Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of various tissues, particularly in the synthesis of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage and synovial fluid in joints.
Hexosamines are amino sugars that are formed by the substitution of an amino group for a hydroxyl group in a hexose sugar, playing crucial roles in various biological processes such as glycoprotein synthesis and protein folding.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Galactosamine is a type of amino monosaccharide that is a key component of many glycosaminoglycans, and is commonly found in animal tissues, often used in research and pharmaceutical applications for its role in cellular metabolism and synthesis of various biological molecules.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Fucose is a deoxyhexose sugar, specifically a L-configuration 6-deoxygalactose, often found as a component of complex carbohydrates called glycans in various glycoproteins and glycolipids within the human body.
Uridine Diphosphate (UDP) sugars are nucleotide sugars that serve as essential glycosyl donors in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including proteoglycans and glycoproteins.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Hexoses are simple monosaccharides, specifically six-carbon sugars, which include glucose, fructose, and galactose, and play crucial roles in biological processes such as energy production and storage, and structural components of cells.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An amino acid that inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase and interferes with glutamine metabolism. It is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by an unidentified species of Streptomyces from Peruvian soil. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Neuraminic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars (sialic acids) that are commonly found as terminal residues on glycoproteins and gangliosides in animal tissues, playing crucial roles in various biological processes including cell recognition, inflammation, and bacterial/viral infectivity.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Peptidoglycan is a complex, cross-linked polymer of carbohydrates and peptides that forms the rigid layer of the bacterial cell wall, providing structural support and protection while contributing to the bacterium's susceptibility or resistance to certain antibiotics.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Heptoses are rare monosaccharides (simple sugars) containing seven carbon atoms, with a general formula of C7H14O7, which can exist in various structural forms such as D-glycero-D-manno-heptose and D-glycero-D-gulo-heptose.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.

Inhibition of Echovirus-12 multiplication by N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine. (1/2042)

The glucosamine derivative, N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine (NCBZG) inhibits the multiplication of Echovirus-12 and the synthesis of both virus RNA and protein at a stage in the virus growth cycle after attachment and penetration. However, the compound does not inhibit virus multiplication after the appearance of progeny virus nor after virus RNA has accumulated. Incorporation of radioactive glucosamine and choline into infected and uninfected cultures is inhibited by NCBZG as is the virus-induced increase in choline incorporation. The compound also prevents the appearance of radioactive choline in isolated membranous structures. The compound did not alter significantly the cellular RNA or protein synthesis, plating efficiency of the cells, their growth over a period of several days, nor the virus-directed inhibition of cellular RNA and protein. These findings suggest that the compound inhibits virus multiplication by its effect on the initiation of biosynthesis which appears to require membrane synthesis.  (+info)

Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells. (2/2042)

The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG.  (+info)

Evidence for an adenovirus type 2-coded early glycoprotein. (3/2042)

We have identified an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-induced early glycopolypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000 to 21,000 (20/21K), as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 20/21K polypeptide could be labeled in vivo with [(3)H]glucosamine. [(35)S]methionine- and [(3)H]-glucosamine-labeled 20/21K polypeptides bound to concanavalin A-Sepharose columns and were eluted with 0.2 M methyl-alpha-d-mannoside. The pulse-labeled polypeptide appeared as a sharp band with an apparent molecular weight of 21K, but after a chase it converted to multiple bands with an average molecular weight of 20K. This variability in electrophoretic mobility is consistent with glycosylation or deglycosylation of the 20/21K polypeptide. Analysis of the pulse and pulse-chase-labeled forms by using partial proteolysis indicated that the polypeptides were highly related chemically, but not identical. Most of the 20/21K polypeptide is localized in the cytoplasm fraction of infected cells lysed by Nonidet P-40. The 20/21K polypeptide and a 44K polypeptide, labeled with [(35)S]methionine or [(3)H]glucosamine in Ad2-infected human cells, were precipitated by a rat antiserum against an Ad2-transformed rat cell line (T2C4), but not by antisera against three other Ad2-transformed rat cell lines, or by serum from nonimmune rats. The partial proteolysis patterns of the 20/21K and the 44K polypeptides were indistinguishable, indicating that the two polypeptides are highly related, and suggesting that the 44K polypeptide might be a dimer of the 20/21K polypeptide. The 20/21K polypeptide was also induced in Ad2-early infected monkey and hamster cells. These results imply that the 20/21K polypeptide is synthesized in Ad2-infected human, monkey, and hamster cells, and in one but not all Ad2-transformed rat cells. Thus, the 20/21K polypeptide is probably viral coded rather than cell coded and viral induced.  (+info)

Effects of antibiotics on metabolism of peptidoglycan, protein, and lipids in Bifidobacterium bifidum subsp. pennsylvanicus. (4/2042)

The formation of cell envelope components of Bifidobacterium bifidum subsp. pennsylvanicus was studied by measuring the incorporation of [(3)H]glycine, (14)C-labeled fatty acids, and N-benzoyl-[(14)C]glucosamine into the membrane protein, membrane lipids, and cell wall peptidoglycan, respectively. Inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis by antibiotics (penicillin G, vancomycin, d-cycloserine, and bacitracin) and by the omission of glucosamine-containing growth factors caused a marked decrease in glycine incorporation into cellular as well as membrane protein, which was accompanied by a considerable enhancement of fatty acid incorporation. The uncoupling of protein and lipid synthesis led to the release of marked amounts of lipids from the cell under these conditions. Arrestment of protein synthesis by antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and actinomycin D) decreased peptidoglycan and lipid synthesis only partially, but did not lead to lipid release. Mg(2+) deficiency of the medium caused about 60% inhibition of growth and lipid synthesis, but protein synthesis and especially peptidoglycan synthesis were much less inhibited. Staphylococcin 1580 arrested the growth and also the synthesis of protein and peptidoglycan. However, the synthesis and turnover of lipids were considerably increased and a release of large amounts of lipids was observed. Peptidoglycan and cellular protein did not show any turnover either during normal growth or after the inhibition of cell wall and protein synthesis.  (+info)

Mutations that confer resistance to 2-deoxyglucose reduce the specific activity of hexokinase from Myxococcus xanthus. (5/2042)

The glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2dGlc) inhibits the growth and multicellular development of Myxococcus xanthus. Mutants of M. xanthus resistant to 2dGlc, designated hex mutants, arise at a low spontaneous frequency. Expression of the Escherichia coli glk (glucokinase) gene in M. xanthus hex mutants restores 2dGlc sensitivity, suggesting that these mutants arise upon the loss of a soluble hexokinase function that phosphorylates 2dGlc to form the toxic intermediate, 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate. Enzyme assays of M. xanthus extracts reveal a soluble hexokinase (ATP:D-hexose-6-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.1) activity but no phosphotransferase system activities. The hex mutants have lower levels of hexokinase activities than the wild type, and the levels of hexokinase activity exhibited by the hex mutants are inversely correlated with the ability of 2dGlc to inhibit their growth and sporulation. Both 2dGlc and N-acetylglucosamine act as inhibitors of glucose turnover by the M. xanthus hexokinase in vitro, consistent with the finding that glucose and N-acetylglucosamine can antagonize the toxic effects of 2dGlc in vivo.  (+info)

Quantitative determination of N-acetylglucosamine residues at the non-reducing ends of peptidoglycan chains by enzymic attachment of [14C]-D-galactose. (6/2042)

The ability of human milk galactosyltransferase to attach D-galactose residues quantitatively to the C-4 of N-acetylglucosamine moieties at the ends of oligosaccharides has been utilized for the specific labeling and quantitative determination of the chain length of the glycan moiety of the bacterial cell wall. The average polysaccharide chain length of the soluble, uncrosslinked peptidoglycan secreted by Micrococcus luteus cells on incubation with penicillin G was studied with this technique and found to be approximately 70 hexosamines long. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan chain length of Escherichia coli sacculi of different cell shapes and dimensions was determined both in rod-shaped cells and in filaments induced by temperature shift of a division mutant or by addition of cephalexin or nalidixic acid. The average chain length found in most of these sacculi was between 70 and 100 hexosamines long. Small spherical 'mini' cells had chain lengths similar to those of the isogenic rod-like cells.  (+info)

