11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2
Gene Expression Regulation
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP)
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1
Rats, Inbred Strains
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Molecular Sequence Data
Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse
The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (1/7402)Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones. (+info)
Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/7402)AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct. (+info)
Production of prostaglandin f2alpha and its metabolite by endometrium and yolk sac placenta in late gestation in the tammar wallaby, Macropus Eugenii. (3/7402)In this study, we investigated production of prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha and its metabolite, PGFM, by uterine tissues from tammar wallabies in late pregnancy. Endometrial explants were prepared from gravid and nongravid uteri of tammars between Day 18 of gestation (primitive streak) and Day 26.5 (term) and were incubated in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with glutamine and antibiotics for 20 h. PGF2alpha and PGFM in the medium were assayed by specific, validated RIAs. Control tissues (leg muscle) did not produce detectable amounts of either PG. Both gravid and nongravid endometria secreted PGF2alpha, and production increased significantly in both gravid and nongravid uteri towards term. PGFM was produced in small amounts by both gravid and nongravid uteri, and the rate of production did not increase. Neither oxytocin nor dexamethasone stimulated PG production in vitro in any tissue at any stage. Thus, the surge in peripheral plasma PGFM levels seen at parturition may arise from increased uterine PG production, but further study is needed to define what triggers this release. (+info)
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is an accessory factor for the glucocorticoid response from the cAMP response element in the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter. (4/7402)The cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter is required for a complete glucocorticoid response. Proteins known to bind the PEPCK CRE include the CRE-binding protein (CREB) and members of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family. We took two different approaches to determine which of these proteins provides the accessory factor activity for the glucocorticoid response from the PEPCK CRE. The first strategy involved replacing the CRE of the PEPCK promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmid (pPL32) with a consensus C/EBP-binding sequence. This construct, termed pDeltaCREC/EBP, binds C/EBPalpha and beta but not CREB, yet it confers a nearly complete glucocorticoid response when transiently transfected into H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. These results suggest that one of the C/EBP family members may be the accessory factor. The second strategy involved co-transfecting H4IIE cells with a pPL32 mutant, in which the CRE was replaced with a GAL4-binding sequence (pDeltaCREGAL4), and various GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD) fusion protein expression vectors. Although chimeric proteins consisting of the GAL4 DBD fused to either CREB or C/EBPalpha are able to confer an increase in basal transcription, they do not facilitate the glucocorticoid response. In contrast, a fusion protein consisting of the GAL4 DBD and amino acids 1-118 of C/EBPbeta provides a significant glucocorticoid response. Additional GAL4 fusion studies were done to map the minimal domain of C/EBPbeta needed for accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response. Chimeric proteins containing amino acid regions 1-84, 52-118, or 85-118 of C/EBPbeta fused to the GAL4 DBD do not mediate a glucocorticoid response. We conclude that the amino terminus of C/EBPbeta contains a multicomponent domain necessary to confer accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response from the CRE of the PEPCK gene promoter. (+info)
Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. (5/7402)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids. (+info)
Inactivation of the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha affects glucose homeostasis and islet glucagon gene expression in vivo. (6/7402)Mice homozygous for a null mutation in the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha showed severe postnatal growth retardation followed by death between P2 and P12. Homozygous mutant mice were hypoglycemic despite unchanged expression of HNF3 target genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Whereas insulin and corticosteroid levels were altered as expected, plasma glucagon was reduced markedly in the mutant animals despite the hypoglycemia that should be expected to increase glucagon levels. This correlated with a 70% reduction in pancreatic proglucagon gene expression. We also showed that HNF3alpha could bind to and transactivate the proglucagon gene promoter. These observations invoke a central role for HNF3alpha in the regulatory control of islet genes essential for glucose homeostasis in vivo. (+info)
Antisense downregulation of a mouse mammary tumor virus activated protooncogene in mouse mammary tumor cells reverses the malignant phenotype. (7/7402)Activation of the protooncogene Wnt-1 by insertion of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is known to cause mammary tumors in mice. Wnt-1 expression in mammary glands has been postulated to confer direct local growth stimulation of mammary epithelial cells leading to their acquisition of a preneoplastic state. Wnt-1 expression also induces morphological alterations in cultured normal mammary cells. However, it has not been determined whether or not transformed mammary cells require continuous Wnt-1 expression for their ability to form tumors in vivo. To address this question, we constructed antisense and sense Wnt-1 expression vectors containing a synthetic promoter composed of five high-affinity glucocorticoid response elements (GRE5). This promoter is at least 50-fold more inducible by dexamethasone than the promoter contained in the long terminal repeats of MMTV. The