Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2: An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 220.127.116.11.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 18.104.22.168.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate: A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.TetrahydrocortisolRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 22.214.171.124.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mice, Inbred C57BLDual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 126.96.36.199.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Adrenal Cortex HormonesReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2: A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 188.8.131.52.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Promegestone: A synthetic progestin which is useful for the study of progestin distribution and progestin tissue receptors, as it is not bound by transcortin and binds to progesterone receptors with a higher association constant than progesterone.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 184.108.40.206.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Pregnenolone Carbonitrile: A catatoxic steroid and microsomal enzyme inducer having significant effects on the induction of cytochrome P450. It has also demonstrated the potential for protective capability against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, binds the glucocorticoid receptor. However, because of its molecular similarity to aldosterone it ... thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ ⇌ an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH ... which can no longer bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor. 11β-HSD co-localizes with intracellular adrenal steroid receptors. ... is also capable of binding the mineralcorticoid receptor. Both aldosterone and cortisol have a similar affinity for the ...
Epigenetics of depression
Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are receptors to which cortisol (and other glucocorticoids) bind. The bound receptor is involved ... Increased NGFI-A binding, and the resulting increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, leads to a decrease in ... It is also known that increased glucocorticoid receptor expression has been shown to modulate the HPA pathway by increasing ... It modulates serotonin by downregulating the G protein-coupled receptor, 5-HT2A receptor protein levels in the hippocampus. ...
The human glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor, which associates with the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor ... The level of expression is regulated by glucocorticoids. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160007 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... "Entrez Gene: GRLF1 glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor 1". Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O, Nagase ... Glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRLF1 gene. ...
Neurobiological effects of physical exercise
The "stress hormone", cortisol, is a glucocorticoid that binds to glucocorticoid receptors. Psychological stress induces the ... Stress and glucocorticoids inhibit, and a wide variety of antidepressant drugs, exercise, and enriched environments activate ... IGF-1 elicits its physiological effects by binding to a specific receptor tyrosine kinase, the IGF-1 receptor, to control ... VEGF is a neurotrophic and angiogenic (i.e., blood vessel growth-promoting) signaling protein that binds to two receptor ...
Stress in early childhood
... and another is the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normally, when cortisol is outside of the brain, it will bind to GRs. When ... The HPA system is responsible for producing glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex; the main glucocorticoid in humans is the ... There are two glucocorticoid receptors; one is the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) ... ACTH binds to the receptors in the adrenal glands, which are located atop the kidneys, and this causes the release of cortisol ...
DHEA does not bind to or activate the progesterone, glucocorticoid, or mineralocorticoid receptors. Other nuclear receptor ... the latter of which is essential for the biosynthesis of the glucocorticoids such as cortisol and has been suggested to be ... In the circulation, DHEA is mainly bound to albumin, with a small amount bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The ... In addition to its affinity for the androgen receptor, DHEA has also been found to bind to and activate the ERα and ERβ ...
In order to do so, amcinonide acts as an agonist to target glucocorticoid receptors. After interacting with the receptor, ... It acts as both a transcription factor for responses to glucocorticoids and modulator for other transcription factors while ... endocytosis occurs at which point the drug can bind to DNA within the cell. Gene expression is subsequently modified to produce ... Due to Amcinonide's high affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor, a neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction occurs and the ...
Steroid hormones bind to glucocorticoid receptors in the brain, providing negative feedback by reducing ACTH release. Some ... There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing glucocorticoids (cortisol, aka the S-hormone or stress-hormone). ... The secretion of ACTH into systemic circulation allows it to bind to and activate Melanocortin receptor, where it stimulates ... travel through the hypophysial portal vessel where they travel to and bind to the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor on ...
This type of receptor becomes activated upon ligand binding. After a hormone binds to the corresponding receptor, the newly ... Aldosterone and cortisol (a glucosteroid) have similar affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor; however, glucocorticoids ... The pharmacology and classification of the nuclear receptor superfamily: glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, progesterone, and ... Mineralocorticoids bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor in the cell cytosol, and are able to freely cross the lipid bilayer ...
Steroid hormones bind to glucocorticoid receptors in the brain, providing negative feedback by reducing ACTH release. Some ... This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, ... The secretion of ACTH into systemic circulation allows it to bind to and activate Melanocortin receptor, where it stimulates ... travel through the hypophysial portal vessel where they travel to and bind to the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor on ...
Steroid hormones bind to glucocorticoid receptors in the brain, providing negative feedback by reducing ACTH release. Some ... Glucocorticoids can increase the concentration of glucose, fat, and amino acid in blood. In high doses, one glucocorticoid, ... The secretion of ACTH into systemic circulation allows it to bind to and activate Melanocortin receptor, where it stimulates ... travel through the hypophysial portal vessel where they travel to and bind to the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor on ...
Unbound glucocorticoids cross cell membranes and bind with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic receptors, modifying ... Methylprednisolone is in the glucocorticoid family of medication. ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoid receptor modulators. List of ... However, glucocorticoids have a wide range of effects, including changes to metabolism and immune responses. The list of ...
Glucocorticoids. Main article: Glucocorticoid. In pharmacologic (supraphysiologic) doses, glucocorticoids, such as ... It is known that the molecule binds TCR/CD3 receptor complex. In the first few administrations this binding non-specifically ... Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity, causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. This ... TNF binding proteins. A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating ...
