A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Glucose in blood.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
Abstaining from all food.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC; EC; EC and EC
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The consumption of edible substances.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Nonexpendable items used in examination.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.
A 7-carbon keto sugar having the mannose configuration.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (1/28082)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (2/28082)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (3/28082)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Nrg1 is a transcriptional repressor for glucose repression of STA1 gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/28082)

Expression of genes encoding starch-degrading enzymes is regulated by glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified a transcriptional repressor, Nrg1, in a genetic screen designed to reveal negative factors involved in the expression of STA1, which encodes a glucoamylase. The NRG1 gene encodes a 25-kDa C2H2 zinc finger protein which specifically binds to two regions in the upstream activation sequence of the STA1 gene, as judged by gel retardation and DNase I footprinting analyses. Disruption of the NRG1 gene causes a fivefold increase in the level of the STA1 transcript in the presence of glucose. The expression of NRG1 itself is inhibited in the absence of glucose. DNA-bound LexA-Nrg1 represses transcription of a target gene 10.7-fold in a glucose-dependent manner, and this repression is abolished in both ssn6 and tup1 mutants. Two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments show an interaction of Nrg1 with Ssn6 both in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Nrg1 acts as a DNA-binding repressor and mediates glucose repression of the STA1 gene expression by recruiting the Ssn6-Tup1 complex.  (+info)

Ischemic tolerance in murine cortical cell culture: critical role for NMDA receptors. (5/28082)

Murine cortical cultures containing both neurons and glia (days in vitro 13-15) were exposed to periods of oxygen-glucose deprivation (5-30 min) too brief to induce neuronal death. Cultures "preconditioned" by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation exhibited 30-50% less neuronal death than controls when exposed to a 45-55 min period of oxygen-glucose deprivation 24 hr later. This preconditioning-induced neuroprotection was specific in that neuronal death induced by exposure to excitotoxins or to staurosporine was not attenuated. Neuroprotection was lost if the time between the preconditioning and severe insult were decreased to 7 hr or increased to 72 hr and was blocked if the NMDA antagonist 100 microM 3-((D)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid was applied during the preconditioning insult. This was true even if the duration of preconditioning was increased as far as possible (while still remaining sublethal). A similar preconditioning effect was also produced by sublethal exposure to high K+, glutamate, or NMDA but not to kainate or trans-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid.  (+info)

Enhanced myocardial glucose use in patients with a deficiency in long-chain fatty acid transport (CD36 deficiency). (6/28082)

CD36 is a multifunctional, 88 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on platelets and monocytes/macrophages. CD36 also has high homology with the long-chain fatty acid (LFA) transporter in the myocardium. Although platelet and monocyte CD36 levels can indicate a CD36 deficiency, they cannot predict specific clinical manifestations in the myocardium of a given person. We examined the hypothesis that a deficiency in LFA transport augments myocardial glucose uptake in patients with a type I CD36 deficiency. METHODS: Seven fasting patients with a type I CD36 deficiency and 9 controls were assessed by cardiac radionuclide imaging using beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) as a LFA tracer and by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: None of the patients with a CD36 deficiency showed myocardial uptake of BMIPP. The percentage dose uptake of BMIPP in these subjects was significantly lower than that in normal controls (1.31+/-0.24 versus 2.90+/-0.2; P < 0.005). PET studies revealed that myocardial FDG accumulation was substantially increased in patients with a CD36 deficiency. Quantitative analysis showed that the percentage dose uptake of FDG in patients with a CD36 deficiency was significantly higher than that in normal controls (1.28+/-0.35 versus 0.43+/-0.22; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: CD36 functions as a major myocardial LFA transporter and its absence may cause a compensatory upregulation of myocardial glucose uptake.  (+info)

Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and glucose and oxygen consumption in perfused tissue-isolated human melanoma xenografts. (7/28082)

The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and consumption of oxygen and glucose was examined in a perfused tissue-isolated tumor model in nude mice. One experimental group was perfused with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit buffer, a second one was perfused with TNF-alpha (500 microgram/kg) 5 h before perfusion. The vascular resistance increased significantly 5 h after TNF-alpha injection. The increase in vascular resistance did not seem to be mediated by a decrease in tumor nitric oxide production, as determined by perfusate nitrate/nitrite concentrations, but may be due to aggregation of leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes and/or endothelial consumption among the three experimental groups. The oxygen consumption was linearly dependent on the amount of available oxygen in the perfusate, whereas the glucose consumption was constant and independent of the glucose delivery rate. The present experiments provide new insights into physiological and metabolic mechanisms of action of TNF- alpha for optimization of future treatment schedules involving TNF-alpha.  (+info)

A possible role for the pentose phosphate pathway of spermatozoa in gamete fusion in the mouse. (8/28082)

Glucose metabolism is essential for successful gamete fusion in the mouse. Although the metabolic activity of the oocyte does not appear to play a significant role in the fusion step, the metabolic role of the spermatozoon is not known. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the role of glucose metabolism in mouse spermatozoa. Initially, the high-affinity glucose transporter GLUT3 was identified in mouse sperm. In characterizing the glucose metabolism of mouse sperm, we have shown 1) that mouse epididymal spermatozoa have a functional pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), implying that they produce NADPH, which is required for reducing reactions, and ribose 5-phosphate, which is required for nucleic acid synthesis; and 2) that sperm are able to fuse with the oocyte when NADPH is substituted for glucose, suggesting that sperm need to produce NADPH via the PPP in order to be able to achieve fertilization. The existence of an NADPH-regulated event that influences the ability of the sperm to fuse with the oocyte is envisaged.  (+info)

The aim of the study was to assess if mechanisms of glucose trafficking by red blood cells (RBCs) relates to species specific extracellular glucose levels. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), and short-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) had plasma glucose levels of 4 mmol l-1, 4.1 mmol l-1, 1.95 mmol l-1, and 0.73 mmol l-1, respectively. Glucose uptake by isolated RBCs was measured by the initial incorporation of [6-14C]-glucose and steady state glucose metabolism was determined by the production of 3H2O from [2-3H]-glucose. Saturation kinetics of glucose uptake and inhibition of both glucose uptake and metabolism by cytochalasin B and phloretin revealed that Atlantic cod, cunner, and sculpin RBCs all had a facilitated transport component to glucose trafficking. RBCs from Atlantic salmon showed a linear relationship between glucose uptake and extracellular glucose level but exhibited clear inhibition of glucose metabolism by ...
Author: Gylfe, E. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1993-08; Title: Triphasic changes of cytoplasmic CA2+ associated with early glucose effects on beta-cell membrane potential.
Glucose is not detectable in airways secretions of normoglycaemic volunteers, but is present at 1-9 mmol·l-1 in airways secretions from people with hyperglycaemia. These observations suggest the existence of a blood glucose threshold at which glucose appears in airways secretions, similar to that seen in renal and salivary epithelia. In the present study we determined the blood glucose threshold at which glucose appears in nasal secretions. Blood glucose concentrations were raised in healthy human volunteers by 20% dextrose intravenous infusion or 75 g oral glucose load. Nasal glucose concentrations were measured using modified glucose oxidase sticks as blood glucose concentrations were raised. Glucose appeared rapidly in nasal secretions once blood glucose was clamped at approx. 12 mmol·l-1 (n=6). On removal of the clamp, nasal glucose fell to baseline levels in parallel with blood glucose concentrations. An airway glucose threshold of 6.7-9.7 mmol·l-1 was identified (n=12). In six subjects ...
1. The effects of glucose on insulin secretion and Rb-86 efflux from isolated rat islets were studied at six different times during a 24-h period (00.00, 04.00, 08.00, 12.00, 16.00 and 20.00 h), 2. In the absence of glucose and in the presence of substimulatory concentrations (2.8 mmol/L) of the sugar, insulin secretion did not vary with the time of day. At a glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L the stimulated insulin secretion was greater than basal levels only at 20.00 h, 3. At a higher sugar concentration (8.3 mmol/L) the increase in insulin secretion and the reduction in Rb-86 efflux rate were more marked during the dark period. No effect of the time of day on insulin secretion was observed at glucose concentrations above 8.3 mmol/L (except in 27.7 mmol/L), 4. The time of day appears to affect insulin secretion mainly at glucose concentrations close to physiological values (5.6-8.3 mmol/L), 5. This result agrees with the ability of physiological amounts of glucose to alter the ...
Our previous studies demonstrated that high glucose-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is mediated by sequential activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase, and prevented by exogenous nitric oxide (NO). In this study we further elucidated the roles of t …
Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is stimulated by glucose metabolism. However, the relative importance of metabolizing glucose via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation versus glycolysis for insulin secretion remains unclear. von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, pVHL, negatively regulates hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1alpha, a transcription factor implicated in promoting a glycolytic form of metabolism. Here we report a central role for the pVHL-HIF1alpha pathway in the control of beta-cell glucose utilization, insulin secretion, and glucose homeostasis. Conditional inactivation of Vhlh in beta cells promoted a diversion of glucose away from mitochondria into lactate production, causing cells to produce high levels of glycolytically derived ATP and to secrete elevated levels of insulin at low glucose concentrations. Vhlh-deficient mice exhibited diminished glucose-stimulated changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration, electrical activity, and insulin secretion, which culminate
Transcription of the yeast HXT2 and HXT4 genes, which encode glucose transporters, is induced only by low levels of glucose. This low-glucose-induced expression is mediated by two independent repression mechanisms: in the absence of glucose, transcription of both genes is prevented by Rgt1p, a C6 zinc cluster protein; at high levels of glucose, expression of HXT2 and HXT4 is repressed by Mig1p. Only at low glucose concentrations are both repressors inactive, leading to a 10- to 20-fold induction of gene expression. Mig1p and Rgt1p act directly on HXT2 and HXT4 by binding to their promoters. This transcriptional regulation is physiologically very important to the yeast cell because it causes these glucose transporters to be expressed only in low-glucose media, in which they are required for growth. ...
Effect of glucose treatment on basal and FSH- or IGF-1-stimulated progesterone and oestradiol secretions by rat granulosa cells. Granulosa cells from immature r
In diabetic patients, glucose does not enter the cells sufficiently, thus staying in the blood and creating high blood sugar levels. All rights reserved. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. Glucose comes from most foods, and the body uses other chemicals to create glucose in the liver and muscles. The danger of continuously high blood glucose or hyperglycemia is that sugar coats the high glucose level in blood red blood cells, causing them to become stiff and sticky. You should know Answers to your question are meant to provide general health information but should not replace medical advice you receive from how to treat a fatty liver naturally a doctor. You probably want to keep a close eye on your diet and excercise regimen and test your blood sugar often high glucose level in blood just to be sure. Hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose levels, may be due to diabetes, medications, stress, illness, hyperthyroidism, Cushing syndrome, pancreatitis or ...
In this study we studied two aspects of enterochromaffin cell function; the nature of both the acute and chronic response to increased glucose availability. We demonstrate using intact tissue preparations and single cell approaches that acute increases in glucose, at levels found in the gut lumen rather than in plasma, trigger Ca2+ entry and 5-HT secretion in EC cells. Furthermore, this increased 5-HT release occurs through an increase in the amount of 5-HT released from vesicles in each exocytosis event. The effects of a more chronic exposure to high glucose, this time at levels akin to those observed in plasma post-prandially, cause a reduction in the synthesis and release of EC cell 5-HT. Thus EC cells respond in a diverse manner to different glucose concentrations over different periods of time to either increase or suppress 5-HT output.. Our data in intact colon tissue is the first ex vivo demonstration that EC cells are glucose-sensing cells. This is in agreement with earlier findings in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-density lipoprotein delivered after myocardial infarction increases cardiac glucose uptake and function in mice. AU - Heywood, Sarah E.. AU - Richart, Adele L.. AU - Henstridge, Darren C.. AU - Alt, Karen. AU - Kiriazis, Helen. AU - Zammit, Claire. AU - Carey, Andrew L.. AU - Kammoun, Helene L.. AU - Delbridge, Lea M.. AU - Reddy, Medini. AU - Chen, Yi Ching. AU - Du, Xiao Jun. AU - Hagemeyer, Christoph E.. AU - Febbraio, Mark A.. AU - Siebel, Andrew L.. AU - Kingwell, Bronwyn A.. PY - 2017/10/11. Y1 - 2017/10/11. N2 - Protecting the heart after an acute coronary syndrome is a key therapeutic goal to support cardiac recovery and prevent progression to heart failure. A potential strategy is to target cardiac glucose metabolism at the early stages after ischemia when glycolysis is critical for myocyte survival. Building on our discovery that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, we now demonstrate that a single dose of reconstituted HDL ...
The addition of glucose to tps1Δ cells of the yeast S. cerevisiae causes hyperaccumulation of all glycolytic metabolites upstream and depletion of all metabolites downstream of GAPDH, suggesting that the deletion of Tps1 in some way creates a bottleneck in glycolysis at the level of GAPDH (27). Measurements of the specific activity of the glycolytic enzymes in cell extracts as well as determination of initial glucose uptake rates did not reveal significant differences between the wild-type and tps1 strains that could explain the glycolytic bottleneck in tps1Δ cells (1, 11). More detailed measurements of the glucose uptake rate and the pH dependency of GAPDH in the present work have underscored the conclusion that there is no difference in the inherent activity of these two crucial components in the tps1Δ strain. Hence, the bottleneck appears to be due to a metabolic or regulatory problem at the level of GAPDH that is not maintained in cell extracts and is not apparent from the Vmax or Km of ...
To examine the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFA) induce insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate, and intracellular glucose concentrations were measured using carbon-13 and phosphorous-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in seven healthy subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp following a five-hour infusion of either lipid/heparin or glycerol/heparin. IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity was also measured in muscle biopsy samples obtained from seven additional subjects before and after an identical protocol. Rates of insulin stimulated whole-body glucose uptake. Glucose oxidation and muscle glycogen synthesis were 50%-60% lower following the lipid infusion compared with the glycerol infusion and were associated with a ∼90% decrease in the increment in intramuscular glucose-6-phosphate concentration, implying diminished glucose transport or phosphorylation activity. To distinguish between ...
We studied regional cerebral glucose metabolism in 15 patients with a clinical diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), 15 patients with probable Alzheimers disease (AD), and 15 healthy controls
Cancer cells increase glucose metabolism to support aerobic glycolysis. However, only some cancer cells are acutely sensitive to glucose withdrawal, and the underlying mechanism of this selective sensitivity is unclear. We showed that glucose deprivation initiates a cell death pathway in cancer cells that is dependent on the kinase RIPK1. Glucose withdrawal triggered rapid plasma membrane depolarization and an influx of extracellular calcium into the cell through the L-type calcium channel Cav1.3 (CACNA1D), followed by activation of the kinase CAMK1. CAMK1 and the demethylase PPME1 were required for the subsequent demethylation and inactivation of the catalytic subunit of the phosphatase PP2A (PP2Ac) and the phosphorylation of RIPK1. Plasma membrane depolarization, PP2Ac demethylation, and cell death were prevented by glucose and, unexpectedly, by its nonmetabolizable analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor. These findings reveal a previously unknown function of glucose as a ...
The role of splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU) after oral glucose administration as a potential factor contributing to postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) has not been established conclusively. Therefore, we investigated SGU in six patients with NIDDM and six w …
Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditure, and insulin sensitivity were identical in LG2KO and control mice. Glucose tolerance was initially normal after Glut2 inactivation, but LG2KO mice exhibited progressive impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion even though β cell mass and insulin content remained normal. Liver transcript profiling revealed a coordinated downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in LG2KO mice that was associated with reduced hepatic cholesterol in fasted mice and reduced bile acids (BAs) in feces, with a similar
Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of CTRP13 on hepatic sinusoidal capillarization induced by high glucose in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (rLSECs).Results: CTRP13 was reduced in high glucose-treated rLSECs. High glucose increased LN and CAV-1 expression and inhibited CaMKKβ and AMPK phosphorylation. CTRP13 overexpression protected rLSECs against high glucose-induced increase of LN and CAV-1 expression. Moreover, CTRP13 overexpression increased high glucose-induced inhibition of CaMKKβ and AMPK activation in CTRP13-overexpressing rLSECs. Inhibition of CaMKKβ and AMPK disturbed the protective effects of CTRP13 in high glucose-induced increase of LN and CAV-1. Hepatic steatosis was enhanced and basement membrane was thickened in liver of diabetic fatty liver rats.Conclusions: Our data identified the protective role of CTRP13 in hepatic sinusoidal capillarization induced by high glucose via activating CAMKKβ/AMPK pathway. CTRP13 may be a potential target
Any approach to management needs to account for the overall metabolic and physiologic status of the infant and should not unnecessarily disrupt the mother-infant relationship and breastfeeding. The definition of a plasma glucose concentration at which intervention is indicated needs to be tailored to the clinical situation and the particular characteristics of a given infant. For example, further investigation and immediate intravenous glucose treatment might be instituted for an infant with clinical signs and a plasma glucose concentration of less than 40 mg/dL, whereas an at-risk but asymptomatic term formula-fed infant may only require an increased frequency of feeding and would receive intravenous glucose only if the glucose values decreased to less than 25 mg/dL (birth to 4 hours of age) or 35 mg/dL (4-24 hours of age).32 Follow-up glucose concentrations and clinical evaluation must always be obtained to ensure that postnatal glucose homeostasis is achieved and maintained.. Because severe, ...
