A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.
A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
'Paintings' are not a medical term, but rather an artistic expression involving the application and manipulation of pigments on a surface to create an image or design, which has no direct medical relevance or definition.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Gluconates are salts or esters of gluconic acid, primarily used in medical treatments as a source of the essential nutrient, calcium, and as a chelating agent to bind and remove toxic metals such as aluminum and iron from the body.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.

A type II protein secretory pathway required for levansucrase secretion by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. (1/41)

The endophytic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus secretes a constitutively expressed levansucrase (LsdA, EC 2.4.1.10) to utilize plant sucrose. LsdA, unlike other extracellular levansucrases from gram-negative bacteria, is transported to the periplasm by a signal-peptide-dependent pathway. We identified an unusually organized gene cluster encoding at least the components LsdG, -O, -E, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D of a type II secretory system required for LsdA translocation across the outer membrane. Another open reading frame, designated lsdX, is located between the operon promoter and lsdG, but it was not identified in BLASTX searches of the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. The lsdX, -G, and -O genes were isolated from a cosmid library of strain SRT4 by complementation of an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant unable to transport LsdA across the outer membrane. The downstream genes lsdE, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D were isolated through chromosomal walking. The high G+C content (64 to 74%) and the codon usage of the genes identified are consistent with the G+C content and codon usage of the standard G. diazotrophicus structural gene. Sequence analysis of the gene cluster indicated that a polycistronic transcript is synthesized. Targeted disruption of lsdG, lsdO, or lsdF blocked LsdA secretion, and the bacterium failed to grow on sucrose. Replacement of Cys(162) by Gly at the C terminus of the pseudopilin LsdG abolished the protein functionality, suggesting that there is a relationship with type IV pilins. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed conservation of the type II secretion operon downstream of the levansucrase-levanase (lsdA-lsdB) locus in 14 G. diazotrophicus strains representing 11 genotypes recovered from four different host plants in diverse geographical regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a type II pathway for protein secretion in the Acetobacteraceae.  (+info)

Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis is deficient in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strains with mutations in cytochrome c biogenesis genes. (2/41)

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophyte of sugarcane frequently found in plants grown in agricultural areas where nitrogen fertilizer input is low. Recent results from this laboratory, using mutant strains of G. diazotrophicus unable to fix nitrogen, suggested that there are two beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth: one dependent and one not dependent on nitrogen fixation. A plant growth-promoting substance, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), known to be produced by G. diazotrophicus, could be a nitrogen fixation-independent factor. One strain, MAd10, isolated by screening a library of Tn5 mutants, released only approximately 6% of the amount of IAA excreted by the parent strain in liquid culture. The mutation causing the IAA(-) phenotype was not linked to Tn5. A pLAFR3 cosmid clone that complemented the IAA deficiency was isolated. Sequence analysis of a complementing subclone indicated the presence of genes involved in cytochrome c biogenesis (ccm, for cytochrome c maturation). The G. diazotrophicus ccm operon was sequenced; the individual ccm gene products were 37 to 52% identical to ccm gene products of Escherichia coli and equivalent cyc genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Although several ccm mutant phenotypes have been described in the literature, there are no reports of ccm gene products being involved in IAA production. Spectral analysis, heme-associated peroxidase activities, and respiratory activities of the cell membranes revealed that the ccm genes of G. diazotrophicus are involved in cytochrome c biogenesis.  (+info)

Occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in tropical and subtropical plants of Western Ghats, India. (3/41)

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the tissues of surface sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of fifty different crop plants. Phenotypic, biochemical tests and species-specific PCR assay permitted identification of four isolates of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.), raddish (Raphanus sativus L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Further the plant growth promoting traits such as nitrogenase activity, production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (IAA), phosphorus and zinc solubilization were assessed. Significant nitrogenase activity was recorded among the isolates and all the isolates produced IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Though all the four isolates efficiently solubilized phosphorus, the zinc solubilizing ability differed among the isolates.  (+info)

Crystal structure of levansucrase from the Gram-negative bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. (4/41)