Animal models of depression
... α2A adrenergic receptor knockout mice, glucocorticoid receptor heterozygous mice, and cAMP response element-binding protein ... Depressed subjects display decreased hippocampal volume and rodents exposed to chronic stress or excess glucocorticoids exhibit ... Mice with genetically altered glucocorticoid receptor expression show altered sensitivity for stress-induced depressive ... The alpha(2a)-adrenergic receptor plays a protective role in mouse behavioral models of depression and anxiety. J Neurosci 2001 ...
"Comparison of progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor binding and stimulation of gene expression by progesterone, 17-alpha ... glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids, as well as the neurosteroids. All endogenous progestogens are characterized by their ... are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR). Progesterone is the major and ... Progesterone receptors (PRA, PRB, PRC, mPRs (e.g., mPRα, mPRβ, mPRγ, mPRδ, others)). ...
Main article: Glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are produced in the zona fasciculata. The primary glucocorticoid released by the ... and a more potent androgen than testosterone in that it binds more strongly to androgen receptors. ... Ye P, Mariniello B, Mantero F, Shibata H, Rainey WE (October 2007). "G-protein-coupled receptors in aldosterone-producing ... Situated between the glomerulosa and reticularis, the cells of the zona fasciculata synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids, ...
... is mainly a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoid receptor modulators. List of ... The activated glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the ... Pelt AC (2011). Glucocorticoids: effects, action mechanisms, and therapeutic uses. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science. ISBN 978- ...
The human androgen receptor bound to testosterone The protein is shown as a ribbon diagram in red, green, and blue, with ... Hickson RC, Czerwinski SM, Falduto MT, Young AP (1990). "Glucocorticoid antagonism by exercise and androgenic-anabolic steroids ... this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids ... Roselli CE (1998). "The effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids on aromatase activity and androgen receptor binding in the rat ...
A glucocorticoid response element (GRE) located in the 3'- flanking region of this gene allows glucocorticoids to induce ... nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • perinuclear region ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • signal transduction. • ... the phosphate/magnesium binding regions GXXXXGK(S/T) (domain Σ1), DXXG (domain Σ2), and the guanine base binding loops NKXD ( ...
Androgen receptor antagonists: Drugs that bind directly to and block the AR. These drugs include the steroidal ... Anticorticotropins such as glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids work by exerting negative feedback on the hypothalamic- ... a weak glucocorticoid and hence anticorticotropin, and a weak androgen synthesis inhibitor. ... Androgen receptor; Progesterone receptor; Estrogen receptor; GnRH receptor; 5α-Reductase; CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/. 17,20- ...
Glucocorticoids. Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in humans. In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by ... Angiotensin receptors in cells of the zona glomerulosa recognize the substance, and upon binding they stimulate the release of ... Glucocorticoids are under the regulatory influence of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoid synthesis ... Cells in this layer are responsible for producing glucocorticoids such as cortisol. It is the largest of the three layers, ...
Androgen receptor antagonists: drugs that bind directly to and block the AR. These drugs include the steroidal ... as well as the conversion of mineralocorticoids into glucocorticoids. Because these drugs all prevent the formation of ... glucocorticoids in addition to androgens, they must be combined with a glucocorticoid like prednisone to avoid adrenal ... R 1881 binding to the prostatic androgen receptor and [3H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and [3H]cortisol binding to plasma ...
The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ... ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of ... ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex ...
Unlike gonadal steroid receptors, glucocorticoid receptors are very widespread throughout the brain; in the paraventricular ... T3 could then bind to the thyroid hormone receptor in these neurons and affect the production of thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... The hypothalamus contains neurons that react strongly to steroids and glucocorticoids - (the steroid hormones of the adrenal ... Estrogen and progesterone bind to their cognate nuclear hormone receptors, which translocate to the cell nucleus and interact ...
Seene T (July 1994). "Turnover of skeletal muscle contractile proteins in glucocorticoid myopathy". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... Glucocorticoids, a class of medications used to treat allergic and other inflammatory conditions can induce muscle atrophy by ... selective androgen receptor modulators) are being investigated with promising results. They would have fewer side-effects, ... Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular set of substrates, causing their ubiquitination. A CT scan can distinguish ...
The ubiquitin receptor Rpn13 binds to Rpn2 and completes the base cub-complex. The lid covers one half of the AAA-ATPase ... Lambrou GI, Papadimitriou L, Chrousos GP, Vlahopoulos SA (April 2012). "Glucocorticoid and proteasome inhibitor impact on the ... Proteasome inhibitors can kill some types of cultured leukemia cells that are resistant to glucocorticoids. ... A few high-resolution snapshots of the proteasome bound to a polyubiquitinated protein suggest that ubiquitin receptors might ...
type = combo , drug_name = Seretide , component1 = Fluticasone , class1 = [[Glucocorticoids ,Glucocorticoid]] , component2 = ... DrugBank does not include every known drug and likewise Protein Binding may not be applicable to the drug (e.g. if only ever ... Salmeterol , class2 = [[Beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist,Long-Acting Beta2 Agonist]] 1c) Monoclonal antibody drug uses a ... bound = , metabolism = , elimination_half-life = , excretion = , pregnancy_AU = ,!-- A / B1 / B2 / B3 / C / D / X --, , ...
... and Glucocorticoid (Type II) Receptors in Neuroendocrine Regulation". Neuroendocrinology. 50 (2): 117-123. doi:10.1159/ ... where they bind to specific receptors on the surface of the hormone-producing cells. ... and glucocorticoids, released by the adrenal cortex.. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic ... Lenkei, Z; Corvol, P; Llorens-Cortes, C (May 1995). "The angiotensin receptor subtype AT1A predominates in rat forebrain areas ...