In the present study, we have confirmed the findings of previous investigations demonstrating that, in the insulin-resistant, hyperinsulinemic, and dyslipidemic obese Zucker rat, exercise training by treadmill running (2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 19, 37) or chronic administration of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril (20) results in significant improvements in whole body insulin action on peripheral disposal of a glucose load and in insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity. Moreover, we have shown that these increases in insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport were associated with upregulation of the GLUT-4 glucose transporter isoform (2, 6, 13, 20) and in total hexokinase (19, 20, 32). More importantly, we have demonstrated for the first time that greater improvements in whole body glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose transport activity in the obese Zucker rat could be achieved through the combination of exercise training and trandolapril treatment than with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of alcohol and glucose infusion on pituitary-gonadal hormones in normal females. AU - Becker, Ulrik. AU - Gluud, Christian. AU - Bennett, Paul. AU - Micic, Snezana. AU - Svenstrup, Birgit. AU - Winkler, Kjeld. AU - Christensen, Niels Juel. AU - Hardt, Finn. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - During 1 h, median 976 mmol ethanol in 5.5% glucose was administered i.v. to six healthy female volunteers (aged 26-37 years) in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The median maximal blood ethanol concentration was median 33.5 mmol/1 and serum ethanol concentrations of 2 mmol/1 were reached after 8 h. Four of the women participated in a control experiment with infusion of an equal volume of glucose 5.5%. Venous blood samples were drawn 5 times during the 24-h follow up period. Serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones decreased in both ethanol and control experiments and the results did not differ significantly. The lowest hormone concentrations were observed ...
Figure: High levels of glucose alter VEGF and miR-200b expression in HRMECs. A: HRMECs exposed to various concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited differential mRNA levels of VEGF. Compared to 5mM D-glucose, VEGF expression was significantly increased at 15mM and 25mM D-glucose concentrations, with no change at 20mM L-glucose. B: Measured by WST-1 assay, HRMECs exposed to increasing concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited decreased cell viability at 25mM, 50mM and 100mM compared to 5mM. C: HRMECs exposed to 25mM (high glucose; HG) glucose for 24 and 48 hours demonstrated significantly increased VEGF mRNA compared to 5mM (normal glucose; NG). These differences were not observed at time points earlier than 24 hours. D,E: HRMECs exposed to 5mM D-glucose (NG) 25mM D-glucose (HG) and 20mM L-glucose+5mM D-glucose (osmotic control; OSM). HRMECs cultured for 24 hours and 48 hours in HG showed significantly decreased levels of miR-200b with parallel increased levels of VEGF ...
Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution Formula B information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Baxter, Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution Formula B indications, usages and related health products lists
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and disturbed metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins that occurs due damaged insulin secretion or disorder in insulin signal pathways. Liver has the essential role in maintenance adequate glucose concentration in blood. Glucose metabolism in liver is regulated by hormones which effect enzyme activity or enzyme synthesis. Depending on the metabolic needs, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are exchanged. Regulating the essential enzymes of these processes is important to maintain glucose concentration within reference range. In diabetes mellitus, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver cells are increased. On the other hand, activity of glycolytic and glycogenesis enzymes is decreased. The aim of this study was to examine the rate of glycolysis in tumor HepG2 cells in hyperglycemic conditions. HepG2 cells were treated with four different glucose concentrations (5 mM, 20 mM, 30 mM and 50 mM) and such treated ...
This study presents a novel finding that rosiglitazone therapy enhances myocardial glucose uptake in ischemic and nonischemic regions in addition to its positive effects on whole-body insulin sensitivity and on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with CAD. Moreover, myocardial glucose uptake is associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity, suggesting a direct relationship between myocardial insulin sensitivity and the capacity of whole-body glucose disposal in these patients.. Although glucose is considered to be important for metabolism in ischemic myocardium, most human studies until now have evaluated myocardial glucose uptake in regions of normal perfusion and wall motion (5,7,10). In a study with intracoronary insulin infusions and the measurement of arterial-coronary sinus glucose balance, cardiac glucose uptake was similar in type 2 diabetic patients with and without CAD (8). This is in agreement with our previous studies with PET and FDG (5,6). Some other studies have ...
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. The Buoyancy system is subject to the control of a glucose-repressible promoter, cstA (BBa_K118011). During carbon starvation, ATP is transformed into cAMP and then it binds the cAMP receptor protein, this complex activates the cstA promoter. Studies suggest that cstA promoter can be used to induce the expression of reporter genes in cultures with different glucose concentrations (Schultz and Matin, 1990). Free glucose concentration varies in the upper 300 m of the seawater ...
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. The Buoyancy system is subject to the control of a glucose-repressible promoter, cstA (BBa_K118011). During carbon starvation, ATP is transformed into cAMP and then it binds the cAMP receptor protein, this complex activates the cstA promoter. Studies suggest that cstA promoter can be used to induce the expression of reporter genes in cultures with different glucose concentrations (Schultz and Matin, 1990). Free glucose concentration varies in the upper 300 m of the seawater ...
Under the severe glucose limitation at the low dilution rate used here, substantial fluxes through the PEP-glyoxylate cycle were expected (12, 25, 35). The precise regulation mechanism that effectively controlled this major flux rerouting from the TCA cycle to the PEP-glyoxylate cycle, however, was unclear. Based on in vivo flux and in vitro enzyme data on global regulator mutants, we demonstrate that PEP-glyoxylate cycle activity is strongly controlled by induction through the cAMP-CRP complex under the conditions applied. This finding is consistent with the reported increased mRNA and protein levels of PEP carboxykinase and glyoxylate shunt enzymes at a dilution rate of 0.1 h−1, relative to higher growth rates (25). Thus, growth rate-dependent PEP-glyoxylate cycle fluxes under glucose limitation (35) are apparently controlled by the intracellular cAMP level, which is elevated at dilution rates below 0.1 h−1 (32, 37). Strain-dependent differences in fluxes through the PEP-glyoxylate cycle ...
An increase in circulating levels of specific NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and impaired glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. In particular, elevation of SFAs (saturated fatty acids), such as palmitate, has been correlated with reduced insulin sensitivity, whereas an increase in certain MUFAs and PUFAs (mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids respectively) has been suggested to improve glycaemic control, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we compare the effects of palmitoleate (a MUFA) and palmitate (a SFA) on insulin action and glucose utilization in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells. Basal glucose uptake was enhanced approx. 2-fold following treatment of cells with palmitoleate. The MUFA-induced increase in glucose transport led to an associated rise in glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis, which could not be attributed to activation of signalling proteins normally modulated by stimuli such ...
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In skeletal muscle, separate and distinct signaling pathways can activate glucose transport. Insulin increases glucose transport via activation of PI 3-kinase (13,14) and possibly via activation of the CAP/TC10 pathway (32,33). However, the latter pathway has not been validated in skeletal muscle. Exercise (34), muscle contraction (35,36), and hypoxia (28,37) increase glucose transport via insulin-independent pathways (13-15), presumably via activation of AMPK (17,18). In type 2 diabetic patients, defects in insulin-mediated whole-body glucose uptake are coupled to impairments in glucose transport in skeletal muscle (4,10), which arise from aberrant signal transduction at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1, PI 3-kinase (6,8,9), and GLUT4 translocation (10,38). Since muscle contraction and hypoxia increase glucose transport via an alternative mechanism that bypasses defective insulin signaling (37,39,40), strategies to identify and characterize components of this insulin-independent ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Lysosomal Ca2+ Signaling Regulates High Glucose-Mediated Interleukin-1β Secretion via Transcription Factor EB in Human Monocytic Cells.
The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets. The impact of the drugs on GSIS was significantly less in Tpm3.1 knock out (KO) mice indicating that the drug action is on-target. Experiments in MIN6 beta-cells indicated that the inhibition of GSIS by the drugs was due to disruption to the cortical actin cytoskeleton. The impact of the drugs on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) was also examined in skeletal muscle ex vivo. In the absence of drug, ISGU was decreased in KO compared to WT muscle, confirming a role of Tpm3.1 in
Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. The GLUT or SLC2A family are a protein family that is found in most mammalian cells. 14 GLUTS are encoded by human genome. GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they lack expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and, thus, are involved only in glucose uptake and catabolism. Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce glucose following activation of gluconeogenesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucose transport takes place through facilitated diffusion. The transport proteins are mainly from the Hxt family, but many other transporters have been identified. GLUTs are integral membrane proteins that ...
Catabolite repression was extensively studied in Escherichia coli. E. coli grows faster on glucose than on any other carbon source. For example, if E. coli is placed on an agar plate containing only glucose and lactose, the bacteria will use glucose first and lactose second. When glucose is available in the environment, the synthesis of β-galactosidase is under repression due to the effect of catabolite repression caused by glucose. The catabolite repression in this case is achieved through the utilization of phosphotransferase system. An important enzyme from the phosphotransferase system called Enzyme II A (EIIA) plays a central role in this mechanism. There are different catabolite-specific EIIA in a single cell, even though different bacterial groups have specificities to different sets of catabolites. In enteric bacteria one of the EIIA enzymes in their set is specific for glucose transport only. When glucose levels are high inside the bacteria, EIIA mostly exists in its unphosphorylated ...
S. cerevisiae has membrane proteins that act as glucose receptors. Glucose binds to these receptors and generates an intracellular signal. In the Rgt2/Snf3 pathway, these two proteins act as glucose receptors. The Rgt2 and Snf3 proteins resemble hexose transporters in structure but have long cytoplasmic tails that are required for signal transduction [7]. Glucose binding to these transmembrane proteins initiates signals that activate a pathway that allows hexose transporter gene expression by repressing Rgt1 function [8].. An additional pathway that involves transcriptional changes in response to glucose is the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and the increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. This pathway includes a G-protein coupled receptor (Gpr1) and two G proteins Gpa1 and 2, necessary for the glucose-specific increase in cAMP [9,10]. Finally, glucose activation of adenylyl cyclase leads to activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Upon activation of PKA by cAMP the Rap1 ...
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance in the target tissue and insufficient insulin secretion from the beta cells. Finding new mechanisms and pathways involved in the regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells is of great importance. Our group has earlier found, miRNA-212 and miRNA-132 to be upregulated in the non-obese type 2 diabetic GK rat. We hypothesize that the upregulation of these miRNAs is caused by a misregulation of the presumptive promoter of this miRNA-212/132 cluster. In this thesis I have therefore investigated mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation of the miRNA-212/132-cluster and their regulation of insulin secre-tion in the pancreatic beta cell through their target proteins.. The studies were performed in INS1 832/13 cells and primary rat and human pancreatic islets. Cells were incubatedat different glucose concentrations in the absence or prescence of cAMP-stimulation using GLP-1 or a combinationof forskolin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dual role of the coactivator TORC2 in modulating hepatic glucose output and insulin signaling. AU - Canettieri, Gianluca. AU - Koo, Seung-Hoi. AU - Berdeaux, Rebecca. AU - Heredia, Jose. AU - Hedrick, Susan. AU - Zhang, Xinmin. AU - Montminy, Marc. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Under fasting conditions, the cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator TORC2 promotes glucose homeostasis by stimulating the gluconeogenic program in liver. Following its nuclear translocation in response to elevations in circulating glucagon, TORC2 regulates hepatic gene expression via an association with CREB on relevant promoters. Here, we show that, in parallel with their effects on glucose output, CREB and TORC2 also enhance insulin signaling in liver by stimulating expression of the insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) gene. The induction of hepatic IRS2 during fasting appears critical for glucose homeostasis; knockdown of hepatic IRS2 expression leads to glucose intolerance, whereas hepatic IRS2 ...
Cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRG) was measured using the 14C-deoxyglucose technique in a stroke model of the gerbil produced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. During 30 minutes of ischemia, 14C-deoxyglucose uptake in the brain was increased along the border zone between the ischemic and nonischemic area and decreased in the ischemic areas. During the early stage of reperfusion (2 or 3 to 30 minutes), CMRG increased 50 to 150% in the cerebral cortex, caudoputamen and thalamus and 270 to 320% in the hippocampus, globus pallidus and amygdala. During the late stage of reperfusion (15 to 45 minutes), heterogeneity of CMRG appeared in the cerebral cortex, caudoputamen and thalamus. CMRG decreased to less than 50% of the control value in the cerebral cortex but remained at 200 to 300% of control in the hippocampus, globus pallidus and amygdala. The latter structures exhibited a larger and more protracted increase in glucose metabolism than the other structures most probably due to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiopharmaceuticals based on the glucose derivatives for tumor diagnosis. AU - Zeltchan, R. V.. AU - Medvedeva, A. A.. AU - Sinilkin, I. G.. AU - Bragina, O. V.. AU - Chernov, V. J.. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - The purpose of the study was to review available literature on the effcacy of radiopharmaceuticals based on glucose derivatives labeled with radioactive isotopes for detection of various cancers. material and methods. A systematic literature review was performed using the Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Global Health databases from 2000 to 2016. Out of 900 papers in the feld of nuclear medicine, 58 were included into the review. results. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) has been approved to be a powerful imaging tool for the detection of various cancers as well as for the assessment of tumor extent and therapy response. There is a continuous search for new more specifc and effective radiopharmaceuticals for visualization of tumor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum glucose. T2 - Effects on tumor and normal tissue accumulation of 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in rodents with mammary carcinoma. AU - Wahl, Richard L.. AU - Henry, Christine A.. AU - Ethier, Stephen P.. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - The positron-emitter-labeled glucose analogue 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) accumulates into many cancers after intravenous injection, but the effect of serum glucose levels on FDG uptake in the tumor has not been extensively studied. In vitro, elevated media glucose levels markedly diminished FDG and FDG 6-phosphate uptake and retention in human adenocarcinoma cells, while insulin had no effect. Mammary cancers were established subcutaneously in 12 rats. Six control rats with mammary tumors were fasted overnight. Hyperglycemia was established in six rats by means of continuous glucose infusion (glucose clamp). All animals were then intravenously administered 50 μCi of FDG. Serum glucose levels were 87 mg/dL (4.83 mmol/L) ...
In their 2011 paper, Cunnane and colleagues review the literature on brain glucose metabolism studies in Alzheimers Type Dementia. One of the key concepts in understanding brain glucose metabolism is the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose. This was calculated by comparing the glucose content of cerebral arterial and cerebral venous blood. When this difference is…
The EU funded project CLINICIP (Closed Loop Insulin Infusion for Critically Ill Patients) aims to develop a low-risk monitoring and control device which allows maintaining metabolic control in intensive care units. A system will be developed comprising three subsystems: a body interface for the delivery of biofluids, biosensors for the determination of glucose concentration in these biofluids and an adaptive control algorithm that generates advice and thus represents a decision support system with respect to insulin infusion rate to establish glycaemic control in critically ill patients. Within a closed loop system, intensified insulin treatment will make use of the calculations leading to external regulation of glucose.. It is the aim of this study to evaluate the correlation between arterial blood glucose concentrations and interstitial fluid glucose concentrations in post surgery patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Interstitial fluid glucose concentrations are based on microdialysis in ...
Livers role in glucose production. The liver plays an important role in gluconeogenesis the production of glucose (from non-sugar source) in response to need, as when you fast. It keeps glucose levels in balance increasing the levels when needed and turning off that spigot when you eat and the levels of glucose increase.. Ninety percent of endogenous (within the body) glucose production is in the liver, said Louet. He and his colleagues showed that mice that lack SRC-1 have hypoglycemia (too little sugar in their blood) when they have just eaten and when they are fasting.. Without SRC-1, glucose production is impaired in the animals, he said. When he and his colleagues restored the SRC-1 to the liver tissues in the animal, glucose levels in the blood became normal.. In collaboration with members of the laboratory of Dr. Christopher B. Newgard (another senior author of the report) at Duke, the team used metabolomics to see what was happening in the tissue and blood from the mice that ...
Several previous studies have examined the role of muscle glucose transport in whole body glucose homeostasis using genetically engineered mice with whole body GLUT4 disruption and have shown conflicting results (19-22). Katz and colleagues (19) have shown that mice with homozygous disruption of whole body GLUT4 have normal fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (at 2-4 months of age). Similarly, Rossetti and colleagues (20) have shown that mice with heterozygous disruption of whole body GLUT4 (at 4-5 months of age) have normal plasma glucose concentration despite a significant decrease in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose transport. In contrast, Stenbit and colleagues (21) found that mice with heterozygous disruption of whole body GLUT4 develop a diabetes phenotype (e.g., hyperglycemia) associated with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. The reason for this discrepancy is unclear but may be due to a difference in the age of mice. In this regard, ...
