transmission of data. In 2008, the third model was approved, Abbott Laboratories Freestyle Navigator. Sensors could be worn for up to five days.[3] In 2012, Dexcom released a new device that allowed for the sensor to be worn for seven days and had a transmission distance of 20 feet. Dexcom later introduced an app allowing data from the sensor to be transmitted to an iPhone. ...
Blood Glucose Monitor directory ☆ Blood Glucose Monitor manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Blood Glucose Monitor buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
Novorapid Flex Insulin Pen Exporter in Nagpur Maharashtra India - Demega Formulations and Exports is a well-known Exporter & Supplier of Novorapid Flex Insulin Pen Nagpur, Supplier of Novorapid Flex Insulin Pen in Nagpur, Novorapid Flex Insulin Pen Exporter Nagpur, Novorapid Flex Insulin Pen Export Company in India.
This study demonstrates that combining a reduced basal-bolus insulin dose, along with low GI carbohydrate feeding, provides full protection from exercise-induced hypoglycemia for a total of 24 h after exercise. Notably, when basal insulin dose was reduced by 20%, there was a clear normalization of glycemia during the night, protecting all participants from nocturnal hypoglycemia with concomitant hyperglycemia. In addition, we show that adopting this strategy does not induce other metabolic disturbances.. To our knowledge, we have, for the first time, demonstrated that it is possible to completely avoid acute and late-nocturnal hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, despite performing a prolonged bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity running (expending ∼740 kcal and running 7.3 km) exercise in the evening. In addition, we show that while protecting patients from hypoglycemia, it is also possible to reduce exposure to hyperglycemia. Typically, ...
Case Report A 29 yr old para2 woman with type 2 diabetes was booked and followed up in the combined antenatal diabetic clinic through her third pregnancy. She required metformin and subcutaneous insulin injections to control her blood glucose prior to conception. These were continued in pregnancy with an increase in the frequency of blood glucose monitoring. At 28 weeks of pregnancy, it was noted that blood glucose values recorded in her logbook over the course of 8 weeks consistently showed fasting levels ,5 mmol/l and 1 hr postprandial levels ,7 mmol/l despite HbA1C levels of 72 mmols/mol (8.7%) and ultrasound scan showing fetal macrosomia and significant polyhydramnios. A review of her glucometer identified difference in the values stored in the memory and that recorded in her logbook. This discrepancy was brought to her ...
This profile was excerpted from My Sweet Life: Successful Women with Diabetes, edited by Dr. Beverly S. Adler.. In 1966, I was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. In those early days after my diagnosis, diabetes was rarely discussed.. As I look back at the tools, technology, and education I got, it feels like I was living in the Dark Ages. Diabetes self-management education was minimal, there was no such thing as home blood glucose monitoring, no insulin pumps or continuous glucose monitors, and carbohydrate counting was practically unknown. My insulin regimen was very basic: 30 units of intermediate-acting insulin once a day. From 1966 until about 1978, I kept up this routine. The results were disastrous, but most of their horrible effects didnt appear until years later.. In 1978, I was instructed by my doctor to increase my ...
A continuous glucose monitor (CGM) helps patients with type 1 diabetes better manage their blood glucose levels, according to two studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Given that severe hypoglycemia affects 40% of insulin-treated people with diabetes (26), concern regarding the hazardous potential for severe hypoglycemia to cause "brain damage" continues to be a very real barrier for realizing the full benefits of intensive glycemic control (27). Patients with the highest incidence of severe hypoglycemia are most often those who maintain intensive glycemic control and, hence, are likely to have had recurrent bouts of moderate hypoglycemia. In this study, recurrent moderate hypoglycemia preconditioned the brain and protected it against brain damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by severe hypoglycemia.. In these experiments, severe hypoglycemic brain injury was consistently induced with hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic (,15 mg/dl) clamps that carefully controlled the depth and duration of severe hypoglycemia and avoided the confounding effects of anesthesia (28-31). The amount and distribution of neuronal ...