These PAMPs are recognized by the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system, which may be membrane-bound ... The use of steroids in sepsis is controversial. Studies do not give a clear picture as to whether and when glucocorticoids ... The method of stopping glucocorticoid drugs is variable, and it is unclear whether they should be slowly decreased or simply ... the C-type lectin receptors, the NOD-like receptors, and the RIG-I-like receptors. Invariably, the association of a PAMP and a ...
This atrophy is associated with areas of high glucocorticoid receptor concentrations such as the hippocampus and correlates ... The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is the taking of glucocorticoids prescribed by a health care practitioner to treat ... Estrogen can cause an increase of cortisol-binding globulin and thereby cause the total cortisol level to be elevated. However ... Mifepristone is a powerful glucocorticoid type II receptor antagonist and, since it does not interfere with normal cortisol ...
... nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind. The GR is ... The unbound receptor resides in the cytosol of the cell. After the receptor is bound to glucocorticoid, the receptor- ... Membrane glucocorticoid receptor Familial/sporadic glucocorticoid resistance (Chrousos Syndrome) Selective glucocorticoid ... "RU486-induced glucocorticoid receptor agonism is controlled by the receptor N terminus and by corepressor binding". J. Biol. ...
An example of antagonistic nuclear receptor drug is mifepristone which binds to the glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors ... separation between the desired antiinflammatory effects and undesired metabolic side effects of these selective glucocorticoids ... Type IV nuclear receptors bind either as monomers or dimers, but only a single DNA binding domain of the receptor binds to a ... such as the androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor. It has been noted that ...
Binding of the receptor by ACTH stimulates the production of glucocorticoids (GCs). (By contrast, aldosterone production from ... Mutations in this receptor cause familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) type 1, in which patients have high levels of serum ... ACTH receptors also require the binding of melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein-1 (MRAP1) without which ACTH receptors ... The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type ...
Mammalian steroid hormones can be grouped into five groups by the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, ... 2007). "Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance". ... LPA binds the high-affinity G-protein coupled receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 (also known as EDG2, EDG4, and EDG7, respectively ... the only identified receptors for S1P are the high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as S1P receptors ( ...
Within those two classes are five types according to the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids ( ... Gupta BBP, Lalchhandama K (2002). "Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid action" (PDF). Current Science. 83 (9): 1103-1111. ... Then the steroid binds to a specific steroid hormone receptor, also known as a nuclear receptor, which is a large ... Upon steroid binding, many kinds of steroid receptors dimerize: two receptor subunits join together to form one functional DNA- ...
For example, a recent report indicated that T cells could be modified to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor; the resulting ... The DNA binding domains, which can be designed to bind any desired DNA sequence, comes from TAL effectors, DNA-binding proteins ... allow IL-13 zetakine transgenic CTLs to kill glioblastoma cells in vivo in the presence of immunosuppressing glucocorticoids". ... DNA binding specificity is higher, (2) off-target effects are lower, and (3) construction of DNA-binding domains is easier. ...
DNA binding of the glucocorticoid receptor is not essential for survival
Since the GR can influence transcription both through DNA-binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms, we attempted to assess ... Transcriptional regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for survival. ... DNA binding of the glucocorticoid receptor is not essential for survival Cell. 1998 May 15;93(4):531-41. doi: 10.1016/s0092- ... Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism* * T-Lymphocytes / cytology * Transcription, Genetic Substances * Glucocorticoids * ...
Glucocorticoid receptor-binding characteristics in severe asthma | European Respiratory Society
Combination IL-2 and IL-4 reduces glucocorticoid receptor-binding affinity and T cell response to glucocorticoids. J Immunol ... Glucocorticoid receptor-binding characteristics in severe asthma. C. Bonnans, P. Chanez, H. Meziane, P. Godard, J. Bousquet, I. ... Glucocorticoid receptor-binding characteristics in severe asthma. C. Bonnans, P. Chanez, H. Meziane, P. Godard, J. Bousquet, I. ... Glucocorticoid receptor-binding characteristics in severe asthma. C. Bonnans, P. Chanez, H. Meziane, P. Godard, J. Bousquet, I. ...
Binding of steroids to the progestin and glucocorticoid receptors analyzed by correspondence analysis.
... and mineralocorticoid receptors. The data have been a ... have been measured for the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor (GR ... 0/Glucocorticoids; 0/Receptors, Androgen; 0/Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0/Receptors, Mineralocorticoid; 0/Receptors, ... Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism*. Receptors, Mineralocorticoid. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism*. Receptors, ... The relative binding affinities of over 30 steroids have been measured for the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor (GR) of thymus, ...
The Human Glucocorticoid Receptor as an RNA-Binding Protein: Global Analysis of Glucocorticoid Receptor-Associated Transcripts...
Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids-new mechanisms for old drugs. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 1711-1723. ... The Human Glucocorticoid Receptor as an RNA-Binding Protein: Global Analysis of Glucocorticoid Receptor-Associated Transcripts ... The Human Glucocorticoid Receptor as an RNA-Binding Protein: Global Analysis of Glucocorticoid Receptor-Associated Transcripts ... The Human Glucocorticoid Receptor as an RNA-Binding Protein: Global Analysis of Glucocorticoid Receptor-Associated Transcripts ...
A hotspot in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain susceptible to loss of function mutation
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat a variety of inflammatory disorders and certain cancers. However, GC resistance occurs ... A hotspot in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain susceptible to loss of function mutation. ... androgen receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor. Thus, R493 is necessary for the transcriptional activity of the GR and a ... We found that EL4 cells, a GC-resistant mouse thymoma cell line, harbored a point mutation in their GC receptor (GR) gene, ...