Background Elevated glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression and glucose utilization that come with pressure overload\induced hypertrophy (POH) are thought to be cardioprotective. mRNA appearance of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes had been low in Cont mice, but had been maintained in collaboration with elevated glucose usage in G1HA pursuing TAC. Despite attenuated undesirable redecorating in G1HA in accordance with control TAC mice, cardiac hypertrophy was exacerbated in these mice, and positive dP/dt (in vivo) and cardiac power (ex girlfriend or boyfriend vivo) had been equivalently reduced in Cont and G1HA TAC mice in comparison to shams, in keeping with still left ventricular dysfunction. O\GlcNAcylation of Ca2+ bicycling proteins was elevated in G1HA TAC hearts. Conclusions Brief\term cardiac particular induction of GLUT1 on the starting point of POH preserves mitochondrial function and attenuates pathological redecorating, but exacerbates the hypertrophic phenotype and it is ...
Yeast cells cultivated in glucose-rich medium showed Golgi-specific localization of the PtdIns(4)P-specific probe FAPP1-PH-GFP (Fig. 4 F). In glucose-deprived cells, FAPP1-PH-GFP staining at Golgi structures was decreased, and this probe showed mainly diffuse cytosolic distribution with some accumulation at perinuclear ER regions (Fig. 4 F and Fig. S2 D). Similar localization of FAPP1-PH-GFP was observed in late log cells (Fig. S2 D). A sac1Δ strain showed accumulation of PtdIns(4)P at the ER, but also at other cellular membranes (Roy and Levine, 2004; Tahirovic et al., 2005). Golgi-localized PtdIns(4)P persisted in glucose-deprived sac1Δ cells (Fig. S2 D), which suggests that Sac1p contributes to the controlling of Golgi PtdIns(4)P in response to growth conditions. Because the total cellular levels of PtdIns(4)P decreased significantly in late log phase (Fig. 4 G), the increase in ER-localized PtdIns(4)P probably occurred at the expense of the Golgi pool of this lipid. This difference in ...
Im glad you asked. There are so many people, blogs, sites and books out there now with a sugar-free label. Despite that label, you may often find the following sugars in the recipes: Agave nectar, honey, brown rice syrup, glucose syrup, dextrose powder. Read about agave nectar here (to be honest, I fail to see this product as being healthy for anyone) and read about honey here (depends if you are overweight, diabetic or neither, but generally avoid it).. When it comes to brown rice syrup (also known as rice malt syrup or rice syrup), glucose syrup (also know as liquid glucose) and dextrose powder, these are all broken down to 100% glucose in our bodies. Glucose can processed by every cell in our body and is the brains main source of energy. So, not all sugar is evil, we do need some (our brains main source of energy is glucose). You just need to withdraw from your fructose addiction first before starting to swap to glucose. And even then, everything in moderation! Glucose does raise your ...
Im glad you asked. There are so many people, blogs, sites and books out there now with a sugar-free label. Despite that label, you may often find the following sugars in the recipes: Agave nectar, honey, brown rice syrup, glucose syrup, dextrose powder. Read about agave nectar here (to be honest, I fail to see this product as being healthy for anyone) and read about honey here (depends if you are overweight, diabetic or neither, but generally avoid it).. When it comes to brown rice syrup (also known as rice malt syrup or rice syrup), glucose syrup (also know as liquid glucose) and dextrose powder, these are all broken down to 100% glucose in our bodies. Glucose can processed by every cell in our body and is the brains main source of energy. So, not all sugar is evil, we do need some (our brains main source of energy is glucose). You just need to withdraw from your fructose addiction first before starting to swap to glucose. And even then, everything in moderation! Glucose does raise your ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucose phosphorylation as a barrier to muscle glucose uptake. AU - Fueger, Patrick T.. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - 1. Glucose phosphorylation is the first irreversible step of the muscle glucose uptake pathway and is catalysed by a hexokinase isozyme. 2. While glucose transport is the primary barrier to muscle glucose uptake during basal conditions, glucose phosphorylation becomes an important barrier to muscle glucose uptake during stimulated conditions such as hyperinsulinaemia or exercise. 3. High fat feeding markedly impairs insulin- and exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. As hexokinase II overexpression corrects this dietary-induced deficit during exercise, glucose phosphorylation is a site of impairment following high fat feeding. 4. Exercise is an important tool for diagnosing deficits in glucose phosphorylation.. AB - 1. Glucose phosphorylation is the first irreversible step of the muscle glucose uptake pathway and is catalysed by a hexokinase isozyme. 2. While ...
A B ST R A CT The effect of equal (1.1±0.1 g/kg body wt) amounts of glucose administered orally, or by peripheral intravenous or intraportal infusion on hepatic glucose uptake and fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon was studied in conscious dogs with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes on the portal vein and hepatic artery and catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, carotid artery, and superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein and hepatic vein plasma flow increased only after oral glucose administration. Arterial plasma glucose increased equally to 150-160 mg/100 ml after all three routes of glucose administration. Portal vein glucose was similar after oral (195±15 mg/100 ml) and intraportal glucose infusion (215±11 mg/100 ml) and significantly higher than after peripheral intravenous glucose. Hepatic glucose uptake after oral (68±4%) and intraportal glucose administration (65±7%) significantly exceeded that after peripheral intravenous glucose infusion (23±5%). The amount
1. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and then maintained in culture for 2-4 days before being incubated in groups of 100 in the presence of different glucose (0-20 mM) or CaCl2 (1.2-4.2 mM) concentrations, or with uncoupler. 2. Increases in extracellular glucose concentration resulted in increases in the amount of active, non-phosphorylated, pyruvate dehydrogenase in the islets, with half-maximal effects around 5-6 mM-glucose. Increasing extracellular glucose from 3 to 20 mM resulted in a 4-6-fold activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase within 2 min. 3. The total enzyme activity was unchanged, and averaged 0.4 m-unit/100 islets at 37 degrees C. 4. These changes in active pyruvate dehydrogenase were broadly similar to changes in insulin secretion by the islets. 5. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ or adding uncoupler also activated pyruvate dehydrogenase to a similar degree, but only the former was associated with increased insulin secretion. ...
In this study, echocardiography was used to monitor the progression of LV hypertrophy and to determine the timing for the study of glucose uptake and glucose transporter protein content. The observations derived from this investigation reveal that a decrease in glucose uptake rate is evident early in the transition from compensated to decompensated pressure-overload hypertrophy, as determined by an index of LV M/V ratio. The defect in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake precedes the downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA-2) and glucose transporter expression (GLUT-4 and GLUT-1).15 26 Under pathophysiological conditions such as hypertrophy or during ischemia and early reperfusion, a high rate of cardiac glucose metabolism may be crucial.27 28 29 Glucose transport is thought to be rate-limiting for glucose use. In the heart, 2 distinctive glucose transporters are responsible for glucose uptake across the plasma membrane. The GLUT-1 transporter, which is present in low levels in ...
article{d63a054c-dfe7-4d78-994c-6543142f8a11, abstract = {Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is expressed and enzymatically active in beta-cells and has been proposed to be involved in the generation of the lipid-derived signal that seems to be necessary for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of HSL in INS-1 cells and in rat islets is affected by exposure to high glucose concentrations. Incubation of INS-1 cells in 25 mmol/l glucose for 16 and 32 h induced HSL protein expression twofold, whereas no effect was observed after 4 and 8 h of incubation. The HSL activity, defined as the diglyceride lipase activity inhibited by anti-rat HSL antibodies, constituted approximately 25% of total diglyceride lipase activity and was induced to a similar extent as HSL protein levels. The glucose effect at 16 h on HSL protein expression level was confirmed in freshly isolated rat islets. Exposure of INS-1 cells to different glucose concentrations for 16 h ...
The aim of the present thesis was to further increase our understanding of mechanisms contributing to and maintaining cellular insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). For this reason, the effects of high glucose and insulin levels on glucose transport capacity and insulin signaling, with emphasis on insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) were assessed in fat cells. Altered levels of IRS-1 have previously been observed in adipose tissue from insulin-resistant and T2D subjects.. A high glucose level (≥15 mM) for 24 h exerted only a minor impairment on glucose transport capacity in human adipocytes, as opposed to rat adipocytes. However, when combined with a high insulin level (104 µU/ml), basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly impaired in both human and rat adipocytes. This was associated with a depletion of IRS-1 and IRS-2 protein levels in rat adipocytes, as a result of post-translational changes and altered gene transcription, respectively. In human adipocytes ...
Neuronal Cell Protective Effect of Dendropanax morbifera Extract against High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress - Dendropanax morbifera;antioxidant;oxidative stress;high glucose;neuroprotective effect;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clonal insulinoma cell line that stably maintains correct glucose responsiveness. AU - Knaack, D.. AU - Fiore, D. M.. AU - Surana, M.. AU - Leiser, M.. AU - Laurance, M.. AU - Fusco-DeMane, D.. AU - Hegre, O. D.. AU - Fleischer, N.. AU - Efrat, S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - A number of pancreatic β-tumor cell (βTC) lines have been derived from insulinomas arising in transgenic mice expressing the SV40 T antigen gene under control of the insulin promoter. Some of these lines secrete insulin in response to physiological glucose concentrations. However, this phenotype is unstable. After propagation in culture, these nonclonal lines become responsive to subphysiological glucose levels and/or manifest reduced insulin release. Here we report the use of soft-agar cloning to isolate single-cell clones from a βTC line, which give rise to sublines that maintain correct glucose responsiveness and high insulin production and secretion for ,55 passages (over a year) in culture. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longevity is associated with increased vascular resistance to high glucose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory gene expression in Peromyscus leucopus. AU - Labinskyy, Nazar. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Partha. AU - Toth, Janos. AU - Szalai, Gabor. AU - Veres, Monika. AU - Losonczy, Gyorgy. AU - Pinto, John T.. AU - Pacher, Pal. AU - Ballabh, Praveen. AU - Podlutsky, Andrej. AU - Austad, Steven N.. AU - Csiszar, Anna. AU - Ungvari, Zoltan. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - Vascular aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress and proinflammatory pheno- typic alterations. Metabolic stress, such as hyperglycemia in diabetes, is known to increase the production of ROS and promote inflammatory gene expression, accelerating vascular aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that vascular cells of long-lived species exhibit lower steady-state production of ROS and/or superior resistance to the prooxidant effects of metabolic stress. We tested this hypothesis using ...
Methods HUVECs were incubated for 8 days in media containing different glucose concentrations: 5.56 mmol/l (normal glucose), 25 mmol/l (constant high glucose), or a daily alternating 5.56 or 25 mmol/l glucose (intermittent high glucose). Meanwhile, drug intervention was performed in different glucose conditions with TMP at concentrations of 500 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L and 20 μmol/L. Then cell viability was measured by MTT method, cell membrane damage was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and Nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in the cell culture supernatant were measured. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cell lysate were examined by enzyme method or spectrophotometry.. ...
1977).. To determine whether Acebutolol stimulates the glucose uptake, one of the most important phenotype in diabetes, we performed glucose analog, 2-NBDG, uptake assay in both TNFα-induced diabetic model cells and non-induced normal cells (Fig. 3). Without TNFα pretreatment, insulin increased glucose uptake about 30% (1.28 ± 0.13). BI-78D3 increased glucose uptake about 90% (1.97 ± 0.11) and Acebutolol increase glucose uptake about 50% (1.48 ± 0.17) comparing with control respectively. With TNFα treatment, insulin increased glucose uptake about 20% (1.18 ± 0.12). BI-78D3 increased glucose uptake about 50% (1.54 ± 0.16) and Acebutolol increase glucose uptake about 45% (1.46 ± 0.02) comparing with control respectively. Because relatively short time incubation of TNFα (6 h) in our experimental condition, glucose uptake by insulin treatment was slightly decreased (Fig. 3A). The effect of BI-78D3 on glucose uptake is higher in normal cells than TNFα treated cells. Interestingly, in both ...
Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose in several target tissues, including skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, thereby contributing to the decline in the blood glucose level. In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the regulation, signaling pathways and health implications of glucose uptake.. Topics include glucose uptake and transport regulation; the mechanisms that contribute to glucose homeostasis; expression and regulation of neuronal glucose transporters in health and disease; role for the microvasculature in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle; implications of diabetes on sperm glucose uptake and metabolism; the beneficial role of estrogen signaling in glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure; glucose uptake and androgen responsiveness of prostate cancer cells; regulation of intestinal glucose uptake by leptin; and the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins in glucose transporter type 4-mediated glucose uptake in insulin-responsive tissues. (Imprint: ...
AbstractIn the present work we set out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of noscapine (0.5-2 µM) in presence of D-glucose on primary murine foetal cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 hrs recovery. Cell viability, nitric oxide production and intracellular calcium ([ca2+]i) levels were evaluated by MTT assay, the modified Griess method and Fura-2 respectively. 25 and 100 mM D-glucose could, in a concentration dependent manner, improve cell viability and decrease NO production and [ca2+]i level in neuronal cells after ischemic insult. Moreover, pre-incubation of cells with noscapine, noticeably enhanced protective effects of 25 and 100 mM D-glucose compared to similar conditions without noscapine pre-treatment. In fact, noscapine attenuated NO production in a dose-dependent fashion, after 30 minutes (min) OGD, during high-glucose (HG) condition in cortical neurons. Pretreatment with 2 μM noscapine and 25 or 100 mM D-glucose, was shown to decrease the rise in [ca2+]i induced by
5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a metabolic master switch regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK activation. We hypothesized that oral glucose ingestion during exercise would attenuate muscle AMPK activation. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 60% of maximal workload. The subjects were randomly assigned to either consume a glucose containing drink or a placebo drink during the two trials. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 2 h of exercise. Plasma glucose was higher (6.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, P , 0.001), whereas glycerol (44.8 +/- 7.8 vs. 165.7 +/- 22.3 micromol L-1), and free fatty acid (169.3 +/- 9.5 vs. 1161 +/- 144.9 micromol L-1) concentrations were lower during the glucose compared to the placebo trial ...
HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) have been associated with type 2 diabetes. To design future HIV drugs that have have the least adverse metabolic effects, it is necessary to identify the disorders of glucose metabolism with PI therapy. Previously PIs have been shown to acutely induce insulin resistance in the periphery. Preliminary data show that PIs also impair insulin secretion and increase hepatic glucose production in humans. These lesions are key contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes. Due to the difficulty in separating out factors related to HIV infection from the direct effect of PIs, an effective design is to study HIV-negative subjects to define the direct effects of PIs on the liver and pancreas on glucose metabolism:. Specific Aim 1: To determine which PIs acutely inhibit insulin secretion in humans; randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials will be performed on healthy normal volunteers given either a single dose of PI or placebo using the hyperglycemic clamp to ...
Overconsumption of high-fat diet (HFD) and sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for developing obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Here we have dissected mechanisms underlying this association using mice fed either chow or HFD with or without fructose- or glucose-supplemented water. In chow-fed mice, there was no major physiological difference between fructose and glucose supplementation. On the other hand, mice on HFD supplemented with fructose developed more pronounced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatomegaly as compared to glucose-supplemented HFD mice, despite similar caloric intake. Fructose and glucose supplementation also had distinct effects on expression of the lipogenic transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c. While both sugars increased ChREBP-β, fructose supplementation uniquely increased SREBP1c and downstream fatty acid synthesis genes, resulting in reduced liver insulin signaling. In contrast, glucose enhanced total ChREBP expression and ...
Overconsumption of high-fat diet (HFD) and sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for developing obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Here we have dissected mechanisms underlying this association using mice fed either chow or HFD with or without fructose- or glucose-supplemented water. In chow-fed mice, there was no major physiological difference between fructose and glucose supplementation. On the other hand, mice on HFD supplemented with fructose developed more pronounced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatomegaly as compared to glucose-supplemented HFD mice, despite similar caloric intake. Fructose and glucose supplementation also had distinct effects on expression of the lipogenic transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c. While both sugars increased ChREBP-β, fructose supplementation uniquely increased SREBP1c and downstream fatty acid synthesis genes, resulting in reduced liver insulin signaling. In contrast, glucose enhanced total ChREBP expression and ...
Overconsumption of high-fat diet (HFD) and sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for developing obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Here we have dissected mechanisms underlying this association using mice fed either chow or HFD with or without fructose- or glucose-supplemented water. In chow-fed mice, there was no major physiological difference between fructose and glucose supplementation. On the other hand, mice on HFD supplemented with fructose developed more pronounced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatomegaly as compared to glucose-supplemented HFD mice, despite similar caloric intake. Fructose and glucose supplementation also had distinct effects on expression of the lipogenic transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c. While both sugars increased ChREBP-β, fructose supplementation uniquely increased SREBP1c and downstream fatty acid synthesis genes, resulting in reduced liver insulin signaling. In contrast, glucose enhanced total ChREBP expression and ...
