A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.
A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.
A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of ECZEMA.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 4.3.2.1.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (1/7402)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/7402)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Production of prostaglandin f2alpha and its metabolite by endometrium and yolk sac placenta in late gestation in the tammar wallaby, Macropus Eugenii. (3/7402)

In this study, we investigated production of prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha and its metabolite, PGFM, by uterine tissues from tammar wallabies in late pregnancy. Endometrial explants were prepared from gravid and nongravid uteri of tammars between Day 18 of gestation (primitive streak) and Day 26.5 (term) and were incubated in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with glutamine and antibiotics for 20 h. PGF2alpha and PGFM in the medium were assayed by specific, validated RIAs. Control tissues (leg muscle) did not produce detectable amounts of either PG. Both gravid and nongravid endometria secreted PGF2alpha, and production increased significantly in both gravid and nongravid uteri towards term. PGFM was produced in small amounts by both gravid and nongravid uteri, and the rate of production did not increase. Neither oxytocin nor dexamethasone stimulated PG production in vitro in any tissue at any stage. Thus, the surge in peripheral plasma PGFM levels seen at parturition may arise from increased uterine PG production, but further study is needed to define what triggers this release.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is an accessory factor for the glucocorticoid response from the cAMP response element in the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter. (4/7402)

The cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter is required for a complete glucocorticoid response. Proteins known to bind the PEPCK CRE include the CRE-binding protein (CREB) and members of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family. We took two different approaches to determine which of these proteins provides the accessory factor activity for the glucocorticoid response from the PEPCK CRE. The first strategy involved replacing the CRE of the PEPCK promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmid (pPL32) with a consensus C/EBP-binding sequence. This construct, termed pDeltaCREC/EBP, binds C/EBPalpha and beta but not CREB, yet it confers a nearly complete glucocorticoid response when transiently transfected into H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. These results suggest that one of the C/EBP family members may be the accessory factor. The second strategy involved co-transfecting H4IIE cells with a pPL32 mutant, in which the CRE was replaced with a GAL4-binding sequence (pDeltaCREGAL4), and various GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD) fusion protein expression vectors. Although chimeric proteins consisting of the GAL4 DBD fused to either CREB or C/EBPalpha are able to confer an increase in basal transcription, they do not facilitate the glucocorticoid response. In contrast, a fusion protein consisting of the GAL4 DBD and amino acids 1-118 of C/EBPbeta provides a significant glucocorticoid response. Additional GAL4 fusion studies were done to map the minimal domain of C/EBPbeta needed for accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response. Chimeric proteins containing amino acid regions 1-84, 52-118, or 85-118 of C/EBPbeta fused to the GAL4 DBD do not mediate a glucocorticoid response. We conclude that the amino terminus of C/EBPbeta contains a multicomponent domain necessary to confer accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response from the CRE of the PEPCK gene promoter.  (+info)

Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. (5/7402)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids.  (+info)

Inactivation of the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha affects glucose homeostasis and islet glucagon gene expression in vivo. (6/7402)

Mice homozygous for a null mutation in the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha showed severe postnatal growth retardation followed by death between P2 and P12. Homozygous mutant mice were hypoglycemic despite unchanged expression of HNF3 target genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Whereas insulin and corticosteroid levels were altered as expected, plasma glucagon was reduced markedly in the mutant animals despite the hypoglycemia that should be expected to increase glucagon levels. This correlated with a 70% reduction in pancreatic proglucagon gene expression. We also showed that HNF3alpha could bind to and transactivate the proglucagon gene promoter. These observations invoke a central role for HNF3alpha in the regulatory control of islet genes essential for glucose homeostasis in vivo.  (+info)

Antisense downregulation of a mouse mammary tumor virus activated protooncogene in mouse mammary tumor cells reverses the malignant phenotype. (7/7402)

Activation of the protooncogene Wnt-1 by insertion of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is known to cause mammary tumors in mice. Wnt-1 expression in mammary glands has been postulated to confer direct local growth stimulation of mammary epithelial cells leading to their acquisition of a preneoplastic state. Wnt-1 expression also induces morphological alterations in cultured normal mammary cells. However, it has not been determined whether or not transformed mammary cells require continuous Wnt-1 expression for their ability to form tumors in vivo. To address this question, we constructed antisense and sense Wnt-1 expression vectors containing a synthetic promoter composed of five high-affinity glucocorticoid response elements (GRE5). This promoter is at least 50-fold more inducible by dexamethasone than the promoter contained in the long terminal repeats of MMTV. The vectors were introduced into a mouse mammary tumor cell line (R/Sa-MT) that expresses high levels of endogenous Wnt-1 mRNA and forms rapidly growing tumors when transplanted into syngeneic hosts. Of the 12 stably transfected cell lines established (9 with antisense and 3 with sense constructs), 2 antisense cell lines (R/Sa-MT/antisense) and 1 sense cell line (R/Sa-MT/sense) were examined for inducibility by dexamethasone of antisense and sense Wnt-1 RNAs, changes in endogenous Wnt-1 RNA expression, and changes in cell morphology. The growth patterns of the cells in vitro and in vivo were also examined. Our results show that (1) the levels of the expression of endogenous Wnt-1 mRNA and protein were reduced significantly (>80%) in those cells (R/Sa-MT/antisense) that expressed antisense Wnt-1 RNA at high levels following exposure to dexamethasone, compared to the R/Sa-MT/sense and R/Sa-MT control cells and (2) transplantation of the R/Sa-MT/antisense cells produced smaller tumors ( approximately 0.2 cm in 16 weeks) compared to the tumors ( approximately 2.0 cm in 8 weeks) that were produced by the R/Sa-MT/sense and R/Sa-MT cells. We therefore suggest that Wnt-1 expression is required not only for the transformation of normal mammary cells into tumor cells, but also for the maintenance of their tumorigenicity.  (+info)

Role of iNOS in the vasodilator responses induced by L-arginine in the middle cerebral artery from normotensive and hypertensive rats. (8/7402)

1. The substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), L-arginine (L-Arg, 0.01 microM - 1 mM), induced endothelium-independent relaxations in segments of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR) precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). These relaxations were higher in SHR than WKY arteries. 2. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 2-amine-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-tiazine (AMT), unspecific and inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitors, respectively, reduced those relaxations, specially in SHR. 3. Four- and seven-hours incubation with dexamethasone reduced the relaxations in MCAs from WKY and SHR, respectively. 4. Polymyxin B and calphostin C, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, reduced the L-Arg-induced relaxation. 5. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7 h incubation) unaltered and inhibited these relaxations in WKY and SHR segments, respectively. LPS antagonized the effect polymyxin B in WKY and potentiated L-Arg-induced relaxations in SHR in the presence of polymyxin B. 6. The contraction induced by PGF2alpha was greater in SHR than WKY arteries. This contraction was potentiated by dexamethasone and polymyxin B although the effect of polymyxin B was higher in SHR segments. LPS reduced that contraction and antagonized dexamethasone- and polymyxin B-induced potentiation, these effects being greater in arteries from SHR. 7. These results suggest that in MCAs: (1) the induction of iNOS participates in the L-Arg relaxation and modulates the contraction to PGF2alpha; (2) that induction is partially mediated by a PKC-dependent mechanism; and (3) the involvement of iNOS in such responses is greater in the hypertensive strain.  (+info)

Lu YC, Evans CH, Grodzinsky AJ. Effects of short-term glucocorticoid treatment on changes in cartilage matrix degradation and chondrocyte gene expression induced by mechanical injury and inflammatory cytokines. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011; 13(5):R142 ...
Glucocorticoids are commonly used in treatment of paediatric diseases, but evidence of associated adverse cerebral effects is accumulating. The various pharmacokinetic profiles of the exogenous glucocorticoids and the changes in pharmacodynamics during childhood, result in different exposure of nervous tissue to exogenous glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids activate two types of intracellular receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. The two receptors differ in cerebral distribution, affinity and effects. Exogenous glucocorticoids favor activation of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral ...
There is convincing evidence for the known and unambiguously accepted beneficial effects of glucocorticoids at low dosages. However, the implementation of existing recommendations and guidelines on the management of glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases is lagging behind. As a first step to improve implementation, we aimed at defining conditions under which long-term glucocorticoid therapy may have an acceptably low level of harm. A multidisciplinary European League Against Rheumatism task force group of experts including patients with rheumatic diseases was assembled. After a systematic literature search, breakout groups critically reviewed the evidence on the four most worrisome adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy (osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia/diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and infections) and presented their results to the other group members following a structured questionnaire for final discussion and consensus finding. Robust evidence on the risk of harm of long-term
Side effects for SGC_Cases and non-cases_Treatment_Demographics is a random sample of 3000 dogs under primary veterinary care that had systemic glucocorticoid treatment in 2013, taken from the VetCompass dataset. The data provide the demographic characteristics, active substance and route of administration for these dogs.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of glucocorticoid treatment on bone strength. AU - Manolides, Andrew S.. AU - Cullen, Diane M.. AU - Akhter, Mohammed P.. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Glucocorticoids (GCs) are prescribed for the treatment of several diseases, but their long-term use causes osteoporosis. Current research suggests that GCs suppress the canonical Wnt/β pathway, resulting in decreased expression of critical bone proteins. This study examined how bone structure and strength of high bone mass (HBM) mice and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) knockout (KO+/-) mice are affected by GC treatment in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, and if changes were specific to either trabecular or cortical bone. Mice were treated with either prednisone or placebo. The femurs and L4 vertebral bodies were analyzed by micro-CT for structure and mechanically tested to determine strength and apparent material strength properties. Differences in all measured variables corresponding to ...
BACKGROUND: Treatment with glucocorticoids is the leading cause of drug-induced osteoporosis. Currently available guidelines indicate that patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy should receive measures to prevent osteoporosis. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy in a managed care setting received preventive therapy or prescribed medications for osteoporosis and to identify patient and provider characteristics associated with treatment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 224 health plan enrollees 20 years and older who were dispensed at least 1 oral glucocorticoid prescription per quarter during the period October 1997 through September 1998 was identified from administrative data. Medical charts and administrative data were reviewed to determine use of preventive therapy and prescribed medications for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Of the 224 patients, 62% had at least 1 documented intervention aimed at osteoporosis prevention (counseling about calcium
We examined the direct effects of glucocorticoid treatment on neutrophil survival and function in vitro. Four different glucocorticoids caused a dose-dependent inhibition of apoptosis leading to increased survival of neutrophils. Maximal effects were found with dexamethasone at 10(-6) M, 16.6 +/- 6.2 vs 54.6 +/- 6.9, at 24 h (p , 0.05). Nonglucocorticoid steroids did not modulate apoptosis in neutrophils. Furthermore, the effect was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 486. Glucocorticoid-treated neutrophils produced significantly more superoxide in response to FMLP than untreated controls (p , 0.05). However, both basal and stimulated superoxide production were less than that found with freshly isolated cells. Such lack of priming or activation by glucocorticoids is in contrast to previous experience when increased survival was accompanied by cell activation. When compared with other stimuli, the effect of glucocorticoids at 24 h was similar to that of LPS ...
We have investigated the effect of long-term glucocorticoid (GC) administration on bone turnover in two frequently used mouse strains; C57BL/6J and CD1, in order to assess the influence of their genetic background on GC-induced osteoporosis (GIO). GIO was induced in 12 weeks old female C57BL/6J and CD1 mice by subcutaneous insertion of long-term release prednisolone or placebo pellets. Biomechanical properties as assessed by three point bent testing revealed that femoral elasticity and strength significantly decreased in CD1 mice receiving GC, whereas C57BL/6J mice showed no differences between placebo and prednisolone treatment. Bone turnover assessed by microcomputer tomography revealed that contrary to C57BL/6J mice, prednisolone treated CD1 mice developed osteoporosis. In vitro experiments have underlined that, at a cellular level, C57BL/6J mice osteoclasts and osteoblasts were less responsive to GC treatment and tolerated higher doses than CD1 cells. Whilst administration of long-term release
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen peroxide signaling is required for glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells. AU - Tome, Margaret E.. AU - Jaramillo, Melba C.. AU - Briehl, Margaret M.. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/1. N2 - Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is exploited clinically for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Determining the required molecular events for glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis will identify resistance mechanisms and suggest strategies for overcoming resistance. In this study, we found that glucocorticoid treatment of WEHI7.2 murine thymic lymphoma cells increased the steady-state [H 2O 2] and oxidized the intracellular redox environment before cytochrome c release. Removal of glucocorticoids after the H 2O 2 increase resulted in a 30% clonogenicity; treatment with PEG-CAT increased clonogenicity to 65%. Human leukemia cell lines also showed increased H 2O 2 in response to glucocorticoids and attenuated apoptosis after PEG-CAT treatment. WEHI7.2 cells that overexpress ...
Glucocorticoids are frequently used as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. However, high doses and/or prolonged use induce undesired secondary effects such as muscular atrophy. Recently, de novo expression of connexin43 and connexin45 hemichannels (Cx43 HCs and Cx45 HCs, respectively) has been proposed to play a critical role in the mechanism underlying myofiber atrophy induced by dexamethasone (Dex: a synthetic glucocorticoid), but their involvement in specific muscle changes promoted by Dex remains poorly understood. Moreover, treatments that could prevent the undesired effects of glucocorticoids on skeletal muscles remain unknown. In the present work, a 7-day Dex treatment in adult mice was found to induce weight loss and skeletal muscle changes including expression of functional Cx43/Cx45 HCs, elevated atrogin immunoreactivity, atrophy, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. All these undesired effects were absent in muscles of mice simultaneously treated with Dex and ...
First described for their metabolic and immunosuppressive effects, glucocorticoids are widely prescribed in clinical settings of inflammation. However, glucocorticoids are also potent inducers of apoptosis in many cell types and tissues. This review will focus on the established mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis and outline what is known about the apoptotic response in cells and tissues of the body after exposure to glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis affects the skeletal system, muscular system, circulatory system, nervous system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and the immune system. Interestingly, several cell types have an anti-apoptotic response to glucocorticoids that is cytoprotective. Lastly, we will discuss the pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of glucocorticoids in cancers and their clinical implications.
The soon-to-be-delivered fetus and preterm infant have been treated with glucocorticoids to prepare for postnatal life, historically for more than 40 years. The use of glucocorticoids is as much for replacement of cortisol in the setting of a poorly functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the preterm infant, as it is for prevention of long-term lung dysfunction. Potential negative effects of glucocorticoid treatment on brain development and function have been observed more often with dexamethasone therapy than with use of other glucocorticoids. Overall, glucocorticoid treatment has improved the outcome of the preterm infant.
in Arthritis Research & Therapy (2016), 18(1), 219. BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of ... [more ▼]. BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of ...
1. Glucocorticoids are widely used for the suppression of inflammation in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune diseases, all of which are associated with increased expression of inflammatory genes. The molecular mechanisms involved in this antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids is discussed, particularly in asthma, which accounts for the highest clinical use of these agents.. 2. Glucocorticoids bind to glucocorticoid receptors in the cytoplasm which then dimerize and translocate to the nucleus, where they bind to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) on glucocorticoid-responsive genes, resulting in increased transcription. Glucocorticoids may increase the transcription of genes coding for antiinflammatory proteins, including lipocortin-1, interleukin-10, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and neutral endopeptidase, but this is unlikely to account for all of the widespread anti-inflammatory actions of ...
To evaluate the risk of fracture in patients receiving intermittent therapy with high-dose oral glucocorticoids (GCs).The study group comprised 191,752 patients from the UK General Practice Database who were 40 years of age and older and received therapy with GCs. The followup time period was divided into the categories of current and no exposure. The daily dose and cumulative dose for each time period were determined. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, disease history, and drug history. Fractures of the radius/ulna, humerus, rib, femur/hip, pelvis, or vertebrae were included in the evaluation.Patients who intermittently received high-dose GCs (daily dose | or =15 mg) and had no or little previous exposure to GCs (cumulative exposure | or =1 gm) had a small increased risk of osteoporotic (but not hip/femur) fracture; this risk increased substantially with increasing cumulative exposure. Among patients who received a
Therapy with antihistamines and oral glucocorticoids should probably continue at home for another 2-3 days to prevent recurrence.