The endophytic Gram-negative bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus SRT4 secretes a constitutively expressed levansucrase (LsdA, EC 2.4.1.10), which converts sucrose into fructooligosaccharides and levan. The enzyme is included in GH (glycoside hydrolase) family 68 of the sequence-based classification of glycosidases. The three-dimensional structure of LsdA has been determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.5 A (1 A=0.1 nm). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the homologous Bacillus subtilis (Bs) levansucrase (Protein Data Bank accession code 1OYG) as a search model. LsdA displays a five-bladed beta-propeller architecture, where the catalytic residues that are responsible for sucrose hydrolysis are perfectly superimposable with the equivalent residues of the Bs homologue. The comparison of both structures, the mutagenesis data and the analysis of GH68 family multiple sequences alignment show a strong conservation of the sucrose hydrolytic machinery among levansucrases and also a structural equivalence of the Bs levansucrase Ca2+-binding site to the LsdA Cys339-Cys395 disulphide bridge, suggesting similar fold-stabilizing roles. Despite the strong conservation of the sucrose-recognition site observed in LsdA, Bs levansucrase and GH32 family Thermotoga maritima invertase, structural differences appear around residues involved in the transfructosylation reaction.  (+info)

Nitrogenase proteins from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, a sugarcane-colonizing bacterium. (5/41)

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal-5 grew well and expressed nitrogenase activity in the absence of NH4+ and at initial O2 concentrations greater than 5% in the culture atmosphere. G. diazotrophicus nitrogenase consisted of two components, Gd1 and Gd2, which were difficult to separate but were purified individually to homogeneity. Their compositions were very similar to those of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase, however, all subunits were slightly smaller in size. The purified Gd1 protein contained a 12:1 Fe/Mo ratio as compared to 14:1 found for Av1 purified in parallel. Both Gd2 and Av2 contained 3.9 Fe atoms per molecule. Dithionite-reduced Gd1 exhibited EPR features at g=3.69, 3.96, and 4.16 compared with 3.64 and 4.27 for Av1. Gd2 gave an S=1/2 EPR signal identical to that of Av2. A Gd1 maximum specific activity of 1600 nmol H2 (min mg of protein)(-1) was obtained when complemented with either Gd2 or Av2, however, more Av2 was required. Gd2 had specific activities of 600 and 1100 nmol H2 (min mg protein)(-1) when complemented with Av1 and Gd1, respectively. The purified G. diazotrophicus nitrogenase exhibited a narrowed pH range for effective catalysis compared to the A. vinelandii nitrogenase, however, both exhibited maximum specific activity at about pH 7. The Gd-nitrogenase was more sensitive to ionic strength than the Av-nitrogenase.  (+info)

Antagonism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (a sugarcane endosymbiont) against Xanthomonas albilineans (pathogen) studied in alginate-immobilized sugarcane stalk tissues. (6/41)

Xanthomonas albilineans, a pathogenic bacterium that produces leaf scald disease of sugarcane, secretes a xanthan-like gum that invades both xylem and phloem of the host. Xanthan production has been verified after experimental infection of stalk segments of healthy plants. Moreover, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of sugarcane plants that antagonizes with X. albilineans by impeding the production of the bacterial gum. The physiological basis of this antagonism has been studied using tissues of sugarcane stalks previously inoculated with the endosymbiont, then immobilized in calcium alginate and maintained in a culture medium for Gluconacetobacter. Under these conditions, bacteria infecting immobilized tissues are able to secrete to the medium a lysozyme-like bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of X. albilineans.  (+info)

Description of Gluconacetobacter swingsii sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus sp. nov., isolated from Italian apple fruit. (7/41)

Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria (DST GL01T and DST GL02T) were isolated from apple fruit juice in the region of the Italian Alps. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strains DST GL01T and DST GL02T were shown to belong to the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria, and, in particular, to the genus Gluconacetobacter, in the Gluconacetobacter xylinus branch (98.5-100 %). Chemotaxonomic data (major ubiquinone, Q10; predominant fatty acid, C(18 : 1omega7c), accounting for approximately 50 % of the fatty acid content) support the affiliation of both strains to the genus Gluconacetobacter. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, together with physiological and biochemical data, allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between strains DST GL01T and DST GL02T and from the 11 validly published Gluconacetobacter species. They therefore represent two new species, for which the names Gluconacetobacter swingsii sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus sp. nov. are proposed, with the type strains DST GL01T (=LMG 22125T=DSM 16373T) and DST GL02T (=LMG 22126T=DSM 16663T), respectively.  (+info)