Steroid derivatives for electrophilic affinity labelling of glucocorticoid binding sites: interaction with the glucocorticoid...
The affinity of DXM-M for the glucocorticoid receptor, measured by competitive binding assay, was 1/15 that of DXM. ... a cell line which is sensitive to growth inhibition by glucocorticoids. Like DXM, DXM-M inhibits the growth of RPMI 3460-clone ... were tested for their ability to bind irreversibly to the glucocorticoid receptor from goat lactating mammary gland. Using ... Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate of the [3H]-DXM-M labeled glucocorticoid receptor revealed a ...
First High-Resolution Crystal Structures of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Ligand-Binding Domain-Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated...
Both synthetic and endogenous glucocorticoids are important pharmaceutic drugs known to bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD ... human glucocorticoid receptor. LBD. ligand-binding domain. LBP. ligand-binding pocket. MBP. maltose-binding protein. MD. ... 2002) Crystal structure of the glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding domain reveals a novel mode of receptor dimerization and ... of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. Ligand binding induces conformational ...
A genome-wide signature of glucocorticoid receptor binding in neuronal PC12 cells | BMC Neuroscience | Full Text
The objective of the present study was to identify genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor binding sites in neuronal PC12 cells ... Glucocorticoid action in neurons is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that operate as transcription factors in the ... More than half (58%) of the binding sites contained a GRE. The remaining 42% of the GBS did not harbour a GRE and therefore ... A closer look at the sequence of the GR binding sites revealed the presence of several motifs for transcription factors that ...
Active Motif » TransAM GR (glucocorticoid or NR3C1 DNA binding ELISA)
TransAM GR is a DNA-binding ELISA that quantifies the activated transcription factor using a method that is faster and more ... Glucocorticoids play an essential role in maintaining basal and stress-related homeostasis. Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), also ... dna-binding ELISA for activated glucocorticoid receptor. TransAM® Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that facilitate the study of ... TransAM GR Kits provide everything needed to study activated Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), including a positive control extract ...
GMEB2 - Glucocorticoid modulatory element-binding protein 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - GMEB2 gene & protein
... promoter and increases sensitivity to low concentrations of glucocorticoids. Binds also to the transferrin receptor promoter. ... Trans-acting factor that binds to glucocorticoid modulatory elements (GME) present in the TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) ... Glucocorticoid modulatory element b.... Glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein 2, isoform CRA_a (Glucocorticoid ... Interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). May interact with CREB-binding protein (CBP). ...
GMEB1 - Glucocorticoid modulatory element-binding protein 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - GMEB1 gene & protein
... promoter and increases sensitivity to low concentrations of glucocorticoids. Binds also to the transferrin receptor promoter. ... Trans-acting factor that binds to glucocorticoid modulatory elements (GME) present in the TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) ... "Properties of the glucocorticoid modulatory element binding proteins GMEB-1 and -2: potential new modifiers of glucocorticoid ... Interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and NCOA2/TIF2 (By similarity). May interact with HSP27 and CREB-binding ...
Use of a Cord Blood Fluorescein Labeled Dexamethasone Monocyte Binding Assay to Study the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Neonates |...
Given the importance of glucocorticoids in lung development and functioning, studying glucocorticoid sensitivity in this ... Use of a Cord Blood Fluorescein Labeled Dexamethasone Monocyte Binding Assay to Study the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Neonates. ... Use of a Cord Blood Fluorescein Labeled Dexamethasone Monocyte Binding Assay to Study the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Neonates ( ... Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) functioning changes throughout the fetal period, especially during the transition to extrauterine ...
System among the corticosteroids | Journal of The Royal Society Interface
Glucocorticoid activity assays. 2.3.1. Relative binding affinity for glucocorticoid receptor. L929 fibroblasts grown in DMEM/10 ... the role of C ring flexibility in glucocorticoids and A ring flexibility in glucocorticoids is ambiguous. Thus, C ring ... 2002 Crystal structure of the glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding domain reveals a novel mode of receptor dimerization and ... Molecular shape is surely important in binding to a receptor, but the distinct glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activities ...
Glucocorticoid receptor binding: A biphasic dependence on molecular size as revealed by the bilinear LinBiExp model<...
Known highly active glucocorticoids, such as betamethasone 17-monopropionate, fluticasone propionate, or mometasone furoate, ... For corticosteroids, receptor-binding affinity (RBA) at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major determinant of therapeutic ... abstract = "For corticosteroids, receptor-binding affinity (RBA) at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major determinant of ... N2 - For corticosteroids, receptor-binding affinity (RBA) at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major determinant of ...
E-GEOD-51497 - Glucocorticoid Receptor and Androgen Receptor DNA binding in LREX' - OmicsDI
... are a LnCAP/AR subline with natural expresison of the glucocorticoid receptor. We used the model to compare the AR and GR ... and glucocorticoids (GCs) which regulate gene expression via the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) family and the glucocorticoid ... Glucocorticoid receptor confers resistance to antiandrogens by bypassing androgen receptor blockade.. Arora Vivek K VK ... LREX are a LnCAP/AR subline with natural expresison of the glucocorticoid receptor. We used the model to compare the AR and GR ...
Countereffects of compensatory overload and glucocorticoids in skeletal muscle: Androgen and glucocorticoid cytosol receptor...
... which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a glucocorticoid receptor, disappeared in glucocorticoid-treated rats as ... which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a glucocorticoid receptor, disappeared in glucocorticoid-treated rats as ... which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a glucocorticoid receptor, disappeared in glucocorticoid-treated rats as ... which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a glucocorticoid receptor, disappeared in glucocorticoid-treated rats as ...