The pathogenesis of ischemic diseases remains unclear. Here we demonstrate the induction of microRNA-668 (miR-668) in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) in human patients, mice, and renal tubular cells. The induction was HIF-1 dependent, as HIF-1 deficiency in cells and kidney proximal tubules attenuated miR-668 expression. We further identified a functional HIF-1 binding site in the miR-668 gene promoter. Anti-miR-668 increased apoptosis in renal tubular cells and enhanced ischemic AKI in mice, whereas miR-668 mimic was protective. Mechanistically, anti-miR-668 induced mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas miR-668 blocked mitochondrial fragmentation during hypoxia. We analyzed miR-668 target genes through immunoprecipitation of microRNA-induced silencing complexes followed by RNA deep sequencing and identified 124 protein-coding genes as likely targets of miR-668. Among these genes, only mitochondrial protein 18 kDa (MTP18) has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics. In renal cells and mouse ...
Abstract Prolonged fasting (for days or weeks) decreases glucose production and oxidation. The effects of short-term starvation (ie, < 24 hours) on glucose metabolism are not known. To evaluate this issue, glucose oxidation and glucose turnover were measured after 16-hour and subsequently after 22-hour fasting. Glucose oxidation was calculated by indirect calorimetry in 12 healthy men (age 22 to 44 years); glucose turnover was measured by primed, continuous infusion of 3-3H-glucose in eight of these 12 volunteers. After 16-hour fasting net glucose oxidation was 0.59 ± 0.17 mg · kg−1 · min−1 and glucose tissue uptake 2.34 ± 0.12 mg · kg−1 · min−1. No correlation was found between net glucose oxidation and glucose tissue uptake. Prolonging fasting with an addtional 6 hours resulted in decreases of respiratory quotient (0.77 ± 0.01 v 0.72 ± 0.01) (P < .005), plasma glucose concentration (4.7 ± 0.1 v 4.6 ± 0.1 mmol/L) (P < .05), glucose tissue uptake (2.10 ± 0.12 mg · kg−1 · ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute Enterocyte Adaptation to Luminal Glucose. T2 - A Posttranslational Mechanism for Rapid Apical Recruitment of the Transporter GLUT2. AU - Chaudhry, Rizwan M.. AU - Scow, Jeffrey. AU - Madhavan, Srivats. AU - Duenes, Judith A.. AU - Sarr, Michael G.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Background: Glucose absorption postprandially increases markedly to levels far greater than possible by the classic glucose transporter sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). Hypothesis: Luminal concentrations of glucose ,50 mM lead to rapid, phenotypic, non-genomic adaptations by the enterocyte to recruit another transporter, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), to the apical membrane to increase glucose absorption. Methods: Isolated segments of jejunum were perfused in vivo with glucose-containing solutions in anesthetized rats. Carrier-mediated glucose uptake was measured in 10 and 100 mM glucose solutions (n = 6 rats each) with and without selective inhibitors of SGLT1 and GLUT2. Results: The ...
DIABETIC EMERGENCY HYPOGLYCAEMIA GLUCOSE REPLACEMENT THERAPY KIT. The HypoWallet is an attractive robust, portable wallet which contains effective remedies for any patient suffering from an occurrence of hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar level), allowing the patient to replenish their glucose levels and avoid potentially detrimental consequences.. Each kit contains:. 2 x 25g tubes of GlucoGel. 1 x 10 pack of chewable Orange GlucoTabs. 1 x 60ml of GlucoJuice. Protective portable case. Dimensions: 14cm x 9.5cm x 5cm. The treatments are measured, established glucose treatments and the case in easily identified as glucose treatment with HypoWallet in distinctive Red and White writing on a black background which is easily identifiable as a treatment kit.. ...
The second messenger cAMP mediates potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release. Use of inhibitors of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and overexpression of PDE3B in vitro have demonstrated a regulatory role for this enzyme in insulin secretion. In this work, the physiological significance of PDE3B-mediated degradation of cAMP for the regulation of insulin secretion in vivo and glucose homeostasis was investigated in transgenic mice overexpressing PDE3B in pancreatic beta-cells. A 2-fold overexpression of PDE3B protein and activity blunted the insulin response to intravenous glucose, resulting in reduced glucose disposal. The effects were dose-dependent because mice overexpressing PDE3B 7-fold failed to increase insulin in response to glucose and hence exhibited pronounced glucose intolerance. Also, the insulin secretory response to intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 was reduced in vivo. Similarly, islets stimulated in vitro exhibited reduced insulin secretory capacity in ...
In this study, the presence of mild hypertension did not significantly exacerbate the marked defect of insulin-mediated glucose disposal present in abdominally obese subjects. In fact, multiple measurements were not significantly different in the two obese groups, including fasting insulin and, more importantly, glucose metabolized over the prevailing insulin concentration during both levels of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia.24 The abdominally obese hypertensive group included four female subjects who may have had less severe insulin resistance than the obese normotensive men. However, the results were unchanged when these four women were excluded from the analysis.. Glucose metabolism was diminished in both the obese hypertensive and normotensive groups. To further evaluate the mechanism of insulin resistance in the abdominally obese subjects, we performed indirect calorimetry to provide measures of both glycogenesis and glycolysis. Oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolisms were comparably ...
Multiple proteins have been implicated as mediators of hyperglycemia and cancer cell proliferation (Fig. 1). Recent in vitro studies suggest that the expression of glucose transporters, such as the GLUT1 and GLUT3 isoforms, is regulated under hyperglycemic conditions in JAR cells, a choriocarcinoma cell line [20]. Hyperglycemic conditions in vitro (such as 25 mM D-glucose) trigger increased glucose uptake in JAR cells due to a transcriptional increase and enhanced protein levels for GLUT1 and GLUT3 [20]. Growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels are augmented by high glucose treatment in pancreatic cancer cell lines, such as BxPC-3 and Panc-1, and subsequently activate its receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a well-known oncogenic pathway [21]. In addition, the levels of protein kinase C (PKC) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are stimulated under hyperglycemic conditions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells [22]. Overexpression of PKC-α ...
Modelling ischaemia in vitro: Effects of temperature and glucose concentration on dopamine release evoked by oxygen and glucose depletion in a mouse brain ...
When cells were subjected to glucose at 30 mM for 24 hr, it was observed early apoptotic changes. MTT assays showed that treatment with a high concentration of glucose (30 mM) significantly increased apoptosis among cultured GECs as compared with that observed for a normal glucose concentration (5 mM). Pretreatment with EGCG (1-100 μM) significantly increased cell viability under the high glucose condition in a dose-dependent manner. DNA fragments was induced by glucose at 30 mM for 24 hr, whereas pretreatment for 2 hr with EGCG (1-100 μM) conferred significant protection against this glucose-induced DNA fragmentation. Moreover, DAPI staining assays showed that treatment with a high concentration of glucose (30 mM) increased DNA fragmentation / condensation in GECs as compared with that observed for a normal glucose concentration (5 mM). Pretreatment of GECs with EGCG (1-100 μM) significantly increased cell viability under the high glucose condition in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism of ...
Insulin controls glucose homeostasis by regulating glucose use in peripheral tissues, and its own production and secretion in pancreatic beta cells. These responses are largely mediated downstream of the insulin receptor substrates, IRS-1 and IRS-2 (refs 4-8), through distinct signalling pathways. Although a number of effectors of these pathways have been identified, their roles in mediating glucose homeostasis are poorly defined. Here we show that mice deficient for S6 kinase 1, an effector of the phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase signalling pathway, are hypoinsulinaemic and glucose intolerant. Whereas insulin resistance is not observed in isolated muscle, such mice exhibit a sharp reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion and in pancreatic insulin content. This is not due to a lesion in glucose sensing or insulin production, but to a reduction in pancreatic endocrine mass, which is accounted for by a selective decrease in beta-cell size. The observed phenotype closely parallels
BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis is distorted by defects of the PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways in insulin-sensitive tissues, allowing the accumulation of glucose in the blood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and mechanisms by which ethanol extract of Caulerpa lentillifera (CLE) regulates glucose metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice. METHODS: Mice were administered CLE (250 or 500 mg/kg BW) or rosiglitazone (RSG, 10 mg/kg BW) for 6 weeks. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT) were performed, and blood glucose was measured in db/db mice. Levels of insulin and insulin resistance factors in plasma, glycogen content in the liver, and IRS, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 expressions in skeletal muscles were measured in db/db mice. Glucose uptake and insulin signaling molecules were measured in L6 myocytes, using fluorometry and Western blotting. RESULTS: CLE significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, glucose level in OGTT and IPITT, ...
Our results from the 1-week culture at various glucose concentrations revealed that increasing glucose concentrations lead to an increased proinsulin secretion to the culture medium. We believe that the increase in proinsulin secretion could be explained by a sustained state of cellular activation.. The half-time of conversion of newly synthesized proinsulin from the intracellular pool was determined using three time points. In all experiments, except those in which islets were treated with IL-1β, the T1/2 was found to be 40-50 min when 15 min after the start of radioactive labelling was set as time 0. This agrees well with previously published studies (Steiner et al. 1972, Rhodes & Halban 1987 Nagamatsu et al. 1987) indicating an intracellular T1/2 of proinsulin of about 60 min in freshly isolated islets. In the present study, this rate of conversion was maintained after culture in glucose concentrations in the range 5.6-28 mM, whereas a decreased rate was measured only in islets which had ...
Circulating apelin is well recognised as a factor involved in the control of glucose homeostasis by modulating glucose utilisation acting directly on tissues (adipose tissue, muscle, intestine). In the brain, apelin exerts a dual effect depending on the nutritional state and its levels present in the hypothalamus. We have previously demonstrated that low dose of apelin administrated intracerebroventricularly improves glycaemia in fed mice.9 This effect could be linked to the slight and continuous increase in plasma apelin observed during the dark period (corresponding to the fed state). All these data suggest that a physiological rise of apelin in the whole body exerts beneficial effect on glucose metabolism as previously observed after an acute intravenous injection.10 Here, we show that apelin has a dual effect on ENS neurons similar to that observed in the CNS. In particular, we show that apelin induces modulations of duodenal contractility and subsequently modifies hypothalamic activity via ...
Fifty normal people and 50 diabetic patients were studied by means of an enzymatic method for the glucose content in the blood, tears, and urine before and after the peroral glucose load. In normal subjects the fasting glucose levels in the tears averaged 3.6 mg/100 ml (0.2 mmol/l) and in the diabetic patients it averaged 16.6 mg/100 ml (0.92 mmol/l). As in blood and urine, tear glucose levels are significantly higher in diabetic patients than normal persons both at fasting and after the peroral glucose load test. The fasting tear glucose level did not appear to be a satisfactory index for classifying a person as a diabetic or normal. It was found that after the peroral glucose load test a tear glucose level at 11 mg/100 ml (0.61 mmol/l) resulted in only 4.6% of the diabetics being missed, while 5.8% of the normal persons were misclassified as diabetics. ...
Ginkgo biloba, an herbal medication, is capable of lowering glucose, fat, and lipid peroxide in diabetic patients. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) prevented hyperinsulinism-induced glucose intolerance in hepatocytes. We investigated the effects of GBE on glucose consumption, glucokinase activity, and mRNA levels of key genes in glucose metabolism and the insulin signaling pathway. To better show its efficacy, we included a control group that was treated with rosiglitazone, a type of thiazolidinedione (TZD). The data indicated that GBE repressed glucose uptake under normal conditions, while it dramatically improved glucose tolerance under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, after analyzing gene expression, we suggest that GBE chiefly exerts its effects by stimulating IRS-2 transcription. It should be noted that, unlike rosiglitazone, GBE did not stimulate excessive glucose uptake as it improved glucose tolerance. It is said that GBE treatment ...
Why would blood glucose levels fluctuate when on LCHF?. Dramatic improvements in blood glucose can be expected within the first days of adopting an LCHF diet. However, its very normal for diabetics not to achieve perfect fasting (morning) blood glucose early on or sometimes ever. Morning fasting blood glucose levels usually continue to remain high, even after adopting a ketogenic LCHF diet and even when blood glucose over the rest of the day is well controlled. This is due to the dawn phenomenon - high morning blood glucose caused by raised concentrations of growth hormone, cortisol, adrenaline and glucagon in the morning.. Achieving good blood glucose control over the rest of the day is what is really important. It takes time and trial and error, with close post-meal blood glucose monitoring to determine exactly which foods affect blood glucose levels and to what extent. This will help find the foods and amounts that help keep blood glucose stable so that the patient can try to eat those as ...
Obesity is considered a state of low-grade inflammation, and this inflammation is strongly related to development of systematic insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia develops during insulin resistance as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in peripheral insulin sensitive tissues is reduced. Hepatic insulin resistance is often accompanied with increased gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic glucose output, which further increase blood glucose. To cope with the hyperglycemia, the pancreatic -cells compensate by increasing insulin secretion. However, after a certain amount of time, the -cells are no longer able to compensate, and insulin production stops. This may be accompanied with apoptosis in the -cells. Indomethacin is an NSAID and a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and 2 (COX-2). In this study we have demonstrated that COX-inhibition using indomethacin, attenuated high fat/high sucrose-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity and glucose intolerance ...
The current goal of diabetes therapy is to reduce time-averaged mean levels of glycemia, measured as HbA1c, to prevent diabetic complications. However, HbA1c only explains ,25% of the variation in risk of developing complications. Because HbA1c does not correlate with glycemic variability when adjusted for mean blood glucose, we hypothesized that transient spikes of hyperglycemia may be an HbA1c-independent risk factor for diabetic complications. We show that transient hyperglycemia induces long-lasting activating epigenetic changes in the promoter of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 in aortic endothelial cells both in vitro and in nondiabetic mice, which cause increased p65 gene expression. Both the epigenetic changes and the gene expression changes persist for at least 6 d of subsequent normal glycemia, as do NF-κB-induced increases in monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression. Hyperglycemia-induced epigenetic changes and increased p65 ...
Review. 1826 (2), 370-84. Dec 2012. Dysregulation of Glucose Transport, Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Glutaminolysis by Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors in Cancer Cells. Jin-Qiang Chen 1, Jose Russo. PMID: 22750268. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2012.06.004. Abstract. A common set of functional characteristics of cancer cells is that cancer cells consume a large amount of glucose, maintain high rate of glycolysis and convert a majority of glucose into lactic acid even in the presence of oxygen compared to that of normal cells (Warburgs Effects). In addition, cancer cells exhibit substantial alterations in several energy metabolism pathways including glucose transport, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glutaminolysis, mitochondrial respiratory chain oxidative phosphorylation and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In the present work, we focused on reviewing the current knowledge about the dysregulation of the proteins/enzymes involved in the key regulatory steps of glucose transport, glycolysis, TCA cycle and ...
Glucose[edit]. Intravenous glucose is used in some Asian countries such as Korea as a pick-me-up, for "energy," but is not a ... Asian immigrants to the United States are at risk if they seek intravenous glucose treatment. It may be had at store-front ... The person receives nutritional formulas containing salts, glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins. ... Although many doctors warn Asian immigrants in New York that the effects of injecting glucose differ little from drinking ...
Glucose metabolism[edit]. According to the National Cancer Institute, two small studies exploring whether and how cell phone ...
The fat cells take up glucose through special glucose transporters (GLUT4), whose numbers in the cell wall are increased as a ... Muscle cells also take glucose up through insulin-sensitive GLUT4 glucose channels, and convert it into muscle glycogen. ... Flat line is the set-point of glucose level and sine wave the fluctuations of glucose. ... Blood glucose[edit]. Main articles: Blood sugar regulation and Glycolysis § Regulation of the rate limiting enzymes ...
Glucose metabolism[edit]. PLP is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis to ... Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid ... so deprivation of vitamin B6 results in impaired glucose tolerance.[4] ...
Because two acetyl-CoA molecules are produced from each glucose molecule, two cycles are required per glucose molecule. ... Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate[edit]. The metabolic role of lactate is well recognized as a fuel for ... Glucose + 10 NAD+ + 2UQ + 2 ADP + 2 GDP + 4 Pi + 2 H2O. → 10 NADH + 2UQH2 + 10 H+ + 2 ATP + 2 GTP + 6 CO2 ... The total energy gained from the complete breakdown of one (six-carbon) molecule of glucose by glycolysis, the formation of 2 ...