Tunicamycin-resistant mutants and chromosomal locations of mutational sites in Bacillus subtilis. (7/2042)

The types of tunicamycin-resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis were analyzed, and their mutational sites on the chromosome were mapped. A type 1 mutation that simultaneously expressed hyperproductivity of extracellular alpha-amylase was located close to amy E. Type 2 mutations were near aroI.  (+info)

Interactions on 3-deoxy and 6-deoxy derivatives of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine with hen lysozyme. (8/2042)

The interactions of deoxy derivatives of GlcNAc, 6-deoxy-GlcNAc, and 3-deoxy-GlcNAc with hen egg-white lysozyme [EC 3.2.1.17] were studied at various pH's by measuring the changes in the circular dichroic (CD) band at 295 nm. It was shown that 6-deoxy-GlcNAc and 3-deoxy-GlcNAc bind at subsite C of lysozyme and compete with GlcNAc. The pH dependence of the binding constant of 6-deoxy-GlcNAc was the same as that of GlcNAc. On the other hand, the binding constants of 3-deoxy-GlcNAc were 3--10 times smaller than those of GlcNAc in the pH range from 3 to 9. X-ray crystallographic studies show that O(6) and O(3) of GlcNAc at subsite C are hydrogen-bonded to the indole NH's of Trp 62 and Trp 63, respectively, but the above results indicate that Trp 63, not Trp 62, is important for the interaction of GlcNAc with lysozyme.  (+info)

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the body, primarily in the fluid around joints. It is a building block of cartilage, which is the tissue that cushions bones and allows for smooth joint movement. Glucosamine can also be produced in a laboratory and is commonly sold as a dietary supplement.

Medical definitions of glucosamine describe it as a type of amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is often used as a supplement to help manage osteoarthritis symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, by potentially reducing inflammation and promoting cartilage repair.

There are different forms of glucosamine available, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form in supplements and has been studied more extensively than other forms. While some research suggests that glucosamine may provide modest benefits for osteoarthritis symptoms, its effectiveness remains a topic of ongoing debate among medical professionals.

Hexosamines are amino sugars that are formed by the substitution of an amino group (-NH2) for a hydroxyl group (-OH) in a hexose sugar. The most common hexosamine is N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), which is derived from glucose. Other hexosamines include galactosamine, mannosamine, and fucosamine.

Hexosamines play important roles in various biological processes, including the formation of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. These molecules are involved in many cellular functions, such as cell signaling, cell adhesion, and protein folding. Abnormalities in hexosamine metabolism have been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the body and plays a crucial role in various biological processes. It is a key component of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex molecules made up of protein and carbohydrate components.

More specifically, acetylglucosamine is an amino sugar that is formed by the addition of an acetyl group to glucosamine. It can be further modified in the body through a process called acetylation, which involves the addition of additional acetyl groups.

Acetylglucosamine is important for maintaining the structure and function of various tissues in the body, including cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It also plays a role in the immune system and has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions.

In summary, acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is involved in many important biological processes in the body, and has potential therapeutic applications in various diseases.

Amino sugars, also known as glycosamine or hexosamines, are sugar molecules that contain a nitrogen atom as part of their structure. The most common amino sugars found in nature are glucosamine and galactosamine, which are derived from the hexose sugars glucose and galactose, respectively.

Glucosamine is an essential component of the structural polysaccharide chitin, which is found in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, as well as in the cell walls of fungi. It is also a precursor to the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are important components of the extracellular matrix in animals.

Galactosamine, on the other hand, is a component of some GAGs and is also found in bacterial cell walls. It is used in the synthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate, which are important anticoagulant molecules.

Amino sugars play a critical role in many biological processes, including cell signaling, inflammation, and immune response. They have also been studied for their potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of various diseases, such as osteoarthritis and cancer.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

In the context of medicine and biology, sulfates are ions or compounds that contain the sulfate group (SO4−2). Sulfate is a polyatomic anion with the structure of a sphere. It consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.

Sulfates can be found in various biological molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, which are important components of connective tissue and the extracellular matrix. Sulfate groups play a crucial role in these molecules by providing negative charges that help maintain the structural integrity and hydration of tissues.

In addition to their biological roles, sulfates can also be found in various medications and pharmaceutical compounds. For example, some laxatives contain sulfate salts, such as magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) or sodium sulfate, which work by increasing the water content in the intestines and promoting bowel movements.

It is important to note that exposure to high levels of sulfates can be harmful to human health, particularly in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a common air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels. Prolonged exposure to SO2 can cause respiratory problems and exacerbate existing lung conditions.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix and connective tissues in the body. GAGs are negatively charged due to the presence of sulfate and carboxyl groups, which allows them to attract positively charged ions and water molecules, contributing to their ability to retain moisture and maintain tissue hydration and elasticity.

GAGs can be categorized into four main groups: heparin/heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. These different types of GAGs have varying structures and functions in the body, including roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and protection against enzymatic degradation.

Heparin is a highly sulfated form of heparan sulfate that is found in mast cells and has anticoagulant properties. Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate are commonly found in cartilage and contribute to its resiliency and ability to withstand compressive forces. Keratan sulfate is found in corneas, cartilage, and bone, where it plays a role in maintaining the structure and function of these tissues. Hyaluronic acid is a large, nonsulfated GAG that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in synovial fluid, where it provides lubrication and shock absorption for joints.

Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gram-negative bacterial infections. Lipid A is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, consisting of a glucosamine disaccharide backbone with multiple fatty acid chains and phosphate groups attached to it. It can induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines, fever, and other symptoms associated with sepsis when introduced into the bloodstream.

Mannose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is similar in structure to glucose. It is a hexose, meaning it contains six carbon atoms. Mannose is a stereoisomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement of its atoms.

Mannose is not as commonly found in foods as other simple sugars, but it can be found in some fruits, such as cranberries, blueberries, and peaches, as well as in certain vegetables, like sweet potatoes and turnips. It is also found in some dietary fibers, such as those found in beans and whole grains.

In the body, mannose can be metabolized and used for energy, but it is also an important component of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that play critical roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Mannose has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it can inhibit the attachment of certain bacteria to the cells lining the urinary tract. Additionally, mannose-binding lectins have been investigated for their potential role in the immune response to viral and bacterial infections.

Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term. It is a form of nucleotide sugar that plays a crucial role in several biochemical processes in the human body.

To provide a more detailed definition: UDP-GlcNAc is a nucleotide sugar that serves as a donor substrate for various glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. It is a key component in the process of N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, which are important post-translational modifications of proteins that occur within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. UDP-GlcNAc also plays a role in the biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid, a major component of the extracellular matrix.

Abnormal levels or functioning of UDP-GlcNAc have been implicated in various disease states, including cancer and diabetes. However, it is not typically used as a diagnostic marker or therapeutic target in clinical medicine.

Chondroitin sulfates are a type of complex carbohydrate molecules known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They are a major component of cartilage, the tissue that cushions and protects the ends of bones in joints. Chondroitin sulfates are composed of repeating disaccharide units made up of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, which can be sulfated at various positions.

Chondroitin sulfates play a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of cartilage by attracting water and maintaining the resiliency and elasticity of the tissue. They also interact with other molecules in the extracellular matrix, such as collagen and proteoglycans, to form a complex network that provides structural support and regulates cell behavior.