N-fertilizer saving by the inoculation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum sp. in micropropagated sugarcane plants. (8/41)

Colonization of micropropagated sugarcane plants by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum sp. was confirmed by a dot-immunoblot assay. In all, a 45-day short-term and 180-day long-term experiments conducted on micropropagated sugarcane plants of Co 86032, a sugar rich popular variety in South India, indicated the usefulness of these diazotrophs as plant growth promoting bacteria. Co-inoculation of these two bacteria enhanced the biomass considerably under N-limited condition in the short duration experiment. In the long-term experiment, the establishment of inoculated Herbaspirillum sp. remained stable with the age of the crop up to 180 days, while there was a reduction in population of G. diazotrophicus for the same period. The total bio-mass and leaf N were higher in plants inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum sp. without N fertilization and also in plants with 50% of the recommended N (140 kg ha(-1)) than the plants fertilized with recommended dose of inorganic N (280 kg ha(-1)). This experiment showed that inoculation with these bacteria in sugarcane variety Co 86032 could mitigate fertilizer N application considerably in sugarcane cultivation.  (+info)

"Gluconacetobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. They are known for their ability to oxidize sugars and alcohols into organic acids, which makes them important in industrial processes like the production of vinegar and biofuels. In a medical context, they are not typically associated with human diseases, but there have been rare reports of infections in immunocompromised individuals.

*Gluconacetobacter xylinus*, also known as *Acetobacter xylinum*, is a gram-negative, acetic acid-producing bacterium that is commonly found in fermenting fruits, vegetables, and other plant materials. It is an obligate aerobe, which means it requires oxygen to grow. This bacterium is well-known for its ability to produce cellulose, a complex carbohydrate, as a major component of its extracellular matrix. The cellulose produced by *G. xylinus* is pure and highly crystalline, making it an attractive material for various industrial applications, including the production of biodegradable plastics, nanocomposites, and medical materials. In the medical field, the cellulose produced by this bacterium has been studied for its potential use in wound healing, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems.

Acetobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of converting ethanol into acetic acid, a process known as oxidative fermentation. These bacteria are commonly found in environments such as fruits, flowers, and the gut of insects. They are also used in the industrial production of vinegar and other products. Some members of this family can cause food spoilage or infections in humans with weakened immune systems.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

'Acetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. They are known for their ability to oxidize alcohols to aldehydes and then to carboxylic acids, particularly the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. This property makes them important in the production of vinegar and other fermented foods. Some species of Acetobacter can also cause food spoilage and may be associated with certain human infections, although they are not considered primary human pathogens.

"Saccharum" is not a medical term, but a genus name in botany. It refers to the sugarcane plant (*Saccharum officinarum*), which is a tall perennial grass native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The sap of this plant contains high amounts of sucrose and has been used as a sweetener for thousands of years.

In a medical context, "saccharum" might be encountered in the form of sugar-based ingredients, such as dextrose (glucose) or sucrose, which are derived from sugarcane or other sugar-rich plants. These substances can be used in various medical applications, including intravenous fluids and nutritional supplements.

Condiments are typically tangy or flavorful substances that are used to add taste and flavor to food. They can be in the form of sauces, pastes, spreads, or powders. Examples include ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, soy sauce, vinegar, hot sauce, salt, pepper, and herbs & spices. Some condiments can also provide additional benefits such as added nutrients or potential health properties. However, it's important to note that some condiments can also be high in sugar, sodium, or unhealthy fats, so they should be used in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "paintings" are generally not a term that would have a medical definition. Paintings are artistic creations, typically made by applying pigments to a surface like canvas or paper, often using brushes or other tools. They can be created with various intentions and may evoke different emotions, thoughts, or reactions in viewers, but they do not have a direct connection to medicine or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis is a molecular biology technique used for DNA fingerprinting, genetic mapping, and population genetics studies. It is based on the selective amplification of restriction fragments from a total digest of genomic DNA, followed by separation and detection of the resulting fragments using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

In AFLP analysis, genomic DNA is first digested with two different restriction enzymes, one that cuts frequently (e.g., EcoRI) and another that cuts less frequently (e.g., MseI). The resulting fragments are then ligated to adapter sequences that provide recognition sites for PCR amplification.