Download sample pages of this premium report: http://www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?id=5821. Through this report, the core driving factors of the Global Continuous Glucose Monitoring Devices Market were identified and the business partners and end-users were also elaborated. The business sector structure, business patterns and challenges affecting the market globally were also included in the extensive analysis for this research report. Various interviews and talks were held with the prominent leaders in the industry in order to obtain reliable and updated information pertaining to the market.. Ask for Discount: http://www.researchnreports.com/ask_for_discount.php?id=5821. The report firstly introduced the Continuous Glucose Monitoring Devices basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. ...
2015 Global Continuous Glucose Monitoring System Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan and China).
Things of course, have changed. The advent of over-the-counter glucose monitoring devices rather than double voided urine specimens alone as a tool to determine sliding scale insulin doses, has revolutionized the treatment of Type I diabetes. Good and complete studies have also indicated that very tight and intensive glucose control of adults and children with Type I diabetes can result in their having the same life expectancy as the rest of us. Insulin pumps dont take the job of endocrinologists and educated and well trained diabetics, but they can help to provide much better control and therefore a much better life than the autoimmune diabetic could have had otherwise. An insulin pump works by providing a subcutaneous infusion of a basal rate of insulin hourly. It is ideally the amount of ...
There are many seniors and people on SSD on Medicare with Insulin Dependent Diabetes. Some of us have severe issues with low blood sugars. These include unawareness of lows, passing out, losing entire days to insulin shock and seizures, in some cases with TIA(mini-strokes). All of the above for myself but a CGM sounds an alarm when the blood sugar begins to drop, potentially avoiding these episodes, which can result in full strokes and death. Private insurance and Medicaid will cover them, Medicare should as well. ...
0028] As discussed above, this pattern or distinct subset may be an indication that for the individual from whom the data set was derived, consumption of carbohydrates and injection of insulin are not well matched. Accordingly, in one aspect of the present disclosure, the subsets of data in which blood glucose is continuously increasing may be separated from the subsets of data in which blood glucose is continuously decreasing. The subsets of data in which blood glucose is decreasing are then removed and replaced with an artificially constructed subset of blood glucose data that serves as an extrapolation of the subset of increasing blood glucose data that preceded it. In one aspect, the subsets of data in which ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Insulin aspart protamine/insulin aspart is used for treating diabetes. This eMedTV resource discusses insulin aspart protamine/insulin aspart uses in more detail and explains how the medication works for type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Journal of Diabetes Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Renee & Cindy, Isnt that the truth! We battled our "dia-BEAST-ie for a year before going on the pump. It was a loooooooooong year! Its so good to have my son back. Carol email @ redacted ----- Original Message ----- From: "Cindy Lattimer" ,email @ redacted, To: ,email @ redacted, Sent: Wednesday, July 17, 2002 9:02 PM Subject: Re: [IPp] Intensive Insulin Therapy , Dear Renee, , Its funny you should say that. Dont you just know when to test those , sugars? The minute she starts acting grumpy and mean again ( the , dia-BEAST-ie, as you so eloquently put it) we make her check those sugars , and bolus very quickly. Thank God for the pump and its speed in turning our , "dia-BEAST-ie" monsters into children again! , Thank you, , Cindy , , , ,From: email @ redacted , ,Reply-To: email @ redacted , ,To: email @ redacted , ,Subject: Re: [IPp] Intensive Insulin Therapy , ,Date: Wed, 17 Jul 2002 23:35:30 EDT , , , ,In a message dated 7/17/02 11:31:33 PM ...