Chondroitin sulfates have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage. Supplementation with chondroitin sulfate has been shown to reduce pain and improve joint function in some studies, although the evidence is not consistent across all trials. The mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of enzymes that break down cartilage, as well as stimulation of cartilage repair and synthesis.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Galactosamine is not a medical condition but a chemical compound. Medically, it might be referred to in the context of certain medical tests or treatments. Here's the scientific definition:

Galactosamine is an amino sugar, a type of monosaccharide (simple sugar) that contains a functional amino group (-NH2) as well as a hydroxyl group (-OH). More specifically, galactosamine is a derivative of galactose, with the chemical formula C6H13NO5. It is an important component of many glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are complex carbohydrates found in animal tissues, particularly in connective tissue and cartilage.

In some medical applications, galactosamine has been used as a building block for the synthesis of GAG analogs or as a component of substrates for enzyme assays. It is also used in research to study various biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Chondroitin is a type of molecule known as a glycosaminoglycan, which is found in the connective tissues of the body, including cartilage. It is a major component of proteoglycans, which are complex molecules that provide structural support and help retain water within the cartilage, allowing it to function as a cushion between joints.

Chondroitin sulfate, a form of chondroitin, is commonly used in dietary supplements for osteoarthritis, a condition characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in joints. The idea behind using chondroitin sulfate as a treatment for osteoarthritis is that it may help to rebuild damaged cartilage and reduce inflammation in the affected joints. However, research on the effectiveness of chondroitin sulfate for osteoarthritis has had mixed results, with some studies showing modest benefits while others have found no significant effects.

It's important to note that dietary supplements containing chondroitin are not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the same way that drugs are, so the quality and purity of these products can vary widely. As with any supplement, it's a good idea to talk to your doctor before starting to take chondroitin, especially if you have any medical conditions or are taking other medications.

Muramic acids are not a medical condition or diagnosis. They are actually a type of chemical compound that is found in the cell walls of certain bacteria. Specifically, muramic acid is a derivative of amino sugars and forms a part of peptidoglycan, which is a major component of bacterial cell walls.

Peptidoglycan provides structural support and protection to bacterial cells, helping them maintain their shape and resist osmotic pressure. Muramic acids are unique to bacteria and are not found in the cell walls of human or animal cells, making them potential targets for antibiotic drugs that can selectively inhibit bacterial growth without harming host cells.

Heparin sulfate is not exactly referred to as "heparitin sulfate" in medical terminology. The correct term is heparan sulfate, which is a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a long unbranched chain of repeating disaccharide units composed of a hexuronic acid and a hexosamine.

Heparan sulfate is found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where it plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and control of blood coagulation. It is also an important component of the proteoglycans, which are complex molecules that help to maintain the structural integrity and function of tissues and organs.

Like heparin, heparan sulfate has a high negative charge due to the presence of sulfate groups, which allows it to bind to and interact with various proteins and growth factors. However, heparan sulfate has a more diverse structure than heparin, with variations in the pattern of sulfation along the chain, which leads to specificity in its interactions with different proteins.

Defects in heparan sulfate biosynthesis or function have been implicated in various human diseases, including certain forms of cancer, developmental disorders, and infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nitrous Acid" is not a term used in medical definitions. Nitrous acid is a chemical compound with the formula HNO2. It is a weak acid and a powerful oxidizing agent. It is used as a reducing agent in organic synthesis and as a laboratory reagent to produce nitric oxide.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help with those!

Uronic acids are a type of organic compound that are carboxylic acids derived from sugars (carbohydrates). They are formed by the oxidation of the primary alcohol group (-CH2OH) on a pentose sugar, resulting in a carboxyl group (-COOH) at that position.

The most common uronic acid is glucuronic acid, which is derived from glucose. Other examples include galacturonic acid (derived from galactose), iduronic acid (derived from glucose or galactose), and mannuronic acid (derived from mannose).

Uronic acids play important roles in various biological processes, such as the formation of complex carbohydrates like glycosaminoglycans, which are major components of connective tissues. They also serve as important intermediates in the metabolism of sugars and other carbohydrates.

Paper chromatography is a type of chromatography technique that involves the separation and analysis of mixtures based on their components' ability to migrate differently upon capillary action on a paper medium. This simple and cost-effective method utilizes a paper, typically made of cellulose, as the stationary phase. The sample mixture is applied as a small spot near one end of the paper, and then the other end is dipped into a developing solvent or a mixture of solvents (mobile phase) in a shallow container.

As the mobile phase moves up the paper by capillary action, components within the sample mixture separate based on their partition coefficients between the stationary and mobile phases. The partition coefficient describes how much a component prefers to be in either the stationary or mobile phase. Components with higher partition coefficients in the mobile phase will move faster and further than those with lower partition coefficients.

Once separation is complete, the paper is dried and can be visualized under ultraviolet light or by using chemical reagents specific for the components of interest. The distance each component travels from the origin (point of application) and its corresponding solvent front position are measured, allowing for the calculation of Rf values (retardation factors). Rf is a dimensionless quantity calculated as the ratio of the distance traveled by the component to the distance traveled by the solvent front.

Rf = (distance traveled by component) / (distance traveled by solvent front)

Paper chromatography has been widely used in various applications, such as:

1. Identification and purity analysis of chemical compounds in pharmaceuticals, forensics, and research laboratories.
2. Separation and detection of amino acids, sugars, and other biomolecules in biological samples.
3. Educational purposes to demonstrate the principles of chromatography and separation techniques.

Despite its limitations, such as lower resolution compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and less compatibility with volatile or nonpolar compounds, paper chromatography remains a valuable tool for quick, qualitative analysis in various fields.

Fucose is a type of sugar molecule that is often found in complex carbohydrates known as glycans, which are attached to many proteins and lipids in the body. It is a hexose sugar, meaning it contains six carbon atoms, and is a type of L-sugar, which means that it rotates plane-polarized light in a counterclockwise direction.

Fucose is often found at the ends of glycan chains and plays important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and interaction. It is also a component of some blood group antigens and is involved in the development and function of the immune system. Abnormalities in fucosylation (the addition of fucose to glycans) have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars) are nucleotide sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of glycans, which are complex carbohydrates found on the surface of many cell types. UDP-sugars consist of a uridine diphosphate molecule linked to a sugar moiety, such as glucose, galactose, or xylose. These molecules serve as activated donor substrates for glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sugar residues to acceptor molecules, including proteins and other carbohydrates. UDP-sugars are essential for various biological processes, such as cell recognition, signaling, and protein folding. Dysregulation of UDP-sugar metabolism has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Disaccharides are a type of carbohydrate that is made up of two monosaccharide units bonded together. Monosaccharides are simple sugars, such as glucose, fructose, or galactose. When two monosaccharides are joined together through a condensation reaction, they form a disaccharide.

The most common disaccharides include:

* Sucrose (table sugar), which is composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule.
* Lactose (milk sugar), which is composed of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule.
* Maltose (malt sugar), which is composed of two glucose molecules.

Disaccharides are broken down into their component monosaccharides during digestion by enzymes called disaccharidases, which are located in the brush border of the small intestine. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond that links the two monosaccharides together, releasing them to be absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy.

Disorders of disaccharide digestion and absorption can lead to various symptoms, such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. For example, lactose intolerance is a common condition in which individuals lack sufficient levels of the enzyme lactase, leading to an inability to properly digest lactose and resulting in gastrointestinal symptoms.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

Hexoses are simple sugars (monosaccharides) that contain six carbon atoms. The most common hexoses include glucose, fructose, and galactose. These sugars play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as energy sources or forming complex carbohydrates like starch and cellulose. Hexoses are essential for the structure and function of living organisms, including humans.