Selective amplification of the restriction fragments is achieved by using primers that anneal to the adapter sequences and contain additional selective nucleotides at their 3' ends. This allows for the amplification of a subset of the total number of restriction fragments, resulting in a pattern of bands that is specific to the DNA sample being analyzed.

The amplified fragments are then separated by size using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by staining with a fluorescent dye. The resulting banding pattern can be used for various applications, including identification of genetic differences between individuals, detection of genomic alterations in cancer cells, and analysis of population structure and diversity.

Overall, AFLP analysis is a powerful tool for the study of complex genomes and has been widely used in various fields of biology, including plant and animal breeding, forensic science, and medical research.

Gluconates are a group of salts and esters derived from gluconic acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally produced in the human body during the metabolism of carbohydrates. In medical contexts, gluconates are often used as a source of the essential mineral ions, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which are necessary for various bodily functions.

Gluconate salts are commonly used in pharmaceutical and nutritional supplements because they are highly soluble in water, making them easy to absorb and utilize by the body. For example, calcium gluconate is a common treatment for hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels), while magnesium gluconate is used to treat magnesium deficiency.

Gluconates may also be used as preservatives in some medical products, such as intravenous solutions and eye drops, due to their ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. Overall, gluconates are a versatile class of compounds with important applications in medicine and health.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

Industrial microbiology is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the use of microorganisms for the production of various industrial and commercial products. In a broader sense, it can include the study of microorganisms that are involved in diseases of animals, humans, and plants, as well as those that are beneficial in industrial processes.

In the context of medical microbiology, industrial microbiology may involve the use of microorganisms to produce drugs, vaccines, or other therapeutic agents. For example, certain bacteria and yeasts are used to ferment sugars and produce antibiotics, while other microorganisms are used to create vaccines through a process called attenuation.

Industrial microbiology may also involve the study of microorganisms that can cause contamination in medical settings, such as hospitals or pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. These microorganisms can cause infections and pose a risk to patients or workers, so it is important to understand their behavior and develop strategies for controlling their growth and spread.

Overall, industrial microbiology plays an important role in the development of new medical technologies and therapies, as well as in ensuring the safety and quality of medical products and environments.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