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase - Wikipedia
Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, binds the glucocorticoid receptor. However, because of its molecular similarity to aldosterone it ... thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ ⇌ an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH ... which can no longer bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor. 11β-HSD co-localizes with intracellular adrenal steroid receptors. ... is also capable of binding the mineralcorticoid receptor. Both aldosterone and cortisol have a similar affinity for the ...
Adrenal cortex hormones - Latest research and news | Nature
nr3c1 null mutant zebrafish are viable and reveal DNA-binding-independent activities of the glucocorticoid receptor *N. ... Here, Bruce McEwen and colleagues discuss the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action in the brain and review how glucocorticoids ... Genomic and epigenomic mechanisms of glucocorticoids in the brain Glucocorticoids are essential for adaptation to stressors ( ... Metabolism: Gut microbiota modulates diurnal secretion of glucocorticoids A new study has identified the sophisticated ...
Glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding in monocytic cells using a microplate assay<...
Glucocorticoids receptor (GR) ligand binding capacity is a major determinant of cellular glucocorticoid sensitivity. The number ... Glucocorticoids receptor (GR) ligand binding capacity is a major determinant of cellular glucocorticoid sensitivity. The number ... Glucocorticoids receptor (GR) ligand binding capacity is a major determinant of cellular glucocorticoid sensitivity. The number ... Glucocorticoids receptor (GR) ligand binding capacity is a major determinant of cellular glucocorticoid sensitivity. The number ...
No data available that match "glucocorticoids bind receptors glucocorticoid"
AbstractNR3C1InhibitionHUMAN GlucocorticoidNuclearAffinityConcentrationsLigandsEndogenousAntagonistHydrocortisoneHormonesAction of glucocorticoidsSensitivityCorticosteroneMolecularInducesInhibitRegulationActivity of the glucocorticoidInflammationPromoterAdrenal cortexFamilial Glucocorticoid DeficiencyAssayNucleusResistanceExertParticular glucocorticoidMRNALevels of glucocorticoidsTranscription factor that bindsGenomicGREsSteroidsSelectivePresence of glucocorticoidInteractionsNeuronsLigand-bindinRole for glucocorticoidsTarget of glucocorticoidsRegulateModulateProgesterone receptorCorticosteroidsTissueSynthetic GlucocorticoidsMechanism of ActExpression
- Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) , also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1) can act either as a transcription factor by binding glucocoricoid response elements (GREs), or as a regulator of other transcription factors. (activemotif.com)
- Both natural and exogenous GCs function through activation of the GC receptor (GR), a transcription factor (TF) encoded by the NR3C1 gene. (jci.org)
- NR3C1 gene encodes the human glucocorticoid receptor(hGR), which is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and activates transcription of glucocorticoid-responsive genes through binding directly to glucocorticoid response elements(GREs) in their promoter region, or modulating transcriptional activity of other transcription factors through protein-protein interactions. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Fig. 2ALPHA Genomic structure of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR/NR3C1) gene. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The NR3C1 gene expresses mainly two mRNAs through alternative use of exons 9alpha and 9beta, producing two highly homologous receptor isoforms, termed alpha and beta(N. Z. Lu and Cidlowski, 2005). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- We did not find an insulin response element in the GRU, but we showed that insulin targets the GR. Insulin-induced inhibition of the glucocorticoid stimulation required the ligand-binding domain of the GR. Finally, the insulin-signaling cascade involved was independent of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. (uclouvain.be)
- For these receptors, proteasome inhibition interferes with steroid-mediated transcription. (asm.org)
- We show here that proteasome inhibition with MG132 results in increased accumulation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), confirming that it is likewise a substrate for the ubiquitin-proteasome degradative pathway. (asm.org)
- Thus, while altered nuclear mobility of steroid receptors may be a common feature of proteasome inhibition, GR is unique in its enhanced transactivation activity that results when proteasome function is compromised. (asm.org)
- Glucocorticoids are global in their inhibition of the inflammatory response. (encyclopedia.com)
- Glucocorticoid inhibition of lymphocyte secretion by alloreactive T lymphocyte clones. (nii.ac.jp)
- Therefore, when the glucocorticoids activate lipocortins, they cause the inhibition of PLA2 and subsequent inhibition of arachidonic acid and inhibition of prostaglandin production. (health24.com)
- Using transient expression experiments in rat pituitary cells, we located the sequence conferring glucocorticoid inhibition to a region which contains Pit-1 binding sites, responsible for pituitary-specific expression, but does not seem to contain a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding site. (ac.be)
- Gong X, Marisiddaiah R, Rubin LP (2017) Inhibition of pulmonary β-carotene 15, 15'-oxygenase expression by glucocorticoid involves PPARα. (plos.org)
- To investigate whether stimulated monocyte cytokine release and its inhibition by glucocorticoids differs between men and women. (bmj.com)
- Both synthetic and endogenous glucocorticoids are important pharmaceutic drugs known to bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. (aspetjournals.org)
- PGC1 α is found to interact more tightly and form a more stable complex with AncGR2 LBD than nuclear receptor coactivator 2. (aspetjournals.org)
- When nuclear or whole-cell extract is added, activated transcription factor of interest binds the oligonucleotide at its consensus binding site and is quantified using the included antibody, which is specific for the bound, active form of the transcription factor being studied. (activemotif.com)
- Activated nuclear extract is added to each well and the transcription factor of interest binds specifically to this bound oligonucleotide. (activemotif.com)
- Ligand binding induces a conformational change in the receptor, exposing nuclear localization signals and (ex)changing interaction partners, after which the receptor translocates to the nucleus. (jci.org)
- Glucocorticoid receptors in ATP-depleted WCL2 cells: dephosphorylation, loss of hormone binding, nuclear unextractibility and dissociation from HSP90. (dartmouth.edu)
- dephosphorylation , loss of hormone binding , nuclear unextractibility and dissociation from HSP90 . (dartmouth.edu)