3 hour blood glucose level ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L). An alternative test uses a 75 g glucose load and measures the blood glucose ... Oral glucose tolerance test[edit]. A standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)[45] should be done in the morning after an ... Non-challenge blood glucose tests[edit]. When a plasma glucose level is found to be higher than 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) after ... Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) A number of screening and diagnostic tests have been used to look for high levels of glucose ...
Glucose[edit]. Because the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in all carbohydrates is always the same as that in water-that is, ... Consequently, during the complete oxidation of a glucose molecule, six molecules of carbon dioxide and six molecules of water ...
... the breaking down of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate and glucose. This is done through its passive influence on glucagon.[ ... and inhibits the peripheral use of glucose (insulin resistance)[14] by decreasing the translocation of glucose transporters ( ... Glucose[edit]. Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis[14] ... This response allows the liver to take up glucose not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen ...
By phosphorylating glucose (adding a negatively charged phosphate group), glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate and ... and the initial rate of phosphorylation of glucose is the rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism by the liver (ATP-D-glucose ... D-glucose + ATP → D-glucose-6-phosphate + ADP. ΔG° = −16.7 kJ/mol (° indicates measurement at standard condition). Researcher D ... High blood glucose releases insulin, stimulating the trans location of specific glucose transporters to the cell membrane.[11][ ...
For glucose[edit]. Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that provides energy needed by cells. Since glucose is a large molecule, it is ... Glucose, sodium ions, and chloride ions are just a few examples of molecules and ions that must efficiently cross the plasma ... The carrier protein at the membrane binds to the glucose and alters its shape such that it can easily to be transported from ... Thorens B (1993). "Facilitated glucose transporters in epithelial cells". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55: 591-608. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
Impaired glucose tolerance[edit]. Main article: Impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic ... Impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting glucose that is higher than the upper limit of normal, but not high enough to ... Two hour glucose tolerance test after ingesting the standardized 75 Gm glucose solution the blood sugar level of 140 to 199 mg/ ... Fasting blood glucose levels are in a continuum within a given population, with higher fasting glucose levels corresponding to ...
Glucose homeostasis disorders[edit]. *Diabetes *Type 1 Diabetes. *Type 2 Diabetes. *Gestational Diabetes ...
... this allows for blood glucose to enter the cell to lower blood glucose. In conditions of obesity and type 2 diabetes, Rac1 ... Role in glucose transport[edit]. Rac1 is expressed in significant amounts in insulin sensitive tissues, such as adipose tissue ... given Rac1's role in glucose transport, drugs that inhibits Rac1 could potentially be harmful to glucose homeostasis. ... Rac1 protein is also necessary for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle activated by exercise[8][20] and muscle stretching[21] ...
Glucose metabolism[edit]. The entire ghrelin system (dAG, AG, GHS-R and GOAT) has a gluco-regulatory action.[53] ... Ghrelin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Ghrelin does this indirectly by ... Heppner KM, Tong J (July 2014). "Mechanisms in endocrinology: regulation of glucose metabolism by the ghrelin system: multiple ... glucose output by primary hepatocytes". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 90 (2): 1055-56. doi:10.1210/jc. ...
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an important enzyme in red cells, metabolizing glucose through the pentose ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency[edit]. Main article: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency ... Cappellini MD, Fiorelli G (January 2008). "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency". Lancet. 371 (9606): 64-74. doi: ... Some of these disorders are known by fanciful and cryptic names like sickle-cell anemia, thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate ...
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At low glucose levels: *CoA is acetylated using acetate by acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), also coupled with ATP hydrolysis.[7] ... At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... At high glucose levels, acetyl-CoA is produced through glycolysis.[10] Pyruvate undergoes oxidative decarboxylation in which it ... At high glucose levels, glycolysis takes place rapidly, thus increasing the amount of citrate produced from the tricarboxylic ...
Lactose in food (such as dairy products) is broken down by the enzyme lactase into glucose and galactose. In individuals with ... Galactose is converted into glucose by the action of three enzymes, known as the Leloir pathway. There are diseases associated ... that checks for three enzymes that are needed to change galactose sugar that is found in milk and milk products into glucose, a ...
Glucose 1.86 g Fructose 2.35 g Water 85.75 g 2.7 Sugar 4.42 g ...
... (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP). The glycerate is a biochemically significant metabolic intermediate in both glycolysis and the Calvin cycle. This anion is often termed PGA when referring to the Calvin cycle. In the Calvin cycle, 3-phosphoglycerate is the product of the spontaneous scission of an unstable 6-carbon intermediate formed upon CO2 fixation. Thus, two equivalents of 3-phosphoglycerate are produced for each molecule of CO2 that is fixed.[1][2] ...
... yielding glucose. The γ-amylase has most acidic optimum pH of all amylases because it is most active around pH 3. They belong ... cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, ... glucose and "limit dextrin" from amylopectin. They belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13. ... to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the ...
Glucose Solid C6H12O6 −1271 Isopropanol. Gas C3H7OH. −318.1 ...
... lower fasting blood glucose". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 41 (8): 1606-14. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31819dfe14. ... Endurance exercise before meals lowers blood glucose more than the same exercise after meals.[118] There is evidence that ...
Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as K. aerogenes have a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol H2/mol glucose.[4] ... A theoretical maximum of 4 mol H2/mol glucose can be produced by strict anaerobic bacteria. ...
While the regular glucose test is taken at a certain point in time, the glucose tolerance test involves repeated testing to ... "Glucose tolerance test". Medline. Retrieved June 21, 2012.. *^ C. A. Burtis and E. R. Ashwood, Tietz Textbook of Clinical ... Glucose (fasting). 70. 120. mg/dL. Common abbreviations[edit]. Upon completion of a blood test analysis, patients may receive a ... Glucose (fasting). 3.9. 5.8. mmol/L. See also glycated hemoglobin. ...
This glycoside breaks up under enzyme catalysis into benzaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide and two equivalents of glucose. ...
amount(lactose, hi), amount(glucose, low). }. Δ. 2. =. {. amount(lactose, medium), amount(glucose, medium). }. {\displaystyle ... glucose,low),amount(lactose,hi). express(lac(X)):-amount(glucose,medium),amount(lactose,medium). code(lac(y),permease). code( ... lac(z),galactosidase). temperature(low):-amount(glucose,low). Integrity constraints (IC). false :- amount(S,V1), amount(S,V2), ... of glucose are low and lactose are high or when they are both at medium level (see the fourth and fifth rule). The abducibles, ...
Increased blood glucose. *Haematuria. *Proteinuria. *Increased creatine phosphokinase. Possible permanent effects[edit]. ...
Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Abnormal DEXA. Normal Radiography. Normal ...
Glucose tolerance test: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) used to assess the body's ability to metabolize glucose. Can be ... Lee H, Oh JY, Sung YA, Chung H, Cho WY (2009). "The prevalence and risk factors for glucose intolerance in young Korean women ...
The blood glucose test, which measures the amount of sugar in the blood, may be done as part of a routine physical or to help ... What Is a Glucose Test?. A glucose test measures how much glucose (GLOO-kose) is in the blood. Glucose is a type of sugar the ... Why Are Glucose Tests Done?. Doctors do glucose tests to check for low or high levels of glucose. Sometimes its done as part ... A low glucose level is called hypoglycemia. A high level of glucose is called hyperglycemia. Diabetes is one thing that can ...
Glucose syrup, also known as confectioners glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Glucose is a sugar. Maize ( ... glucose.[4] Glucose syrup is used in foods to sweeten, soften texture and add volume. By converting some of the glucose in corn ... High-maltose glucose syrups[edit]. Main article: High maltose corn syrup. By using β-amylase or fungal α-amylase, glucose ... Glucose syrup containing over 90% glucose is used in industrial fermentation,[3] but syrups used in confectionery contain ...
... Glucose. Say: gloo-kose. When you eat, your body turns the food into a sugar called glucose. Like gas for a car ... The hormone insulin helps the glucose get to the cells, so it can be used for energy. ... glucose provides fuel for your cells. How does it get to the cells? Its carried to them by the bloodstream. ...
... glucose 6-phosphatase-α), glucose 6-transporter (G6PT), and glucose 6-phosphatase-β (glucose 6-phosphatase-β or G6PC3) subunits ... is an enzyme that hydrolyzes glucose 6-phosphate, resulting in the creation of a phosphate group and free glucose. Glucose is ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Glucose 6-phosphatase.. *Glucose-6-Phosphatase at the US National Library of Medicine ... In this model, glucose 6-phosphatase has a low degree of selectivity. The transfer of the glucose 6-phosphate is carried out by ...
aldehydo-glucose (CHEBI:37663) is a glucose (CHEBI:17234). D-glucose (CHEBI:17634) is a glucose (CHEBI:17234). L-glucose (CHEBI ... glucose (CHEBI:17234) has role fundamental metabolite (CHEBI:78675) glucose (CHEBI:17234) is a aldohexose (CHEBI:33917) ... thioglucoside (CHEBI:9553) has functional parent glucose (CHEBI:17234). molasses (CHEBI:83163) has part glucose (CHEBI:17234). ... CHEBI:17234 - glucose. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min-width ...
... glucose levels in babies, quick ways to lower blood sugar naturally cinnamon, what does it mean if my glucose is low, what ... causes low glucose serum, blood sugar regulation disorders, what causes low blood sugar not diabetic 400g, normal blood sugar ... Glucose levels in babies,diabetes blood test results 5.7,what causes high blood sugar readings,glucose range non fasting vs - ... Oranges starting glucose level was different between the two meals (as is typical when comparing fasting glucose levels that ...
A sensor which can be used to screen for diabetes in resource-poor settings has been developed by researchers and tested in diabetic patients, and will soon be field tested in sub-Saharan Africa.. ...
Home testing a diabetic cats blood glucose (BG), or blood sugar levels using an ear poke with a lancet pen, and a glucometer. ... Cat Diabetes Glucose Testing - Duration: 4:13. Ask the Cat Doctor 26,275 views ... Testing blood glucose in a cat- Part 3 - Duration: 4:25. FrangipaniSal 355 views ... Home testing a diabetic cats blood glucose (BG), or blood sugar levels using an ear poke with a lancet pen, and a glucometer. ...
Glucose is the main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the bodys cells. ... Definition: Glucose. Glucose. Glucose is the main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the bodys ... Glucose comes from the foods we eat or the body can make it from other substances. Glucose is carried to the cells through the ...
... your body turns the food into a sugar called glucose. Like gas for a car, glucose provides fuel for your cells. ... Glucose. Say: gloo-kose. When you eat, your body turns the food into a sugar called glucose. Like gas for a car, glucose ... The hormone insulin helps the glucose get to the cells, so it can be used for energy. ...
D-glucose (CHEBI:17925). α-D-glucose 1-phosphate (CHEBI:29042) has functional parent α-D-glucose (CHEBI:17925). α-D-glucose 3- ... α-D-glucose (CHEBI:17925) is a D-glucopyranose (CHEBI:4167) α-D-glucose (CHEBI:17925) is enantiomer of α-L-glucose (CHEBI:37630 ... 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-glucose (CHEBI:49132) has parent hydride α-D-glucose (CHEBI:17925). α-L-glucose (CHEBI:37630) is ... D-glucose (CHEBI:17925). 2,6-diamino-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose (CHEBI:41105) has functional parent α-D-glucose (CHEBI:17925). 4-O ...
Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood sugar happens when the body has too little ... Without insulin, your body cant use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. ...
... the sugars glucose and galactose, which primarily results in severe diarrhea. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... Glucose-galactose malabsorption is a condition in which the body cannot take in (absorb) ... Glucose-galactose malabsorption is a condition in which the body cannot take in (absorb) the sugars glucose and galactose, ... Glucose and galactose are simple sugars; they are present in many foods, or they can be obtained from the breakdown of lactose ...
If blood sugar stays low for too long, starving the brain of glucose, it may lead to seizures, coma, and very rarely death. ... A continuous glucose monitor can sound an alarm when blood sugar levels are low or start to fall. This can be a big help for ... If the blood sugar level continues to drop, the brain does not get enough glucose and stops functioning as it should. This can ... Liquids are absorbed much faster than solids, so timing the insulin dose to the absorption of glucose from foods can be tricky ...
12, 2014-- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the World Glucose Self-Testing Markets report to their offering ... As such, the global market for blood glucose self-testing products is... ... 4. Glucose Monitoring Recommendations 5. Glucose Self-testing Technology Platforms and Consumable Products 6. Glucose Self- ... As such, the global market for blood glucose self-testing products is undergoing a significant transition driven by the advent ...
Magnesium insulin glucose homeostasis diabetic complications dietary magnesium supplements Download to read the full article ... Curry DL, Joy RM, Holley DC, Bennett LL (1977) Magnesium modulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by the perfused rat ... Rosenbloom AL (1977) Serum calcium and magnesium decline during oral glucose tolerance testing in children and adolescent with ... Legrand C, Okitolonda W, Pottier AM, Lederer J, Henquin JC (1987) Glucose homeostasis in magnesium-deficient rats. Metabolism ...
There is a reason why almost every living cell on Earth generates its energy (ATP) from glucose. Now, researchers at Virginia ... As you probably know, from sucking down cans of Coke and masticating on candy, sugar - glucose, fructose, sucrose, dextrose - ...
The compact One Drop Chrome blood glucose monitoring kit lets you measure your glucose levels and then track them on your ... Sync your meter with the One Drop Mobile app on your iPhone or Apple Watch to see all your blood glucose data and analytics at ... Blood glucose meter Proprietary technology ensures clinically proven accurate, reliable results in just five seconds. The meter ... Wirelessly transmits blood glucose data via Bluetooth to the One Drop app on your iPhone or Apple Watch ...
The compact One Drop Chrome blood glucose monitoring kit lets you measure your glucose levels and then track them on your ... FANTASTIC GLUCOSE METER!. From someone who has used this meter all the time for the last 2-3 years, this product is very well- ... FANTASTIC GLUCOSE METER!. From someone who has used this meter all the time for the last 2-3 years, this product is very well- ... Sync your meter with the One Drop Mobile app on your iPhone or Apple Watch to see all your blood glucose data and analytics at ...
Discover the best Blood Glucose Monitors in Best Sellers. Find the top 100 most popular items in Amazon Health & Personal Care ... Blood Glucose W/Glucose SOS Dextrose Powder, A Natural Alternative to Glucose Gel and Glucose Tablets for Blood Sugar - Glucose ... Dario Blood Glucose Test Strips for The Dario and Dario LC Blood Glucose Monitoring System. Great for Diabetics to Keep Track ... Dario Blood Glucose Monitor Kit Test Your Blood Sugar Levels and Estimate A1c. Kit Includes: Glucose-Meter with 25 Strips,10 ...
D-Glucose, anhydrous; Dextrose, anhydrous; Glucose (D); Glucose, anhydrous; Glucose liquid; Blood sugar; Roferose ST; Cerelose ... Other names: D-Glucose; Anhydrous dextrose; Cartose; Cerelose; Corn sugar; D-(+)-Glucose; Dextropur; Dextrose; Dextrosol; ... 2001; Glucosteril; Goldsugar; Maxim Energy Gel; Staleydex 111; Staleydex 333; Tabfine 097(HS); Vadex; (+)-Glucose ...
Specimens separated from the cells , 1 hour and ,2 hours after collection may be tested, but glucose results will be falsely ...
Glucose repression in yeast.. Carlson M1.. Author information. 1. Departments of Genetics and Development and Microbiology, ... The Snf1 protein kinase is a central component of the signaling pathway for glucose repression in yeast. Recent studies have ... the regulation of Snf1 kinase activity and elucidated mechanisms by which Snf1 controls repression and activation of glucose- ...
Patients with type 2 diabetes who undergo intensive glucose lowering have a reduced risk of developing microvascular kidney and ... Intensive glucose control was associated with a 20% lower risk for kidney events and a 13% lower risk for eye events. There was ... More intensive glucose control resulted in a pooled absolute difference in mean HbA1c compared with less intensive control of - ... More intensive glucose control was associated with a significant reduction in the relative risk for the composite primary ...
... and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or ... The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response ... A glucose sensor was fabricated in such a manner.. Next, as a sample solution, blood conditioned to have a glucose ... For instance, if glucose oxidase is selected as the enzyme, it is possible to fabricate a glucose sensor for measuring the ...
Honey is also a natural source of glucose.. Baked Goods. Glucose syrup is used in the production of baked goods such as cookies ... Glucose is the main source of energy used by the human body. In the United States the main source of glucose used in food ... Foods Naturally Containing Glucose. Glucose occurs naturally in the sap of most plants but is found in significant amounts in ... Most processed sweets contain glucose as their main source of sugar. Glucose syrup is widely used both for its sweet taste and ...
Blood glucose meters measure blood glucose levels electronically. Such measurement utilizes only a small drop of blood from the ... Determination of plasma glucose during rapid glucose excursions with a subcutaneous glucose sensor. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003 ... Blood glucose meters measure blood glucose levels electronically. Such measurement utilizes only a small drop of blood from the ... How do blood glucose monitors work?. Updated: Jan 22, 2020 * Author: Benjamin Daniel Liess, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing ...