2021 Gluconacetobacter entanii Schüller et al. 2000 Gluconacetobacter johannae Fuentes-Ramírez et al. 2001 Gluconacetobacter ... 1998 Gluconacetobacter sacchari Franke et al. 1999 Gluconacetobacter takamatsuzukensis Nishijima et al. 2013 Gluconacetobacter ... 2001 Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus corrig. (Gillis et al. 1989) Yamada et al. 1998 Gluconacetobacter dulcium Sombolestani et ... 2012 Gluconacetobacter tumulisoli Nishijima et al. 2013 Bacterial taxonomy Kombucha Microbiology "Gluconacetobacter". lpsn.dsmz ...
Other nitrogen-fixing species in this same genus include Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans and Gluconacetobacter johannae ... Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov., and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov., associated with coffee plants". Iwhere ... Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus cells are shaped like rods, have ends that are circular or round, and have anyom one to three ... Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a bacterium with a rod-like shape, has rounded ends and belongs to Gram-negative bacteria. ...
"Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans at BacDive - the ... 2001). "Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. ... Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans is a species of acetic acid bacteria first isolated from rhizospheres and rhizoplanes of coffee ... "Impact of free-living diazotrophs, Azospirillum lipoferum and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, on growth and nitrogen ...
"Gluconacetobacter johannae" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Gluconacetobacter johannae at BacDive - the ... 2001). "Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. ... Gluconacetobacter johannae is a species of acetic acid bacteria first isolated from rhizospheres and rhizoplanes of coffee ... "Antagonism among Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strains in culture media and in endophytic association". FEMS Microbiology ...
ISBN 0-387-24145-0. "Gluconacetobacter sacchari" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Gluconacetobacter sacchari at ... Gluconacetobacter sacchari is a species of acetic acid bacteria first isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the ... Franke, I. H.; Fegan, M.; Hayward, C.; Leonard, G.; Stackebrandt, E.; Sly, L. I. (1999). "Description of Gluconacetobacter ... Franke, I (2000). "Molecular detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari associated with the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus ...
... is a bacterium in the family Acetobacteraceae. It infects plants and is responsible for spoilage ... "Medical Definition of Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens". Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and (July 26, 2022). "Vi-Jon, LLC ... "Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens (Asai, 1935) Yamada et al., 1998". Catalogue of Life. Species 2000: Leiden, the Netherlands. ...
Some sugarcane varieties are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in association with the bacterium Gluconacetobacter ... Yamada, Y.; Hoshino, K.; Ishikawa, T. (1998). "Gluconacetobacter corrig.‡ (Gluconoacetobacter [sic]). In Validation of ... "Intracellular colonization of roots of Arabidopsis and crop plants by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus". In Vitro Cellular & ...
2021 Gluconacetobacter corrig. Yamada et al. 1998 Gluconobacter Asai 1935 (Approved Lists 1980) Granulibacter Greenberg et al. ...
1998 to the genus Gluconacetobacter as Gluconacetobacter oboediens comb. nov. and Gluconacetobacter intermedius comb. nov". ... In 2000, Acetobacter oboediens and Acetobacter intermedius were transferred to Gluconacetobacter on the basis of 16S rRNA ...
Gluconacetobacter hansenii entry in LPSN; Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder ... Lin, Dehui; Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Li, Rui; Li, Zhixi (2014). "Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter ...
This drink contains Gluconacetobacter xylinus. It also contains Zygosaccharomyces sp., Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ...
Kim, J.Y.; Kim, J.N.; Wee, Y.J.; Park, D.H.; Ryu, H.W. (2007). "Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter sp. RKY5 in ... Jung, J.Y.; Khan, T.; Park, J.K.; Chang, H.N. (2007). "Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii using a ... doi:10.1016/0922-338X(93)90171-4. Park, J.K.; Jung, J.Y.; Park, Y.H. (2003). "Cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter ...
"The PQQ-alcohol dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 125 (1): 71-8. ...
Suggestions include Janthinobacterium lividum, Bacillus subtilis, Acetobacteria or Gluconacetobacter spp., and baker's yeast. A ...
... formerly Gluconacetobacter xylinus), which ferments alcohols produced by the yeasts into acetic and other acids, increasing the ... the bacterial component almost always includes Gluconacetobacter xylinus to oxidize yeast-produced alcohols to acetic acid (and ... "Characterization of cellulose production by a gluconacetobacter xylinus strain from kombucha". Current Microbiology. 57 (5): ... "Fermentation and metabolic characteristics of Gluconacetobacter oboediens for different carbon sources". Applied Microbiology ...
It has since been known by several other names, mainly Acetobacter xylinum and Gluconacetobacter xylinus. It was given its ... nov., for strains accommodated to the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group in the α-Proteobacteria". Annals of Microbiology. 62 (2 ... a Unique Cellulose-Nonproducing Strain of Gluconacetobacter xylinus Isolated from Vinegar". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (24): ... "Complete genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter xylinus E25 strain-Valuable and effective producer of bacterial nanocellulose". ...