- hGRα- and hGRβ-specific antibodies cross-adsorbed and precipitated cytosolic and nuclear glucocorticoid hGRα and hGRβ, respectively, as well as hsp90, suggesting that hGRα and hGRβ are in complex with hsp90 and/or each other. (elsevier.com)
- Footprinting experiments showed that the GRU binds not only the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), but also ubiquitous [nuclear factor I (NF-I)] and liver-enriched [hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-3, HNF-6, CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)] transcription factors. (uclouvain.be)
- Blocking GR turnover reduced the mobility of the GR within the nucleus, and this correlated with increased association of the receptor with the nuclear matrix. (asm.org)
- The central DBD spans 65 amino acids and contains two zinc finger motifs that are common DNA binding motifs among the nuclear transcription factors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. (abcam.com)
- Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain. (abcam.com)
- Signal transduction by steroid hormones:Nuclear localization is differentially regulated in estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors. (nii.ac.jp)
- Glucocorticoids perform these functions by binding to a cytoplasmic receptor protein glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. (nii.ac.jp)
- DNA binding domain and nuclear localization signal. (nii.ac.jp)
- The AR protein shares highly structural similarities in the DBD and LBD with other steroid nuclear receptor family members, such as glucocorticoids receptor (GR), mineral corticoid receptor (MR), and progesterone receptor (PR). (omicsonline.org)
- GR-binding affinity (K d ) and receptor number (n) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) obtained from 10 normal subjects, 10 untreated, intermittent asthmatics and 10severe asthmatics were assessed. (ersjournals.com)
- Steroid derivatives for electrophilic affinity labelling of glucocorticoid binding sites: interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor and biological activity. (semanticscholar.org)
- Identifying the structural mechanisms that drive drug affinity is of pharmacologic interest to the glucocorticoid receptor field as an avenue to guide future drug design targeting GR-PGC1α signaling, which plays a crucial role in controlling hepatic glucose output. (aspetjournals.org)
- For corticosteroids, receptor-binding affinity (RBA) at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major determinant of therapeutic potential. (elsevier.com)
- Binding affinity is dramatically increased by 6α- or 9α-halogenation or introduction of a cyclic 16,17-acetal moiety (in average, about 7-fold), but there is no significant increase after the first substitution. (elsevier.com)
- For small-enough structures, the obtained size-dependency (slope) of the free energy of binding suggest that, as long as only nonspecific interactions are involved, addition of a methylene-sized non-hydrogen atom to the ligand structure increases ΔG 0 on average by about 1.5 kJ/mol, corresponding to an almost doubling of the binding affinity. (elsevier.com)
- The lower affinity component, which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a glucocorticoid receptor, disappeared in glucocorticoid-treated rats as evidenced by linear Scatchard plots. (northwestern.edu)
- Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that readily cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors and high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptors ( Reul and de Kloet, 1985 ). (jneurosci.org)
- 3 Although aldosterone has been seen as the culprit, glucocorticoids bind to the MR with the same affinity at physiological concentrations and exert similar effects on various targets, including vessels. (ahajournals.org)
- To examine the role of corticosterone during migration, we induced Gambel's white-crowned sparrows to enter the migratory condition and compared food intake and locomotor activity between controls and birds injected with RU486 - an antagonist to the low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In addition, we investigated effects of RU486 in birds that were subjected to a short-term fast. (biologists.org)
- Trans-acting factor that binds to glucocorticoid modulatory elements (GME) present in the TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) promoter and increases sensitivity to low concentrations of glucocorticoids. (uniprot.org)
- It showed that there is a difference in F-Dex binding at the highest concentrations in the neonate population, as compared to our pediatric population, most likely related to changes in the GR in the process of adaptation to extrauterine life. (eurospe.org)
- Receptor concentrations of the androgenic component of [ 3 H]methyltrienolone binding were unchanged by CA treatment and were significantly increased only in the vehicle-treated overloaded group. (northwestern.edu)
- 13 In addition, a recent study suggests that men require lower concentrations of glucocorticoids than do women to inhibit stress induced production of proinflammatory cytokines. (bmj.com)
- However, results from these experiments may be confounded because administration of glucocorticoids typically elevates plasma concentrations to maximal or even pharmacological levels (e.g. (biologists.org)
- This hyperpigmentation fades once proper treatment is initiated with glucocorticoids, which reduce ACTH concentrations. (medscape.com)
- The data have been analyzed by correspondence analysis to reveal the singularities among the receptors of different hormonal classes, the similarities in GR of different origins, and the different specificities of the ligands. (biomedsearch.com)
- GR ligands bind to the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) within the LBD and allosterically stabilize the distal activation function-2 (AF-2) region composed of helices 3, 4, and 12. (aspetjournals.org)
- Naturally, binding does not necessarily imply activation, and different ligands can evoke different conformational changes in receptors, or attract different co-activators [ 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- We also revealed that the function of the ligand binding domain is variably modulated by ligands via interaction with distinct regions of the very domain. (nii.ac.jp)
- Mifepristone is a progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. (drugbank.ca)
- As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary cushing syndrome. (drugbank.ca)
- The compound mifepristone is widely used as an antagonist to the GR and appears to effectively bind to and inhibit the GR in birds. (biologists.org)
- Example adrenal complex hormones are corticosteroids such as immune system hormone glucocorticoid, and androgens such as testosterone. (nature.com)
- Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones and the end product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the stress response. (frontiersin.org)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that are derived from cholesterol and secreted by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. (jci.org)