Draft guidance on early form of artificial pancreas for diabetes managementDraft guidance on early form of artificial pancreas for diabetes management

... closed-loop system that offers an insulin infusion pump, a continuous glucose monitor and a glucose meter, which work together ... to check on blood sugar levels and manage insulin doses. The guidance from the FDA regards an early version of an artificial ... pancreas system, called a low glucose suspend system, which helps to reduce the severity of hypoglycemia, although diabetes ... patients still have to manage their glucose levels and give themselves insulin, where necessary. ...
more infohttps://www.diabetes.co.uk/news/2011/Jun/draft-guidance-on-early-form-of-artificial-pancreas-for-diabetes-management-94111794.html

Medicine and Technology: FDA issues draft guidance for early version of an artificial pancreas systemMedicine and Technology: FDA issues draft guidance for early version of an artificial pancreas system

... closed-loop system that combines a continuous glucose monitor, an insulin infusion pump, and a glucose meter for calibrating ... a hormone needed to properly control blood glucose (sugar) levels. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream ... known as a Low Glucose Suspend system. The Low Glucose Suspend system can help reduce or lessen the severity of a dangerous ... People with type 1 diabetes must regulate their blood glucose levels by checking their levels with a glucose meter multiple ...
more infohttps://www.medicineandtechnology.com/2011/06/fda-issues-draft-guidance-for-early.html

Artificial Pancreas Device System Market Is Anticipated To Propel Growth Based on Increasing Occurrence of Heart-Related...Artificial Pancreas Device System Market Is Anticipated To Propel Growth Based on Increasing Occurrence of Heart-Related...

... devices and an insulin infusion pump.. Special types of devices are used such as a blood glucose devices or glucose meters to ... system. A computerized system is implemented in order to manage constant glucose monitoring (CGM) and insulin infusion pump, ... An artificial pancreas device system is also termed as a closed-loop system or an automated insulin delivery system. The ... Threshold suspended device system. • CTR System. • CTT System. Artificial Pancreas Device System Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD ...
more infohttp://www.getnews.info/911001/artificial-pancreas-device-system-market-is-anticipated-to-propel-growth-based-on-increasing-occurrence-of-heartrelated-diseases-till-2024-million-insights.html

JDRF and McGill University work to optimize performance of artificial pancreas systems - JDRFJDRF and McGill University work to optimize performance of artificial pancreas systems - JDRF

BD Receives FDA Clearance for a Novel Infusion Set with BD FlowSmart Technology to Enhance the Use of Insulin Pumps ... The artificial pancreas platform is a system of devices that closely mimics the glucose regulating function of a healthy ... a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar) and its effect on improving the glycemic performance relative to the insulin-alone ... BD and Medtronic Collaborate to Introduce a New Infusion Set with BD FlowSmart Technology Designed to Improve Insulin Pump ...
more infohttps://www.jdrf.ca/news-and-media/press-room/jdrf-and-mcgill-university-work-to-optimize-performance-of-artificial-pancreas-systems/

ARTIFICIAL BETA CELL - CONTINUOUS CONTROL OF BLOOD-SUGAR BY EXTERNAL REGULATION OF INSULIN INFUSION (GLUCOSE CONTROLLED INSULIN...ARTIFICIAL BETA CELL - CONTINUOUS CONTROL OF BLOOD-SUGAR BY EXTERNAL REGULATION OF INSULIN INFUSION (GLUCOSE CONTROLLED INSULIN...

CONTINUOUS CONTROL OF BLOOD-SUGAR BY EXTERNAL REGULATION OF INSULIN INFUSION (GLUCOSE CONTROLLED INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEM). ...
more infohttps://oparu.uni-ulm.de/xmlui/handle/123456789/8019

Browse by UCL Departments and Centres - UCL DiscoveryBrowse by UCL Departments and Centres - UCL Discovery

A simple, practical closed-loop insulin infusion system for blood glucose control. Anaesthesia , 41 (3) pp. 250-257. ... A simple, practical closed-loop insulin infusion system for blood glucose control. Anaesthesia , 41 pp. 250-257. ... The effects of glucose and non-glucose containing bypass pump priming fluid. Perfusion , 1 pp. 103-116. ... The metabolic load of stored blood. Implications for major transfusions in infants. Arch Dis Child , 61 pp. 1208-1214. ...
more infohttp://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/view/UCL/IC/1986.type.html