Sulfur radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element sulfur that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in medical imaging and treatment, such as in the detection and treatment of certain cancers. Common sulfur radioisotopes used in medicine include sulfur-35 and sulfur-32. Sulfur-35 is used in research and diagnostic applications, while sulfur-32 is used in brachytherapy, a type of internal radiation therapy. It's important to note that handling and usage of radioisotopes should be done by trained professionals due to the potential radiation hazards they pose.

Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (GNA1, GNPNAT) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and proteoglycans. These are complex molecules made up of proteins combined with carbohydrates (sugars). They play crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell-cell recognition, cell signaling, and providing structural support to tissues and organs.

The enzyme Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase specifically catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to glucosamine 6-phosphate, forming N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate. This reaction is a critical step in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, as N-acetylglucosamine is a key component of these complex molecules.

Defects or mutations in the gene encoding Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase can lead to congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), which are rare genetic diseases characterized by abnormal glycoprotein and proteoglycan synthesis. These disorders can result in a wide range of symptoms, including developmental delays, neurological impairments, and various physical abnormalities.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Glycopeptides are a class of antibiotics that are characterized by their complex chemical structure, which includes both peptide and carbohydrate components. These antibiotics are produced naturally by certain types of bacteria and are effective against a range of Gram-positive bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

The glycopeptide antibiotics work by binding to the bacterial cell wall precursor, preventing the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains that is necessary for the formation of a strong and rigid cell wall. This leads to the death of the bacteria.

Examples of glycopeptides include vancomycin, teicoplanin, and dalbavancin. While these antibiotics have been used successfully for many years, their use is often limited due to concerns about the emergence of resistance and potential toxicity.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

Diazoxide is a medication that is used to treat hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in certain circumstances, such as in patients with pancreatic tumors or other conditions that cause excessive insulin production. Diazooxonorleucine is not a recognized medical term or a known medication. It appears that there may be some confusion regarding the name of this compound.

Diazoxide itself is a vasodilator, which means it works by relaxing and widening blood vessels. This can help to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to various parts of the body. Diazoxide is typically given intravenously (through an IV) in a hospital setting.

It's possible that "diazooxonorleucine" may be a typographical error or a misunderstanding of the name of a different compound. If you have more information about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide further clarification.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Tunicamycin is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a bacterial antibiotic and a research tool used in biochemistry and cell biology. It is produced by certain species of bacteria, including Streptomyces lysosuperificus and Streptomyces chartreusis.

Tunicamycin works by inhibiting the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of N-linked glycoproteins, which are complex carbohydrates that are attached to proteins during their synthesis. This leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which can ultimately result in cell death.

In medical research, tunicamycin is often used to study the role of N-linked glycoproteins in various biological processes, including protein folding, quality control, and trafficking. It has also been explored as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer and other diseases, although its use as a drug is limited by its toxicity to normal cells.

Iduronic acid is a type of uronic acid, which is a derivative of glucose. It is a component of certain complex carbohydrates known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides, which are found in the extracellular matrix and on the surface of cells in the body. Specifically, iduronic acid is a component of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate, two types of GAGs that play important roles in various biological processes such as cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and blood clotting.

Iduronic acid has an unusual structure compared to other sugars because it contains a five-membered ring instead of the more common six-membered ring found in most other sugars. This unique structure allows iduronic acid to form complex structures with other sugar molecules, which is important for the biological activity of GAGs.

Abnormalities in the metabolism of iduronic acid and other GAG components can lead to various genetic disorders known as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), which are characterized by a range of symptoms including developmental delays, coarse facial features, skeletal abnormalities, and cardiac problems.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. They are the most basic unit of carbohydrates and are often referred to as "simple sugars." Monosaccharides typically contain three to seven atoms of carbon, but the most common monosaccharides contain five or six carbon atoms.

The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The majority of monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. These functional groups give monosaccharides their characteristic sweet taste and chemical properties.

The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, all of which contain six carbon atoms and are known as hexoses. Other important monosaccharides include pentoses (five-carbon sugars) such as ribose and deoxyribose, which play crucial roles in the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides can exist in various forms, including linear and cyclic structures. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides often form cyclic structures through a reaction between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, creating a hemiacetal or hemiketal linkage. These cyclic structures can adopt different conformations, known as anomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

Monosaccharides serve as essential building blocks for complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, and glycogen). They also participate in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell recognition, and protein glycosylation.

Neuraminic acids, also known as sialic acids, are a family of nine-carbon sugars that are commonly found on the outermost layer of many cell surfaces in animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as cell recognition, immune response, and viral and bacterial infection. Neuraminic acids can exist in several forms, with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) being the most common one in mammals. They are often found attached to other sugars to form complex carbohydrates called glycoconjugates, which are involved in many cellular functions and interactions.

Pronase is not a medical term itself, but it is a proteolytic enzyme mixture derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. The term "pronase" refers to a group of enzymes that can break down proteins into smaller peptides and individual amino acids by hydrolyzing their peptide bonds.

Pronase is used in various laboratory applications, including protein degradation, DNA and RNA isolation, and the removal of contaminating proteins from nucleic acid samples. It has also been used in some medical research contexts to study protein function and structure, as well as in certain therapeutic settings for its ability to break down proteins.

It is important to note that pronase is not a drug or a medical treatment itself but rather a laboratory reagent with potential applications in medical research and diagnostics.

Peptidoglycan is a complex biological polymer made up of sugars and amino acids that forms a crucial component of the cell walls of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to bacterial cells, contributing to their shape and rigidity. Peptidoglycan is unique to bacterial cell walls and is not found in the cells of other organisms, such as plants, animals, or fungi.

The polymer is composed of linear chains of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM), which are linked together by glycosidic bonds. The NAM residues contain short peptide side chains, typically consisting of four amino acids, that cross-link adjacent polysaccharide chains, forming a rigid layer around the bacterial cell.

The composition and structure of peptidoglycan can vary between different species of bacteria, which is one factor contributing to their diversity. The enzymes responsible for synthesizing and degrading peptidoglycan are important targets for antibiotics, as inhibiting these processes can weaken or kill the bacterial cells without affecting host organisms.

Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan, a type of complex carbohydrate, that is naturally found in the human body. It is most abundant in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues, including the skin, eyes, and joints. Hyaluronic acid is known for its remarkable capacity to retain water, which helps maintain tissue hydration, lubrication, and elasticity. Its functions include providing structural support, promoting wound healing, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, hyaluronic acid is often used in various forms as a therapeutic agent for conditions like osteoarthritis, dry eye syndrome, and skin rejuvenation.

Rhamnose is a naturally occurring sugar or monosaccharide, that is commonly found in various plants and some fruits. It is a type of deoxy sugar, which means it lacks one hydroxyl group (-OH) compared to a regular hexose sugar. Specifically, rhamnose has a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 6-position of its structure.

Rhamnose is an essential component of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates found in plant cell walls, such as pectins and glycoproteins. It also plays a role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is used in the production of some antibiotics.

In medical contexts, rhamnose may be relevant to research on bacterial infections, plant-derived medicines, or the metabolism of certain sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in clinical medicine.

Glycolipids are a type of lipid (fat) molecule that contain one or more sugar molecules attached to them. They are important components of cell membranes, where they play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Glycolipids are also found on the surface of some viruses and bacteria, where they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders.

There are several different types of glycolipids, including cerebrosides, gangliosides, and globosides. These molecules differ in the number and type of sugar molecules they contain, as well as the structure of their lipid tails. Glycolipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cells, and they are transported to the cell membrane through vesicles.

Abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism or structure have been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of glycolipids can lead to conditions such as Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher's disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycolipids in cells.

Carbohydrate conformation refers to the three-dimensional shape and structure of a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates, also known as sugars, can exist in various conformational states, which are determined by the rotation of their component bonds and the spatial arrangement of their functional groups.

The conformation of a carbohydrate molecule can have significant implications for its biological activity and recognition by other molecules, such as enzymes or antibodies. Factors that can influence carbohydrate conformation include the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, steric effects, and intermolecular interactions with solvent molecules or other solutes.