... is required for N-acetyl glucosamine assimilation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e18099. Bibcode:2011PLoSO... ...
The amount of Gluconacetobacter and Acetobacter in the mother of vinegar is associated with the concentration of acetic acid in ... The genera, Gluconacetobacter and Komagataeibacter produce high levels of bacterial cellulose, which is what mother of vinegar ... Vinegars with a concentration of acetic acid greater than 6% contained more Gluconacetobacter, while those with a concentration ... These groups include: Acetobacter, Acidomonas, Ameyamaea, Asaia, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Granulibacter, ...
Yamada, Yuzo (2014). "Transfer of Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti, Gluconacetobacter medellinensis and Gluconacetobacter maltaceti ... nov., for strains accommodated to the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group in the α-Proteobacteria". Annals of Microbiology. 62 (2 ... "Subdivision of the genus Gluconacetobacter Yamada, Hoshino and Ishikawa 1998: The proposal of Komagatabacter gen. ...
Ecological occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and nitrogen-fixing Acetobacteraceae members: their possible role in ...
In Gluconacetobacter xylinus, c-di-GMP stimulates the polymerization of glucose into cellulose as a high affinity allosteric ... The Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose synthase is allosterically stimulated by cyclic di-GMP, presenting a mechanism by which ... For a review of c-di-GMP roles in Caulobacter crescentus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Komagataeibacter xylinus/​Gluconacetobacter ... di-GMP was first uncovered when it was identified as an allosteric activator of a cellulose synthase found in Gluconacetobacter ...
... octacis-undecaprenol In the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus the enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the ...
... in the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus). Katzen F, Ferreiro DU, Oddo CG, Ielmini MV, Becker A, Pühler A, Ielpi L (April ...
Gluconacetobacter MeSH B03.440.400.425.365.500 - Gluconacetobacter xylinus MeSH B03.440.400.425.377 - halomonadaceae MeSH ... Gluconacetobacter MeSH B03.660.050.663.050.400.500 - Gluconacetobacter xylinus MeSH B03.660.050.663.050.415 - Gluconobacter ...
2021 Gluconacetobacter entanii Schüller et al. 2000 Gluconacetobacter johannae Fuentes-Ramírez et al. 2001 Gluconacetobacter ... 1998 Gluconacetobacter sacchari Franke et al. 1999 Gluconacetobacter takamatsuzukensis Nishijima et al. 2013 Gluconacetobacter ... 2001 Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus corrig. (Gillis et al. 1989) Yamada et al. 1998 Gluconacetobacter dulcium Sombolestani et ... 2012 Gluconacetobacter tumulisoli Nishijima et al. 2013 Bacterial taxonomy Kombucha Microbiology "Gluconacetobacter". lpsn.dsmz ...
BC was produced in fill-and-draw and pulse-feed fed-batch cultures of Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604 in a 3-L bench-top ... BC was produced in fill-and-draw and pulse-feed fed-batch cultures of Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604 in a 3-L bench-top ...
Use of brewers residual yeast for production of bacterial nanocellulose with Gluconacetobacter hansenii. ... efficient and biosustainable technology for BNC production with Gluconacetobacter hansenii was carried out. BNC was obtained ...
Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov., cellulose- and non-cellulose-producing acetic acid bacteria isolated from vinegar. C ... Bacterial cellulose produced by a new acid-resistant strain of Gluconacetobacter genus. C Castro, R Zuluaga, C lvarez, JL ... In situ production of nanocomposites of poly (vinyl alcohol) and cellulose nanofibrils from Gluconacetobacter bacteria: effect ... Structural characterization of bacterial cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter swingsii sp. from Colombian agroindustrial ...
2016). Colonization efficiency of different sorghum genotypes by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Plant Soil 398, 243-256. doi ... Muñoz-Rojas, J., and Caballero-Mellado, J. (2003). Population dynamics of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane ...
Eskin, N. (2012) Colonization of Zea mays by the Nitrogen Fixing Bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. ...
Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative bacilli classified into the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, ...
... laxatives has recalled all lots and flavors of more than 60 products after testing identified the presence of Gluconacetobacter ...
Gluconacetobacter RSV_genus911 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Alphaproteobacteria;Rhodospirillales;Acetobacteraceae;Gluconobacter RSV_ ...
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5 Bacteria normal 1 normal 1 -. NC_008254 Meso_2088 methyltransferase type 11 52.42 ...
... with the bacteriumGluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (a microorganism that fixes nitrogen in plants such as sugarcane and coffee ...
Aceto (Gluconacetobacter Diazotrophicus) - Pack of 2 Capsules Description: Aceto-CAPS are capsul..... ... Aceto (Gluconacetobacter Diazotrophicus) - Pack of 6 Capsules Description: Aceto-CAPS are c..... ...
... production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus (PTCC 1734). Cellul Chem Technol 2015; 49(5-6): 455-62. ...
Kombucha Brewers Internationals review of Changes in major components of tea fungus metabolites during prolonged fermentation. Read more now!
Gluconacetobacter (, 85 percent in most tests). - Acetobacter (, 2 percent). - Lactobacillus( up to 30 percent in some tests). ...