OBJECTIVE: The frequency of many adverse events (AEs) associated with low-dose glucocorticoid use is unclear. We sought to determine the prevalence of glucocorticoid-associated AEs in a large US managed care population. METHODS: Using linked administrative and pharmacy claims, adults receiving |or=60 days of glucocorticoids were identified. These individuals were surveyed about glucocorticoid use and symptoms of 8 AEs commonly attributed to glucocorticoid use. RESULTS: Of the 6,517 eligible glucocorticoid users identified, 2,446 (38%) returned the mailed survey. Respondents were 29% men with a mean +/- SD age of 53 +/- 14 years; 79% were white and 13% were African American. Respondents had a mean +/- SD of 7 +/- 3 comorbid conditions and were prescribed a mean +/- SD prednisone-equivalent dosage of 16 +/- 14 mg/day. More than 90% of individuals reported at least 1 AE associated with glucocorticoid use; 55% reported that at least 1 AE was very bothersome. Weight gain was the most common self-reported AE
Glucocorticoids are frequently used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients may take inhaled corticosteroids on a regular basis. In addition, systemic glucocorticoids may be used to treat acute exacerbations. One of the serious side effects of glucocorticoid therapy is osteoporosis. The loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are related to the cumulative amount of glucocorticoids used. Numerous studies have shown that the use of glucocorticoids in male patients increases their risk for fractures, but few studies have looked at the impact of various treatment regimens on bone mass in this group. Dubois and associates studied the impact of different glucocorticoid treatment regimens on bone density measurements in adult men with COPD.. Male patients with the diagnosis of COPD who were cared for in a pulmonary clinic over a one-year period were evaluated for the study. To be included in the study, patients had to have a diagnosis of COPD that had been ...
Glucocorticoids are prescribed for their immunosuppressive, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergenic effects and are integral to the management of numerous conditions, including malignancies, transplantation, autoimmune and allergic d
Glucocorticoids and NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis through different mechanisms. NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis by noncompetitive inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymatic activity. Glucocorticoids are the most potent, endogenous, and specific COX-2 inhibitors. Glucocorticoids suppress prostaglandin production through inhibiting cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity and suppressing COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression. The actions of glucocorticoids are regulated systemically and locally (7). Circulating glucocorticoid levels are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Within target tissues, the actions of glucocorticoids are downregulated by 11ßHSD2-mediated metabolism. 11ßHSD2 is expressed predominantly in mineralocorticoid responsive tissues such as the kidney and colon to convert glucocorticoids to their inactive keto-forms, thus providing mineralocorticoid receptor selectivity to aldosterone.. Glucocorticoids are known to inhibit cell proliferation and induce ...
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major drug target in inflammatory disease. However, chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment leads to disordered energy metabolism, including increased weight gain, adiposity, and hepatosteatosis - all programs modulated by the circadian clock. We demonstrated that while antiinflammatory GC actions were maintained irrespective of dosing time, the liver was significantly more GC sensitive during the day. Temporal segregation of GC action was underpinned by a physical interaction of GR with the circadian transcription factor REVERBa and co-binding with liver-specific hepatocyte nuclear transcription factors (HNFs) on chromatin. REVERBa promoted efficient GR recruitment to chromatin during the day, acting in part by maintaining histone acetylation, with REVERBa-dependent GC responses providing segregation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Importantly, deletion of Reverba inverted circadian liver GC sensitivity and protected mice from hepatosteatosis induced by ...
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major drug target in inflammatory disease. However, chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment leads to disordered energy metabolism, including increased weight gain, adiposity, and hepatosteatosis - all programs modulated by the circadian clock. We demonstrated that while antiinflammatory GC actions were maintained irrespective of dosing time, the liver was significantly more GC sensitive during the day. Temporal segregation of GC action was underpinned by a physical interaction of GR with the circadian transcription factor REVERBa and co-binding with liver-specific hepatocyte nuclear transcription factors (HNFs) on chromatin. REVERBa promoted efficient GR recruitment to chromatin during the day, acting in part by maintaining histone acetylation, with REVERBa-dependent GC responses providing segregation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Importantly, deletion of Reverba inverted circadian liver GC sensitivity and protected mice from hepatosteatosis induced by ...
In the UK, over 250 000 patients take continuous oral glucocorticoids (GCs), yet no more than 14% receive any therapy to prevent bone loss, a major complication of GC treatment. Bone loss is rapid, particularly in the first year, and fracture risk may double. This review, based wherever possible on …
The initial search produced 217 citations, and 15 were added from experts, abstracts and review of reference lists. Authors of 4 trials being prepared for publication (and subsequently published) kindly shared their data. After application of eligibility criteria 15 studies and 1,414 patients were included. The majority of trials studied early RA (disease duration up to 2 years), and the mean cumulative dose of glucocorticoid was 2,300 mg prednisone equivalent (range 270 mg - 5,800 mg) over the first year. Glucocorticoids were mostly added to other disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drug (DMARD) treatment. The standardised mean difference in progression was 0.40 in favour of glucocorticoids (95% CI 0.27, 0.54). In studies lasting 2 years (806 patients included), the standardised mean difference in progression in favour of glucocorticoids at 1 year was 0.45 (0.24, 0.66) and at 2 years was 0.42 (0.30, 0.55). All studies except one showed a numerical treatment effect in favour of glucocorticoids. ...
Pharmacology - Glucocorticoids have effects on virtually every cell type and system in mammals. An overview of the effects of these agents follows:. Cardiovascular System: Glucocorticoids can reduce capillary permeability and enhance vasoconstriction. A relatively clinically insignificant positive inotropic effect can occur after glucocorticoid administration. Increased blood pressure can result from both the drugs vasoconstrictive properties and increased blood volume that may be produced.. Cells: Glucocorticoids inhibit fibroblast proliferation, macrophage response to migration inhibiting factor, sensitization of lymphocytes and the cellular response to mediators of inflammation. Glucocorticoids stabilize lysosomal membranes.. CNS/Autonomic Nervous System: Glucocorticoids can lower seizure threshold, alter mood and behavior, diminish the response to pyrogens, stimulate appetite and maintain alpha rhythm. Glucocorticoids are necessary for normal adrenergic receptor sensitivity.. Endocrine ...
Glucocorticoids Definition Glucocorticoids are naturally-produced steroid hormones, or synthetic compounds, that inhibit the process of inflammation. Purpose The target of glucocorticoids: inflammation Glucocorticoids are used to stop the inflammation process.
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Glucocorticoid administration is frequently used to suppress inflammation and treat a variety of conditions in the VA patient population. One of the most signif...
Antenatal glucocorticoid therapy reduces mortality in the preterm infant, but evidence suggests off-target adverse effects on the developing cardiovascular system. Whether deleterious effects are direct on the offspring or secondary to alterations in uteroplacental physiology is unclear. Here, we isolated direct effects of glucocorticoids using the chicken embryo, a model system in which the effects on the developing heart and circulation of therapy can be investigated, independent of effects on the mother and/or the placenta. Fertilized chicken eggs were incubated and divided randomly into control (C) or dexamethasone (Dex) treatment at day 14 out of the 21-day incubation period. Combining functional experiments at the isolated organ, cellular and molecular levels, embryos were then studied close to term. Chicken embryos exposed to dexamethasone were growth restricted and showed systolic and diastolic dysfunction, with an increase in cardiomyocyte volume but decreased cardiomyocyte nuclear ...
Fos expression is selectively and differentially regulated by endogenous glucocorticoids in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the dentate gyrus Journal Article ...
We investigated the expression differences of the TEL-AML1 fusion gene in a leukemia glucocorticoid (GC)-sensitive cell line (CEM) and a GC-resistant cell line (Jurkat). Changes in TEL-AML1 expression before and after GC exposure were analyzed. Expression of GC-sensitive and GC-resistant leukemia cells following initial diagnosis and during treatment was simulated. Leukemia cells were divided into a GC-unexposed or a GC-exposed group.
A number of childhood conditions that require chronic GC therapy may themselves predispose the child to abnormalities of growth and bone health. For instance, poor linear growth and osteoporosis may be presenting features in a child with inflammatory bowel disease. The interaction with other factors such as inflammatory cytokine production, diminished physical activity, alterations in nutritional status, and the use of other immunomodulatory agents that may also have bone adverse effects greatly increase the risks posed to the growth and bone health of the child on chronic GC therapy.. The clinical effects on bone health can be divided into those occurring in the short term (fractures and avascular necrosis) and those that may occur over the longer term-that is, increased predisposition for osteoporosis and skeletal deformity. Current studies and clinical observations suggest that children who require long term systemic GC therapy (for more than three months) have a higher incidence of fractures ...
In patients presenting to the emergency department with acute exacerbations of COPD, 5-day treatment with systemic glucocorticoids was non-inferior to 14-day treatment with regard to re-exacerbation within 6 months of follow-up but significantly reduced glucocorticoid exposure. These findings support the use of a 5-day glucocorticoid treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD ...
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In the present work, we have set up and propose a rational computational analysis framework, in order to aid the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance and specifically whether these are to a larger extent inherent or acquired. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports trying to analyze systematically the underlying, inherent or acquired molecular mechanisms of GC resistance. The issue whether leukemic cells possess the inherent genetically imprinted resistance mechanisms or it is rather a post effect of evolutionary adoption of originally sensitive cells upon GC treatment is still a controversial one, with potentially significant interest for design of novel therapeutic approaches in cancer treatment. A similar work [77] reported recently that in ex vivo samples, leukemic cells exhibit an at least in part, intrinsic mechanism of reaction. In another work [78], it has also been mentioned that glucocorticoids can induce intrinsic mechanisms of GC-resistance ...
The most important first step in the management of patients with suspected Cushings syndrome is to establish the correct diagnosis. Most mistakes in clinical management, leading to unnecessary imaging or surgery, are made because the diagnostic protocol is not followed (Fig. 342-9). This protocol requires establishing the diagnosis of Cushings beyond doubt prior to employing any tests used for the differential diagnosis of the condition. In principle, after excluding exogenous glucocorticoid use as the cause of clinical signs and symptoms, suspected cases should be tested if there are multiple and progressive features of Cushings, particularly features with a potentially higher discriminatory value. Exclusion of Cushings is also indicated in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses. ...
This project will study blood obtained from babies shortly after birth and in guinea pigs early in life to discover how genes throughout the genome respond to glucocorticoid treatment. This research has important implications for the fundamental understanding of biological responses to glucocorticoid treatment. The team anticipates that this study will ultimately inform clinical practice in Canada, where a majority of women at risk of preterm birth (more than 10% of all pregnancies) are treated with glucocorticoids in pregnancy.. ...
A new study reveals that steroid injections used to prevent premature birth might increase future risks of behavioral and emotional problems in the developing children.. Expectant mothers who might give birth prematurely are often treated with an infusion of glucocorticoids. These drugs, wrote Psych Central, are cortisol mimickers; cortisol is a natural hormone. The treatment is meant to assist in the developing babys lung development; however new concerns have arisen that high glucocorticoids exposure in the womb might lead to dangerous, long-term effects on brain development.. Cortisol is naturally produced in the fetus during later pregnancy stages and works to help the lungs develop appropriately, according to Medical Daily. Premature babies often miss this important development stage, which leads to lung problems and life-threatening breathing issues.. Synthetic glucocorticoids are known to copy the effect of natural cortisol and, when given prior to birth, the glucocorticoid, ...
Glucocorticoid treatment skews human monocyte differentiation into a hemoglobin-clearance phenotype with enhanced heme-iron recycling and antioxidant ...
Glucocorticoid therapy is associated with an appreciable risk of bone loss, which is most pronounced in the first few months of use. In addition, glucocorticoids increase fracture risk, and fractures occur at higher bone mineral density (BMD) values
Dexamethasone (Dex) pretreatment significantly increased cardiac contractile force ex vivo in Langendorff-perfused Sprague-Dawley rat hearts (2 mg/kg BW i.p. Dex 24 h prior to experiment). Moreover, Ca transient amplitude as well as fractional shortening were significantly enhanced in Fura-2-loaded isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed to Dex (1 mg/mL Dex, 24 h). Interestingly, these Dex-dependent effects could be abolished in the presence of SOCE-inhibitors SKF-96356 (SKF, 2 μM) and BTP2 (5 μM). Ca transient kinetics (time to peak, decay time) were not affected by SOCE stimulation. Direct SOCE measurements revealed a negligible magnitude in untreated myocytes but a dramatic increase in SOCE upon Dex-pretreatment. Importantly, the Dex-dependent stimulation of SOCE could be blocked by inhibition of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) using EMD638683 (EMD, 50 μM). Dex preincubation also resulted in increased mRNA expression of proteins involved in SOCE (stromal interaction ...
Even though many in the ALS money making industry maintain otherwise, there is no question that ALS is an autoimmune disease. This is why my wife and other ALS sufferers have experienced strong improvements after injection with anti-inflammatory drugs. This is not the first time that glucocorticoid drugs have been implicated in spectacular ALS remissions. In 2011, famous ALS patient Ted Harada experienced an amazing recovery after being anesthetized for up to five hours during stem cell treatment and given several anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids to prevent rejection. In June 2013, Ernie Schmid published an ALS remission story in which he explained how he kept his ALS under control with powerful glucocorticoids. There is also the story of US Authors Guilds director Paul Aiken whose ALS went into remission after injections with the glucocorticoid drug Kenalog. Other ALS sufferers have reported strong improvements in their speech and ability to swallow after a visit to the dentist. It turns out ...
Taves, Matthew Donald et al Paracrine rather than systemic glucocorticoids are biologically active in the thymus. The Journal of Immunology 198.1 Supplement (2017): 202.1. Web. 16 Dec. 2017. ...
Background/Purpose: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of RA. Patients (pts) with RA often receive concomitant treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs) to control inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate whether the presence or absence of GCs has an effect on the clinical and radiographic efficacy of tofacitinib or MTX administered as monotherapy in MTX-naïve pts with RA. Methods: ORAL Start (NCT01039688) was a 2-year, randomized Phase 3 clinical trial in which 956 MTX-naïve pts with RA received either tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID), tofacitinib 10 mg BID, or MTX titrated to 20 mg/week over 8 weeks. Pts receiving GCs (≤10 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent) prior to enrollment were required to remain on a stable dose throughout the study. All pts were required to meet the ACR classification criteria for the diagnosis of RA. Primary results have been reported previously. Endpoints evaluated in this analysis at Months 6 and 24 included ...
2464 Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a crucial component in all protocols for the treatment of human lymphoid malignancies, including childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A central role in GC-mediated apoptosis is played by the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins, most notably Bim, Puma and, to a lesser extent, Noxa. Following exposure to GCs, these genes are upregulated at the mRNA and protein level. Silencing of Bim using siRNA technology correlates with protection from GC induced apoptosis in ALL cell lines. To dissect the molecular mechanisms leading to GC resistance in vivo, we developed a model of childhood ALL, using patient biopsies established as xenografts in immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) mice. Using this model, we demonstrated that resistance is typically associated with failure to induce Bim mRNA and protein in response to GC treatment. Using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation analysis of the entire Bim CpG island, we found that increased methylation of Bim 5 Untranslated Region ...
Our results showed that poly(I:C), a TLR3 agonist, up-regulated the production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as MIP1-α, MIP1-β, RANTES, IL-6, and IL-8, by activating NFκB. Incubation of HCECs with poly(I:C) also activated IRF3 followed by IFN-β production. The up-regulated expression of TLR 3 by poly(I:C) indicates that the TLR3/TRIF signaling pathways were most likely activated by poly(I:C) in HCECs. This is consistent with previous reports [1,15-17]. The cytokines and chemokines investigated are known to have powerful effects in recruiting immune cells and stimulating the maturation of dendritic cells [29-31]. Therefore, we suggest that corneal epithelial cells, when the TLR3s are activated de novo, are able to recruit and activate immune cells against viral infections. Our results showed that DEX and CsA inhibit the poly(I:C)-induced NFκB activation and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Earlier studies have shown that the concentration of ...
Those subjects on other oral anti-rheumatic therapies, which may include Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), COX-2 inhibitors, oral glucocorticoids e.g. prednisolone (£10mg/day) must be on stable dosing regimens for at least 4 weeks prior to screening and be willing to remain on this regime throughout the study. Subjects receiving intramuscular glucocorticoids e.g methylprednisolone (£120 mg/month) must be on a stable dosing regimen for at least 3 months prior to screening and be willing to remain on this regimen throughout the study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenal gland hypofunction in active polymyalgia rheumatica. Effect of glucocorticoid treatment on adrenal hormones and interleukin 6. AU - Cutolo, Maurizio. AU - Straub, Rainer H.. AU - Foppiani, Luca. AU - Prete, Camilla. AU - Pulsatelli, Lia. AU - Sulli, Alberto. AU - Boiardi, Luigi. AU - Macchioni, Pierluigi. AU - Giusti, Massimo. AU - Pizzorni, Carmen. AU - Seriolo, Bruno. AU - Salvarani, Carlo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Objective. To evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in patients with recent onset polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) not previously treated with glucocorticoids; and to detect possible correlations between adrenal hormone levels, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and other acute phase reactants at baseline and during 12 months of glucocorticoid treatment. Methods. Forty-one PMR patients of both sexes with recent onset disease and healthy sex and age matched controls were enrolled into a longitudinal study. Patients were monitored for serum cortisol, ...