... having access to emergency fast-acting glucose products is critical. Learn whats in a glucagon kit, how to administer it, and ... When you have severe hypoglycemia, it means you cant swallow glucose-containing foods or drinks on your own to bring your ... Glucose is taken as a spray into the nose or an injection administered under the skin. ... Diabetes is a balancing act, especially when you take insulin or oral medications that lower blood sugar (blood glucose), ...
Institutes of Health says scientists have found a connection between abnormalities in how the brain breaks down glucose. ... A study finds higher brain glucose levels could play a role. by Brandon Gobel, AARP, November 10, 2017 , Comments: 0 ... Glucose metabolism provides the fuel for physiological brain function. The brain is the most energy-demanding organ. It uses ... "For the first time, scientists have found a connection between abnormalities in how the brain breaks down glucose and the ...
A sensor that is capable of accurately measuring glucose and other analytes in low oxygen environments is provided. The sensor ... implanting a glucose sensor within a subject whose glucose level is to be monitored, wherein the glucose sensor includes a ... A subjects glucose level can be determined by using the glucose sensor of the present invention by situating the glucose ... Glucose sensors are used to measure glucose levels within a subjects body tissues. The glucose sensor of the present invention ...
  • Also known as impaired glucose tolerance, it is a term used to denote a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia. (buzzle.com)
  • If you are diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, the preceding stage to diabetes, the guidelines from this article will be helpful to you. (buzzle.com)
  • The study in Daqing showed how lifestyle changes can prevent type 2 among people with impaired glucose tolerance, which is sometimes a prelude to the condition. (merriam-webster.com)
  • A blood glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 and 11 mmol/L) is considered impaired glucose tolerance, or prediabetes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a medical condition in which a person has higher than normal blood glucose levels but below the level of diabetes. (selfgrowth.com)
  • According to WHO impaired glucose tolerance may be defined as two-hour glucose levels of 140 to 199 mg per dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol) on the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Patients suffering from Impaired Glucose Tolerance are at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance cannot be diagnosed easily as generally it does not show any symptoms or at least pronounced symptoms. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Thus without diagnosis, it is not possible to treat impaired glucose tolerance. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are at higher risk for diabetes. (selfgrowth.com)
  • For diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes two different blood tests are done. (selfgrowth.com)
  • After a patient is diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose is made, he needs to amend his lifestyle to reduce the risk of developing Type II Diabetes. (selfgrowth.com)
  • If the fasting reading is between 100 and 125 mg/dL, there's a change you have impaired glucose tolerance, otherwise known as prediabetes. (healthline.com)
  • Glucose metabolism provides the fuel for physiological brain function. (aarp.org)
  • They theorized that the influence of a hot bath over glucose metabolism might revolve around the inflammatory response. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most notable change in the metabolic profile of hypertrophied hearts is an increased reliance on glucose with an overall reduced oxidative metabolism, i.e. a reappearance of the foetal metabolic pattern. (nih.gov)
  • Aside from increased reliance on glucose as an energy source, changes in other glucose metabolism pathways, e.g. the pentose phosphate pathway, the glucosamine biosynthesis pathway, and anaplerosis, are also noted in the hypertrophied hearts. (nih.gov)
  • Studies using transgenic mouse models and pharmacological compounds to mimic or counter the switch of substrate preference in cardiac hypertrophy have demonstrated that increased glucose metabolism in adult heart is not harmful and can be beneficial when it provides sufficient fuel for oxidative metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize the background of glucose and lipid metabolism concerning sirtuins and discuss the functions of sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • SIRT6 plays important roles in several pathways concerning glucose and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Galli's group was among the first to show that insulin - the hormone that governs glucose metabolism in the body - also regulates the brain's supply of dopamine, a neurotransmitter with roles in motor activity, attention and reward. (psychcentral.com)
  • In type 2 diabetics this glucose metabolism brain control is often dysfunctional. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences have discovered neural mechanisms in mice specific to females that can shift estrogen from playing a protective role in glucose metabolism to one that is disruptive. (news-medical.net)
  • In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose for metabolism is stored as a polymer, in plants mainly as starch and amylopectin, and in animals as glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the discovery of the metabolism of glucose Otto Meyerhof received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1922. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1947, Bernardo Houssay (for his discovery of the role of the pituitary gland in the metabolism of glucose and the derived carbohydrates) as well as Carl and Gerty Cori (for their discovery of the conversion of glycogen from glucose) received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose is a type of sugar the body uses for energy. (kidshealth.org)
  • Glucose is a sugar . (wikipedia.org)
  • When you eat, your body turns the food into a sugar called glucose. (kidshealth.org)
  • The hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate begins with a nucleophilic attack on the sugar-bound phosphate by His176 resulting in the formation of a phosphohistidine bond and the degradation of a carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Home testing a diabetic cat's blood glucose (BG), or blood sugar levels using an ear poke with a lancet pen, and a glucometer. (youtube.com)
  • Glucose is the main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the body's cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). (diabetes.org)
  • Small amounts of the simple sugar glucose in the urine (mild glucosuria) may occur in this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These foods contain glucose, galactose, and another sugar called lactose that gets broken down into these two sugars. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The SGLT1 protein transports glucose into specialized kidney cells, ensuring that the sugar goes back into the bloodstream and is not released into the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Throughout the day, depending on multiple different factors, blood sugar (also called blood glucose) levels will vary - up or down. (diabetes.org)
  • If the blood sugar level continues to drop, the brain does not get enough glucose and stops functioning as it should. (diabetes.org)
  • If blood sugar stays low for too long, starving the brain of glucose, it may lead to seizures, coma, and very rarely death. (diabetes.org)
  • Glucagon is a hormone produced in the pancreas that stimulates your liver to release stored glucose into your bloodstream when your blood sugar levels are too low. (diabetes.org)
  • One is designing a glucose-responsive insulin (GRI) that will circulate through the bloodstream, turning on when it's needed to control blood sugar and turning off when blood sugar starts to go low. (jdrf.org)
  • A successful GRI would keep tight control over blood sugar, reduce the need for glucose monitoring and probably require fewer doses to maintain control throughout the day. (jdrf.org)
  • As you probably know, from sucking down cans of Coke and masticating on candy, sugar - glucose, fructose, sucrose, dextrose - is an excellent source of energy. (extremetech.com)
  • Dario Blood Glucose Monitor Kit Test Your Blood Sugar Levels and Estimate A1c. (amazon.com)
  • For those of you who are familiar with diabetes and the other factors related to diabetes, A1C level is the measurement of how good your body process blood sugar, or glucose, in your system, using its own insulin. (amazonaws.com)
  • Glucose is a simple sugar and natural sweetener that is found naturally in many foods and added to processed foods and other goods. (ehow.com)
  • Glucose syrup is used in the production of baked goods such as cookies, crackers, pies and pastries because it results in a desirable color, texture and taste in comparison with other types of sugar. (ehow.com)
  • Most processed sweets contain glucose as their main source of sugar. (ehow.com)
  • Diabetes is a balancing act, especially when you take insulin or oral medications that lower blood sugar (blood glucose), especially sulfonylureas. (diabetes.org)
  • As researchers work to find better ways to treat Alzheimer's disease and delay its onset, they've come across a possible connection involving levels of glucose, a form of sugar, in people's brain. (aarp.org)
  • Glucose test strips make it easy for diabetics and those diagnosed with low blood sugar levels to monitor their blood sugar throughout the day. (staples.com)
  • That fast response time is convenient, especially if you're measuring blood sugar during a medical emergency and need to quickly administer glucose. (staples.com)
  • Continuous glucose monitoring automatically tracks blood glucose levels, also called blood sugar, throughout the day and night. (nih.gov)
  • Blood sugar is the concentration of glucose in the body, explains Dr Rai, and it's used for energy. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Also known as the plasma glucose level, blood sugar is expressed in millimoles per litre (mmol/l). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Not only does glucose come from the food we eat, but the body creates it by digesting foods, such as carbohydrates , into a sugar that circulates in the bloodstream. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycaemia, is what happens when the glucose in your blood drops too low, says Dr Basford. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Treat hypoglycemia by raising your blood glucose level with some form of sugar. (archive.org)
  • The quickest way to raise your blood glucose and treat hypoglycemia is with some form of sugar. (archive.org)
  • a sugar, C 6 H 12 O 6 , having several optically different forms, the common dextrorotatory form ( dextroglucose, or d -glucose ) occurring in many fruits, animal tissues and fluids, etc., and having a sweetness about one half that of ordinary sugar, and the rare levorotatory form ( levoglucose, or l -glucose ) not naturally occurring. (dictionary.com)
  • The cells in your body run on glucose from sugar and ketones from fat. (dictionary.com)
  • Manufacturers found that by adding chemicals, or sugar and glucose during the boiling off, they could make up for this loss. (dictionary.com)
  • Glucose is a product of photosynthesis, mostly incorporated into the disaccharide sugar sucrose rather than circulating free in the plant. (dictionary.com)
  • Checking blood glucose with a meter only provides information about the blood sugar level at that specific point in time. (umassmed.edu)
  • A machine that helps test how much glucose ( sugar ) is in the blood . (everything2.com)
  • The glucose tolerance test, also known as the oral glucose tolerance test, measures your body's response to sugar (glucose). (mayoclinic.org)
  • People with diabetes suffer from elevated levels of blood sugar or glucose. (cvs.com)
  • You can take glucose tablets to quickly supply your body with sugar and bring your numbers closer to normal range. (cvs.com)
  • He or she can recommend what steps to take when you experience low blood sugar levels and help you decide if glucose tablets are the best solution for hypoglycemia for you. (cvs.com)
  • They get turned into energy very quickly so your blood glucose (sugar) levels go up very quickly. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • A CSF glucose test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (ucsfhealth.org)
  • The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Their glucose levels are often measured via blood sugar test kits, which involve pricking the finger to get a blood sample for testing. (naturalnews.com)
  • The glucose urine test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in a urine sample. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • If you have diabetes, purchasing a blood glucose meter (or glucometer) is one of the best and most important ways to monitor your blood sugar at home. (wikihow.com)
  • Jun 25, 2019 (News AIM via COMTEX) -- Glucose sensors are inserted under skin to measure glucose (sugar) levels. (marketwatch.com)
  • This leaves more sugar, or glucose, in your blood. (healthline.com)
  • If you check your blood sugar and find you have hypoglycemia, eat some hard candy or glucose tablets. (healthline.com)
  • Glucose testing is a random blood test to check glucose (sugar) levels. (healthline.com)
  • In adults without diabetes, glucose levels are managed through the actions of our internal insulin and the body's use of sugar for energy. (healthline.com)
  • If you have limited or no sight, talking blood glucose meters are the key to checking your blood sugar readings independently. (consumersearch.com)
  • A continuous glucose monitor holds a tiny sensor that's inserted just under the skin, alleviating the need for patients to prick their fingers every day to check blood sugar. (theepochtimes.com)
  • There's little evidence that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) leads to better outcomes for the estimated 25 million U.S. patients with Type 2 diabetes who don't inject insulin to regulate their blood sugar, health experts say. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Doctors often recommend that diabetes patients test their glucose at home to track whether they are reaching treatment goals and learn how medications, diet, exercise, and stress affect blood sugar levels. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Instead, they measure the interstitial glucose level, which is the sugar level found in the fluid between the cells. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Glucose is a moderately sweet sugar that is found in fruits and vegetables. (reference.com)
  • The consensus among biochemists is that virtually every cell in the human body can break down sugar, usually in the form of glucose, to use as energy. (reference.com)
  • Glucose is a form of carbohydrate known as a simple sugar, or monosaccharide. (reference.com)
  • Glucose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, a class of molecules that forms 5- and 6-sided rings, not unlike a benzene ring. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose, as intravenous sugar solution, is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose was discovered in grapes by Johann Tobias Lowitz in 1792, and distinguished as being different from cane sugar (sucrose). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1970, Luis Leloir was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of glucose-derived sugar nucleotides in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors do glucose tests to check for low or high levels of glucose. (kidshealth.org)
  • Sweet foodstuffs like blended juices, canned fruits, carbonated beverages and other soft drinks, sweetened cereals and yogurt contain high levels of glucose as the source of their sweetness. (ehow.com)
  • We measured levels of glucose and oxygen while people were doing mental tasks and found both levels fell," Scholey says. (go.com)
  • For instance, in April 2018, University of California San Diego, in collaboration with National Institutes of Health (NIH), initiated the clinical study for adhesive glucose sensor to measure sweat glucose of patients with diabetes. (marketwatch.com)
  • For instance, in July 2018, Abbott Laboratories received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its FreeStyle Libre 14 day Flash Glucose Monitoring System. (marketwatch.com)
  • The meter then wirelessly transmits that blood glucose data via Bluetooth to the One Drop Mobile app on your iOS device. (apple.com)
  • Sync your meter with the One Drop Mobile app on your iPhone or Apple Watch to see all your blood glucose data and analytics at a glance. (apple.com)
  • The digital meter obtains information from the blood on the strip, and within seconds, the glucose level is displayed on the screen. (medscape.com)
  • iBGStar (Sanofi) is the first blood glucose meter to connect directly to iPhone and iPod Touch. (medscape.com)
  • I have been using a glucose meter that I was prescribed and there are days where my glucose have been what I consider to be normal, then there are days where I will run low an hour after meals or in the middle of the night. (medhelp.org)
  • You'll test a drop of blood on a standard glucose meter. (nih.gov)
  • CGM glucose readings need to be checked against a standard glucose meter twice a day. (nih.gov)
  • But you still need a finger-stick glucose test twice a day to check the accuracy of your CGM against a standard blood glucose meter. (nih.gov)
  • Buying the right glucose meter may seem daunting, but it's simple enough when you consider your unique needs, get helpful advice, and keep costs at a minimum. (wikihow.com)
  • To narrow down what you need, make a list of the top 5 most important aspects that you're looking for in a glucose meter. (wikihow.com)
  • Oftentimes choosing a glucose meter is based on personal preference, but some doctors may be able to make recommendations for you. (wikihow.com)
  • By taking the time to check into consumer ratings and comments, you can avoid investing in a glucose meter that fails to live up to the promises made by the manufacturer. (wikihow.com)
  • Ask your doctor if functions like these are important for you to have in your glucose meter. (wikihow.com)
  • For some patients, being able to check for ketones in their blood is a necessary function of a glucose meter. (wikihow.com)
  • Measure the glucose concentration of (the reagent area) containing the required capillary blood with a glucose meter. (slideshare.net)
  • However, just being able to speak your readings out loud isn't enough to make a blood glucose meter truly accessible to those with limited vision. (consumersearch.com)
  • One blood glucose meter, however, stands out as offering everything you need for truly accessible blood glucose testing: The Prodigy Voice (Est. (consumersearch.com)
  • CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Test Strips for use with CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Meter. (walgreens.com)
  • Ascensia Diabetes Care Inc USA does not warrant use of the CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Meter with any strip other than CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Strips. (walgreens.com)
  • They use audible messages to coach you through the process of setting your meter up, testing your blood glucose levels and recording the results. (consumersearch.com)
  • Just because a home blood glucose meter meets the current federal standards doesn't mean it's the best. (consumersearch.com)
  • 8. The membrane of claim 7 wherein the oxidase is glucose oxidase. (google.com)
  • 20. The membrane system of claim 19 wherein the oxidase is glucose oxidase. (google.com)
  • 27. The glucose sensor of claim 26 wherein the enzyme is an oxidase. (google.com)
  • 28. The glucose of claim 27 wherein the oxidase is glucose oxidase. (google.com)
  • A sterile lancet NOTE The reagent strip contains the enzymes glucose oxidase and peroxidase, together with3. (slideshare.net)
  • The glucose oxidase reacts4. (slideshare.net)
  • A nanocomposite containing amine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and a room temperature ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) was prepared and applied for glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization on glassy carbon electrode. (hindawi.com)
  • Wang and Musameh [ 2 ] reported the first CNTs/enzyme electrodes for glucose and ethanol by incorporating glucose oxidase (GOx) and alcohol dehydrogenase within a three-dimensional CNTs/Teflon matrix. (hindawi.com)
  • In other words, no bacteria, no problem regulating glucose levels. (newscientist.com)