In some cases, the conformation of a carbohydrate may be stabilized by the formation of cyclic structures, in which the hydroxyl group at one end of the molecule forms a covalent bond with the carbonyl carbon at the other end, creating a ring structure. The most common cyclic carbohydrates are monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, which can exist in various conformational isomers known as anomers.

Understanding the conformation of carbohydrate molecules is important for elucidating their biological functions and developing strategies for targeting them with drugs or other therapeutic agents.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pimelic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or concept in physiology, pathology, or pharmacology. It appears to be a term used in chemistry and biochemistry, referring to a specific type of organic compound known as a dicarboxylic acid with a seven-carbon backbone.

In biochemistry, pimelic acid may be involved in various metabolic processes, such as the synthesis of certain amino acids and lipids. However, it is not typically considered a medical term or diagnostic marker in clinical settings. If you're looking for information related to a specific medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to help if you could provide more context!

Sulfotransferases (STs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the process of sulfoconjugation, which is the transfer of a sulfo group (-SO3H) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and are found in various organisms, including humans.

In humans, STs are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of numerous xenobiotics, such as drugs, food additives, and environmental pollutants, as well as endogenous compounds, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and lipids. The sulfoconjugation reaction catalyzed by STs can increase the water solubility of these compounds, facilitating their excretion from the body.

STs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity. The largest family of STs is the cytosolic sulfotransferases, which use 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as a cofactor to transfer the sulfo group to various acceptor molecules, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and steroids.

Abnormalities in ST activity have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of STs is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Carbohydrate epimerases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of specific stereoisomers (epimers) of carbohydrates by the reversible oxidation and reduction of carbon atoms, usually at the fourth or fifth position. These enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and modification of various carbohydrate-containing molecules, such as glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycolipids, which are involved in numerous biological processes including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

The reaction catalyzed by carbohydrate epimerases involves the transfer of a hydrogen atom and a proton between two adjacent carbon atoms, leading to the formation of new stereochemical configurations at these positions. This process can result in the conversion of one epimer into another, thereby expanding the structural diversity of carbohydrates and their derivatives.

Carbohydrate epimerases are classified based on the type of substrate they act upon and the specific stereochemical changes they induce. Some examples include UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, which interconverts UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase, which converts UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylmannosamine; and GDP-fucose synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose.

Understanding the function and regulation of carbohydrate epimerases is crucial for elucidating their roles in various biological processes and developing strategies for targeting them in therapeutic interventions.

Heptoses are rare sugars that contain seven carbons in their structure. They are not as common as monosaccharides with 5 or 6 carbons, such as ribose or glucose. An example of a heptose is sedoheptulose, which can be found in some plants and honey. Heptoses can play a role in various biological processes, including cell signaling and metabolism, but they are not as widely studied or well-understood as other types of sugars.

Ion exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used to separate and analyze charged molecules (ions) based on their ability to exchange bound ions in a solid resin or gel with ions of similar charge in the mobile phase. The stationary phase, often called an ion exchanger, contains fixed ated functional groups that can attract counter-ions of opposite charge from the sample mixture.

In this technique, the sample is loaded onto an ion exchange column containing the charged resin or gel. As the sample moves through the column, ions in the sample compete for binding sites on the stationary phase with ions already present in the column. The ions that bind most strongly to the stationary phase will elute (come off) slower than those that bind more weakly.

Ion exchange chromatography can be performed using either cation exchangers, which exchange positive ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which exchange negative ions (anions). The pH and ionic strength of the mobile phase can be adjusted to control the binding and elution of specific ions.

Ion exchange chromatography is widely used in various applications such as water treatment, protein purification, and chemical analysis.

Chemical phenomena refer to the changes and interactions that occur at the molecular or atomic level when chemicals are involved. These phenomena can include chemical reactions, in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into different substances (products), as well as physical properties that change as a result of chemical interactions, such as color, state of matter, and solubility. Chemical phenomena can be studied through various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.

Chitin is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, which is a derivative of glucose. It is a structural component found in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as insects and crustaceans, as well as in the cell walls of fungi and certain algae. Chitin is similar to cellulose in structure and is one of the most abundant natural biopolymers on Earth. It has a variety of industrial and biomedical applications due to its unique properties, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and adsorption capacity.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Chondrocytes are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting the collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other components that give cartilage its unique properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, and resistance to compression. Chondrocytes are located within lacunae, or small cavities, in the cartilage matrix, and they receive nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from the surrounding tissue fluid. They are capable of adapting to changes in mechanical stress by modulating the production and organization of the extracellular matrix, which allows cartilage to withstand various loads and maintain its structural integrity. Chondrocytes play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of cartilaginous tissues throughout the body, including articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and growth plate cartilage.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a vital intermediate compound in the metabolism of glucose, which is a simple sugar that serves as a primary source of energy for living organisms. G6P plays a critical role in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, contributing to the regulation of blood glucose levels and energy production within cells.

In biochemistry, glucose-6-phosphate is defined as:

A hexose sugar phosphate ester formed by the phosphorylation of glucose at the 6th carbon atom by ATP in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase or glucokinase. This reaction is the first step in both glycolysis and glucose storage (glycogen synthesis) processes, ensuring that glucose can be effectively utilized for energy production or stored for later use.

G6P serves as a crucial metabolic branch point, leading to various pathways such as:

1. Glycolysis: In the presence of sufficient ATP and NAD+ levels, G6P is further metabolized through glycolysis to generate pyruvate, which enters the citric acid cycle for additional energy production in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2.
2. Gluconeogenesis: During periods of low blood glucose levels, G6P can be synthesized back into glucose through the gluconeogenesis pathway, primarily occurring in the liver and kidneys. This process helps maintain stable blood glucose concentrations and provides energy to cells when dietary intake is insufficient.
3. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP): A portion of G6P can be shunted into the PPP, an alternative metabolic route that generates NADPH, ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis, and erythrose-4-phosphate for aromatic amino acid production. The PPP is essential in maintaining redox balance within cells and supporting biosynthetic processes.

Overall, glucose-6-phosphate plays a critical role as a central metabolic intermediate, connecting various pathways to regulate energy homeostasis, redox balance, and biosynthesis in response to cellular demands and environmental cues.

Chromatography is a technique used in analytical chemistry for the separation, identification, and quantification of the components of a mixture. It is based on the differential distribution of the components of a mixture between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase can be a solid or liquid, while the mobile phase is a gas, liquid, or supercritical fluid that moves through the stationary phase carrying the sample components.

The interaction between the sample components and the stationary and mobile phases determines how quickly each component will move through the system. Components that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will move more slowly than those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase. This difference in migration rates allows for the separation of the components, which can then be detected and quantified.

There are many different types of chromatography, including paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each type has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is best suited for specific applications.

In summary, chromatography is a powerful analytical technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture based on their differential distribution between a stationary phase and a mobile phase.

Aldose-ketose isomerases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between aldoses and ketoses, which are different forms of sugars. These enzymes play an essential role in carbohydrate metabolism by facilitating the reversible conversion of aldoses to ketoses and vice versa.

Aldoses are sugars that contain a carbonyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom) at the end of the carbon chain, while ketoses have their carbonyl group located in the middle of the chain. The isomerization process catalyzed by aldose-ketose isomerases helps maintain the balance between these two forms of sugars and enables cells to utilize them more efficiently for energy production and other metabolic processes.