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of mineralocorticoids on GILZ and leptin expression were also investigated. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from OA patients during knee replacement surgery. Then, the cells were treated with a glucocorticoid (prednisolone), a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of mineralocorticoids on GILZ and leptin expression were also investigated. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from OA patients during knee replacement surgery. Then, the cells were treated with a glucocorticoid (prednisolone), a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
Management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: prevalence, and emerging treatment options Juraj Payer, Kristina Brazdilova, Peter Jackuliak5th Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty of Comenius University and Faculty Hospital Bratislava, Bratislava, SlovakiaAbstract: An excess amount of glucocorticoids represents the primary and most frequent etiological factor influencing secondary osteoporosis. Patients receiving glucocorticoids, but also those with the endogenous form of hypercorticism, are at high risk for the loss of bone density, with the subsequent occurrence of pathological fractures. In this review, we summarize the currently available methods of prevention and the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. We also include a proposal for both a prophylactic and therapeutic approach that takes into account the risk factors typical for long-term users of glucocorticoids.Keywords: glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, bone mineral density, osteoporotic fractures, calcium and
Glucocorticoids, Steroids (Prednisone) Warnings for (such as prednisone) gamut of adverse effects generally linked with use of glucocorticosteroids. Prednisone or prednisolone) do not have significant mineralocorticoid,. Generic. Low Prices, 24/7 online support, available with glucocorticosteroids prednisone World Wide Delivery. 10% OFF Your Next Order. No. Glucocorticosteroids Prednisone. Discreet Packaging. Save on prescription drugs online or by mail order Major side effects of systemic glucocorticoids. Generic Viagra. Free shipping, quality, privacy, secure. Prednisone Rating. Free Bonus Pills with Every Order. Niall Filipos hove their etherifies and avers lot! 1. glucocorticosteroids prednisone Glucocorticosteroids Prednisone! Where to buy generic drugs online? Prednisone -induced leukocytosis Prednisone 20 Mg Medication - best choice! Fuddle right of Bryant, his barrack untune supplements intelligently. Glucocorticoids are also known as glucocorticosteroids, dose of glucocorticoid was ...
It is generally accepted that bone formation is depressed during corticosteroid treatment, but the effects of glucocorticoids on bone resorption are less well characterized. We have investigated the effects of short-term treatment with high-dose oral glucocorticoids on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 20 consecutive patients with asthma who sought help for acute respiratory obstruction in our emergency department. Serum concentrations of the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP), reflecting bone resorption, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1CP), reflecting bone formation, were measured by radioimmunoassay. Changes of the circulating levels of the bone resorption marker 1CTP after treatment were age dependent with a significant negative correlation (r = -0.54, P = 0.01). The dependency on age remained when correcting, in a multiple linear regression analysis, for 1CTP levels at admission, weight, sex, and daily maintenance dose of ...
Induction of the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) by glucocorticoids plays a role in their antiinflammatory action, whereas GILZ expression is reduced under inflammatory conditions. The mechanisms regulating GILZ expression during inflammation, however, have not yet been characterized. H …
OBJECTIVE: The metabolic effects of low-dose prednisolone and optimal management of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes are poorly characterized. The aims were to investigate the acute effects of low-dose prednisolone on carbohydrate metabolism and whether long-term low-dose prednisolone administration increases visceral adiposity, amplifying metabolic perturbations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects with inflammatory rheumatologic disease without diabetes mellitus were recruited. Nine subjects (age, 59 +/- 11 years) not using oral glucocorticoids were studied before and after a 7- to 10-day course of oral prednisolone 6 mg daily. Baseline data were compared with 12 subjects (age, 61 +/- 8 years) using continuous long-term prednisolone (6.3 +/- 2.2 mg/day). Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) was estimated by 6,6-(2)H2 glucose infusion, insulin sensitivity was estimated by two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, insulin secretion was estimated by intravenous glucose tolerance test, and adipose
To determine if a patient has glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, you can measure the bone mineral density (BMD) at different parts of the patients body, such as the spine and hip. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the best test to measure BMD. The test is quick and painless; it is similar to having an X-ray taken, but uses much less radiation. DXA results are scored in comparison to the BMD of young, healthy individuals, resulting in a measurement called a T-score. Patients with T-scores of -2.5 or lower are considered to have osteoporosis and are at a higher risk for a fracture.. According to patient fact-sheet writer Shreyasee Amin, MD, the major goal in the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the prevention of fractures and to help decrease bone loss. At a minimum, she suggests that patients should take 1,000 to 1,500 milligrams of calcium and 400 to 800 IU of vitamin D supplements on a daily basis.. ...
Aims: The use of antenatal glucocorticoids in women with preterm labor has dramatically improved outcomes for premature infants. The most commonly used antenatal glucocorticoids are betamethasone and dexamethasone. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung growth by several mechanisms, including the maturation of type II pneumocytes enabling surfactant production. Furthermore, the lipids in the lung share similarity with those in the skin. Therefore, antenatal administration of glucocorticoids may have effects on the structure and function of the developing epidermal barrier in fetuses and neonates.. Methods: We performed a systematic review to characterize these effects, identifying 11 studies (six animal and five human studies).. Results: Five out of the six animal studies used a rodent model for investigating the effects of antenatally administered glucocorticoids, while the other used an ovine model. Antenatally administered glucocorticoids accelerated skin maturation in animal studies, but ...
Chronic use of systemic glucocorticoids results in progressive bone loss and pathologic fractures. This study identified the predictive variables for bone loss and used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to measure changes in cortical and trabecular bone in patients receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy of prednisone 15.4 g. Eighty-four asthmatic patients were included in the study. Vertebral fractures were diagnosed via plain spinal radiograms. pQCT was used to measure cortical and trabecular bone mineral density. Multiple regression analysis identified variables with predictive value. The cumulative dose of glucocorticoid correlated with the bone mineral density (p,0.05) and the trabecular bone density (p,0.01). Among patients , or = 65 yrs of age, the cumulative dose of glucocorticoid correlated with the occurrence of vertebral fractures (p,0.05), total bone mineral density (p,0.01) and cortical bone mineral density (p,0.01). Bone mineral density in the distal radius ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct Reversal of Glucocorticoid Resistance by AKT Inhibition in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. AU - Piovan, Erich. AU - Yu, Jiyang. AU - Tosello, Valeria. AU - Herranz, Daniel. AU - Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto. AU - DaSilva, Ana Carolina. AU - Sanchez-Martin, Marta. AU - Perez-Garcia, Arianne. AU - Rigo, Isaura. AU - Castillo, Mireia. AU - Indraccolo, Stefano. AU - Cross, Justin R.. AU - deStanchina, Elisa. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth. AU - Racevskis, Janis. AU - Rowe, Jacob M.. AU - Tallman, Martin S.. AU - Basso, Giuseppe. AU - Meijerink, Jules P.. AU - Cordon-Cardo, Carlos. AU - Califano, Andrea. AU - Ferrando, Adolfo A.. PY - 2013/12/9. Y1 - 2013/12/9. N2 - Glucocorticoid resistance is a major driver of therapeutic failure in Tcell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we identify the AKT1 kinase as a major negative regulator of the NR3C1 glucocorticoid receptor protein activity driving glucocorticoid resistance in T-ALL. Mechanistically, AKT1 impairs glucocorticoid-induced ...
Results Both groups of patients were matched in gender, disease type and cumulative glucocorticoid dose (p,0.1). Patients in the fracture group were older (63±14 vs 59±12 years, p,0.01), of lower body mass index [22.7±3.5vs 24±3.7kg/m2, p,0.05], with a higher prevalence of previous fracture [38 (34.5%) vs 5 (4.5%), p,0.01], use of vitamin D [77 (70%)vs 54 (49.1%), p,0.01] and bisphosphonates [23 (20.9%) vs 7 (6.4%), p,0.01]. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the ability of FRAX score with or without BMD and BMD alone to discriminate fracture status (Table 1). BMD at the femoral neck and FRAX score with BMD were able to provide adequate discrimination with their area under curve (AUC) ,0.70. With regards to treatment indication, only 53/110 (48.2%) of the patients with vertebral fracture were identified as having osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5 at hip/spine) by DXA. In contrast, FRAX with BMD were able to identify 71/110 (64.5%) of the fracture ...
Tenascin, a predominantly mesenchymal extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein has a rather restricted tissue distribution, but until now factors that inhibit its expression have not been identified. Glucocorticoids are known to be beneficial for establishment of myelopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. Tenascin was found to be expressed in the bone marrow, and glucocorticoids were found to affect bone marrow tenascin expression. Both tenascin mRNAs and the mRNA of another ECM protein, laminin B1 chain, were drastically downregulated by glucocorticoids during initiation of bone marrow cultures. However, in already established long-term cultures glucocorticoids did not affect laminin B1 chain mRNA levels although tenascin mRNAs continued to be downregulated. Studies with a stromal cell line (MC3T3-G2/PA6) and fibroblasts (3T3) suggested that glucocorticoids act directly on the stromal cells that produce tenascin. In 3T3 cells this downregulation occurred within 12 h of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tissue- and context-dependent modulation of hormonal sensitivity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes by hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1. AU - Shimizu, Noriaki. AU - Yoshikawa, Noritada. AU - Wada, Tadashi. AU - Handa, Hiroshi. AU - Sano, Motoaki. AU - Fukuda, Keiichi. AU - Suematsu, Makoto. AU - Sawai, Takashi. AU - Morimoto, Chikao. AU - Tanaka, Hirotoshi. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Physiological and pharmacological processes mediated by glucocorticoids involve tissue- and context-specific regulation of glucocorticoid-responsive gene expression via glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such highly coordinated regulation of glucocorticoid actions remain to be studied. We here addressed this issue using atp1a1 and scnn1a, both of which are up-regulated in response to corticosteroids in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells, but resistant in liver-derived HepG2 cells. Hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1 ...
387431079 - EP 0809500 A4 20000105 - NOVEL GLUCOCORTICOID RESPONSE ELEMENTS - [origin: WO9624357A1] The invention features an isolated herpersvirus glucocorticoid response element comprising a DNA sequence comprising two consensus hexanucleotide glucocorticoid receptor binding sequences having at least five nucleotides positioned therebetween. The invention further features compositions and methods for preventing herpesvirus replication and reactivation.[origin: WO9624357A1] The invention features an isolated herpersvirus glucocorticoid response element comprising a DNA sequence comprising two consensus hexanucleotide glucocorticoid receptor binding sequences having at least five nucleotides positioned therebetween. The invention further features compositions and methods for preventing herpesvirus replication and reactivation.
Developmentally, the pancreas and liver are closely related and pathological conditions − including elevated glucocorticoid levels − result in the appearance of hepatocytes in the pancreas. The role of the WNT signalling pathway in this process has been examined in the model transdifferentiating pancreatic acinar AR42J-B-13 (B-13) cell. Glucocorticoid treatment resulted in a transient loss of constitutive WNT3a expression, phosphorylation and depletion of β-catenin, loss of β-catenin nuclear localisation, and significant reductions in T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (Tcf/Lef) transcriptional activity before overt changes in phenotype into hepatocyte-like (B-13/H) cells. A return to higher Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity correlated with the re-expression of WNT3a in B-13/H cells. β-catenin knock down alone substituted for and enhanced glucocorticoid-dependent transdifferentiation. Overexpression of a mutant β-catenin (pt-Xβ-cat) protein that blocked glucocorticoid-dependent ...
All patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases require monitoring of comorbidities as part of good clinical practice. There are no studies evaluating the benefits of screening for comorbidities especially before starting GC therapy. However, as several individual comorbidities are also known as (risk factors for) AEs of GC therapy, identification and (preventive) treatment can be expected to diminish the frequency and severity of AEs. The reporting of GC-related AEs in the literature has been studied,9 ,125 but these reviews mostly excluded long-term high-dose treatment. Some studies showed that the frequency of occurrence of specific AEs increased with higher doses of GC therapy.100 ,126 ,127 These are arguments to pay specific attention to comorbidities predisposing to AEs before starting medium/high-dose GC treatment. In case comorbidities are present, tight control (ie, more intensive monitoring and adjusting medication, if needed) is recommended.. Diabetes and glucose intolerance: In RA, ...
In this study, we compared the monocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity between middle aged men and women while controlling for known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We used an in vitro assay to measure monocyte cytokine release in response to a standardised dose of lipopolysaccharide and to assess the extent to which this cytokine release was inhibited by increasing concentrations of two glucocorticoids.. The main finding of our study is that, even when controlling for well known cardiovascular risk factors, blood samples from men required larger quantities of either dexamethasone or hydrocortisone to inhibit lipopolysaccharide stimulated release of IL-6 and TNFα than did samples from women, while the cytokine release without glucocorticoid co-incubation was higher in samples from men than in those from women. The findings suggest higher proinflammatory activity in blood monocytes of men than in monocytes harvested from women. This notion becomes even stronger given that we controlled for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-Carnitine is a modulator of the glucocorticoid receptor alpha. AU - Alesci, Salvatore. AU - De Martino, Massimo U.. AU - Kino, Tomoshige. AU - Ilias, Ioannis. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - L-Carnitine (LC) is a nutrient with an essential role in cellular energy production. At high doses, LC can mimic some of the biological activities of glucocorticoids, particularly immunomodulation. To explore the molecular bases of this property, we tested the influence of LC on glucocorticoid receptor-α (GRα) functions. LC reduced the binding capacity of GRα, induced its nuclear translocation, and stimulated its transcriptional activity. Moreover, LC suppressed TNFα and IL-12 release from human monocytes in glucocorticoid-like fashion. We conclude that pharmacologic doses of LC can activate GRα and, via this mechanism, regulate glucocorticoid-responsive genes, potentially sharing some of the biological and therapeutic properties of glucocorticoids.. AB - L-Carnitine (LC) is a ...
For the first time in seven years, the ACR has new treatment recommendations for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. In this slideshow, we highlight the new guidelines.
See American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional characterization of the natural human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) mutants hGRαR477H and hGRαG679S associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. AU - Charmandari, Evangelia. AU - Kino, Tomoshige. AU - Ichijo, Takamasa. AU - Zachman, Keith. AU - Alatsatianos, Anton. AU - Chrousos, George P.. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Background: Glucocorticoid resistance is often a result of mutations in the human glucocorticoid receptor α (hGRα) gene, which impair one or more of hGRαs functions. We investigated the molecular mechanisms through which two previously described mutant receptors, hGRαR477H and hGRαG679S, with amino acid substitutions in the DNA- and ligand-binding domains, respectively, affect glucocorticoid signal transduction. Methods and Results: In transient transfection assays, hGRαR477H displayed no transcriptional activity, whereas hGRαG679S showed a 55% reduction in its ability to stimulate the transcription of the glucocorticoid-responsive ...
the anterior pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex produces In attempting to assess animal well-being, a number of glucocorticoids, the most important being cortisol and cor- precautionary factors must be considered. Principal con- ticosterone. Glucocorticoids are central to many of the siderations in any assessment of well-being are recogni- physiologic responses to aversive situations. Although an tion and control of independent variables and interaction increase in glucocorticoid concentrations in response to of physical and psychological states (38). The multitude of aversive stimuli can represent a sensitive index of the in- responses to aversive situations complicates the assessment tensity of discomfort or distress experienced by animals, of well-being and limits the significance of any single mea- the adrenal cortex does not respond to all aversive stimuli sure. Thorough evaluation of well-being requires consider- (21). Thus, a simple determination of the plasma concen- ation of multiple ...