  • Glucose toxicity is a well-established entity that has been shown in animal models of diabetes to contribute to development of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes in humans, a considerable body of evidence has accumulated indicating that a chronic physiological increment in the plasma glucose concentration leads to progressive impairment in insulin secretion and may contribute to insulin resistance as well. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence also has accumulated to implicate glucose toxicity in the functional impairment in insulin secretion that occurs during the initial presentation of patients with type I diabetes, and this may explain the honeymoon period so commonly observed after the institution of insulin therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Weight loss and increased physical activity help in reducing insulin resistance and help in restoring the normal insulin secretion, thus blood glucose level is controlled and stays within normal limits. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic β-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [ M ]). It is widely accepted that in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), a decrease in insulin action ( M ) is accompanied by upregulation of insulin secretion (and vice versa). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin secretion is primarily substrate controlled, and glucose, the preeminent secretagogue among nutrient molecules, would be a good candidate for such a signal. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is primarily controlled by the enzyme glucokinase, which governs the generation of energy from glucose and acts as the β-cell glucose sensor ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • If glucose were indeed one of the signals linking insulin resistance and β-cell compensation, insulin secretion should not fully compensate for worsening insulin resistance, since this would remove the stimulus for the compensation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased extracellular glucose stimulates firing of a subset of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-containing neurons in the hypothalamus through a mechanism thought to depend, like insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells, on the adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels in the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over time, good management of glucose greatly helps people with diabetes stay healthy and prevent complications of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • Many people with diabetes like to carry glucose tablets. (archive.org)
  • Amanda Morris, azcentral , "He's the oldest-known man with rare Proteus syndrome and he hopes to help find a cure," 28 Jan. 2020 People with diabetes have higher-than-normal glucose levels in their blood, and depend on prescription insulin to regulate those levels and prevent potentially life-threatening complications. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The second part provides specific weight loss recommendations, tips for athletes who want energy to fuel their exercise, and for people with diabetes to control their blood glucose. (mendosa.com)
  • The idea that a surrogate for blood glucose could be measured by the glucose level in tears seemed to excite both the media and people with diabetes and physicians. (healthcentral.com)
  • Random glucose testing is a powerful tool for people with diabetes. (healthline.com)
  • In people with diabetes and prediabetes , glucose levels can vary widely over the course of the day. (healthline.com)
  • Glucose is carried to the cells through the bloodstream. (kidshealth.org)
  • however, other proteins in the kidneys are able to absorb enough glucose into the bloodstream, so that glucosuria is mild, if present at all, in people with glucose-galactose malabsorption. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The insulin allows the glucose to enter the bloodstream and be used for energy. (healthline.com)
  • Glucose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream, as it requires no digestion. (reference.com)
  • The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response characteristic. (google.com)
  • and a reaction layer formed in contact with or in the vicinity of said electrode system, wherein said reaction layer contains an admixture of at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase and potassium gluconate and wherein the glucose sensor is in a sealed container. (google.com)
  • 2. The glucose sensor as set forth in claim 1 , wherein said reaction layer further contains at least one additive selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, salts of phthalic acid, maleic acid, salts of maleic acid, succinic acid and salts of succinic acid. (google.com)
  • 3. The glucose sensor as set forth in claim 2 , wherein said reaction layer further contains calcium ions. (google.com)
  • 4. The glucose sensor as set forth in claim 2 , wherein said reaction layer further contains an electron mediator. (google.com)
  • 9. The glucose sensor as set forth in claim 1 wherein the amount of potassium gluconate is within the range of 1.5 to 150 μg and the amount of glucose dehydrogenase is 0.2 to 20 U. (google.com)
  • and a reaction layer formed in contact with or in the vicinity of said electrode system, wherein said reaction layer contains an admixture of at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase and potassium gluconate, wherein the response of the sensor immediately fabricated is substantially the same as compared to the sensor after being stored for one week at 40 C. (google.com)
  • 11. The glucose sensor as set forth in claim 10 in a sealed container. (google.com)
  • A sensor that is capable of accurately measuring glucose and other analytes in low oxygen environments is provided. (google.com)
  • 23. The glucose sensor of claim 22 wherein the outer membrane of the membrane system comprises polycarbonate. (google.com)
  • 24. The glucose sensor of claim 22 wherein the silicon compound of the enzyme-containing membrane is a cross-linked polyorganosiloxane. (google.com)
  • 25. The glucose sensor of claim 24 wherein the polyorganosiloxane is polydimethylsiloxane. (google.com)
  • The sensor measures your interstitial glucose level, which is the glucose found in the fluid between the cells. (nih.gov)
  • The sensor tests glucose every few minutes. (nih.gov)
  • A tiny CGM sensor under the skin checks glucose. (nih.gov)
  • No source of voltage is required: it's enough simply to immerse the actuator into a solution of glucose in water", says Edwin Jager, senior lecturer in Sensor and Actuator Systems, in the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology at Linköping University. (eurekalert.org)
  • Increasing number of pipeline studies to develop new glucose sensors is expected to boost the glucose sensor market growth. (marketwatch.com)
  • The main aim of this clinical study is to explore the accuracy and acceptability of a non-invasive, wearable glucose sensor in patients living with Diabetes Mellitus. (marketwatch.com)
  • Moreover, new product launches for measuring blood glucose levels is also expected to contribute to growth of the glucose sensor market size. (marketwatch.com)
  • North America is expected to witness significant growth in the glucose sensor market, owing to presence of major players and launch of new products in this region. (marketwatch.com)
  • This sensor continuously measures and monitors glucose levels. (marketwatch.com)
  • Furthermore, Asia Pacific glucose sensor market is expected to witness significant growth over the forecast period, owing to increasing diabetes healthcare spending in the region. (marketwatch.com)
  • One publication from Dr. Parviz is A contact lens with embedded sensor for monitoring tear glucose level . (healthcentral.com)
  • It seems they developed a sensor, mixed some chemicals together (including a glucose solution - the researchers apparently did not use real tears) and measured electrical current. (healthcentral.com)
  • Glucose is a simple monosaccharide that is used as an energy source for every cell in the human body. (reference.com)
  • Glucose is a common example of a monosaccharide. (reference.com)
  • Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group, and is therefore an aldohexose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Friedrich August Kekulé proposed the term dextrose (from Latin dexter = right), because in aqueous solution of glucose, the plane of linearly polarized light is turned to the right. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not to be confused with Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase . (wikipedia.org)
  • and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or in the vicinity of the electrode system, and the reaction layer contains at least one kind of additive selected from the group consisting of gluconic acid and salts thereof. (google.com)
  • 6% w/w FAD glucose dehydrogenase(Aspergillus sp. (walgreens.com)
  • Read on to learn how JDRF research in the past year is making life with type 1 diabetes (T1D) better, including clinical trials of a therapy that helps to reduce HbA1c-which provides a longer-term gauge of blood-glucose control-and improves other key health measures. (jdrf.org)
  • Most type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients rely solely on insulin to control their glucose levels, but a growing number of researchers and medical professionals are exploring whether non-insulin drugs could be paired with insulin to better manage T1D. (jdrf.org)
  • Improved glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 1 diabetes using real-time continuous glucose monitoring. (medscape.com)
  • In 1993 the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial showed that keeping blood glucose levels as normal as possible is the best strategy for people with type 1 diabetes to reduce the risks of complications. (mendosa.com)
  • Nearly all insurers cover continuous glucose monitors for people with Type 1 diabetes, for whom it's a proven lifesaver. (theepochtimes.com)
  • The charity says all people with type-1 diabetes and those with type-2 diabetes who are on glucose-lowering medication, including insulin, need to monitor their blood glucose levels so they can adjust their treatment accordingly. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Blood glucose meters measure blood glucose levels electronically. (medscape.com)
  • There is a recurring cost to using blood glucose meters and disposable strips, but it is outweighed by the costs related to complications of diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • Search for test strips that work with the glucose meters that you use at home or with your patients. (staples.com)
  • Some blood glucose meters use what is called GDH-PQQ test strips. (wikihow.com)
  • writes Connie Kleinbeck, a diabetes educator who compares six talking glucose meters for the National Federation of the Blind. (consumersearch.com)
  • Ann Bartlett, a board member of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation who tests talking glucose meters at HealthCentral, adds that the Prodigy Voice can also help people with dyslexia, giving 'both a visual and audio sample to prevent recording the wrong number. (consumersearch.com)
  • The Prodigy Voice continues its dominion over other talking glucose meters for very good reason: It's the only model we've seen that can talk you through every single aspect of its use, from setup to calibration, testing and accessing the memory function. (consumersearch.com)
  • Basic blood glucose meters have just one job: Sampling a drop of your blood and telling you how high -- or low -- your blood glucose levels are. (consumersearch.com)
  • Some basic meters also come with software that lets you track and visualize your blood glucose trends, and a few let you program customizable alerts or flag readings for special circumstances. (consumersearch.com)
  • Accuracy and consistency (also called repeatability) should take priority over the fancy bells and whistles you'll find on some modern glucose meters. (consumersearch.com)
  • Dario Blood Glucose Test Strips for The Dario and Dario LC Blood Glucose Monitoring System. (amazon.com)
  • Glucose test strips come in boxes that contain hundreds of test strips. (staples.com)
  • Glucose testing strips are easy to use, especially if you follow the included directions. (staples.com)
  • It might be better to pay a little more for a glucose monitor if the replacement strips are significantly cheaper than another brand. (vetinfo.com)
  • The desiccant keeps the reagent strips dry whileMEASURING THE GLUCOSE the container prevents damage to the reagentCONCENTRATION IN strips by bright light. (slideshare.net)
  • Reagent strips such as Haemo-Glukotest specifically with glucose, releasing hydrogen5. (slideshare.net)
  • The reagent strips, therefore, are specific for glucose.8-c How to obtain a capillary blood sampleWhile capillary blood is usually used, a sampleof venous or arterial blood is also suitable.Capillary blood is usually obtained from theinfant's heel:1. (slideshare.net)
  • Other user-friendly features that make this the top glucometer in our report include its backlit screen and illuminated test strip port, no-coding test strips, great durability, and a 400-reading memory that calculates a number of averages to help you spot trends in your glucose readings. (consumersearch.com)
  • Access to blood glucose test strips vital to help diabetics manage their condition is being restricted against government guidance, a charity says. (bbc.co.uk)
  • A low glucose level is called hypoglycemia . (kidshealth.org)
  • In aiming for target glucose levels, Dr Zoungas explained that this should be weighed against the risk for hypoglycemia. (medscape.com)
  • When you have severe hypoglycemia, it means you can't swallow glucose-containing foods or drinks on your own to bring your levels back up. (diabetes.org)
  • With other models, you must first confirm a CGM reading with a finger-stick blood glucose test before you take insulin or treat hypoglycemia . (nih.gov)
  • After you check and see that your blood glucose level is low, you should treat hypoglycemia quickly. (archive.org)
  • Once you've checked your blood glucose and treated your hypoglycemia, wait 15 or 20 minutes and check your blood again. (archive.org)
  • If your blood glucose is still low and your symptoms of hypoglycemia don't go away, repeat the treatment. (archive.org)
  • In this product assortment, you'll find a variety of glucose tablets that can be taken to address hypoglycemia. (cvs.com)
  • Comparison of a needle-type and a microdialysis continuous glucose monitor in type 1 diabetic patients. (medscape.com)
  • Could someone tell me the glucose values for a non diabetic for the fasting (pre-breakfast), one hour after eating, two hours after eating. (medhelp.org)
  • The Economist , "As China puts on weight, type-2 diabetes is soaring," 12 Dec. 2019 In diabetic rats, kimchi improves insulin function and lowers average blood glucose levels. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Glucose monitoring is important for any owner with a diabetic cat to ensure they remain healthy and happy. (vetinfo.com)
  • sugarBEAT is the first painless, non-invasive continuous glucose monitor (CGM) for use by diabetic and pre-diabetic patients. (marketwatch.com)
  • It is the first continuous glucose monitoring system that can be used by diabetic patients to take diabetes treatment decisions without using a blood sample from the fingertip. (marketwatch.com)
  • Failure to do so can lead to short-term complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which is caused by untreated consistent high blood glucose levels and is potentially fatal, and hypoglycaemia, which is the result of low blood glucose levels. (bbc.co.uk)
  • A high level of glucose is called hyperglycemia . (kidshealth.org)
  • Random blood glucose readings can help you identify hyperglycemia and decrease the risk for some chronic complications. (healthline.com)
  • It refers to higher-than-normal blood glucose levels. (buzzle.com)
  • The electrode is designed to allow 'one-point' in vivo calibration, i.e., to have zero output current at zero glucose concentration, even in the presence of other electroreactive species. (google.co.uk)
  • A first glucose concentration-to-current transducing layer is overcoated with an electrically insulating and glucose flux limiting layer (second layer) on which, optionally, an immobilized interference-eliminating horseradish peroxidase based film is deposited (third layer). (google.co.uk)
  • This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The data point contains fields for the blood glucose concentration, temporal relationships to meals and sleep, and the source of the specimen which was measured. (google.com)
  • All fields except for blood glucose concentration are optional. (google.com)
  • The blood glucose concentration is measured in mmol/L (1 mmol/L is equivalent to 18 mg/dL). (google.com)
  • Measure the glucose concentration of using a reagent strip. (slideshare.net)
  • 2. SK ILLS WORKSHOP : GLUCOSE CONTROL AND HYPOGLYCAEMIA 157 higher the concentration of glucose in the blood the greater is the colour change. (slideshare.net)
  • Whereas the firing rate of about half the POMC neurons in wild-type mice was stimulated by physiologically relevant increases in glucose concentration, only 1 of 27 POMC neurons in POMC-mut-Kir6.2 mice was glucose-sensitive. (sciencemag.org)
  • What is glucose intolerance? (buzzle.com)
  • Symptoms of glucose intolerance include excessive thirst, tiredness, and loss of muscle mass. (buzzle.com)
  • When a person has been identified to be glucose intolerant, it is important to follow glucose intolerance diet. (buzzle.com)
  • Glucose intolerance is a condition that may lead to the development of diabetes if not taken care of in time. (buzzle.com)
  • What does glucose intolerance spell for children? (buzzle.com)
  • Treatment options for glucose intolerance are fairly limited, but effective when taken seriously. (buzzle.com)
  • ARTIFICIAL sweeteners can cause glucose intolerance in mice, and perhaps in humans, by altering gut bacteria, a series of experiments suggests. (newscientist.com)
  • Glucose intolerance occurs when this process becomes inefficient, and is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes. (newscientist.com)
  • They showed significant glucose intolerance," says Segal, "at levels comparable to a metabolic disease. (newscientist.com)
  • Because what we eat can shift this bacterial make-up , the researchers wondered whether the glucose intolerance might be caused by a change in the bacterial composition. (newscientist.com)
  • Wiping out the rodents' gut bacteria using antibiotics abolished all the effects of glucose intolerance in the mice. (newscientist.com)
  • The researchers found that the fake stuff drives the kind of glucose intolerance that can lead to diabetes in human. (dictionary.com)
  • Another article, Measurement of tear glucose levels with amperometric glucose biosensor/capillary tube configuration, reported that 'A strong correlation between tear and blood glucose levels was found, suggesting that measurement of tear glucose is a potential noninvasive substitute for blood glucose measurements. (healthcentral.com)
  • To compare the impact of intensive vs less intensive glucose control on the risk for microvascular events, the researchers conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies. (medscape.com)
  • For some time, researchers have thought about the possible links between how the brain processes glucose and Alzheimer's," said NIA director Richard J. Hodes. (aarp.org)
  • After 11 weeks, the researchers tested all the rodents' glucose tolerance by giving them a high-glucose drink and taking regular blood samples. (newscientist.com)
  • For example, when the researchers transferred the gut bacteria of mice who had consumed saccharin into mice whose guts were bacteria-free, it caused these previously healthy mice to become glucose intolerant. (newscientist.com)
  • So the researchers decided to also give those rodents high doses of glucose . (merriam-webster.com)
  • Herbal toothpaste, in particular, can reduce levels of salivary glucose and improve pH levels of saliva, according to researchers from Jawahar Medical Foundation's Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Dental College (ACPM Dental College). (naturalnews.com)
  • Cutting-edge and comprehensive, Glucose Transport: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource that helps researchers with determining specific roles of different GLUTs in various organisms. (springer.com)
  • Researchers from Cardiff University's School of Engineering have developed a glucose monitor that doesn't require you to prick your finger. (engadget.com)
  • Researchers at Linköping University have demonstrated that artificial muscles made from polymers can now be powered by energy from glucose and oxygen, just like biological muscles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Having a talking glucometer makes it possible for those with reduced vision or total blindness -- common side effects of diabetes -- to monitor their blood glucose levels without outside help. (consumersearch.com)
  • And while optimal health is not about fixating on weight-it's about measuring truly influential parameters like blood glucose, lipid subfractions, and cardiac plaque-nothing will help you lose weight as effectively as understanding how your meals are affecting your blood glucose levels. (amazonaws.com)
  • As such, the global market for blood glucose self-testing products is undergoing a significant transition driven by the advent of new analytical technologies and new recommendations for tight glucose control for monitoring diabetes. (cnbc.com)
  • JDRF applauds the FDA decision to approve a new indication for use for the Dexcom G5® Mobile Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) System. (jdrf.org)
  • Sleek, compact, and seamless, the One Drop Chrome blood glucose monitoring kit combines advanced diabetes technology with well-designed supplies to match your modern lifestyle. (apple.com)
  • Dario Value Pack Kit: Blood Glucose Monitoring Set. (amazon.com)
  • FDA expands indication for continuous glucose monitoring system, first to replace fingerstick testing for diabetes treatment decisions. (medscape.com)
  • Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-expands-indication-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system-first-replace-fingerstick-testing . (medscape.com)
  • System accuracy evaluation of 18 CE-marked current-generation blood glucose monitoring systems based on EN ISO 15197:2015. (medscape.com)
  • Battelino T, Phillip M. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in randomized control trials. (medscape.com)
  • Mian Z, Hermayer KL, Jenkins A. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Review of an Innovation in Diabetes Management. (medscape.com)
  • A small diameter flexible electrode designed for subcutaneous in vivo amperometric monitoring of glucose is described. (google.co.uk)