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5 Site: position = -30. score = 5.06333 sequence = ATATAAGGATGTTGTTATAT. Gene: Gdia_0808: ... Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5 Site: position = -366. score = 5.06333 sequence = ATATAACAACATCCTTATAT. Gene: Gdia_0807 ... Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5 Gene: Gdia_2881: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate--homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.13) ... Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5 Gene: Gdia_0809: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (EC 1.5.1.20) ...
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5, complete genome. hypothetical protein. 7e-08. 57.4. NC_014377:1060000:1078830. 1078830 ...
Do produkcji nanowłóknistej celulozy zaprzęgnięto bakterie Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Następnie wmontowano w włókna ...
The most common strains are Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Lactobacillus. Consuming them can help populate your gut with ...
This laxative product is contaminated with the bacterium Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens. Immunocompromised persons infected ...
Family of proteins related to Agrobacterium tumefaciens CelA and Gluconacetobacter xylinus BscA. These proteins are involved in ...
Inoculation effects of Pseudomonas putida, Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, and Azospirillum lipoferum on corn plant growth ...
... cellulose-producing Gluconacetobacter xylinus cells; and recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring recombinase-based dual- ...
Gluconacetobacter intermedius NEDO-01) in a medium supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) that is referred to as CM- ...
Gluconacetobacter xylinus - formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum, xylinus and also called Gluconacetobacter kombuchae and ... Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces microbial cellulose, used in the Filipino desert Nata de coco. ​. Acetobacter. * ...
Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis is deficient in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strains with mutations in cytochrome c ...
A 2018 study showed that a combination inoculum of Azospirillum brasilense, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Burkholderia ...
Gluconacetobacter [B03.440.400.425.365] Gluconacetobacter * Halomonadaceae [B03.440.400.425.377] Halomonadaceae * ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Sphingobacterium" by people in this website by year, and whether "Sphingobacterium" was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Gluconacetobacter. Gluconacetobacter. Gluconacetobacter. Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Gluconacetobacter xylinus. ...
  • 2001 Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus corrig. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aceto (Gluconacetobacter Diazotrophicus) - Pack of 2 Capsules Description: Aceto-CAPS are capsul. (kisanestore.com)
  • A 2018 study showed that a combination inoculum of Azospirillum brasilense, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Burkholderia ambifaria , and Herbaspirillum seropedicae increased the growth, yield and vigour of Cannabis species (Pagnani et al 2018). (pharmaseeds.io)
  • In 2012, several species previously classified in the genus Gluconacetobacter were reclassified under the new genus Komagataeibacter, including the cellulose producing species Komagataeibacter xylinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • BC was produced in fill-and-draw and pulse-feed fed-batch cultures of Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604 in a 3-L bench-top bioreactor. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • Do produkcji nanowłóknistej celulozy zaprzęgnięto bakterie Gluconacetobacter xylinus . (sad24.pl)
  • Family of proteins related to Agrobacterium tumefaciens CelA and Gluconacetobacter xylinus BscA. (unl.edu)
  • Gluconacetobacter xylinus - formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum, xylinus and also called Gluconacetobacter kombuchae and Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces microbial cellulose, used in the Filipino desert Nata de coco. (weebly.com)
  • The most common strains are Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Lactobacillus. (thedonutwhole.com)
  • Use of brewer's residual yeast for production of bacterial nanocellulose with Gluconacetobacter hansenii. (bvsalud.org)
  • Structural characterization of bacterial cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter swingsii sp. (google.es)
  • Herein, the utility of nanofibrillated bacterial cellulose (NFBC), which is produced by culturing a cellulose-producing bacterium (Gluconacetobacter intermedius NEDO-01) in a medium supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) that is referred to as CM-NFBC, is described. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, research which aimed to contribute to the development of a low cost , efficient and biosustainable technology for BNC production with Gluconacetobacter hansenii was carried out. (bvsalud.org)
  • The maker of these laxatives has recalled all lots and flavors of more than 60 products after testing identified the presence of Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens . (harvard.edu)
  • Gluconacetobacter is a genus in the phylum Pseudomonadota (Bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus contains the following species: Gluconacetobacter aggeris corrig. (wikipedia.org)
  • The closest nucleic acid sequence match was to Gluconacetobacter sacchari (95.7% similarity) of the acetic acid bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • It contains mainly Gluconacetobacter xylinus and yeast. (lacto-life.com)