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are often prescribed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis[1-3]. Despite their excellent efficacy, usage is limited because of side-effects such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, diabetes, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, skeletal muscle wasting and osteoporosis[4-8].. GCs bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which then dimerizes and translocates to the nucleus where it influences gene transcription. Positive regulation of genes (transactivation) is mainly mediated by direct binding of the GR-GC complex to glucocorticoid response elements located in the regulatory region of a target gene. The GR-GC complex may also bind to negative glucocorticoid response elements, which leads to a negative regulation of genes (transrepression). It is believed that transrepression, in which proinflammatory genes are downregulated, is mainly responsible for the efficacy of GCs as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoid enhances the expression of dickkopf-1 in human osteoblasts. T2 - Novel mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. AU - Ohnaka, Keizo. AU - Taniguchi, Hiroshi. AU - Kawate, Hisaya. AU - Nawata, Hajime. AU - Takayanagi, Ryoichi. PY - 2004/5/21. Y1 - 2004/5/21. N2 - To clarify the underlying mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of glucocorticoid on the expression of dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an antagonist of Wnt signaling, in primary cultured human osteoblasts. Dexamethasone markedly induced the expression of mRNA for Dkk-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of Kremen1, a receptor for Dkk, did not change by the treatment with dexamethasone, while that of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), a Wnt coreceptor, slightly decreased by the treatment with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone increased the transcriptional activity of the Dkk-1 gene promoter in human osteoblasts. Serial deletion and ...
Glucocorticoids, secreted by the adrenals in response to stress, profoundly affect structure and plasticity of neurons. Glucocorticoid action in neurons is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that operate as transcription factors in the regulation of gene expression and either bind directly to genomic glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) or indirectly to the genome via interactions with bound transcription factors. These two modes of action, respectively called transactivation and transrepression, result in the regulation of a wide variety of genes important for neuronal function. The objective of the present study was to identify genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor binding sites in neuronal PC12 cells using Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation combined with next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq). In total we identified 1183 genomic binding sites of GR, the majority of which were novel and not identified in other ChIP-Seq studies on GR binding. More than half (58%) of the binding sites contained a GRE.
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China Betamethasone Is a Potent Glucocorticoid Steroid with Anti-Inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Properties, Find details about China Durabolin, Decanoate from Betamethasone Is a Potent Glucocorticoid Steroid with Anti-Inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Properties - Wuhan Lianshangwang Technology Co., Ltd.
In an unbiased gene expression and chemical genomics screen, PDE4B was found as one of the highest expressed genes in glucocorticoid-resistant acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL).37 Furthermore, PDE4B variants were associated with a higher rate of relapse in childhood ALL.38 Corroborating these observations, genes associated with glucocorticoid resistance in ALL were enriched in DLBCLs that express high levels of PDE4B,8 whereas PDE4 inhibitors restored glucocorticoid sensitivity and reduced tumor burden in in vivo preclinical models of human lymphoma.8 In these studies, the effects of PDE4 on glucocorticoid sensitivity were associated with modulation of PI3K/AKT signals.8 These data informed the design of a first-in-cancer clinical trial of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast (FDA-approved for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). In this single-arm, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics phase Ib study (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01888952), the combination of roflumilast with prednisone was ...
Clinical similarities between Cushings syndrome and obesity/metabolic syndrome have led to speculation of a role for glucocorticoids (GCs) in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. People with idiopathic obesity have normal circulating cortisol concentrations. However, there may be considerable interindividual variation in GC sensitivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether enhanced GC sensitivity in the absence of GC excess was a characteristic of obese people with cushingoid features. We studied 12 obese subjects with cushingoid features in the absence of Cushings syndrome and six slim control participants. Data recorded included BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, glucose and insulin response to 75 g oral glucose challenge, and low-dose (0.25 mg) overnight dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test (ODST-0.25 mg). To study GC-sensitivity in vitro, we performed dose-response studies of DEX-induced suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in skin fibroblast cultures. Seven ...
Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are essential components of therapy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and other lymphoid malignancies. Primary glucocorticoid resistance, characterized by ineffective cytoreduction after 1 week of glucocorticoid therapy, occurs frequently in T-ALL and is associated with poor outcome. Glucocorticoids act by binding to nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1, otherwise known as the glucocorticoid receptor) in the cytoplasm, which then shuttles to the nucleus upon ligand binding to regulate glucocorticoid-dependent gene expression that induces apoptosis in T-ALL cells. Given that PI3K-AKT signaling promotes T-cell transformation and that increased AKT1 activity has been associated with glucocorticoid resistance in patients with ALL, Piovan and colleagues hypothesized that AKT1 might interfere with NR3C1 function. AKT1 bound NR3C1 in T-ALL lymphoblasts and phosphorylated NR3C1 on serine 134, suggesting that AKT1 might directly affect ...
Excess fragility of the microvasculature can lead to abnormal mucocutaneous bleeding. This is most commonly seen as a result of natural aging in the elderly but can also be seen as an aspect of Cushing Syndrome due to chronic glucocorticoid use as well as secondary to Vitamin C Deficiency and systemic amyloidosis. A discussion of these etiologies can be found on their respective pages but will not be considered further in this chapter ...
Background: Reducing postoperative complications remains a dominant challenge for all clinicians. By minimizing the incidence of adverse outcomes, health care costs and patient recovery can be improved. A number of studies have documented that fewer postoperative adverse events occur with the preoperative use of glucocorticoids (GC). Two small manuscripts support the use of GC with particular reference to liver resection.. Major hepatectomy can be associated with numerous adverse outcomes (hemorrhage, bile leak, liver failure, wound infection other infectious complications). This rate approaches 54% in some trials. Additionally, the liver is responsible for numerous metabolic functions and actively participates in the acute phase response via the generation of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Glucocorticoids play an important role in suppressing the over-synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore may assist in reducing postoperative complications. These pro-inflammatory cytokines ...
Glucocorticoids are popular for altering bone tissue elevating and framework fracture risk. elevation. 1. History Besides their association with high-energy stress, almost all (51%) of latest pelvic band fractures are recorded in patients more than 65 years after small trauma, in feminine individuals [1C5] specifically. These fractures may occur with regards to an impaired bone tissue structure and share, for example, predicated on postmenopausal osteoporosis [5]. Additional pathological circumstances like arthritis rheumatoid with and without glucocorticoid (GC) therapy, malignancy, rays, chemotherapy, drugs such as for example bisphosphonates, metabolic CBLC bone tissue diseases, or pregnancy might donate to pelvic band fractures and a feasible lack of stability [6C12]. Furthermore, these fractures could be present without sufficient stress or atraumatically and so are frequently summarized as fragility fractures linked to an impaired bone tissue metabolism and structure [13]. Additionally, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of representative glucocorticoids on TNFα- and CD40L-induced NF-κB activation in sensor cells. AU - Cechin, Sirlene R.. AU - Buchwald, Peter. N1 - Funding Information: Parts of this work were supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( 1R01AI101041-01 ; PI: P. Buchwald), the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation ( 17-2012-361 ), and the Diabetes Research Institute Foundation . PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Glucocorticoids are an important class of anti-inflammatory/ immunosuppressive drugs. A crucial part of their anti-inflammatory action results from their ability to repress proinflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) upon binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Accordingly, sensor cells quantifying their effect on inflammatory signal-induced NF-κB activation can provide useful information regarding their potencies as well as their ...
Vertebrates release glucocorticoids during stressful events. If stress occurs during reproduction, the resulting offspring can show altered phenotypes that are thought to arise from increased exposure to maternal glucocorticoids. Developing offspring can metabolize maternal glucocorticoids, which can alter the pattern of exposure they encounter. For egg laying vertebrates, we are just beginning to understand how embryonic steroid metabolism impacts embryonic exposure to maternal glucocorticoids. Here we injected three doses of radioactive corticosterone into Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs to determine the degree of embryonic exposure at days six and nine of development. We found that increasing injection dose increased the amount of radioactivity found in the embryo at day six but by day nine the effect of injection dose disappeared as the amount of radioactivity within the embryo dropped to equivalent levels for all three doses. Interestingly, when examined as a percentage of initial dose,
We describe for the first time novel data relating to analyses of glucocorticoid hormone signaling in human skeletal myoblasts. Importantly, these results reveal key molecular mechanisms underlying recent suggestions that altered levels of glucocorticoid hormone action may play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome (12). Our analyses indicate important associations between in vivo features of the metabolic syndrome and levels of basal and glucocorticoid-dependent GRα expression and glucocorticoid-dependent 11β-HSD1 expression in skeletal myoblasts in vitro.. Studies investigating mechanisms underlying GR expression and GR downregulation by its ligand, cortisol, indicate that this occurs predominantly at the level of mRNA transcription and stability and, to a much lesser degree, through post-translational increases in GR turnover (23). Thus, most GR regulation studies have focused on analyses of GR mRNA expression (23,40). The close agreement between levels of GRα mRNA ...
Glucocorticoids or their metabolites can be measured in several body fluids or excreta, including plasma, saliva, urine and faeces. In recent years the measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in faeces has gained increasing attention, because of its suitability for wild populations. In horses, however, the group-specific enzyme immunoassay described so far has a limited practicability due to its complex extraction procedure. Therefore, we tested the applicability of other enzyme immunoassays for glucocorticoid metabolites. The present study clearly proved that an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for 11-oxoaetiocholanolone using 11-oxoaetiocholanolone-17-CMO: BSA (3alpha,11-oxo-A EIA) as antigen showed high amounts of immunoreactive substances. Therefore it was possible to use just a small amount of the supernatant of a methanolic suspension of faeces. The results correlated well with the already described method for measuring GCMs in horse faeces, i.e. analysing the samples with an EIA after a ...
True or False. Intraarticular glucocorticoids are not recommended as adjunct therapy in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and active polyarthritis, according to an American College of Rheumatology and Arthritis Foundation guideline. ...
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Abstract Psychological distress has long been suspected to influence cancer incidence and mortality. It remains largely unknown whether and how stress affects the efficacy of anticancer therapies. We observed that social defeat caused anxiety-like behaviors in mice and dampened therapeutic responses against carcinogen-induced neoplasias and transplantable tumors. Stress elevated plasma corticosterone and upregulated the expression of glucocorticoid-inducible factor Tsc22d3, which blocked type I interferon (IFN) responses in dendritic cell (DC) and IFN-gamma(+) T cell activation. Similarly, close correlations were discovered among plasma cortisol levels, TSC22D3 expression in circulating leukocytes and negative mood in patients with cancer. In murine models, exogenous glucocorticoid injection, or enforced expression of Tsc22d3 in DC was sufficient to abolish therapeutic control of tumors. Administration of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist or DC-specific Tsc22d3 deletion reversed the negative ...
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in liver extrahepatic : outside the liver Mobilize amino acids from extrahepatic tissues: These serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis. main adipose tissue Stimulation of fat breakdown how it signals with the targets: steroid hormone Primary function: stimulate tissues to raise blood glucose and break down protein the secreted glucocorticoids from the zona fasciculata, then travels through the circulatory system these glucocorticoids then attach themselves to the glucocorticoid receptors which are found on almost every cell a glucocorticoid receptor binds to glucocorticoids within the bloodstream, which allows the GCs to enter into the intercellular fluid of a cell the receptors are then transferred to the nucleus, where they perform specific functions depending on which glucocorticoid receptor was activated and which hormone was present superpowers surpress overactive immune system GCs travel through the blood until it reaches the inflammated area and then starts to break down the overactive ...
Systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids can produce reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression with the potential for gluococorticosteroid insufficiency after withdrawal of treatment. Manifestations of Cushings syndrome, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria can also be produced in some patients by systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids while on treatment. Use of more than one corticosteroid-containing product at the same time may increase total systemic glucocorticoid exposure. In addition, use of VANOS Cream for longer than 2 weeks may also suppress the immune system (see PRECAUTIONS: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility).. Patients applying a topical steroid to a large surface area or to areas under occlusion should be evaluated periodically for evidence of HPA-axis suppression. This may be done by using cosyntropin (ACTH1-24) stimulation testing. Patients should not be treated with VANOS Cream for more than 2 weeks at a time and only small ...
Thesis, English, Pathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on The Effect of Synthetic Glucocorticoids Compounds on Rabbits for El Alem Maha Mohammed
In both spontaneous and iatrogenic Cushing s syndrome, chronic glucocorticoid excess causes obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and accelerated cardiovascular disease. We have pursued the global hypothesis that elevation of cortisol causes cardiovascular disease in the general population, and that the underlying mechanisms will reveal new therapies for cardiometabolic diseases. Circumstantial support is provided by cohort studies, in which higher plasma cortisol is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and is predictive of subsequent cardiovascular disease. To test causality, however, requires either intervention studies or identification of genetic determinants of cortisol. To explore genetic variants associated with cortisol we established the CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium. Using the relatively crude but widely available and heritable trait of morning plasma cortisol the most recent CORNET genome wide association meta-analysis of >7 M SNPs in nearly 25 000 people has identified ...
Goulding, Nicolas J.; Flower, Rod J. (2001). Glucocorticoids. Springer. p. 40. ISBN 9783764360597. Raj, P. Prithvi; Erdine, ...
Parente, Luca (2001). "The Development of Synthetic Glucocorticoids". In Goulding, Nicolas J.; Flower, Rod J. (eds.). ... Glucocorticoids. Basel: Birkhäuser. pp. 35-53. ISBN 978-3-7643-6059-7. Partington, J. R. (1923). "The early history of ... and triamcinolone and dexamethasone are strong glucocorticoids. The majority of inhaled anesthetics are heavily fluorinated; ...
... induced by glucocorticoids. Dementia-like symptoms have been found in some individuals who have been exposed to glucocorticoid ... Elevated glucocorticoid activity is associated with down-regulation of GRs (known as "glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis"), ... anti-glucocorticoids psychoactive drugs that up-regulate the GRII glucocorticoid receptor: tricyclic antidepressants: ... Glucocorticoid medications have been known to be associated with significant side effects involving behavior and mood, ...
... glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism Cushing's syndrome - an excessive secretion of glucocorticoids causes the hypertension ... Cushing's syndrome can be caused by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or by tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic ... Dodt C, Wellhöner JP, Schütt M, Sayk F (January 2009). "[Glucocorticoids and hypertension]". Der Internist (in German). 50 (1 ... McMahon GT, Dluhy RG (2004). "Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism". Cardiology in Review. 12 (1): 44-48. doi:10.1097/01.crd ...
Axelrod L. Glucocorticoids. In: Harris ED, Kelley WN, Ruddy S, Sledge CB, eds. Textbook of rheumatology, 4th ed. Philadelphia: ... Cornelisse, C. J.; Robinson, N. E. (2013). "Glucocorticoid therapy and the risk of equine laminitis". Equine Veterinary ...
Glucocorticoids released in the blood, serve as a messenger by binding to glucocorticoid receptors in a wide distribution ... Synthetic glucocorticoids are similar to endogenous steroids in metabolism, but differ in affinity for glucocorticoid and ... See: Glucocorticoids § Immunodeficiency The Immunodeficiency section tabulates known pathogens of concern in glucocorticoid ... In comparison to other exogenous glucocorticoids, methylprednisolone has a higher affinity to glucocorticoid receptors than to ...
As a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone is an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). It has minimal mineralocorticoid activity ... the IDSA guideline panel suggests glucocorticoids rather than no glucocorticoids. (Conditional recommendation, Moderate ... Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid medication used to treat rheumatic problems, a number of skin diseases, severe allergies, ... Dexamethasone and most glucocorticoids are banned by sporting bodies including the World Anti-Doping Agency. Combined with ...
Glucocorticoids decrease VDR expression. Many types of immune cells also express VDR. The VDR gene encodes the nuclear hormone ...
Peers SH, Smillie F, Elderfield AJ, Flower RJ (January 1993). "Glucocorticoid-and non-glucocorticoid induction of lipocortins ( ... Glucocorticoids stimulate production of lipocortin. In this way, synthesis of eicosanoids are inhibited. Annexin A1 has been of ... Glucocorticoids (such as budesonide, cortisol, and beclomethasone) are a class of endogenous or synthetic anti-inflammatory ... Because they suppress inflammatory pathways, long-term use of glucocorticoid drugs can lead to side-effects such as ...
In one study, glucocorticoid receptors in the central nuclei of the amygdalae were disrupted in order to better understand the ... Kolber, B.J.; Roberts, M.S.; Howell, M.P.; Wozniak, D.F.; Sands, M.S.; Muglia, L.J. (2008). "Central amygdala glucocorticoid ... The glucocorticoid receptors were inhibited using lentiviral vectors containing Cre-recombinase injected into mice. Results ... However, a reduction of freezing was observed in the mice that had inhibited glucocorticoid receptors. Cognitive behavioral ...
Management and treatment of LOCAH is case specific and the application of glucocorticoid treatment is not standard as it is in ... In appropriate cases, glucocorticoids (usually hydrocortisone in children) are administered to suppress secretion of ... Dineen R, Martin-Grace J, Thompson CJ, Sherlock M (June 2020). "The management of glucocorticoid deficiency: Current and future ... NCAH is not characterized by cortisol insufficiency and these patients do not need glucocorticoid replacement before and/or ...