There are several types of aldose-ketose isomerases, including:

1. Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI): This enzyme catalyzes the interconversion between dihydroxyacetone phosphate (a ketose) and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (an aldose), which are both trioses (three-carbon sugars). TPI plays a crucial role in glycolysis, the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to produce energy.
2. Xylulose kinase: This enzyme is involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a metabolic route that generates reducing equivalents (NADPH) and pentoses for nucleic acid synthesis. Xylulose kinase catalyzes the conversion of D-xylulose (a ketose) to D-xylulose 5-phosphate, an important intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway.
3. Ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase: This enzyme is also part of the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion between D-ribulose 5-phosphate (an aldose) and D-xylulose 5-phosphate (a ketose).
4. Phosphoglucomutase: This enzyme catalyzes the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate (an aldose) to glucose 6-phosphate (an aldose), which is an important intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
5. Phosphomannomutase: This enzyme catalyzes the reversible conversion of mannose 1-phosphate (a ketose) to mannose 6-phosphate (an aldose), which is involved in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates.

These are just a few examples of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between aldoses and ketoses, highlighting their importance in various metabolic pathways.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Paper electrophoresis is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze mixtures of charged particles, such as proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), based on their differing rates of migration in an electric field. In this method, the sample is applied to a strip of paper, usually made of cellulose, which is then placed in a bath of electrophoresis buffer.

An electric current is applied across the bath, creating an electric field that causes the charged particles in the sample to migrate along the length of the paper. The rate of migration depends on the charge and size of the particle: more highly charged particles move faster, while larger particles move more slowly. This allows for the separation of the individual components of the mixture based on their electrophoretic mobility.

After the electrophoresis is complete, the separated components can be visualized using various staining techniques, such as protein stains for proteins or dyes specific to nucleic acids. The resulting pattern of bands can then be analyzed to identify and quantify the individual components in the mixture.