- All natural steroid hormones share a common chemical structure and have additional chemical groups bound to the steroid nucleus that confer specificity to their actions. (aacrjournals.org)
- Glucocorticoids are naturally-produced steroid hormones, or synthetic compounds, that inhibit the process of inflammation. (encyclopedia.com)
- Indeed, the designation glucocorticoid arose from observations that the hormones played a role in the utilization of glucose. (encyclopedia.com)
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are hormones that are synthesized in the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypo-thalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The term "glucocorticoid" represents both secreted hormones and anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. (physiology.org)
- Historically, glucocorticoids were defined as a group of hormones released from the cortex of the adrenal gland. (physiology.org)
- Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is a condition that occurs when the adrenal glands, which are hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney, do not produce certain hormones called glucocorticoids . (medlineplus.gov)
- A shortage of adrenal hormones (adrenal insufficiency) causes the signs and symptoms of familial glucocorticoid deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
Action of glucocorticoids1
- This method should prove to be a substantial aid to the interpretation of increasingly complex data, in particular with regard to the action of existing and newly synthesized steroids on glucocorticoid systems of differential sensitivity. (biomedsearch.com)
- Given the importance of glucocorticoids in lung development and functioning, studying glucocorticoid sensitivity in this population would be helpful, especially in the preterm population, to determine steroid treatment for better lung outcomes. (eurospe.org)
- Glucocorticoids receptor (GR) ligand binding capacity is a major determinant of cellular glucocorticoid sensitivity. (vumc.nl)
- To understand the mechanism that mediates roflumilast-induced restoration of glucocorticoid sensitivity in COPD, we tested the role of glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα). (dovepress.com)
- Our findings highlight the significance of roflumilast-induced GRα upregulation for COPD therapeutic strategies by revealing that roflumilast restores glucocorticoid sensitivity by sustaining GRα expression. (dovepress.com)
- Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the direct effects of corticosterone (CORT) (the glucocorticoid in rodents) on principal BLA cells in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
- Because glucocorticoids exert permissive effects on food intake, corticosterone may also participate in the regulation of migratory hyperphagia. (biologists.org)
- Thus, we suggest that inhibiting glucocorticoid receptors for corticosterone may be a more salient technique when investigating the role of seasonal corticosterone levels. (biologists.org)
- SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT High-resolution structures of AncGR2 LBD bound to DEX and HCY in complex with PGC1α reveal the molecular mechanism of PGC1α binding to AncGR2 LBD as well as the distinct affinities between DEX and HCY binding. (aspetjournals.org)
- Buchwald, P 2008, ' Glucocorticoid receptor binding: A biphasic dependence on molecular size as revealed by the bilinear LinBiExp model ', Steroids , vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 193-208. (elsevier.com)
- However, because of its molecular similarity to aldosterone it is also capable of binding the mineralcorticoid receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- This study was designed to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced PLA2G4A expression in human amnion fibroblasts. (elsevier.com)
- This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for such glucocorticoid inefficacy in COPD, which may be instrumental to providing better patient outcomes. (dovepress.com)
- Binding of GC to the GC receptor (GR) induces its dissociation from a cytoplasmic multimeric complex of chaperone proteins and its translocation to the nucleus, where it dimerizes and acts as a transcription factor, via binding to a GC response element within the 5′ promoter region of target genes ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- GR is found in the cytoplasm in the absence of ligand binding, but once a ligand has bound, a conformational change induces transport to the nucleus. (activemotif.com)
- Glucocorticoids (both natural and synthetic) inhibit the immune response, thus preventing inflammation from occurring. (health24.com)
- Glucocorticoids can also inhibit COX-2 enzymes directly. (health24.com)
- en] Glucocorticoids have been shown to inhibit the activity of the human prolactin (hPRL) promoter. (ac.be)
Activity of the glucocorticoid1
- Glucocorticoids are used to stop the inflammation process. (encyclopedia.com)
- Depending on the particular glucocorticoid that is used, inflammation can be affected at different points in the inflammatory pathway. (encyclopedia.com)
- In addition to interfering with the transcription of enzymes involved in inflammation, glucocorticoids also suppress inflammation by activating enzymes called lipocortins. (health24.com)
- Through their effects on inflammation and cellular proliferation, glucocorticoids have beneficial effects on heart disease ( 174 ). (physiology.org)
Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency7
- Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive condition. (medscape.com)
- Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare disease, and only isolated case reports are documented. (medscape.com)
- Other features of familial glucocorticoid deficiency can include recurrent infections and skin coloring darker than that of other family members (hyperpigmentation). (medlineplus.gov)
- There are multiple types of familial glucocorticoid deficiency, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. (medlineplus.gov)
- The prevalence of familial glucocorticoid deficiency is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
- Phenotypic characteristics of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) type 1 and 2. (medlineplus.gov)
- The majority of adrenocorticotropin receptor (melanocortin 2 receptor) mutations found in familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. (medlineplus.gov)
- In the present study, the characteristics of GR binding onisolated peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) have been investigated using a whole-cell, competitive-binding assay. (ersjournals.com)
- Conclusion: A cord blood F-Dex monocyte binding assay can be used to characterise the GR in neonates. (eurospe.org)
- In the presence of glucocorticoid, hGRβ probably heterodimerizes with ligand-bound hGRα and translocates into the nucleus to act as a dominant negative inhibitor of the classic receptor. (elsevier.com)