... topical glucocorticoids may be tried. If the disease process is symptomatic, generalized and extensive, oral glucocorticoids ...
Glucocorticoids facilitate and impair the actions of stress in the brain memory process. Cortisol is a known biomarker for ... 2009). "Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory in health and disease". Front Neuroendocrinol. 30 (3): 358-70. doi:10.1016 ... Second, the brain regions involved in the retrieval of the memory must match the regions targeted by glucocorticoids. There are ... One class of stress hormone responsible for negatively affecting long-term, delayed recall memory is the glucocorticoids (GCs ...
Cyclocort is a synthetic corticosteroid created to imitate natural glucocorticoids. In order to do so, amcinonide acts as an ... It acts as both a transcription factor for responses to glucocorticoids and modulator for other transcription factors while ... Amcinonide (trade name Cyclocort) is a topical glucocorticoid used to treat itching, redness and swelling associated with ... Due to Amcinonide's high affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor, a neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction occurs and the ...
Glucocorticoid therapy. A recent (2007) randomized double blind study done in Egypt reported a statistically significant ...
Glucocorticoids should be tapered after extended use to avoid adrenal insufficiency. Drug titration is also used in phase I of ... "Glucocorticoid withdrawal". In Matteson EL, Curtis MR (eds.). Treatment Issues in Rheumatology. UpToDate. Retrieved 13 June ...
This may involve treatment with glucocorticoids. After hormone profiling, treatment with cortisol, ACTH, thyroid hormones, ... which may be caused by a decrease in blood pressure due to lower glucocorticoid deficiency. There are several possible ... decreased free-water clearance by glucocorticoid deficiency (independent of ADH). Serum potassium levels, however, will not ...
While glucocorticoids and NSAIDs work equally well, glucocorticoids may be safer. Options for prevention include allopurinol, ... Glucocorticoids have been found to be as effective as NSAIDs and may be used if contraindications exist for NSAIDs. They also ... Canakinumab may result in better outcomes than a low dose of a glucocorticoid, but costs five thousand times more. A ... A joint infection must be excluded, however, as glucocorticoids worsen this condition. There were no short-term adverse effects ...
In severe cases, glucocorticoids are used. Microgranulomatous hypersensitivity pneumonitis, where interstitial granulomatous ...
Sapolsky, Robert M.; Romero, L. Michael; Munck, Allan U. (2000-02-01). "How Do Glucocorticoids Influence Stress Responses? ... Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Washburn, Brian E. (September 2004). "Use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measures in conservation ...
Glucocorticoids Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in humans. In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by ... Regulation Glucocorticoids are under the regulatory influence of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoid ... Glucocorticoids have many effects on metabolism. As their name suggests, they increase the circulating level of glucose. This ... Glucocorticoids also have effects unrelated to the regulation of blood sugar levels, including the suppression of the immune ...
"Long-term side effects of glucocorticoids". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 15 (4): 457-465. doi:10.1517/14740338.2016.1140743. ...
Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity, causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. This ... Glucocorticoids suppress the cell-mediated immunity. They act by inhibiting genes that code for the cytokines Interleukin 1 (IL ... Glucocorticoids also stimulate the lipocortin-1 escaping to the extracellular space, where it binds to the leukocyte membrane ... Glucocorticoids influence all types of inflammatory events, no matter their cause. They induce the lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) ...
In fetal lambs, glucocorticoids (principally cortisol) increase after about day 130, with lung surfactant increasing greatly, ... Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as ... Kuo T, McQueen A, Chen TC, Wang JC (2015). "Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by Glucocorticoids". In Wang JC, Harris C (eds ... Elenkov IJ (June 2004). "Glucocorticoids and the Th1/Th2 balance". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1024 (1): 138-46 ...
Glucocorticoids also inhibit the further secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and ACTH from the ... Overactivation of glucocorticoid receptors can lead to health risks. Regulators of the immune system. Affect cell growth, ... Glucocorticoids and catecholamines influence immune cells. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal axis releases the needed hormones to ... This foundational work led to a rich line of research on the biological functioning of glucocorticoids. Mid-20th century ...
Inhaled corticosteroids with other risk factors such as antibiotics, oral glucocorticoids, not rinsing mouth after use of ... "Major side effects of inhaled glucocorticoids". UpToDate. Retrieved 2019-08-02. Bassetti M, Mikulska M, Viscoli C (December ...
Faecal glucocorticoid (fGCs) is a hormone metabolite associated with stress that is seen to be present in lower levels in ... Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are synthesized in the adrenal cortex and are a part of the group of corticosteroids ... Glucocorticoids are involved in immune function, and are a part of the feedback system that reduces inflammation. Further, ... Social grooming can change the number of glucocorticoid receptors, which can result in increased immune function. Studies have ...
... glucocorticoid analogue drugs such as prednisone down-regulate the natural synthesis of glucocorticoids. This mechanism leads ... Prednisone is a glucocorticoid medication mostly used to suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation in conditions ... Liu C, Chen Y, Kang Y, Ni Z, Xiu H, Guan J, Liu K (October 2011). "Glucocorticoids improve renal responsiveness to atrial ... Glucocorticoids act to inhibit feedback of both the hypothalamus, decreasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and ...
Elenkov, IJ (Jun 2004). "Glucocorticoids and the Th1/Th2 balance". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1024: 138-46. ... Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to production of glucocorticoids that cause decreased production of ...
Glucocorticoids released by the adrenal cortex inhibit production of CRH and ACTH, forming a negative feedback loop. ... Corticotropes contain glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG, or transcortin). GR is a nuclear ... This causes ACTH secretion to be vulnerable to inhibition in patients taking glucocorticoids for medical purposes such as ... This overproduction of ACTH causes an increase in cortisol levels due to increased glucocorticoid synthesis in the adrenal ...
The adult hippocampus is highly enriched in type I (mineralocorticoid, MR) and type II (glucocorticoid, GR) glucocorticoid ... More research is needed to understand the role of glucocorticoids in the context of human hippocampal development. Purves, Dale ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Seckl, JR; Meaney, MJ (Dec 2004). "Glucocorticoid programming". Annals of the New York ... The following will provide an introduction to hippocampal development with particular focus on the role of glucocorticoid ...
Glucocorticoids affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. The activated glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid ... glucocorticoids could induce a potent diuresis. Glucocorticoids bind to the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor, a type of ... low-glucocorticoid state) or after exogenous glucocorticoid administration (high-glucocorticoid state). Elevated levels of ... glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor) Glucocorticoid receptor Immunosuppressive drug Membrane glucocorticoid receptor Metyrapone ...
Purpose The target of glucocorticoids: inflammation Glucocorticoids are used to stop the inflammation process. ... Glucocorticoids Definition Glucocorticoids are naturally-produced steroid hormones, or synthetic compounds, that inhibit the ... Glucocorticoids can also be artificially made, and are usually referred to as glucocorticoid drugs. Examples of glucocorticoids ... Glucocorticoids and metabolism. As well as affecting the inflammatory process, glucocorticoids have an effect on the ...
glucocorticoid (plural glucocorticoids) *(biochemistry, steroids) Any of a group of steroid hormones, produced by the adrenal ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=glucocorticoid&oldid=59552979" ...
glucocorticoids enhance agonist-mediated pharmacomechanical coupling at multiple levels. The effect of glucocorticoids on ... Glucocorticoids and vascular reactivity.. Yang S1, Zhang L.. Author information. 1. Department of Chemistry, California State ... Both glucocorticoid receptor protein and mRNA have been identified in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In ... glucocorticoids suppress the production of vasodilators. such as prostacyclin and nitric oxide. In vascular smooth muscle cells ...
Glucocorticoids are prescribed for their immunosuppressive, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergenic effects ... Alternative glucocorticoids for use in cases of adverse reaction to systemic glucocorticoids: a study on 10 patients. Br J ... An early report in the 1950s described 6700 glucocorticoid injections given to 2256 patients [1]. There were 20 instances of ... Hypersensitivity reactions to systemic glucocorticoids. Author. Rima Rachid, MD. Rima Rachid, MD ...
Additive effect of leflunomide and glucocorticoids compared with glucocorticoids monotherapy in preventing relapse of IgG4- ... Onuora, S. Leflunomide plus glucocorticoids for IgG4-RD. Nat Rev Rheumatol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41584-020-0391-7 ...
Re: Glucocorticoid replacement. Understanding glucocorticoid replacement is essential to reduce mortality and morbidity for ... Be careful of synthetic glucocorticoids. I read with interest Karim Meerans article on glucocorticoid replacement. This is a ... Re: Glucocorticoid replacement. The current price of hydrocortisone in the UK is a regulatory issue not a clinical one. Members ... Re: Glucocorticoid replacement. BMJ Rapid Response. Anjali Amin, clinical research fellow, Amir H Sam, senior lecturer in ...
... glucocorticoid receptor) The gene NR3C1 encoding the glucocorticoid receptor... ... GCCR; GCR; GCRST; Glucocorticoid nuclear receptor variant 1; GR; GRL; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 ( ... GCCR; GCR; GCRST; Glucocorticoid nuclear receptor variant 1; GR; GRL; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 ( ... Glucocorticoid receptor signaling in health and disease. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;34:518-30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle ...
Glucocorticoids enhance airway epithelial barrier integrity.. Sekiyama A1, Gon Y, Terakado M, Takeshita I, Kozu Y, Maruoka S, ... Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. However, the effects of GCs on ...
... to the glucocorticoid receptors which are found on almost every cell a glucocorticoid receptor binds to glucocorticoids within ... Transcript of Glucocorticoids. target organ target adrenal corticoid steroid CIRCULATORY SYSTEM VEHICLE: Corticoider undercover ... Glucocorticoid shhhh....... aliases corticoid corticoidsteroid COSTUME aka molecular structure birthplace adrenal cortex ... stimulate tissues to raise blood glucose and break down protein the secreted glucocorticoids from the zona fasciculata, then ...
Glucocorticoids. Class Summary. Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic ... Glucocorticoids. The role of glucocorticoids in acute bacterial pneumonia has yet to be clearly elucidated. Classic teaching ... However, findings demonstrate that local pulmonary inflammation may be reduced with systemic glucocorticoids. In a 2015 meta- ... Hydrocortisone is the drug of choice because of its mineralocorticoid activity and glucocorticoid effects. ...
... do not produce certain hormones called glucocorticoids. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition. ... Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is a condition that occurs when the adrenal glands, which are hormone-producing glands ... Genetic Testing Registry: Glucocorticoid deficiency 2 *Genetic Testing Registry: Glucocorticoid deficiency 4 with or without ... Mutations in the MC2R, MRAP, and NNT genes account for the majority of cases of familial glucocorticoid deficiency; mutations ...
The authors therefore suggest that glucocorticoid drugs designed to selectively target the glucocorticoid receptor and not LXR- ... Glucocorticoid drugs are used widely to treat numerous conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, allergic reactions, asthma, ... has now shown that the protein LXR-beta is required in mice for glucocorticoid drugs to elicit many of their negative side ... although mice lacking LXR-beta did not develop high levels of blood glucose or fatty liver when administered a glucocorticoid ...
Glucocorticoids are major regulators of a plethora of cellular functions, acting on target cells through glucocorticoid ... Glucocorticoids induce mitochondrial gene transcription in HepG2 cells. Role of the mitochondrial glucocorticoid receptor. * ... Glucocorticoids are major regulators of a plethora of cellular functions, acting on target cells through glucocorticoid ... Role of the mitochondrial glucocorticoid receptor. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research, 1813(10), 1814-1821 ...
... for treating ANCA-associated vasculitis in a regimen that permitted use of glucocorticoids, but not in o ... Cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids are currently the standard therapy for ANCA-associated vasculitis, but toxicity includes ... The fact that there was no blinding for the glucocorticoid regimen may also have contributed to remission, she noted, adding ... Patients were then maintained with azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day in addition to oral glucocorticoids, which were given at the ...
GO:0042921 glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway GO:0043402 glucocorticoid mediated signaling pathway ... GO:0004883 glucocorticoid receptor activity GO:0005496 steroid binding GO:0008270 zinc ion binding GO:0043565 sequence-specific ...
Administer glucocorticoids to decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. This may also be useful in preventing relative ... Glucocorticoids. * Administer glucocorticoids to decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. This may also be useful in ... encoded search term (What is the role of glucocorticoids in thyroid storm treatment?) and What is the role of glucocorticoids ... Dosing of glucocorticoids for thyroid storm in children:. *. Hydrocortisone: 5 mg/kg (up to 100 mg) intravenously every 6-8 ...
Glucocorticoids. Class Summary. Glucocorticoid agents give patients with adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) the equivalent ... Hydrocortisone is the glucocorticoid drug of choice (DOC) because of its mineralocorticoid activity and glucocorticoid effects ... Hereditary isolated glucocorticoid deficiency is associated with abnormalities of the adrenocorticotropin receptor gene. J Clin ... Glucocorticoid replacement is required in all forms of adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease). Mineralocorticoid replacement ...
a zip file of the full study records in XML for all studies in the search results table (max 10000 ...
... words that contain glucocorticoid, words including glucocorticoid, words with glucocorticoid in them ... Words containing glucocorticoid. Found 2 words containing glucocorticoid. Browse our Scrabble Word Finder, Words With Friends ... 22 letter words containing glucocorticoid15 letter words containing glucocorticoidSee also ... Or use our Unscramble word solver to find your best possible play! Related: Words that start with glucocorticoid ...
... who have been assessed for glucocorticoid use and, for those on prolonged doses of prednisone ,= 10 mg daily (or equivalent) ... with improvement or no change in disease activity, documentation of glucocorticoid management plan within 12 months. ... Glucocorticoid Management. Glucocorticoid Management. Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of ... A cleaner measure may specify "patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are on glucocorticoids" in the denominator statement ...
The effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating croup: meta-analysis BMJ 1999; 319 :595 doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7210.595 ... List of randomised controlled trials included in figure 1: pooled effect sizes of glucocorticoid treatment for croup versus ... Two computerised bibliographic databases were searched to find all publications examining and exploding glucocorticoid therapy ... Effect of Ribavirin and Glucocorticoid Treatment in a Mouse Model of Human Metapneumovirus Infection ...
glucocorticoid synonyms, glucocorticoid pronunciation, glucocorticoid translation, English dictionary definition of ... glucocorticoid. n. Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved ... Related to glucocorticoid: mineralocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor. glu·co·cor·ti·coid. (glo͞o′kō-kôr′tĭ-koid′). n.. Any of ... Glucocorticoid - definition of glucocorticoid by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/glucocorticoid ...
Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis. ... Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Guidelines. 2017 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Prevention and ... American College of Rheumatology 2010 Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis ... Guide to the American College of Rheumatology 2010 Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-Induced ...
An extensive literature stretching back decades has shown that prolonged stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids-the ... Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Oct;57(10):925-35. doi: 10.1001 ... An extensive literature stretching back decades has shown that prolonged stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids-the ... whether glucocorticoids really are plausible candidates for contributing to the atrophy; and what cellular mechanisms underlie ...
Glucocorticoids (GC) are being used successfully in the treatment of some disorders while their effects on others are ... While glucocorticoids potently stabilize the blood brain barrier in neoplastic and inflammatory central nervous system ... Excessive proteasomal glucocorticoid receptor degradation has been identified as an important mechanism causing pharmacological ... In vitro and in vivo, restoration of glucocorticoid sensitivity and effective edema reduction was achieved by inhibition of the ...
When there are high glucocorticoids together with a … ... Glucocorticoids, chronic stress, and obesity Prog Brain Res. ... Glucocorticoids either inhibit or sensitize stress-induced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, depending ... Glucocorticoids either inhibit or sensitize stress-induced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, depending ... When there are high glucocorticoids together with a chronic stressor, the steroids act in brain in a feed-forward fashion to ...
... activation and the role of glucocorticoids in immune modulation during critical illness, and to review clinical trials of ... pharmacologic and replacement doses of glucocorticoids in early ... Glucocorticoids / physiology, therapeutic use*. Humans. Hydrocortisone / physiology, therapeutic use. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal ... However, a meta-analysis of high-dose, short-course glucocorticoid treatment involving 1,297 patients with sepsis enrolled in ...
The long term effects of glucocorticoids are not known.. What is rheumatoid arthritis and why use glucocorticoids? Rheumatoid ... Eligible studies had at least one treatment arm with glucocorticoids and one without glucocorticoids. ... In people with rheumatoid arthritis, low dose glucocorticoid pills: - reduce the progression of the disease on x-rays over 1 to ... What are the effects of glucocorticoids on the progress of rheumatoid arthritis? The studies looked at people who had ...