Paper electrophoresis has been largely replaced by other methods, such as slab gel electrophoresis, due to its lower resolution and limited separation capabilities. However, it is still used in some applications where a simple, rapid, and low-cost method is desired.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Commonly sold forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine chondroitin, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N- ... Oral glucosamine is a dietary supplement and is not a prescription drug. Glucosamine is marketed as a supplement to support the ... Glucosamine is part of the structure of two polysaccharides, chitosan and chitin. Glucosamine is one of the most abundant ... Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones, bone marrow, and fungi.D-Glucosamine is made ...
In enzymology, a glucosamine kinase (EC 2.7.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D-glucosamine ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:D-glucosamine phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include glucosamine ... the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and D-glucosamine, whereas its two products are ADP and D-glucosamine phosphate. This ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + D-glucosamine phosphate Thus, ...
Other names in common use include glucosamine acetylase, and glucosamine acetyltransferase. This enzyme participates in ... N-acetyl-D-glucosamine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and D-glucosamine, whereas its two products are ... In enzymology, a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + D- ... CHOU TC, SOODAK M (1952). "The acetylation of d-glucosamine by pigeon liver extracts". J. Biol. Chem. 196 (1): 105-9. PMID ...
... glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, and glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is part of the ... that also catalyzes the addition of UDP to the phosphate group on N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine-1-Phosphate. In humans, glucosamine- ... such that the substrate of carbon-adding reaction is Glucosamine-1-phosphate rather than D-glucosamine-6-phosphate. This time, ... glucosamine 6-phosphate acetylase, glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate synthase, ...
COMB DG, ROSEMAN S (1958). "Glucosamine metabolism. IV. Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase". J. Biol. Chem. 232 (2): 807-27. ... glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphoglucosaminisomerase, glucosamine phosphate deaminase, aminodeoxyglucosephosphate ... In enzymology, a glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (EC 3.5.99.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D- ... This enzyme has at least one effector, N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for ...
In enzymology, an UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucosamine ... Silbert JE; Brown DH (1961). "Enzymic synthesis of uridine diphosphate glucosamine and heparin from [14C]glucosamine by a mouse ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucosamine 4-epimerase. MALEY F, MALEY GF (1959). "The enzymic conversion of ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-galactosamine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-glucosamine, and one product, UDP ...
... alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate Thus, the ... In enzymology, a glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.157) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme ... Mengin-Lecreulx D, van Heijenoort J (1994). "Copurification of glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase and N- ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAGK gene. N-acetylglucosamine kinase (NAGK; EC 2.7 ...
In enzymology, a [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine N-sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:[heparan sulfate]-glucosamine N-sulfotransferase. Other ... phosphoadenylyl sulfate and heparan sulfate-glucosamine, whereas its two products are adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate and heparan ... reaction 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } adenosine 3',5'- ...
... glucosamine 3-sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and heparan sulfate-glucosamine, ... In enzymology, a [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase 3 (EC 2.8.2.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:[heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase. This ... whereas its two products are adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate and heparan sulfate-glucosamine 3-sulfate. This enzyme belongs to the ...
The glucosamine-6-phosphate riboswitch ribozyme ( glmS ribozyme) is an RNA structure that resides in the 5' untranslated region ... Page for glmS glucosamine-6-phosphate activated ribozyme at Rfam (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Ribozymes, Riboswitch). ... Jansen JA, McCarthy TJ, Soukup GA, Soukup JK (2006). "Backbone and nucleobase contacts to glucosamine-6-phosphate in the glmS ... This RNA regulates the glmS gene by responding to concentrations of a specific metabolite, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P), in ...
Other names in common use include heparin-glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase, 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:heparin-glucosamine 3-O- ... glucosamine 3-sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and heparan sulfate-glucosamine, ... In enzymology, a [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase 1 (EC 2.8.2.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:[heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase. ...
... glucosamine 3-sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and heparan sulfate-glucosamine, ... In enzymology, a [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase 2 (EC 2.8.2.29) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... whereas its two products are adenine 3',5'-bis-phosphate and heparan sulfate-glucosamine 3-sulfate. This enzyme belongs to the ... reaction 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + [heparan sulfate]-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } adenosine 3',5'- ...
A difference may exist between glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, with glucosamine sulfate showing a benefit ... "Glucosamine for Arthritis , Glucosamine Sulfate". Henrotin Y, Mobasheri A, Marty M (2012). "Is there any scientific evidence ... Glucosamine sulfate may be efficacious in ways that glucosamine hydrochloride is not. The Osteoarthritis Research Society ... "Glucosamine and Chrondroitin for Arthritis". "The Long-term Evaluation of Glucosamine Sulphate Study". ClinicalTrials.gov. 29 ...
... (EC 2.3.1.191, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R ... alpha-D-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + holo-[ ... UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine+N-acyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl- ...
... may refer to: (heparan sulfate)-glucosamine 3- ... sulfotransferase 1, an enzyme (heparan sulfate)-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase 2, an enzyme (heparan sulfate)-glucosamine 3- ...
... may refer to: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4,6-dehydratase (configuration-inverting), ... an enzyme This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine hydro-lyase. If an ...
... (EC 2.6.1.91, pglE (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name ... UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine+transaminase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + 2-oxoglutarate ... UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. ...
... (EC 2.3.1.203, PGLD) is an enzyme with systematic name ... UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine+N-acetyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine ⇌ {\ ... acetyl-CoA:UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. ...
Ghosh S, Blumenthal HJ, Davidson E, Roseman S (1960). "Glucosamine metabolism. V. Enzymatic synthesis of glucosamine 6- ... Gryder RM, Pogell BM (1960). "Further studies on glucosamine 6-phosphate synthesis by rat liver enzymes". J. Biol. Chem. 235: ... Teplyakov A, Obmolova G, Badet-Denisot MA, Badet B (1999). "The mechanism of sugar phosphate isomerization by glucosamine 6- ... Leloir LF, Cardini CE (1953). "The biosynthesis of glucosamine". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 12 (1-2): 15-22. doi:10.1016/0006-3002 ...
D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen- ... To be specific, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine as the first step of the ... Sudhamoy Ghosh; Blumenthal, HJ; Davidson, E; Roseman, S (1960-05-01). "Glucosamine Metabolism". Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
D-glucosamine + acetate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and H2O, whereas its two products ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-acetyl-D-glucosamine amidohydrolase. Other names in common use include ... Roseman S (May 1957). "Glucosamine metabolism. I. N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 226 (1 ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ...
Non-animal sourced glucosamine is also available. Cartilage as a dietary supplement is by definition animal-sourced. Shark ... "Another vegetarian glucosamine launched in US". NutraIngredients-USA.com. January 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April ... Glucosamine, used in dietary supplements marketed for osteoarthritis, is extracted from chitin from shellfish. ... 378-. ISBN 978-92-832-1291-1. Murray, Michael T. (2012). "Chapter 94: Glucosamine". In Pizzorno, Joseph E. Jr.; Murray, Michael ...
... also carries glucosamine. When the glucose concentration in the lumen of the small intestine goes above 30 mM, such as ... "GLUT2 is a high affinity glucosamine transporter". FEBS Letters. 524 (1-3): 199-203. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03058-2. PMID ...
Imanaga Y (1958). "Metabolism of D-glucosamine. III. Enzymic degradation of D-glucosaminic acid". J. Biochem. Tokyo. 45: 647- ...
A difference may exist between glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, with glucosamine sulfate showing a benefit ... The effectiveness of glucosamine is controversial. Reviews have found it to be equal to or slightly better than placebo. ... The evidence for glucosamine sulfate having an effect on osteoarthritis progression is somewhat unclear and if present likely ... Henrotin Y, Mobasheri A, Marty M (January 2012). "Is there any scientific evidence for the use of glucosamine in the management ...
Glucosamine Lysozyme "CHEBI:50674 - chitobioses". Bergmann M, Zervas L, Silberkweit E (1931). "Bemerkung zur Arbeit von B. ... Chitobioses are a group of related disaccharides of β-1,4-linked glucosamine units. The term chitobiose is sometimes used to ...
Glucosamine is usually provided in supplements in the form of glucosamine sulfate, or by the inclusion of chicken meal in the ... Glucosamine is a building block for the synthesis of cartilage tissue. It is found naturally in the body, mainly in the fluid ... "Glucosamine and Chrondroitin for Arthritis". www.arthritis.org. Retrieved 2017-10-30. "What is Chicken Meal in Dog Food? - ... Nutrients included for joint and bone health include glucosamine, chondroitin, omega-3 fatty acids as well as two main minerals ...
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, whereas its two ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include ... Asensio C, Ruiz-Amil M (1966). "N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase. II. Escherichia coli". Methods Enzymol. 9: 421-425. doi:10.1016/ ... 0076-6879(66)09086-4. Barkulis SS (1966). "N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase. I. Streptococcus pyogenes". Methods Enzymol. 9: 415- ...
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate, and one ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1,6-phosphomutase. Other names in common use include ... This enzyme has at least one effector, N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine 1,6-bisphosphate. As of late 2007, 4 structures have been solved ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(66)08028-5. ISBN 978-0-12-181808-1. LELOIR LF, CARDINI CE (1956). "Enzymes acting on glucosamine ...
Commonly sold forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine chondroitin, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N- ... Oral glucosamine is a dietary supplement and is not a prescription drug. Glucosamine is marketed as a supplement to support the ... Glucosamine is part of the structure of two polysaccharides, chitosan and chitin. Glucosamine is one of the most abundant ... Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones, bone marrow, and fungi.D-Glucosamine is made ...
UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.191, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R ... alpha-D-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + holo-[ ... UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine+N-acyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl- ...
Glucosamine has different classifications on fass.se. According to Lif (the trade association for the research-based ... Risk. Risk of environmental impact of glucosamine cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ... Risk of environmental impact of glucosamine cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ... Persistence. It cannot be excluded that glucosamine is persistent, due to the lack of data. ...
What Is Glucosamine?. What is glucosamine? If you encounter this question, you should know the importance of this substance for ... Glucosamine is a naturally-occurring compound found in many food sources and supplements. Consider administering glucosamine- ... Glucosamine for horses is available on the market in the form of supplements. But, its also present in a variety of foods, ... But, is glucosamine the best solution for your horses joint health? Perhaps, the best way to answer that question is to check ...
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Several studies suggest that 500 mg of Glucosamine Sulfate combined with 400mg of Chondroitin Sulfate may be effective in ... While nutritional supplements never expire, Glucosamine and Chondroitin has a best by date of July 31, 2024. ... BOOST THE BENEFITS! Take Glucosamine & Chondroitin together with BioActive MSM. Great alone, better together! ...