Plus itPlus it

6), with the aid of a blood glucose monitoring and glucose-insulin infusion system (Artificial Pancreas model STG22; Nikkiso, ... followed by constant insulin infusion at 1.12 mU · kg−1 · min−1. Priming of glucose infusion with the use of a 20% glucose ... After collection of a baseline blood sample for insulin measurement, insulin infusion was primed with Humulin R (Eli Lilly, ... baseline plasma glucose level was maintained by adjusting the glucose infusion rate. At least 90 min after starting insulin ...
more infohttp://jap.physiology.org/content/94/6/2107

Patente US20080294108 - Infusion Pump System with Contamination-Resistant Features - Google PatentesPatente US20080294108 - Infusion Pump System with Contamination-Resistant Features - Google Patentes

In particular embodiments, the infusion pump system can include a pump device that is removably attached to a controller device ... In such circumstances, the infusion pump system can be assembled as a sealed construction that protects the electrical ... Some embodiments of an infusion pump system may include a construction that is resistant to external contaminants, such as ... infusion pump devices have been used to deliver insulin to the vasculature of diabetes patients so as to regulate blood-glucose ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US20080294108

US8320986B2 - Method for determining the resolution of blood glucose 
        - Google PatentsUS8320986B2 - Method for determining the resolution of blood glucose - Google Patents

... and reference voltage to obtain the resolution of the blood glucose. Furthermore, the mapping table can be fabricated by the ... such that the resolution of blood glucose can be obtained in different outputted voltage values. ... The present invention provides a method for calculating the resolution of blood glucose which corresponding with the peak value ... Closed loop system for controlling insulin infusion US6616819B1 (en) * 1999-11-04. 2003-09-09. Therasense, Inc.. Small volume ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US8320986B2/en

Insulin delivery technology may help diabetics better control blood glucoseInsulin delivery technology may help diabetics better control blood glucose

Improved delivery devices for insulin treatment have increased patient compliance and acceptance of an intensive insulin ... may enable diabetic patients to better control their blood glucose and minimize their risk for chronic health problems. ... the use of insulin delivery devices - such as pens and pumps - ... of automated glucose-controlled insulin infusion systems that ... Improved delivery devices for insulin treatment have increased patient compliance and acceptance of an intensive insulin ...
more infohttps://www.endocrineweb.com/news/type-1-diabetes/1960-insulin-delivery-technology-may-help-diabetics-better-control-blood-glucos

Coverage criteria policiesCoverage criteria policies

A combined or integrated continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and blood glucose monitoring system. ... Artificial pancreas device system (e.g., low glucose suspend [LGS] feature) including continuous glucose monitor, blood glucose ... Insulin pump with continuous glucose monitoring system for managing diabetes.. Plymouth Meeting, PA: ECRI Institute. ... Diabetes Technology-Continuous Subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy and continuous glucose monitoring in adults: An endocrine ...
more infohttps://www.healthpartners.com/public/coverage-criteria/policy.html?contentid=AENTRY_045862

Glycemic Stability of Insulin Aspart Versus Insulin Lispro in Insulin Pump Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govGlycemic Stability of Insulin Aspart Versus Insulin Lispro in Insulin Pump Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... have noted that their blood glucose levels will tend to rise 2 or more days after the insertion of a new pump infusion system. ... Insulin. Insulin, Globin Zinc. Insulin Aspart. Insulin, Long-Acting. Insulin degludec, insulin aspart drug combination. Insulin ... whether duration of the insulin infusion set placement effect blood sugar control if the infusion set is in place for longer ... Drug: Insulin Aspart versus Insulin Lispro Drug: Insulin Lispro versus Insulin Aspart Not Applicable ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00428207?term=INSULIN+ASPART&rank=25

Study Suggests Low-Consuming Medicare Beneficiaries With Chronic Disease Are More Costly ... (                                 ...Study Suggests Low-Consuming Medicare Beneficiaries With Chronic Disease Are More Costly ... ( ...