  • The adult hippocampus is highly enriched in type I (mineralocorticoid, MR) and type II (glucocorticoid, GR) glucocorticoid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their shape permits them to move across the membrane that surrounds cells in the body, and to be recognized by molecules inside the cell called glucocorticoid receptors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Corticosteroid hormones play an important role in the control of vascular smooth muscle tone by their permissive effects in potentiating vasoactive responses to catecholamines through glucocorticoid receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Johnson LR, Farb C, Morrison J, McEwen B, LeDoux J. Localization of glucocorticoid receptors at postsynaptic membranes in the lateral amygdala. (springer.com)
  • Membrane associated synaptic mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors are rapid regulators of dendritic spines. (springer.com)
  • They bind to the intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) of inflammatory cells to form a glucocorticoid-GR complex. (health24.com)
  • GMEBs bind to DNA, glucocorticoid receptors, and coactivators and can inhibit transcriptional activity of the GR and decrease sensitivity of the receptor to agonists. (sciencemag.org)
  • S. Kaul, J. A. Blackford Jr., S. Cho, S. S. Simons Jr., Ubc9 is a novel modulator of the induction properties of glucocorticoid receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, through these receptors, glucocorticoids classically exert late-onset and long-lasting effects by modulating gene expression ( Reichardt and Schutz, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In keeping with this, the genomic effects of these receptors have been implicated in the memory-enhancing effects of glucocorticoids. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mak JC, Nishikawa M, Shirasaki H, Miyayasu K, Barnes PJ (1995) Protective effects of a glucocorticoid on downregulation of pulmonary beta 2-adrenergic receptors in vivo. (springer.com)
  • 2. Glucocorticoids bind to glucocorticoid receptors in the cytoplasm which then dimerize and translocate to the nucleus, where they bind to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) on glucocorticoid-responsive genes, resulting in increased transcription. (portlandpress.com)
  • 3. The most striking effect of glucocorticoids is to inhibit the expression of multiple inflammatory genes (cytokines, enzymes, receptors and adhesion molecules). (portlandpress.com)
  • This cannot be due to a direct interaction between glucocorticoid receptors and GRE, as these binding sites are absent from the promoter regions of most inflammatory genes. (portlandpress.com)
  • It is more likely to be due to a direct inhibitory interaction between activated glucocorticoid receptors and activated transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1, which regulate the inflammatory gene expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • Glucocorticoid receptors also interact with CREB-binding protein (CBP), which acts as a co-activator of transcription, binding several other transcription factors that compete for binding sites on this molecule. (portlandpress.com)
  • This may be due to excessive formation of activator protein-1 at the inflammatory site, which consumes activated glucocorticoid receptors so that they are not available for suppressing inflammatory genes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Glucocorticoid receptors are highly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the hypothalamus, glucocorticoid receptors are expressed abundantly in the PVN and in the ARC, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and receptor autoradiography studies ( 7 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The strong expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the PVN, especially in the parvocellular subdivision ( 8 , 10 ), is thought to be mainly involved in the negative feedback of corticosterone on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore hypothesized that glucocorticoid action in the CNS might affect glucose metabolism through activation of receptors on preautonomic neurons in the PVN. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • More research is needed to understand the role of glucocorticoids in the context of human hippocampal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of glucocorticoids in acute bacterial pneumonia has yet to be clearly elucidated. (medscape.com)
  • What is the role of glucocorticoids in thyroid storm treatment? (medscape.com)
  • We review evidence for the role of glucocorticoids in activating the central stress-response network, and for mediation of this network by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation and the role of glucocorticoids in immune modulation during critical illness, and to review clinical trials of pharmacologic and "replacement"' doses of glucocorticoids in early and late acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of dexamethasone on nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in the dog were studied in order to gain insight into the role of glucocorticoids in accelerated proteolysis and altered metabolism of glutamine in catabolic illnesses. (physiology.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system, which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are naturally-produced steroid hormones, or synthetic compounds, that inhibit the process of inflammation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glucocorticoids are used to stop the inflammation process. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depending on the particular glucocorticoid that is used, inflammation can be affected at different points in the inflammatory pathway. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, findings demonstrate that local pulmonary inflammation may be reduced with systemic glucocorticoids. (medscape.com)
  • Removal of circulating glucocorticoids in mice by adrenalectomy resulted in the rapid onset of spontaneous gastric inflammation, oxyntic atrophy, and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), a putative precursor of gastric cancer. (jci.org)
  • Our results highlight the requirement for endogenous glucocorticoid signaling within the stomach to prevent spontaneous gastric inflammation and metaplasia, and suggest that glucocorticoid deficiency may lead to gastric cancer development. (jci.org)
  • Glucocorticoid medicines (such as budesonide and dexamethasone) decrease inflammation and swelling in the body. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Glucocorticoids also play a role in fetal development, and in the body's response to inflammation . (wisegeek.com)
  • This is when glucocorticoids come into play, as they reach the site of the inflammation and break down the overactive immune system cells to bring the inflammation to a halt. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glucocorticoids (both natural and synthetic) inhibit the immune response, thus preventing inflammation from occurring. (health24.com)
  • In addition to interfering with the transcription of enzymes involved in inflammation, glucocorticoids also suppress inflammation by activating enzymes called lipocortins. (health24.com)
  • Prescription glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation caused by a wide variety of illnesses, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis , autoimmune diseases such as lupus , and cancer. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Glucocorticoids have been used for decades as immune suppressants to treat allergic reactions, reduce inflammation, and prevent rejection of transplanted organs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tapering glucocorticoids without triggering a recurrence of inflammation is a common challenge faced by many medical specialties," the authors explain. (uspharmacist.com)
  • First described for their metabolic and immunosuppressive effects, glucocorticoids are widely prescribed in clinical settings of inflammation. (mdpi.com)
  • 1. Glucocorticoids are widely used for the suppression of inflammation in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune diseases, all of which are associated with increased expression of inflammatory genes. (portlandpress.com)
  • These steroids lower inflammation, much like vitamin D, but do so at a cost in that people on glucocorticoids are more susceptible to a host of diseases, including infection and osteoporosis. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • Glucocorticoids can inhibit solid tumor growth via downregulation of tumorassociated inflammation/angiogenesis. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid produced in humans (equivalent to rodent corticosterone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol (or hydrocortisone) is the most important human glucocorticoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoid agents give patients with adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) the equivalent of the body's missing cortisol produced by the adrenal cortex under normal conditions and under stress. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrocortisone is the glucocorticoid drug of choice (DOC) because of its mineralocorticoid activity and glucocorticoid effects and its equivalency to the adrenal product (ie, cortisol). (medscape.com)
  • cortisol is probably the most well known and common example of a glucocorticoid. (wisegeek.com)
  • High levels of cortisol, an example of a glucocorticoid, may cause depression. (wisegeek.com)
  • The most abundant type of glucocorticoid is cortisol (also called hydrocortisone). (health24.com)
  • glucocorticoids are man-made drugs that closely resemble cortisol, a hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands. (cochrane.org)
  • The glucocorticoid receptor ( GR ) also known as NR3C1 ( nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that binds with high affinity to cortisol and other glucocorticoids . (bionity.com)
  • [4] The endogenous glucocortiod hormone cortisol diffuses through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm and binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) resulitng in release of the heat shock proteins. (bionity.com)
  • The glucocorticoid receptor ( GR , or GCR ) also known as NR3C1 ( nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind. (wikidoc.org)
  • In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that connects physiologically elevated endogenous glucocorticoid activity with visceral obesity-a phenomenon that may be mediated at the central level via increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and at the peripheral level via increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 11-β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, a derivative of cortisol, which is used to treat a variety of inflammatory and auto-immune conditions. (adooq.com)
  • The action of glucocorticoids has to do with their structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Moreover, in the absence of corticosteroids, the typical deficits in adrenalectomized rats are normalized by providing sucrose solutions to drink, suggesting that there is, in addition to the feed-forward action of glucocorticoids on brain, also a feedback action that is based on metabolic well being. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of rapid PPG mRNA depletion and initiation of PPG transcription within 30 min is consistent with a rapid action of glucocorticoids on GLP-1 bioavailability, resulting in a transient reduction in the capacity for neuropeptidergic excitation of stress responses. (pnas.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms involved in this antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids is discussed, particularly in asthma, which accounts for the highest clinical use of these agents. (portlandpress.com)
  • Patients were then maintained with azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day in addition to oral glucocorticoids, which were given at the beginning of the study and then tapered down. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Daily dosing with oral glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) for chronic diseases was found to be a strong predictor of spinal fracture at one year, according to new data presented at the annual scientific meeting of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). (innovations-report.com)
  • Other oral glucocorticoids at equipotent doses may also be effective. (medscape.com)
  • The study used the Health Improvement Network primary care database in which 19 suicides, 80 suicide attempts and 10,220 cases of severe neurological disorders were identified among 372,696 patients 18 and older who had taken oral glucocorticoids in the years 1990-2008. (sprc.org)
  • Mean fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in RA patients, whether or not they had received oral glucocorticoids, than in control subjects, the report indicates. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Using luciferase transactivation assay in CV-1 cells transfected with the human glucocorticoid receptor, prednisolone is 1.7 fold more potent than hydrocortisone. (bmj.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Glucocorticoid Receptor aa 150-175. (abcam.com)
  • Here we describe the three-dimensional crystal structures of human glucocorticoid receptor ligand-binding domain (GR-LBD) in complex with the antagonist RU-486 at 2.3 A resolution and with the agonist dexamethasone ligand together with a coactivator peptide at 2.8 A. The RU-486 structure was solved in several different crystal forms, two with helix 12 intact (GR1 and GR3) and one with a protease-digested C terminus (GR2). (rcsb.org)
  • The hippocampus provides negative feedback to this loop and stressed pups have less sensitive glucocorticoid signaling resulting in elevated levels of glucocorticoids basally and an exaggerated response during stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excessive levels of glucocorticoids result in a condition called hyperadrenocorticism, while low levels are known as hypoadrenocorticism. (wisegeek.com)
  • It is well known, for example, that supraphysiologic levels of glucocorticoids, as seen in Cushing syndrome, increase central adiposity at the expense of peripheral adiposity and muscle mass. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rather, glucocorticoids are catabolic steroids, meaning they are designed to break down compounds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Transactivation via the human glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor by therapeutically used steroids in CV-1 cells: a comparison of their glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. (bmj.com)
  • An extensive literature stretching back decades has shown that prolonged stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids-the adrenal steroids secreted during stress-can have adverse effects on the rodent hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • Glucocorticoids either inhibit or sensitize stress-induced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, depending on time after their administration, the concentration of the steroids, and whether there is a concurrent stressor input. (nih.gov)
  • When there are high glucocorticoids together with a chronic stressor, the steroids act in brain in a feed-forward fashion to recruit a stress-response network that biases ongoing autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral outflow as well as responses to novel stressors. (nih.gov)
  • Glucocorticoids are also known as glucocorticosteroids, or sometimes just 'steroids', although there are many other types of steroids. (cochrane.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are actually catabolic steroids , which means that they are designed to break things down, rather than building them up. (wisegeek.com)
  • Technically, the term corticosteroid refers to both steroids, but it is often used as a synonym for glucocorticoids. (health24.com)
  • While glucocorticoid drugs are steroids, they are not the same as anabolic steroids, which are sometimes taken to enhance physical performance in athletes, or to help rebuild tissues that have become weak because of serious injury or illness. (health24.com)
  • Instead glucocorticoids are catabolic steroids, which break down tissue. (health24.com)
  • The variable effects of different glucocorticoids on one or more of these factors may explain the interindividual variation in the in vivo response of haemangioma to the steroids. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Glucocorticoids are steroids that are either produced naturally in the body, or created synthetically as drugs. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In the laboratory rat and guinea pig, glucocorticoids (GCs), the adrenal steroids that are secreted during stress, can damage the hippocampus and exacerbate the hippocampal damage induced by various neurological insults. (jneurosci.org)
  • 5. Rarely patients with chronic inflammatory diseases fail to respond to glucocorticoids, although endocrine function of steroids is preserved. (portlandpress.com)
  • 6. This new understanding of glucocorticoid mechanisms may lead to the development of novel steroids with less risk of side effects (which are due to the endocrine and metabolic actions of steroids). (portlandpress.com)
  • Osteoporosis can occur in both men and women as a side effect of glucocorticoid treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Low doses of glucocorticoids may not lead to side effects, but possible side effects may include osteoporosis or heart problems. (cochrane.org)
  • The use of glucocorticoids for medical conditions as diverse as asthma, ulcerative colitis, kidney diseases, and rheumatologic disorders causes not only a variety of metabolic and medical complications, including diabetes and osteoporosis, but also a painful debilitating condition, osteonecrosis, usually affecting the femoral head ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • As a leader in bone health with more than 20 years of osteoporosis research experience, we believe that Prolia can address a critical treatment need for patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in Europe and globally. (prnewswire.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the expanded indication of Prolia for the treatment of osteoporosis associated with newly initiating or sustained systemic glucocorticoid therapy in men and women at high risk of fracture on May 18, 2018. (prnewswire.com)
  • 3,4 In addition, a significant proportion of the patients treated long-term with glucocorticoid medications are already diagnosed with postmenopausal osteoporosis or treated with osteoporosis medications. (prnewswire.com)
  • Long-term (=3 months) use for chronic diseases is associated with a serious complication called glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). (innovations-report.com)
  • Osteoporotic fractures are typically associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis, but up to one half of patients on chronic glucocorticoid therapy may experience an osteoporotic fracture," said Tjeerd van Staa, MD, PhD, Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands and Drug Safety & Epidemiology, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals - the presenting author of this study. (innovations-report.com)
  • The American College of Rheumatology's (ACR) updated clinical guideline for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is now available online. (news-medical.net)
  • For patients who have discontinued glucocorticoid treatment, stop osteoporosis treatment if reassessment shows they are now at low risk, or complete the treatment if they are at moderate to high risk for fracture. (news-medical.net)
  • Glucocorticoids (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis, which leads to an increased fracture risk in patients. (dovepress.com)
  • It would be interesting to know whether other features of increased glucocorticoid activity, such as osteoporosis and decreased muscle mass, were more prevalent in those women with a more central fat distribution. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study may provide a safe and good strategy for molecular intervention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis by using natural products. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Apoptosis of osteoblasts induced by glucocorticoid (GC) has been identified as a main cause of osteoporosis, bone loss and fractures, and the oxidative stress was found as an important contributor. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved the use of denosumab for the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in men and women at high risk of fracture, defined as a history of osteoporotic fracture, multiple risk factors for fracture, or patients who have failed or are intolerant to other available osteoporosis therapy. (nof.org)
  • Glucocorticoid drugs are used widely to treat numerous conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, allergic reactions, asthma, and some forms of cancer, and transplant recipients. (redorbit.com)
  • Glucocorticoids (or, less commonly, glucocorticosteroids) are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical corticosteroids, usually in the form of skin preparations or inhaled glucocorticoids, can cause contact hypersensitivity, which is discussed elsewhere. (uptodate.com)
  • There are two types of corticosteroids - glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. (health24.com)
  • Dexamethasone can be prescribed in higher doses than the other glucocorticoids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In a prospective study involving 202 children with rheumatologic diseases, approximately 0.1 percent of 10,000 doses of glucocorticoids administered were thought to cause reactions that were possibly of an allergic nature [ 2 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • But non-inferiority was achieved when patients didn't have to simultaneously taper their doses of glucocorticoids, the researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In acute adrenal crisis (eg, hypotension, hypoglycemia) use pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoids, which can be in the form of hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, or dexamethasone. (medscape.com)
  • Low doses of glucocorticoid pills were taken and usually with a disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drug (DMARD). (cochrane.org)
  • Other glucocorticoids at equipotent doses may also be effective. (medscape.com)
  • People taking glucocorticoids for asthma had a lower risk of neuropsychiatric outcomes, possibly because the low dosage of the inhaled drug protects against side effects if the patients are later prescribed higher doses. (sprc.org)
  • Unfortunately, the high doses and prolonged administration of glucocorticoids, which often needed to control the disease, result in numerous adverse effects many of which are serious. (pemphigus.org)
  • The effect of glucocorticoids on vascular reactivity is regulated by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-SD). (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we describe briefly the known mechanisms of insulin resistance and highlight the potential mechanisms for the effect of glucocorticoids. (clinsci.org)