Great for younger pets, prior to visible signs of joint care needs.• Help keep active dogs active!• Glucosamine and Chondroiti ... Glucosamine DS™ Liquid is for use in dogs and cats. Recommended as a preventative measure to help maintain normal healthy ... Glucosamine and Chondroitin. Active Ingredients per teaspoon:. Glucosamine HCl (Shellfish Source) 500 mg. Boswellia serrata 90 ... Glucosamine DS™ Liquid is for use in dogs and cats. Recommended as a preventative measure to help maintain normal healthy ...
One of the criticisms of the landmark GAIT trial in knee OA was that glucosamine HCL was used instead of glucosamine sulfate. ... Large, randomized trials of glucosamine that lack pharmaceutical sponsorship have largely shown no effect of glucosamine for ... Many users take glucosamine for OA at sites other than the knee, sites which have received little to no study of efficacy. Here ... Is Glucosamine Sulfate an Effective Treatment for Osteoarthritis of the Hip?. March 6, 2008. By Arthritis Center ...
Glucosamine - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... usually as glucosamine sulfate, but sometimes as glucosamine hydrochloride. Glucosamine often is taken with chondroitin sulfate ... What is glucosamine? Glucosamine is extracted from a material (chitin) present in the shells of crabs, oysters, and shrimp. ... What claims are made about glucosamine? People take glucosamine mostly to treat osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) ...
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Glucosamine sulphate is a natural substance found in your cartilage and a commonly used supplement in arthritis management. ... How Much Glucosamine Sulphate Should You Take?. The majority of research around using glucosamine for osteoarthritis has been ... What Is Glucosamine Sulphate?. Glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulfate are natural substances found in and around our ... Where Do You Find Glucosamine?. You cannot get glucosamine sulfate from foods as it is a natural chemical found in the human ...
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  • Commonly sold forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine chondroitin, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetylglucosamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three commonly available forms of glucosamine, only glucosamine sulfate is given a "likely effective" rating for treating osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine is often sold in combination with other supplements such as chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical trials have reported a beneficial effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate on pain and function. (molly.com)
  • Sodium (as Sodium Citrate), Vitamin E (as DL-Alpha-Tocopherol-Acetate), Glucosamine Sulfate. (molly.com)
  • Bluebonnet's Glucosamine Chondroitin Sulfate Plus MSM Capsules are specially formulated with a special combination of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, OptiMSM® an active form of sulfur, plus vitamin C from Identity-Preserved (IP) L-ascorbic acid. (worldwidenutrition.com)
  • Webber Naturals Glucosamine Chondroitin Sulfate (1 capsule) contains 0g total carbs, 0g net carbs, 0g fat, 0g protein, and 0 calories. (carbmanager.com)
  • Shark cartilage is a connective tissue that is consists of mucopolysaccharides (including chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine), protein substances, calcium, sulfur, and collagen. (chondroitinpowder.com)
  • 2. Combined shipment of all joint care ingredients: We are able to supply almost all joint care ingredients including: shark cartilage powder, Chondroitin Sulfate, Glucosamine, MSM, Hyaluronic Acid. (chondroitinpowder.com)
  • Glucosamine can be applied topically in a cream or salve or taken in tablet or capsule form, usually as glucosamine sulfate, but sometimes as glucosamine hydrochloride. (msdmanuals.com)
  • One large study has shown that glucosamine hydrochloride is beneficial when combined with chondroitin sulfate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Evidence supports use of glucosamine sulfate from a specific manufacturer, Rotta Research Laboratorium, for mild to moderate osteoarthritis in the knee when taken for at least 6 months. (msdmanuals.com)
  • of the knee may consider talking to their doctor about adding glucosamine (usually combined with chondroitin sulfate) to their treatment plan. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Made with high-quality chondroitin sulfate, MSM, and glucosamine HCl for healthy joint support, and boswellia serrata for comfort and mobility. (springtimeinc.com)
  • Taking chondroitin sulfate together with glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce blood levels of glucosamine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's also not clear if this interaction occurs with other forms of glucosamine, such as glucosamine sulfate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Combined glucosamine hydrochloride plus chondroitin sulfate (GH+CS) are commonly used for joint pain and have no known adverse effects . (bvsalud.org)
  • This product contains glucosamine hydrochloride. (cosmebear.store)
  • Glucosamine hydrochloride has been reported to improve knee range of motion and reduce knee discomfort. (cosmebear.store)
  • But it's not clear if this will change the effects of glucosamine hydrochloride. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many manufacturers of glucosamine derived from shellfish include a warning that those with a seafood allergy should consult a healthcare professional before taking the product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine is marketed as a supplement to support the structure and function of joints, and the marketing is targeted to people with osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Glucosamine, along with commonly used chondroitin, is not routinely prescribed to treat people who have symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, as there is insufficient evidence that this treatment is helpful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meta-analysis indicated that glucosamine is superior to placebo in alleviating Knee Osteoarthritis symptoms. (molly.com)
  • Glucosamine Chondroitin and MSM Joint Health and Mobility Swanson are often taken together as a combination to support joint function and reduce pain associated with conditions such as osteoarthritis. (ezhealthbeauty.ae)
  • Joint Pain Relief: Glucosamine chondroitin and MSM are often used to alleviate joint pain associated with conditions like osteoarthritis. (ezhealthbeauty.ae)
  • The benefit of glucosamine for severe osteoarthritis in the knee or osteoarthritis in other locations is less clear. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is commonly used by mouth with glucosamine or other ingredients for osteoarthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Differences in Serum Biomarkers Between Combined Glucosamine and Chondroitin Versus Celecoxib in a Randomized, Double-blind Trial in Osteoarthritis Patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Glucosamine, rosehip, and turmeric are examples of natural remedies that are said to be able to relieve osteoarthritis symptoms. (lu.se)
  • In 2004, the FDA declared there was insufficient evidence for supplement manufacturers to state that glucosamine was effective for treating arthritis, joint degeneration, or cartilage deterioration, a position remaining in effect as of 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joint Support Gummies are a delicious way to get in the necessary level of glucosamine that your body needs to replenish cartilage and tendon tissues around the joints while also increasing the fluid around joints to prevent their breakdown. (molly.com)
  • It is found in healthy cartilage and synovial fluid.Glucosamine helps lubricate joints and supports healthy cartilage. (myvestige.com)
  • Glucosamine Chondroitin and MSM helps promote and strengthen cartilage health. (ezhealthbeauty.ae)
  • Cartilage Protection: Glucosamine and chondroitin are important components of cartilage, and taking these supplements may help support the structure and function of cartilage. (ezhealthbeauty.ae)
  • Glucosamine is an amino sugar found naturally in the body and a major component of articular cartilage. (lu.se)
  • Alternatively, non-shellfish-derived forms of glucosamine are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones, bone marrow, and fungi.D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine is extracted from a material (chitin) present in the shells of crabs, oysters, and shrimp. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Since glucosamine is usually derived from the shells of shellfish, it may be unsafe for those with shellfish allergy. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who have a shellfish allergy and take glucosamine extracted from shellfish may have an allergic reaction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • As is common with heavily promoted dietary supplements, the claimed benefits of glucosamine are based principally on clinical and laboratory studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Designed to fuel those adventures and keep the good times going strong, every tasty Zuke's Hip Action hip and joint dog treat contains 300mg of glucosamine and 50mg of chondroitin to support your dog's mobility, plus egg shell membrane in a soft and chewy dog treat crafted to help support joint health. (agwayct.com)
  • N-acetyl D-glucosamine reinforces the structure of the Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer that lines and protects the sensitive bladder urothelium. (protexin.com)
  • Most glucosamine is manufactured by processing chitin from the shells of shellfish including shrimp, lobsters, and crabs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooked in the USA, high levels of Glucosamine and Chondroitin aid healthy joints and hips. (petside.com)
  • UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.191, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, acyltransferase LpxD, acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase, firA (gene), lpxD (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-(acyl-carrier protein):UDP-3-O-((3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12q14 (Sanfilippo syndrome): The diagnosis requires a specific lysosomal enzyme assay for glucosamine ( N -acetyl)-6-sulfatase (GNS) activity. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical studies on glucosamine efficacy are divided, with some reporting relief from arthritic pain and stiffness, while others report no benefit above placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since then, several studies have been conducted that have shown that glucosamine in fact has no effect beyond the placebo effect. (lu.se)
  • Produced commercially by the hydrolysis of shellfish exoskeletons or, less commonly, by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat, glucosamine has many names depending on country. (wikipedia.org)
  • To meet the demands of vegetarians and others with objections to shellfish, manufacturers have brought glucosamine products to market made using fungus Aspergillus niger and from fermenting corn. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glucosamine used in this product is derived from Non-GE (Non-Genetically Engineered) Aspergillus niger source. (thehealthshoponline.com)
  • Glucosamine is part of the structure of two polysaccharides, chitosan and chitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine was first prepared in 1876 by Georg Ledderhose by the hydrolysis of chitin with concentrated hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine with or without chondroitin elevates the international normalized ratio (INR) in individuals who are taking the blood thinner, warfarin. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-dose glucosamine may interact with warfarin and result in bruising or bleeding, according to case reports and information submitted to the World Health Organization. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are several reports showing that taking chondroitin with glucosamine increases the effects of warfarin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each film coated tablet contains Glucosamine HCl 450 mg (containing Chondroitin). (myvestige.com)
  • Although no good data on complementary treatments for knee OA are available, Drake said, glucosamine chondroitin probably causes no harm. (medscape.com)
  • Other studies conducted in lean or obese subjects concluded that oral glucosamine at standard doses does not affect insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now Foods developed the glucosamine test method chosen as the official AOAC industry standard method. (thehealthshoponline.com)
  • Glucosamine is therefore no longer prescribed by doctors but can instead be bought over-the-counter in pharmacies or health food shops. (lu.se)
  • We use very specific proportions of important components such as glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM in order to extract the maximum possible benefits from them. (sotodeals.com)
  • glucosamine sulphate, chondroitin sulphate and diacerein for possible structure-modifying effects and the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of refractory pain. (lu.se)
  • Oral glucosamine is a dietary supplement and is not a prescription drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucosamine is generally considered safe, but evidence of its benefits is limited. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This investigator concluded that the amino group of ∝-D-Glucosamine-1-phosphate has an appreciable effect on the ease of P-O and C-O cleavage and the position of rate maximum. (pacific.edu)
  • Habitual glucosamine use, APOE genotypes, and risk of incident cause-specific dementia in the older population. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, glucosamine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study indicates that Species III s reactive, while the dianion of methyl phosphate and the dianion of ∝-D-Glucosamine-1-phosphate are inactive. (pacific.edu)
  • Glucosamine is safe for most people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with liver disease should avoid glucosamine if possible. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Please note that glucosamine is extracted from shellfish and should not be taken by people allergic to shellfish. (lu.se)
  • Joint Flexibility and Mobility: Glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM are thought to improve joint flexibility and reduce stiffness. (ezhealthbeauty.ae)