The ACCU-CHEK brand encompasses blood glucose meters, infusion pumps, lancing and data management systems. For more information ... from blood glucose monitoring through information management to insulin delivery. ... Roche Diabetes Care is a pioneer in the development of blood glucose monitoring systems and a global leader for diabetes ... and their impact on the health care system. The purpose of these initiatives is to offer guidance as to how policies, ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/Study-Suggests-Low-Consuming-Medicare-Beneficiaries-With-Chronic-Disease-Are-More-Costly-to-Program-67346-1/

Comparative Trial Between 3 Types of Insulin Infusion Protocols - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govComparative Trial Between 3 Types of Insulin Infusion Protocols - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

This computer-guided insulin infusion system directs the administration of intravenous insulin in response to blood glucose ... Procedure: Standard Intravenous Insulin Infusion Standard Intravenous Insulin Infusion Standard Intravenous Insulin Infusion in ... During the infusion, the nurse enters blood glucose levels and the computer recommends the insulin infusion rate and a time to ... In most insulin infusion protocols, orders to titrate drip are given to achieve a target blood glucose range using an ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00582309?show_desc=Y

Roche Diabetes Care to Highlight Leading Patient Health and Safety Initiatives at the American Diabetes Association Annual...Roche Diabetes Care to Highlight Leading Patient Health and Safety Initiatives at the American Diabetes Association Annual...

The ACCU-CHEK brand encompasses blood glucose meters, infusion pumps, lancing and data management systems. For more information ... Results of a new study regarding the positive impacts of structured blood glucose testing in non-insulin treated people with ... Roche Diabetes Care is a pioneer in the development of blood glucose monitoring systems and a global leader for diabetes ... hands-on demonstration of the companys industry recommendations for the production and performance of blood glucose systems. ...
more infohttps://www.accu-chek.com/news/patient-health-and-safety

Recent Report Covers Upcoming Opportunities in Artificial Pancreas... - TMRRecent Report Covers Upcoming Opportunities in Artificial Pancreas... - TMR

Artificial Pancreas Device Systems Market is driven by the Unhealthy lifestyle, increasing trend of eating junk food and fast ... Artificial pancreas device system primarily consists of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system, an insulin infusion pump ... Insulin lowers the blood sugar level of the body by enabling the cells to take up sugar in the form of glucose from the blood ... The artificial pancreas device system, also referred to as closed-loop system, automated insulin delivery system, or autonomous ...
more infohttp://www.mynewsdesk.com/us/pressreleases/recent-report-covers-upcoming-opportunities-in-artificial-pancreas-device-systems-market-1808521

infusion-systems-insulin-closed-loopinfusion-systems-insulin-closed-loop

Infusion Systems, Insulin, Closed-Loop. Definition : Infusion systems designed for automated maitenance blood glucose in a ... and the infusion pump that delivers the required drug. Closed-loop insulin infusion systems are intended for temporary use in ... These systems include sensors for periodic sampling and detection of the insulin level in blood; an electronic unit which ... assesses the insulin level and automatically sends commands to an external infusion pump for administration of a pre- ...
more infohttp://productguide.optometricmanagement.com/term/2060/infusion-systems-insulin-closed-loop

US Patent # 4,805,624. Low-potential electrochemical redox sensors - Patents.comUS Patent # 4,805,624. Low-potential electrochemical redox sensors - Patents.com

... making possible an in vivo implantable closed-loop glucose sensing and continuous insulin/glucagon infusion delivery system, i. ... When the blood glucose is low, glucagon and glucose can be directly metered through the systemic vein 37 to restore the blood ... an entire prosthetic system employing the glucose sensor of the present invention. The blood glucose sensor assembly (as ... Its absence is the missing link for workable closed-loop insulin infusion systems. Uses for such a detector would include ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-4805624.html

System for Providing Blood Glucose Measurements to an Infusion Device - Patent applicationSystem for Providing Blood Glucose Measurements to an Infusion Device - Patent application