  • Glucocorticoids may increase the transcription of genes coding for antiinflammatory proteins, including lipocortin-1, interleukin-10, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and neutral endopeptidase, but this is unlikely to account for all of the widespread anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids. (portlandpress.com)
  • Even in the most conservative estimate, the evidence that glucocorticoids given in addition to standard therapy can substantially reduce the rate of erosion progression in rheumatoid arthritis is convincing. (cochrane.org)
  • 4 In addition, there is in vitro evidence that glucocorticoids may contribute to vascular calcification. (ahajournals.org)
  • these are widely utilized in general medical practice and numerous specialties either as replacement therapy in glucocorticoid deficiency or to suppress the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypercortisolaemic patients, both those with endogenous Cushing's syndrome and, much more frequently, those receiving exogenous glucocorticoid therapy, are especially at risk of such infections. (nih.gov)
  • Efforts to decrease the intensity of glucocorticoid therapy should help to improve outcomes of opportunistic fungal infections. (nih.gov)
  • See 'General principles of dermatologic therapy and topical corticosteroid use', section on 'Side effects' and 'Major side effects of inhaled glucocorticoids', section on 'Contact hypersensitivity' . (uptodate.com)
  • Re: Glucocorticoid replacement: Do we really have enough evidence to recommend the use of prednisolone as first line therapy? (bmj.com)
  • Clinical long term data suggests glucocorticoid replacement therapy with prednisolone is likely to have a selective adverse impact on bone, but not quality of life, relative to hydrocortisone [6, 7]. (bmj.com)
  • Bone mineral density is not significantly reduced in adult patients on low-dose glucocorticoid replacement therapy. (bmj.com)
  • From receptor balance to rational glucocorticoid therapy. (springer.com)
  • Cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids are currently the standard therapy for ANCA-associated vasculitis, but toxicity includes malignancy, infertility, and infection. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, despite the very clear life-saving effects of antenatal and postnatal glucocorticoid therapy to accelerate lung maturation in the infant, new research has identified some potential adverse side effects on the offspring's growth, central nervous and cardiovascular systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Replacement glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid therapy over 7 days appears to be beneficial in such individuals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Current evidence indicates that short-duration, high-dose glucocorticoid therapy is not effective for early ARDS or severe sepsis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some patients with pressor-dependent severe sepsis appear to have relative adrenal insufficiency and benefit from replacement glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There remains concern about potential long-term adverse reactions to glucocorticoid therapy, such as increased cardiovascular risk, and this issue requires further research. (cochrane.org)
  • We suggest examining the efficacy of ACTH in preventing human osteonecrosis, a devastating complication of glucocorticoid therapy. (pnas.org)
  • AMGN ) today announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved a new indication for Prolia ® (denosumab) for the treatment of bone loss associated with long-term systemic glucocorticoid therapy in adult patients at increased risk of fracture. (prnewswire.com)
  • This approval provides a new treatment option to effectively counter the detrimental effects of glucocorticoid therapy on bone in patients at increased risk of fracture. (prnewswire.com)
  • 1 The study included two patient groups: those on sustained glucocorticoid therapy and those newly initiating glucocorticoid therapy. (prnewswire.com)
  • Studies of glucocorticoid injections in other conditions that lead to joint pain suggest that this therapy may be well tolerated, relatively safe and effective in relieving pain. (cochrane.org)
  • Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that used quasi-randomisation methods to allocate participants to treatment and compared intra-articular glucocorticoids to another therapy (active or placebo) in adults with acute gout. (cochrane.org)
  • In a combined analysis of two 1-year clinical studies in 518 patients initiating or continuing glucocorticoid therapy (>7.5 mg/d prednisone or equivalent) Actonel demonstrated a 70 percent reduction in vertebral fractures in just one year. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although glucocorticoids have been shown to decrease T4-to-T3 conversion and decrease thyroid hormones by yet undiscovered mechanisms, the adverse effect profile of long-term glucocorticoid therapy makes it unattractive for long-term management of Graves hyperthyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • With regard to Graves ophthalmopathy, current evidence indicates that glucocorticoids represent the only class of drug therapy that, either alone or combined with other therapies, has an unequivocal role in management. (medscape.com)
  • Intravenous high dose glucocorticoid therapy may be more effective and better tolerated than oral steroid therapy in the management of Graves ophthalmopathy (Aktaran, 2007). (medscape.com)
  • Current standard therapy in induction remission for ANCA-associated vasculitis is combination of high-dose glucocorticoid and IV-cyclophosphamide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Suicidal behavior and severe neuropsychiatric disorders following glucocorticoid therapy in primary care. (sprc.org)
  • Ever having taken prednisone and high annual frequencies of pulsed glucocorticoid treatments were independently associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, the researchers note, but other glucocorticoid therapy characteristics were not independently associated with insulin sensitivity. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • In contrast, the investigators report, none of the glucocorticoid therapy characteristics were associated with cardiovascular risk factors that included elevated body-mass index, hypertension, abnormal lipid levels or elevated triglyceride levels. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Glucocorticoids should be used sparingly and preferably administered as bridge therapy with use of intraarticular administration using low quantities rather than as ongoing therapy,' Dr. Dessein said. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Utility of Targeted Glucocorticoids in Cancer Therapy. (ad-astra.ro)
  • This topic will review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of hypersensitivity reactions to systemic glucocorticoids. (uptodate.com)
  • Additive effect of leflunomide and glucocorticoids compared with glucocorticoids monotherapy in preventing relapse of IgG4-related disease: a randomized clinical trial. (nature.com)
  • The authors therefore suggest that glucocorticoid drugs designed to selectively target the glucocorticoid receptor and not LXR-beta should be safer than those currently in clinical use. (redorbit.com)
  • In a randomized trial, 66% of patients taking mycophenolate met the primary endpoint of remission while tapering glucocorticoids, compared with 69% of cyclophosphamide patients, which didn't reach significance for non-inferiority ( P =0.06), Rachel Jones, MBBS, of the University of Cambridge in England, and colleagues reported during the high-impact clinical studies session here at Kidney Week. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Two Cochrane Reviews have been published examining the short term clinical benefit of low dose glucocorticoids compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and demonstrate good short term and medium term clinical benefits. (cochrane.org)
  • Following 50 years of glucocorticoid use in a clinical setting, an international body of expert scientists and physicians presents the most expansive survey of glucocorticoid pharmacology to date. (springer.com)
  • Important discoveries are presented, as well as milestones in drug development, a survey of current clinical practice, and prospects for novel glucocorticoid-based therapeutics. (springer.com)
  • However, glucocorticoids may have a role in rapidly lowering thyroid hormone levels in the clinical setting of thyroid storm. (medscape.com)
  • In the SEMIRA trial, our comparative analysis focused on rheumatoid arthritis, a condition commonly treated with glucocorticoids," adds first author Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester, MD, Head of the Medical Department, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology on Campus Charité Mitte. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Lastly, we will discuss the pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of glucocorticoids in cancers and their clinical implications. (mdpi.com)
  • To develop an evidence-based plan for tapering and discontinuing glucocorticoids in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis, and to identify predictors of discontinuation and clinical remission, Giancane and colleagues analyzed data from the international, multicenter, randomized PRINTO trial. (healio.com)
  • In particular, we propose evidence-based specific quantitative cut-offs for glucocorticoids tapering/discontinuation based on the change in the [core set measure] in the initial 6months of treatment as well as in the overall response to treatment and we identify early predictors of remission, to be used in daily practice and in future clinical trials by pediatric rheumatologists. (healio.com)
  • These data suggest that glucocorticoid signaling specifically in the ARC neurons modulates hepatic insulin responsiveness via NPY and the sympathetic system, which may add to our understanding of the metabolic impact of clinical conditions associated with hypercortisolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Clinical conditions with glucocorticoid excess such as Cushing syndrome are accompanied by deranged glucose metabolism and hepatic insulin resistance, which is reversible after treatment ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the U.S., more than 10 percent of patients who receive long-term glucocorticoid treatment are diagnosed with a clinical fracture. (nof.org)
  • The clinical syndrome of glucocorticoid excess (Cushing's syndrome) is associated with glucose intolerance, obesity and hypertension. (clinsci.org)
  • A shortage of adrenal hormones (adrenal insufficiency) causes the signs and symptoms of familial glucocorticoid deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucocorticoid replacement is required in all forms of adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease). (medscape.com)
  • However, chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment leads to disordered energy metabolism, including increased weight gain, adiposity, and hepatosteatosis - all programs modulated by the circadian clock. (jci.org)
  • Peripheral endocannabinoid signaling contributes to the metabolic syndrome associated with chronic glucocorticoid administration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Patients on long-term systemic glucocorticoid medications can experience a rapid reduction in bone mineral density within a few months of beginning treatment," said Kenneth F. Saag, M.D., M.Sc. (nof.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are usually taken orally as tablets, capsules, syrup, and liquid, with the exception of hydrocortisone (which is applied as a cream). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The debate as to the optimal glucocorticoid replacement has been fuelled by the emergence of the dual release hydrocortisone preparation, Plenadren® [1]. (bmj.com)
  • In this environment Amin and colleagues suggest we should be using prednisolone as first line glucocorticoid replacement in a health system with finite resources, based on cost and absence of evidence for inferiority compared with hydrocortisone [2]. (bmj.com)
  • therefore, hydrocortisone does not inhibit growth in children to same degree as more potent, longer-acting synthetic glucocorticoid agents (eg, prednisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone). (medscape.com)
  • Hydrocortisone is a steroid hormone or glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. (adooq.com)
  • The activated glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids induce mitochondrial gene transcription in HepG2 cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Glucocorticoids regulate transcription factors (proteins that bind to regulatory regions and control gene expression). (health24.com)
  • Glucocorticoids can cause an increase or decrease in the production of certain proteins by binding to key sites in the gene and either enhancing or suppressing their transcription into mRNA. (health24.com)
  • 4. Capillary growth inhibition in cultures treated with all glucocorticoids, except triamcinolone, was associated with an increased transcription of clusterin/apolipoprotein J ( clust/apoJ ), an apoptotic gene. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • There was increased transcription of mitochondrial cytochrome (cyt) b in the inhibited cultures resulting from triamcinolone, dexamethasone or methylprednisolone treatment that was associated with capillary growth inhibition, suggesting an important role of mitochondria in glucocorticoid-induced regression of haemangioma. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In contrast, acute stress increased levels of PPG heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner, suggesting that decreases in PPG mRNA are due to increased degradation rather than reduced transcription. (pnas.org)
  • These findings suggest that glucocorticoids deplete the pool of transcribed PPG mRNA and concurrently stimulate PPG gene transcription, with the latter allowing a mechanism for replenishment of PPG mRNA after stress cessation. (pnas.org)
  • Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) and as a modulator of other transcription factors. (abcam.com)
  • Firestone GL, Giampaolo JR, O'Keeffe BA, 2003 Stimulus-dependent regulation of serum and glucocorticoid inducible protein kinase (SGK) transcription, subcellular localization and enzymatic activity. (springer.com)
  • Sakaue M, Hoffman BB (1991) Glucocorticoids induce transcription and expression of the alpha 1B adrenergic receptor gene in DTT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • Glucocorticoids may lead to deacetylation of histone, resulting in tighter coiling of DNA and reduced access of transcription factors to their binding sites, thereby suppressing gene expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • Some of the transcription factors that are inhibited by glucocorticoid, such as nuclear factor-κB, are also targets for novel anti-inflammatory therapies. (portlandpress.com)
  • When the GR binds to glucocorticoids, its primary mechanism of action is the regulation of gene transcription. (wikidoc.org)
  • The gene NR3C1 encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is located on chromosome 5q31.3 in humans, chromosome 18 in rats and mice, and chromosome 13 in chickens (Flaherty et al. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we show that endogenous glucocorticoids are required to maintain gastric homeostasis. (jci.org)
  • It is plausible that this association reflects a variation in endogenous glucocorticoid tone between the different groups-high glucocorticoid tone associated with central fat distribution and low glucocorticoid tone associated with peripheral fat distribution. (ahajournals.org)
  • They propose that the inverse association between PFM and atherosclerosis may reflect endogenous variation in the tone of the HPA axis with resulting high glucocorticoid levels associated with central fat distribution and low glucocorticoid levels associated with peripheral fat distribution. (ahajournals.org)
  • Prednisone is the commonly prescribed glucocorticoid because of its high activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of low dose glucocorticoid pills, such as prednisone, on the progress of rheumatoid arthritis. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomized controlled or cross-over trials in adults with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in which prednisone or a similar glucocorticoid preparation was compared to either placebo controls or active controls (i.e. comparative studies) and where there was evaluation of radiographs of hands, or hands and feet, or feet by any standardised technique. (cochrane.org)
  • We had not previously had access to data from double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials which compared a tapering regimen for low-dose prednisone-the most common glucocorticoid used-with continued use of low-dose prednisone. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Included were adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving tocilizumab and glucocorticoids 5 to 15 mg per day for 24 weeks who had received prednisone 5 mg per day for 4 weeks or more and had stable low disease activity, confirmed by a Disease Activity Score for 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) of 3.2 or less 4 to 6 weeks before and on the day of randomization. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Glucocorticoids can also inhibit COX-2 enzymes directly. (health24.com)
  • In this minireview we describe the possible mechanisms of glucocorticoid action in tumor growth inhibition. (ad-astra.ro)
  • The name "glucocorticoid" derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the designation glucocorticoid arose from observations that the hormones played a role in the utilization of glucose. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is a condition that occurs when the adrenal glands, which are hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney, do not produce certain hormones called glucocorticoids . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that repress proinflammatory stimuli, but their role in the stomach is unknown. (jci.org)
  • As the inclusion of "gluco-" in the name of this group of hormones suggests, glucocorticoids are involved in the metabolism of glucose . (wisegeek.com)
  • When these hormones were first discovered, researchers noted their role in glucose metabolism first, later realizing that a glucocorticoid can also be involved in the metabolism of other substances in the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glucocorticoids can be distinguished from other types of steroid hormones because they attach to the glucocorticoid receptor, a structure found in almost all cells which allows a glucocorticoid to interact directly with a cell in any area of the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • Serum-and-glucocorticoid-inducible-kinase-1 (SGK1) is under regulation of several hormones, mediators and cell stressors. (springer.com)
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important steroid hormones with widespread activities in metabolism, development, and immune regulation. (rupress.org)
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are lipid hormones playing an important role in the regulation of the immune system (for review see reference 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • All glucocorticoid stress hormones wholesalers & glucocorticoid stress hormones manufacturers come from members. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • We doesn't provide glucocorticoid stress hormones products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • The name "glucocorticoid" is a portmanteau (glucose + cortex + steroid) and is composed from its role in regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right). (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as affecting the inflammatory process, glucocorticoids have an effect on the utilization of compounds in the body (metabolism). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Altered glucocorticoid levels in the body can cause a variety of symptoms, as the change in levels wreaks havoc on the metabolism. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glucocorticoids have pleiotropic effects on metabolism, and in particular, changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoid can impact on the melanocortin system. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, in addition to their well-known direct peripheral effects, glucocorticoids may also affect glucose metabolism through receptor activation in defined circuits of the central nervous system (CNS). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cho YM, Pu HF, Huang WJ, et al, 2011 Role of serum-and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 in regulating torsion-induced apoptosis in rats. (springer.com)
  • However, glucocorticoids are also potent inducers of apoptosis in many cell types and tissues. (mdpi.com)
  • This review will focus on the established mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis and outline what is known about the apoptotic response in cells and tissues of the body after exposure to glucocorticoids. (mdpi.com)
  • Indole-3-carbinol as inhibitors of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells through blocking ROS-mediated Nrf2 pathway. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Glucocorticoids are chiefly produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, whereas mineralocorticoids are synthesized in the zona glomerulosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, excessive salt intake and/or excessive release of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and TGFβ up-regulates SGK1 expression thus predisposing to SGK1-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • 2 However, the proportion of patients that qualify for GIOP diagnosis and intervention is small and depends on the level of exposure to glucocorticoid medications. (prnewswire.com)
  • Our data indicate rapid, glucocorticoid-dependent decrements in PPG mRNA expression after exposure of rats to either systemic or psychogenic stressors. (pnas.org)
  • Experimentally, prenatal exposure to stress or excess glucocorticoids in a variety of animal models can malprogram offspring physiology, resulting in a reduction in birth weight and subsequently increasing the likelihood of disorders of cardiovascular function, glucose homeostasis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and anxiety-related behaviours in adulthood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because animals exhibit reduced preterm cerebellar growth after perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids, we sought to determine whether glucocorticoid exposure and other modifiable factors increased the risk for these adverse outcomes in human neonates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Alterations in treatment after preterm birth, particularly glucocorticoid exposure, may help to decrease risk for adverse neurological outcome after preterm birth. (sciencemag.org)
  • Glucocorticoid exposure in preterm newborns is associated with impaired cerebellar development, pointing to a modifiable risk factor for improving motor and cognitive outcomes after premature birth. (sciencemag.org)
  • Administer glucocorticoids to decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. (medscape.com)