- In contrast, combined stimulation with IFN-γ and Pb NK65 extract impaired inhibitory actions of GCs on chemokine release, without affecting the capacity of the GC receptor to accumulate in the nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
- These results suggest that the relative levels of the glucocorticoid receptor α and the glucocorticoid receptor P may play a role in the occurrence of glucocorticoid resistance in tumor cells during the treatment of hematological malignancies with glucocorticoids. (aacrjournals.org)
- The GR is abnormal in familial glucocorticoid resistance. (bionity.com)
- Insulin resistance is viewed as an insufficiency in insulin action, with glucocorticoids being recognized to play a key role in its pathogenesis. (physiology.org)
- Roflumilast has a suggested ability to mitigate glucocorticoid resistance, but the mechanism is unknown. (dovepress.com)
- The collection of transcripts associated with GR, identified by immunoprecipitation of GR-mRNA complexes followed by microarray analysis, revealed 479 transcripts that associated with GR. Computational analysis of the primary sequence and secondary structures of these transcripts yielded a GC-rich motif, which was shown to bind to GR in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
- The effects of glucocorticoids are mediated through the glucocorticoid receptor α, the abundance of which can be modulated by alternative splicing of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
- Two splice variants of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA have been described: glucocorticoid receptor β, which reportedly has a dominant negative effect on the actions of the glucocorticoid receptor α, and glucocorticoid receptor P, of which the effects are unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although the glucocorticoid receptor β mRNA was, if at all, expressed at very low levels, considerable amounts (up to 50% of the total glucocorticoid receptor mRNA) glucocorticoid receptor P mRNA was present in most hematological malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
- Glucocorticoids can also cause changes in the mRNA molecule itself, which can further alter the production of proteins in the cell. (health24.com)
Levels of glucocorticoids1
Transcription factor that binds1
- In total we identified 1183 genomic binding sites of GR, the majority of which were novel and not identified in other ChIP-Seq studies on GR binding. (biomedcentral.com)
- In keeping with this, the genomic effects of these receptors have been implicated in the memory-enhancing effects of glucocorticoids. (jneurosci.org)
- Binding of steroids to the progestin and glucocorticoid receptors analyzed by correspondence analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
- Steroid-Cell Interactions describes the processes involved in the intracellular binding of steroids (and related compounds) in mammalian cells. (worldcat.org)
- Rather, glucocorticoids are catabolic steroids, meaning they are designed to break down compounds. (encyclopedia.com)
- Technically, the term corticosteroid refers to both steroids, but it is often used as a synonym for glucocorticoids. (health24.com)
- While glucocorticoid drugs are steroids, they are not the same as anabolic steroids, which are sometimes taken to enhance physical performance in athletes, or to help rebuild tissues that have become weak because of serious injury or illness. (health24.com)
- Instead glucocorticoids are catabolic steroids, which break down tissue. (health24.com)
Presence of glucocorticoid1
- Structural analyses reveal how distinct steroid drugs bind to GR with different affinities by unique hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. (aspetjournals.org)
- These interactions lead to a high level of protection from hydrogen-deuterium exchange at the coregulator interaction site and strong intramolecular allosteric communication to ligand binding site. (aspetjournals.org)
- They will also have application in other examples of ligand-receptor interactions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Accordingly, binding is strongest for corticosteroids close to an ideal size that is large enough to provide as large nonspecific (van der Waals-type) interactions as possible, but is not too large to have difficulty fitting due to size-limitations at the binding site. (elsevier.com)
- Dashed yellow lines represent hydrogen bonding interactions between the receptor and ligand. (bionity.com)
- Glucocorticoids, secreted by the adrenals in response to stress, profoundly affect structure and plasticity of neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nevertheless, the nervous and immune systems can influence each other's activity because immune cells express neurotransmitter receptors, and neurons express cytokine receptors. (nature.com)
- Neurotransmitters are normally released in the synaptic cleft and bind to postsynaptic neurons or undergo reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. (nature.com)
- However, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood. (jneurosci.org)
- However, despite overwhelming behavioral evidence indicating that glucocorticoids modulate memory consolidation via the BLA, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood. (jneurosci.org)
Role for glucocorticoids2
Target of glucocorticoids1
- The present study sought to determine whether glucocorticoids modulate the hallmark neuropathological features of AD and, if so, the underlying mechanism. (jneurosci.org)
- Site-directed mutational analysis of the GRU revealed that these factors modulate glucocorticoid action but that none of them seems to be individually involved in the inhibitory effect of insulin. (uclouvain.be)
- The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates the turnover of many transcription factors, including steroid hormone receptors such as the estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. (asm.org)
- The anti-progestational activity of mifepristone results from competitive interaction with progesterone at progesterone-receptor sites. (drugbank.ca)
- TransAM ® Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that facilitate the study of transcription factor activation in mammalian tissue and cell extracts. (activemotif.com)
- First, the two corticosteroid receptor subtypes, designated mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (MR and GR), have somewhat different tissue distributions [ 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Tissue-specific actions of glucocorticoids on apoptosis: a double-edged sword. (nih.gov)
Mechanism of Act1
- Here, we identify induction of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression as a common feature of drug-resistant tumors in a credentialed preclinical model, a finding also confirmed in patient samples. (omicsdi.org)
- The inflammatory process in asthma involves the increased expression of various pro-inflammatory chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, lipid mediators, adhesion molecules, enzymes, and receptors for the same inflammatory mediators 21 . (ersjournals.com)