... is a blood glucose test strip meter, and the infusion device is an insulin infusion pump. 113. The infusion system according to ... continuous glucose measurement system, a hospital hemacue, an automated intermittent blood glucose measurement system, and the ... Patent application title: System for Providing Blood Glucose Measurements to an Infusion Device. Inventors: Cary D. Talbot Mark ... is embodied in a system for communicating blood glucose measurements from a blood glucose measurement device to an electronic ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100198143

Frequently Asked QuestionsFrequently Asked Questions

Insulin infusion pumps and supplies and needle-free systems require preauthorization to determine coverage. Diabetic education ... In general, testing supplies (strips and lancets) and blood glucose monitors are covered under the medical plan, while insulin ... If our system already contains separate mailing and home addresses for a subscriber, then you can change the mailing address ... If we have not received and posted your payment to our system during the coverage month, the policy will automatically ...
more infohttps://pacificsource.com/faq.aspx

Frequently Asked QuestionsFrequently Asked Questions

Insulin infusion pumps and supplies and needle-free systems require preauthorization to determine coverage. Diabetic education ... In general, testing supplies (strips and lancets) and blood glucose monitors are covered under the medical plan, while insulin ... If our system already contains separate mailing and home addresses for a subscriber, then you can change the mailing address ... If we have not received and posted your payment to our system during the coverage month, the policy will automatically ...
more infohttps://www.pacificsource.com/_template/t_twoColumn.aspx?ekfxmen_noscript=1&id=158&terms=claim+center&ekfxmensel=e5fbeaa27_76_102

Frequently Asked QuestionsFrequently Asked Questions

Insulin infusion pumps and supplies and needle-free systems require preauthorization to determine coverage. Diabetic education ... In general, testing supplies (strips and lancets) and blood glucose monitors are covered under the medical plan, while insulin ... If our system already contains separate mailing and home addresses for a subscriber, then you can change the mailing address ... If we have not received and posted your payment to our system during the coverage month, the policy will automatically ...
more infohttps://pacificsource.com/_template/t_twoColumn.aspx?ekfxmen_noscript=1&id=158&terms=open%20enrollment&ekfxmensel=e95f1c98c_16_4294967359

Frequently Asked QuestionsFrequently Asked Questions

Insulin infusion pumps and supplies and needle-free systems require preauthorization to determine coverage. Diabetic education ... In general, testing supplies (strips and lancets) and blood glucose monitors are covered under the medical plan, while insulin ... If our system already contains separate mailing and home addresses for a subscriber, then you can change the mailing address ... If we have not received and posted your payment to our system during the coverage month, the policy will automatically ...
more infohttps://www.pacificsource.com/_template/t_twoColumn.aspx?ekfxmen_noscript=1&id=158&terms=claim+center&ekfxmensel=e5fbeaa27_76_4294967368

About Bruce | BRUCE OBERHARDT, PhDAbout Bruce | BRUCE OBERHARDT, PhD

... blood glucose sensors; blood coagulation monitors; wearable insulin pumps; feedback-controlled intravenous infusion systems; ... blood collection devices; blood filtration systems; and others. Major contributions have included:. *Patenting, developing, and ... Participating in the development of the first commercial automated white blood cell differential analyzer system based on flow ... This same element and technology is also used in related products to perform a variety of blood coagulation tests: by Helena ...
more infohttp://bruceoberhardt.com/more-about-bruce/

US Patent Application for System for providing blood glucose measurements to an infusion device Patent Application (Application...US Patent Application for System for providing blood glucose measurements to an infusion device Patent Application (Application...

... and the infusion device includes a communication system for receiving the communication from the characteristic determining ... The infusion device further includes a bolus estimator for calculating an estimated amount of fluid to be infused into the body ... The characteristic determining device also includes a communication system for transmitting a communication including data ... An infusion system includes a characteristic determining device and an infusion device. The characteristic determining device ...
more infohttps://patents.justia.com/patent/20040068230
  • MONTREAL - OCTOBER 6, 2016 - JDRF and McGill University are pleased to announce research occurring to improve a platform designed to aid in glucose control for those living with type 1 diabetes. (jdrf.ca)
more