  • If your cat is on insulin, glucose monitoring at home can help ensure the amounts your cat is receiving are adequate. (vetinfo.com)
  • These sensors are connected wirelessly to the continuous glucose monitoring system. (marketwatch.com)
  • They offer data to the monitoring system or smart compatible devices that aid to track the level of blood glucose in a patient at regular intervals. (marketwatch.com)
  • These insurers say they have seen initial success among members using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) along with health coaches to help keep their diabetes under control. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been the norm for many years. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • Educational courses, including 5.5 hours of free CE focused on glucose monitoring, are also available. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • A set of downloadable PDFs for diabetes educators to use with patients to illustrate the importance of blood glucose monitoring, expert recommendations plus tips and tricks for safe, accurate testing. (diabeteseducator.org)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Glucose Monitoring Record Sheet in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • [7] p. 465 This is possible because these enzymes remove two glucose units (i.e. one maltose molecule) at a time from the end of the starch molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose device consists of electrodes made of compressed graphite discs containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of glucose. (technologyreview.com)
  • The electrodes sit inside a dialysis bag that keeps enzymes inside but lets glucose and oxygen flow through. (technologyreview.com)
  • The device uses enzymes to harvest energy from glucose and oxygen found naturally in the body. (technologyreview.com)
  • Glucose and oxygen flowed into the device, but enzymes stayed in place and catalyzed the oxidation of glucose to generate electrical energy. (technologyreview.com)
  • 16. The membrane system of claim 9 wherein the enzyme of the enzyme-containing membrane is one or a combination of enzymes which oxidizes glucose and generates hydrogen peroxide. (google.com)
  • These enzymes convert glucose and oxygen, in the same way as in the body, to produce the electrons required to power motion in an artificial muscle made from an electroactive polymer. (eurekalert.org)
  • discovered (1936) the activated intermediate, glucose 1-phosphate (phosphate bound to a specific carbon atom on the glucose molecule), known as the "Cori ester. (britannica.com)
  • In solution, the glucose molecule prefers a ring (cyclic) shape. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Six-membered cyclic structures like glucose are called "pyranose," after the hexagonal pyran molecule, which has 5 carbons and an oxygen in its ring just like glucose. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) as well as ring (cyclic) form. (wikipedia.org)
  • More intensive control also resulted in a difference in mean fasting plasma glucose between the two groups of -1.69 mmol/L. (medscape.com)
  • Corresponding residues in the active site of glucose 6-phosphatase-α include Arg170 and Arg83, which donate hydrogen ions to the phosphate, stabilizing the transition state, His119, which provides a proton to the dephosphorylated oxygen attached to glucose, and His176, which completes a nucleophilic attack on the phosphate to form a covalently bound phosphoryl enzyme intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The problem is that for decades, people said Warburg was wrong - mainly because we see a lot of cancer cells take up oxygen and make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from within the mitochondria … People began to question, 'If cancer cells have normal respiration, why would they want to use glucose as a fermentable fuel? (lewrockwell.com)
  • Just as athletes can benefit by eating right and doping their blood to contain more oxygenated cells, the new findings suggest students can improve their performance by eating glucose or breathing pure oxygen. (go.com)
  • We found a dose of oxygen or glucose can improve performance on tasks that require great mental effort," says Andrew Scholey, director of the Human Cognitive Neuroscience unit at the University of Northumbria in Newcastle, England. (go.com)
  • As mental strain increases, so too does the brain's demand for energy in the form of oxygen and glucose. (go.com)
  • He found when the students played the game at beginner levels, doses of oxygen and glucose did not help the their scores. (go.com)
  • But as the players reached more challenging levels, the students showed significant improvement after sucking oxygen and drinking a sweet, lemon-flavored glucose drink. (go.com)
  • We hope to understand how interventions like gingko can improve oxygen and glucose in the blood and help deliver more to the brain over a longer period," he said. (go.com)
  • Jobs envisioned wearable devices, like smartwatches, being used to monitor important vitals, such as oxygen levels, heart rate and blood glucose. (cnbc.com)
  • The motion of our muscles is powered by energy that is released when glucose and oxygen take part in biochemical reactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • They have now demonstrated the principle using artificial muscles powered by the same glucose and oxygen as our bodies use. (eurekalert.org)
  • Glucose molecules can also be linked into chains to form the polysaccharides cellulose, glycogen, and starch. (dictionary.com)
  • Many complex carbohydrates (starch, glycogen, cellulose) are polymers (long chains) of the glucose ring, repeating over and over. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In animals, glucose is released from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We simply can't know how unfavorable our postprandial glucose levels are unless we check. (amazonaws.com)
  • We provide evidence from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and prospective data from Pima Indians ( n = 413) and Caucasians ( n = 60) that fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations increase with decreasing M despite normal compensation of AIR. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • You can also correct a high blood glucose level by typing into the insulin pump your blood glucose or grams of carbohydrate to be eaten. (umassmed.edu)
  • The Glucose Revolution is about the glycemic index, a scientifically validated tool that can help you find the right kind of carbohydrate to control hunger, improve athletic performance, and most especially to manage diabetes. (mendosa.com)
  • Carbohydrate has the most immediate effect on blood glucose. (mendosa.com)
  • The Glucose Revolution includes a table of some 300 different foods listing their glycemic indexes and the carbohydrate and fat content in a sample serving. (mendosa.com)
  • Is Glucose a Carbohydrate? (reference.com)
  • Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, which is the most abundant carbohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sweet smelling -remember the renal threshold - some people naturally excrete glucose in their urine. (amazonaws.com)
  • The power remained around two microwatts for 11 days in one rat, and the other rat showed byproducts of glucose oxidation in its urine for three months, indicating that the device lasts at least that long. (technologyreview.com)
  • The presence of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria or glucosuria. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Now, blood tests to measure glucose level in the blood are easy to do and are used instead of the glucose urine test. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • The glucose urine test may be ordered when the doctor suspects renal glycosuria. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • This is a rare condition in which glucose is released from the kidneys into the urine, even when the blood glucose level is normal. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Glucose is not usually found in urine. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Small increases in urine glucose levels after a large meal are not always a cause for concern. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Pregnancy: Up to half of women have glucose in their urine at some time during pregnancy. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Glucose in the urine may mean that a woman has gestational diabetes . (ucsfhealth.org)
  • So I started taking supplements for Blood pressure and to help glucose and I kept notes about my readings in apple notes on my iPhone. (apple.com)
  • Glucose Readings Normal? (medhelp.org)
  • The monitor constantly tracks glucose levels, sends readings to a patient's cellphone and doctor, and alerts patients when readings are headed too high or too low. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Impaired myocardial energetics in cardiac hypertrophy also triggers AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to increased glucose uptake and glycolysis. (nih.gov)
  • I cannot solve your problem i.e. giving you an answer why this happens, but I have some thoughts: 1a) the oil could delay the glucose uptake in the digestive system - do you feed oil to the controls, too? (bio.net)
  • How do blood glucose monitors work? (medscape.com)
  • Ramljak S, Musholt PB, Schipper C, Flacke F, Sieber J, Borchert M. The precision study: examining the inter- and intra-assay variability of replicate measurements of BGStar, iBGStar and 12 other blood glucose monitors. (medscape.com)
  • Lane JE, Shivers JP, Zisser H. Continuous glucose monitors: current status and future developments. (medscape.com)
  • It's no wonder that it beat four other talking glucose monitors in a study published in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, and has won awards from the National Federation of the Blind and American Foundation for the Blind. (consumersearch.com)
  • But continuous glucose monitors aren't cost-effective for Type 2 diabetes patients who don't use insulin, said Dr. Silvio Inzucchi, director of the Yale Diabetes Center. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Neither finger-prick tests nor glucose monitors look at A1c. (theepochtimes.com)
  • The continuous glucose monitors also don't assess blood glucose. (theepochtimes.com)
  • at a given moisture level and temperature, a maltose solution has a lower viscosity than a glucose solution, but will still set to a hard product. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can see your glucose level anytime at a glance. (nih.gov)
  • An alarm can sound when your glucose level goes too low or too high. (nih.gov)
  • A graphic on the CGM screen shows whether your glucose is rising or dropping-and how quickly-so you can choose the best way to reach your target glucose level. (nih.gov)
  • The blood-glucose levels of the mice consuming the sweeteners spiked at a higher level than all the control groups and also took longer to drop back down to normal. (newscientist.com)
  • Check blood glucose levels to determine when your level is low. (archive.org)
  • You should check your blood glucose level according to the schedule you work out with your doctor. (archive.org)
  • After you feel better, be sure to eat your regular meals and snacks as planned to keep your blood glucose level up. (archive.org)
  • The user can view what their glucose level has been, what it is at that moment, and which way it's heading. (umassmed.edu)
  • A specially coated strip containing a fresh sample of blood is inserted in a machine, when then calculates the correct level of glucose in the blood sample and shows the result in a digital display. (everything2.com)
  • The glucose tolerance test identifies abnormalities in the way your body handles glucose after a meal - often before your fasting blood glucose level becomes abnormal. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This blood sample will be used to measure your fasting blood glucose level. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Your blood glucose level will be tested again one, two and three hours after you drink the solution. (mayoclinic.org)
  • After drinking the glucose solution, you'll likely need to remain in the doctor's office or lab while you're waiting for your blood glucose level to be tested. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A normal blood glucose level is lower than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L). (mayoclinic.org)
  • A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher may indicate diabetes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A 5% to 10% change in weight can help immensely in controlling blood glucose level. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Treatment of other associated conditions such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol also help in maintaining normal blood glucose level. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Certain foods are very good at helping you keep your blood glucose at about the right level. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • Glucose level can also be measured using a blood test or a cerebrospinal fluid test . (ucsfhealth.org)
  • The treatment of diabetes relies on controlling your blood glucose level. (healthline.com)
  • A review article in 2011, Noninvasive Diagnostic Devices for Diabetes through Measuring Tear Glucose , said that contact lenses 'are being considered by at least three research groups who are working with such sensors as an alternative tool to continuously and noninvasively monitor the level of glucose in tears. (healthcentral.com)
  • We therefore hypothesized that despite appropriate β-cell compensation (reflected by a constant DI), glucose increases when M decreases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • But while today's insulin formulations save lives, it's difficult to achieve the tight control over blood glucose that occurs naturally in people without diabetes. (jdrf.org)
  • Glucose occurs naturally in the sap of most plants but is found in significant amounts in many grains, fruits and vegetables. (ehow.com)
  • The naturally occurring form of glucose is d-glucose, while l-glucose is produced synthetically in comparatively small amounts and is of lesser importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. (wikipedia.org)
  • How your glucose changes at different meals? (apple.com)
  • You can note your meals, physical activity, and medicines in a CGM device, too, alongside your glucose levels. (nih.gov)
  • Testing after meals measures glucose levels around two hours after the start of a meal. (healthline.com)
  • For the first time, scientists have found a connection between abnormalities in how the brain breaks down glucose and the severity of the signature amyloid plaques and tangles in the brain, as well as the onset of eventual outward symptoms, of Alzheimer's disease," according to a news release from the National Institutes of Health's Institute on Aging (NIA. (aarp.org)
  • The condition is diagnosed with the help of a glucose tolerance test, which measures the body's response to glucose. (buzzle.com)
  • Studies done in the 1970s showed that glucose can improve brain performance, particularly if a subject is feeling depressed or angry or distracted, by increasing the organ's ability to make more of the body's mood regulator, serotonin. (go.com)
  • Diabetes is a disease that affects your body's ability to release insulin from your pancreas once sugars are turned into glucose. (healthline.com)
  • Diabetes is one thing that can cause high glucose levels. (kidshealth.org)
  • A group of scientists has recently discovered a link between high glucose levels in the brain and symptoms of memory loss, which could lead to Alzheimer's. (naturalnews.com)
  • Maltose is also less humectant than glucose, so candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as easily as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.p. 81 Irrespective of the feedstock or the method used for hydrolysis, certain steps are common to the production of glucose syrup: Before conversion of starch to glucose can begin, the starch must be separated from the plant material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/glucose. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The Dexcom G5® CGM is now indicated to replace fingerstick blood glucose testing for diabetes management decisions. (jdrf.org)
  • Glucose syrup , also known as confectioner's glucose , is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch . (wikipedia.org)
  • Maize (corn) is commonly used as the source of the starch in the US, in which case the syrup is called " corn syrup ", but glucose syrup is also made from potatoes and wheat , and less often from barley , rice and cassava . (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the method used to hydrolyse the starch and on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been allowed to proceed, different grades of glucose syrup are produced, which have different characteristics and uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original glucose syrups were manufactured by acid hydrolysis of corn starch at high temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before conversion of starch to glucose can begin, the starch must be separated from the plant material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formerly, glucose syrup was only produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid , and then heating the mixture under pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, glucose syrup is mainly produced by first adding the enzyme α-amylase to a mixture of corn starch and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of the oral glucose tolerance test are given in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Glucose syrup containing over 90% glucose is used in industrial fermentation , [3] but syrups used in confectionery contain varying amounts of glucose , maltose and higher oligosaccharides , depending on the grade, and can typically contain 10% to 43% glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Glucose syrup is used in foods to sweeten, soften texture and add volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • By converting some of the glucose in corn syrup into fructose (using an enzymatic process), a sweeter product, high fructose corn syrup can be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] A typical confectioner's syrup contains 19% glucose, 14% maltose, 11% maltotriose and 56% higher molecular mass carbohydrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • By using β-amylase or fungal α-amylase , glucose syrups containing over 50% maltose, or even over 70% maltose (extra-high-maltose syrup) can be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maltose is also less humectant than glucose, so candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as easily as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose syrup can be produced by acid hydrolysis , enzyme hydrolysis, or a combination of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States the main source of glucose used in food production is corn, which is converted into corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup. (ehow.com)
  • Around the world, wheat, barley, rice, maize and other starches are the main sources used to produce glucose syrup. (ehow.com)
  • Glucose syrup is added to most processed tomato goods because it gives a sweeter taste and balances the natural acidity of tomatoes. (ehow.com)
  • Glucose syrup is widely used both for its sweet taste and because it does not crystallize easily, improving the texture of confectionery items like candy and frosting. (ehow.com)
  • Many foods that are considered to be savory tasting are often processed with the use of glucose syrup. (ehow.com)
  • Glucose syrup is added to the glue on envelopes and the back of stamps to improve their taste. (ehow.com)
  • Glucose syrup was first made in 1811 in Russia by Gottlieb Kirchhoff using heat and sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant cells, chloroplasts perform photosynthesis, a process that converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose. (reference.com)
  • Due to its tight association to the ER, the exact structure of glucose 6-phosphatase remains unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic structure of glucose" last modified May 13, 2017. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The SGLT1 protein in kidney cells plays a role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Under normal conditions, the blood tests should show an initial spike in glucose, followed by a decline as the body secretes the insulin in response. (newscientist.com)
  • A fasting glucose reading of less than 100 mg/dL is normal. (healthline.com)
  • Random glucose testing isn't a substitute for your normal glucose testing schedule. (healthline.com)
  • Although the body weight of POMC-mut-Kir6.2 mice was normal, glucose homeostasis was impaired so that they showed an exaggerated increase in blood glucose after intraperitoneal glucose injection. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intensive glucose lowering in patients with type 2 diabetes significantly reduces the risk for microvascular kidney and eye complications over the longer term, according to the results of an individual-participant-data meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • These data just reinforce the importance of glucose control for the prevention of microvascular complications," alongside blood-pressure lowering, lipid management, and diet and exercise. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term increased blood glucose levels can eventually cause dangerous complications. (healthline.com)
  • Testing your blood glucose levels at various times throughout the day can help you manage your diabetes and reduce your risk of diabetes complications . (healthline.com)
  • In the long term, high blood glucose levels can lead to serious complications such as blindness, strokes and the need for amputations. (bbc.co.uk)