  • All glucocorticoids induced a marked decrease of interleukin (IL)-6 transcripts. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The resulting decrease in attained height 1 to 4 years after the initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids is thought not to decrease attained adult height. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The initial decrease in attained height associated with the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in prepubertal children persisted as a reduction in adult height, although the decrease was not progressive or cumulative. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Olsen PC, Kitoko JZ, Ferreira TP, de- Azevedo CT, Arantes AC, Martins MA (2015) Glucocorticoids decrease Treg cell numbers in lungs of allergic mice. (springer.com)
  • Importantly, at similar levels of BMD, postmenopausal women taking glucocorticoids have considerably higher risk of fracture compared with postmenopausal nonusers of glucocorticoids. (prnewswire.com)
  • As very powerful anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, glucocorticoids have gained attention over the past decades as a first line treatment for chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, in addition to its wide use in the field of oncology. (springer.com)
  • Betamethasone dipropionate is a glucocorticoid steroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive abilities. (adooq.com)
  • Unexpectedly, these effects did not require the sumoylation activity of Ubc9 and were even observed in the absence of glucocorticoid modulatory element. (sciencemag.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are prescribed for their immunosuppressive, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergenic effects and are integral to the management of numerous conditions, including malignancies, transplantation, autoimmune and allergic diseases, and asthma. (uptodate.com)
  • 5 The most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases associated with long-term glucocorticoid use are chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. (prnewswire.com)
  • My sister-in-law developed Cushing's syndrome from taking a glucocorticoid for asthma for too long. (wisegeek.com)
  • The use of inhaled glucocorticoids for persistent asthma causes a temporary reduction in growth velocity in prepubertal children. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • About 1% of Americans are on glucocorticoids, usually for asthma or autoimmune diseases. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • Budesonide is a glucocorticoid steroid for the treatment of asthma, non-infectious rhinitis. (adooq.com)
  • Nguyen ET, Streicher J, Berman S, Caldwell JL, Ghisays V, Estrada CM, Wulsin AC, Solomon MB (2017) A mixed glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid receptor modulator dampens endocrine and hippocampal stress responsivity in male rats. (springer.com)
  • however, high glucocorticoid concentrations and absent 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in some tissues make glucocorticoids highly relevant mineralocorticoid receptor ligands. (ahajournals.org)
  • These new mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent signaling pathways suggest that glucocorticoids may contribute to vascular disease via mineralocorticoid receptor signaling, independent of circulating aldosterone. (ahajournals.org)
  • Glucocorticoid signaling involves two receptor systems, i.e., the mineralocorticoid receptor, which in the CNS is mainly restricted to the septum, hippocampus and amygdala, and the glucocorticoid receptor, which is more widely expressed in different brain regions including the hypothalamus ( 7 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The EC approval is based on the positive results of a Phase 3 study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of Prolia compared with risedronate in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment. (prnewswire.com)
  • The EC approval is supported by a Phase 3 randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and efficacy of Prolia compared with risedronate in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment. (prnewswire.com)
  • These animals studies have found that postnatal care to prenatally stressed animals can reverse the adverse effects of glucocorticoid signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids have many diverse (pleiotropic) effects, including potentially harmful side effects, and as a result are rarely sold over the counter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoid effects may be broadly classified into two major categories: immunological and metabolic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased urinary uric acid Increased urinary calcium and hypocalcemia Alkalosis Leukocytosis Excessive glucocorticoid levels resulting from administration as a drug or hyperadrenocorticism have effects on many systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether this relative potency is also true for the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects is less clear. (bmj.com)
  • Until this, and additional data are available, clinicians will continue to individualise glucocorticoid replacement to the patient's symptoms whilst attempting to avoid steroid-related side-effects. (bmj.com)
  • A team of researchers, led by Carolyn Cummins, at the University of Toronto, Ontario, has now shown that the protein LXR-beta is required in mice for glucocorticoid drugs to elicit many of their negative side effects. (redorbit.com)
  • Glucocorticoids (GC) are being used successfully in the treatment of some disorders while their effects on others are questionable and the nature of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still a matter of debate. (innovations-report.com)
  • We briefly review the effects of CRF and its receptor antagonists on motor outflows in rodents, and examine the effects of glucocorticoids and CRF on monoaminergic neurons in brain. (nih.gov)
  • The long term effects of glucocorticoids are not known. (cochrane.org)
  • What are the effects of glucocorticoids on the progress of rheumatoid arthritis? (cochrane.org)
  • She spends her time blogging about the negative effects of prolonged glucocorticoid use. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, despite overwhelming behavioral evidence indicating that glucocorticoids modulate memory consolidation via the BLA, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the direct effects of corticosterone (CORT) (the glucocorticoid in rodents) on principal BLA cells in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • Using the in vitro model developed by us, the present study examined some of the effects of five commonly used glucocorticoids on haemangioma biopsies taken from two patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This study assessed the effects of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids on this leukocyte clearance mechanism. (jimmunol.org)
  • These effects were specific in that the potentiated phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils was completely blocked by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486, and glucocorticoids did not promote 5-day Mφ ingestion of opsonized erythrocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Berlin, Germany- Long-term use of glucocorticoids and accompanying adverse effects are among the most difficult challenges for patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The report in The Lancet queried whether early discontinuation of glucocorticoids could prevent characteristic side effects and asked how the drugs could be discontinued without sparking glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 80-90%), but often cause various glucocorticoid-related side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Molecular mechanisms thought to underlie the programming effects of early life stress and glucocorticoids include epigenetic changes in target chromatin, notably affecting tissue-specific expression of the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). As such, excess glucocorticoids in early life can permanently alter tissue glucocorticoid signalling, effects which may have short-term adaptive benefits but increase the risk of later disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sex-Specific Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoids on Placental Development, Glucocorticoids Xiaoxiao Qian, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/50200. (intechopen.com)
  • The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Fetal and Placental Development, Glucocorticoids Xiaoxiao Qian, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/50103. (intechopen.com)
  • An extensive body of research has accumulated with regards to the molecular anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which glucocorticoids exert their effects on the cells of the immune system. (springer.com)
  • In addition, adrenalectomy alters the sensitivity of the central melanocortin system to the effects of the melanocortin antagonist agouti-related protein (AgRP), with the orexigenic effect of the latter being absent in adrenalectomized rats but restored with glucocorticoid supplementation ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the second, we have administered glucocorticoids from weaning and examined the longer- term effects of glucocorticoid treatment in the presence and absence of POMC-derived peptides. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3 Although aldosterone has been seen as the culprit, glucocorticoids bind to the MR with the same affinity at physiological concentrations and exert similar effects on various targets, including vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that corticosterone, the physiological glucocorticoid in rats and mice, may exert aldosterone-like effects on early signaling in the vasculature and that these effects are mediated via MR and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • The use of high-dose bolus glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection will increase the anti-inflammatory effect without increasing side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, we believe their findings support the concept that subtly increased glucocorticoid activity may exert dysmetabolic and atherogenic effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although we recognize the importance of managing the lowest effective dose of glucocorticoids and using alternative therapies when possible, both the numerator and the denominator are poorly specified. (acponline.org)
  • However, a meta-analysis of high-dose, short-course glucocorticoid treatment involving 1,297 patients with sepsis enrolled in nine trials showed a trend toward harm, and four trials in patients with, or at risk for, ARDS showed no benefit or a greater likelihood of progression to ARDS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The risk of fracture was found to increase incrementally with every 1 mg increase above 7.5 mg in the daily dose of the glucocorticoid. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the placebo group, the statistically significant predictors for fracture were number of existing fractures and daily glucocorticoid dose. (innovations-report.com)
  • A larger daily dose of inhaled glucocorticoid in the first 2 years was associated with a lower adult height (-0.1 cm for each microgram per kilogram of body weight) (P=0.007). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In patients who achieved low disease activity with tocilizumab and at least 24 weeks of glucocorticoid treatment, continuing glucocorticoids at 5 mg per day for 24 weeks provided safe and better disease control than tapering glucocorticoids, although two-thirds of patients were able to safely taper their glucocorticoid dose," the authors conclude. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The guideline provides recommendations on assessing fracture risk and treatment for adults and special patient populations including women of childbearing potential, adults treated with very high-dose glucocorticoids, adults with organ transplants, and children ages 4-17. (news-medical.net)
  • Previous reports suggested conventional immunosuppressants such as cyclophosphamide could not reduce glucocorticoid dose in remission induction in ANCA-associated vasculitis because of lower remission rate and higher relapse rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The RAVE and RITUXVAS trial (NEJM 2010, both) showed high-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab had roughly the same efficacy and safety as high-dose glucocorticoid plus IV-cyclophosphamide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, recent retrospective observational studies reported low-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab led to re-induction in severe relapsing ANCA-associated vasculitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thus, the investigators aim to investigate whether rituximab can reduce glucocorticoid dose in induction remission in ANCA-associated vasculitis (to show non-inferiority for efficacy between low-dose and high-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants will be randomised to the 'low-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab' or the high-dose glucocorticoid plus rituximab' groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thus a new regimen reducing glucocorticoid dose is required. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will be administered rituximab (375mg/m2/w x4 infusions) for reducing glucocorticoid dose in remission induction phase. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evaluation of presence of adverse events related with use of high dose of glucocorticoids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Both glucocorticoid receptor protein and mRNA have been identified in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Once the glucocorticoid-GR complex enters the nucleus, it causes changes in the production of mRNA from the DNA molecule, which subsequently changes the production of the protein molecules. (health24.com)
  • In the absence of hormone, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) resides in the cytosol complexed with a variety of proteins including heat shock protein 90 ( hsp90 ), the heat shock protein 70 ( hsp70 ) and the protein FKBP52 (FK506-binding protein 52). (bionity.com)
  • Glucocorticoid cytosol receptor binding capacity in ventricular tissue, determined using [3H]dexamethasone, was significantly increased as femtomoles per milligram protein (39.3 +/- 3.1 vs. 31.4 +/- 1.4) and femtomoles per milligram DNA (2,683 +/- 226 vs. 1,786 +/- 71). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Excessive proteasomal glucocorticoid receptor degradation has been identified as an important mechanism causing pharmacological insensitivity of brain microvascular endothelial cells to glucocorticoids in ischemic brain disorders like acute ischemic stroke. (innovations-report.com)
  • Glucocorticoids and acute lung injury. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of glucocorticoid injections (into affected joints) in people with acute gout. (cochrane.org)
  • There is presently no evidence from randomised trials to support the use of intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment in acute gout. (cochrane.org)
  • Although intra-articular glucocorticoids are a commonly used intervention in the treatment of acute gout, there is little evidence to support their safety and efficacy in this setting. (cochrane.org)
  • To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intra-articular glucocorticoids in the treatment of acute gout. (cochrane.org)
  • No trials were identified that evaluated the efficacy and safety of intra-articular glucocorticoids for acute gout. (cochrane.org)
  • Wechalekar MD, Vinik O, Schlesinger N, Buchbinder R. Intra-articular glucocorticoids for acute gout. (cochrane.org)
  • In the acute stage, glucocorticoids are used to control the symptoms. (pemphigus.org)
  • Glucocorticoid receptor levels were quantitated in leukemic blasts from bone marrow aspirates of 174 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that glucocorticoid receptor levels may be an important prognostic indicator in childbood acute lymphocytic leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activated ACTH receptor can then attach (bind) to ACTH, and this binding triggers the adrenal glands to produce glucocorticoids . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In response to physiological and psychogenic stressors, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis orchestrates the systemic release of glucocorticoids (GCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Among these critical systems is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is triggered by stressors of various sources (physical, emotional, immunological, etc.) to provoke the systemic release of glucocorticoids (GCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased proteasome-mediated degradation in response to glucocorticoids. (abcam.com)
  • Interestingly, several cell types have an anti-apoptotic response to glucocorticoids that is cytoprotective. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, as the levels of plasma CORT achieved, especially in study 1, were not grossly supraphysiological, we conclude that glucocorticoid deficiency may afford Pomc −/− mice some protection from the full adverse consequences of melanocortin deficiency. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this article, we review possible mechanisms involved in the glucocorticoid-mediated potentiation of vascular reactivity, its regulation by 11beta-HSD, and their physiological and pathophysiological significance. (nih.gov)
  • present evidence for a new role of Ubc9--regulation of transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The authors found Ubc9 in a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with the glucocorticoid modulatory element binding factors 1 and 2 (GMEB-1 and GMEB-2). (sciencemag.org)
  • Stress-induced decrements in PPG mRNA were attenuated in adrenalectomized-corticosterone-replaced rats, suggesting that mRNA down-regulation is due at least in part to glucocorticoid secretion. (pnas.org)
  • A better knowledge of the interplay between glucocorticoid-induced immunosuppression and invasive fungal infections should assist in earlier recognition and treatment of such infections. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro and in vivo, restoration of glucocorticoid sensitivity and effective edema reduction was achieved by inhibition of the proteasomal pathway by Bortezomib accompanied by treatment with a specific glucocorticoid. (innovations-report.com)
  • Eligible studies had at least one treatment arm with glucocorticoids and one without glucocorticoids. (cochrane.org)
  • We are pleased that today's EC approval provides physicians with a new treatment option for bone loss associated with the use of glucocorticoid medications,' said Sean E. Harper , M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. (prnewswire.com)
  • The initial response of lymphoid malignancies to glucocorticoids (GCs) is a critical parameter predicting successful treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • While we were unable to find any controlled trials that have compared intra-articular glucocorticoids to placebo or another treatment, trials of intra-articular glucocorticoids for other conditions including osteoarthritis (some of which include people who have other types of crystals in their joints) and rheumatoid arthritis have found that this treatment is effective and safe. (cochrane.org)
  • Evidence suggests intra-articular glucocorticoids may be a safe and effective treatment in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (cochrane.org)
  • Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Graves Disease? (medscape.com)
  • A group of international researchers writing in Pediatric Rheumatology have proposed a plan for tapering and discontinuing glucocorticoids in patients with juvenile-onset dermatomyositis , based on changes in core set measures of disease activity in the first 6 months of treatment. (healio.com)
  • Treatment with glucocorticoids in COVID patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For patients with rheumatoid arthritis achieving low disease activity or remission with tocilizumab, glucocorticoid tapering is associated with a small but significant increase in disease activity compared with continued glucocorticoids, but a majority of patients achieve treatment success with either option. (doctorslounge.com)
  • MONDAY, June 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) achieving low disease activity or remission with tocilizumab (TCZ), glucocorticoid (GC) tapering (GCtaper) is associated with a small but significant increase in disease activity compared with continued GC, but a majority of patients achieve treatment success with either option. (doctorslounge.com)
  • With this approval, patients who receive treatment with glucocorticoids now have a new option to help improve their bone mineral density. (nof.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are global in their inhibition of the inflammatory response. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mechanisms of rapid glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, when the glucocorticoids activate lipocortins, they cause the inhibition of PLA2 and subsequent inhibition of arachidonic acid and inhibition of prostaglandin production. (health24.com)
  • Lang F, Voelkl J, 2013 Therapeutic potential of serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase inhibition. (springer.com)
  • Glucocorticoids are used to suppress many types of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. (health24.com)
  • Onuora, S. Leflunomide plus glucocorticoids for IgG4-RD. Nat Rev Rheumatol (2020). (nature.com)
  • Other features of familial glucocorticoid deficiency can include recurrent infections and skin coloring darker than that of other family members (hyperpigmentation). (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are multiple types of familial glucocorticoid deficiency, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of familial glucocorticoid deficiency is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phenotypic characteristics of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) type 1 and 2. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The majority of adrenocorticotropin receptor (melanocortin 2 receptor) mutations found in familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Congenital lack of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) causes obesity and glucocorticoid deficiency. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As expected, inactivating mutations of the POMC gene in humans and mice therefore result in a complex phenotype involving hyperphagia, obesity, glucocorticoid deficiency, and altered pigmentation ( 6 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dexamethasone provides glucocorticoid activity. (medscape.com)
  • Interestingly, intracerebroventricular infusion of dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid receptor agonist) stimulates food intake and body weight gain ( 14 ), while it decreases peripheral glucose uptake ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The GR is abnormal in familial glucocorticoid resistance. (bionity.com)