vectors were introduced into a mouse mammary tumor cell line (R/Sa-MT) that expresses high levels of endogenous Wnt-1 mRNA and forms rapidly growing tumors when transplanted into syngeneic hosts. Of the 12 stably transfected cell lines established (9 with antisense and 3 with sense constructs), 2 antisense cell lines (R/Sa-MT/antisense) and 1 sense cell line (R/Sa-MT/sense) were examined for inducibility by dexamethasone of antisense and sense Wnt-1 RNAs, changes in endogenous Wnt-1 RNA expression, and changes in cell morphology. The growth patterns of the cells in vitro and in vivo were also examined. Our results show that (1) the levels of the expression of endogenous Wnt-1 mRNA and protein were reduced significantly (>80%) in those cells (R/Sa-MT/antisense) that expressed antisense Wnt-1 RNA at high levels following exposure to dexamethasone, compared to the R/Sa-MT/sense and R/Sa-MT control cells and (2) transplantation of the R/Sa-MT/antisense cells produced smaller tumors ( approximately 0.2 cm in 16 weeks) compared to the tumors ( approximately 2.0 cm in 8 weeks) that were produced by the R/Sa-MT/sense and R/Sa-MT cells. We therefore suggest that Wnt-1 expression is required not only for the transformation of normal mammary cells into tumor cells, but also for the maintenance of their tumorigenicity. (+info)
Role of iNOS in the vasodilator responses induced by L-arginine in the middle cerebral artery from normotensive and hypertensive rats. (8/7402)1. The substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), L-arginine (L-Arg, 0.01 microM - 1 mM), induced endothelium-independent relaxations in segments of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR) precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). These relaxations were higher in SHR than WKY arteries. 2. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 2-amine-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-tiazine (AMT), unspecific and inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitors, respectively, reduced those relaxations, specially in SHR. 3. Four- and seven-hours incubation with dexamethasone reduced the relaxations in MCAs from WKY and SHR, respectively. 4. Polymyxin B and calphostin C, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, reduced the L-Arg-induced relaxation. 5. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7 h incubation) unaltered and inhibited these relaxations in WKY and SHR segments, respectively. LPS antagonized the effect polymyxin B in WKY and potentiated L-Arg-induced relaxations in SHR in the presence of polymyxin B. 6. The contraction induced by PGF2alpha was greater in SHR than WKY arteries. This contraction was potentiated by dexamethasone and polymyxin B although the effect of polymyxin B was higher in SHR segments. LPS reduced that contraction and antagonized dexamethasone- and polymyxin B-induced potentiation, these effects being greater in arteries from SHR. 7. These results suggest that in MCAs: (1) the induction of iNOS participates in the L-Arg relaxation and modulates the contraction to PGF2alpha; (2) that induction is partially mediated by a PKC-dependent mechanism; and (3) the involvement of iNOS in such responses is greater in the hypertensive strain. (+info)
Glucocorticoids are a class of hormones produced by the adrenal gland that regulate glucose metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They are commonly used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and asthma 2. Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease 3. Allergies and anaphylaxis 4. Skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis 5. Cancer treatment to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system 6. Endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease Glucocorticoids work by binding to specific receptors in cells throughout the body, leading to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. They can also increase blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to produce glucose and decreasing the body's sensitivity to insulin. Long-term use of high doses of glucocorticoids can have serious side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infection.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antipyretic agent. It is a potent corticosteroid that has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including the treatment of allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Dexamethasone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also used to treat severe cases of COVID-19, as it has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with severe illness. However, dexamethasone is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and mood changes. Therefore, it is typically prescribed only when other treatments have failed or when the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
Receptors, Glucocorticoid are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to hormones called glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone that are produced by the adrenal gland in response to stress or injury. They play a role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, immune function, and inflammation. When glucocorticoid hormones bind to their receptors, they trigger a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that leads to changes in gene expression and cellular function. This allows the body to respond to stress and maintain homeostasis.
Mifepristone is a medication that is used to induce abortion. It is a synthetic steroid that works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone that is necessary for a pregnancy to continue. Mifepristone is typically used in combination with another medication, such as misoprostol, to induce abortion. It is usually taken orally, but it can also be administered by injection. Mifepristone is typically used in the first trimester of pregnancy, but it can also be used later in pregnancy to induce labor. It is considered to be a safe and effective method of abortion when used under medical supervision.
Corticosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in response to stress. It plays a key role in the body's stress response and helps regulate metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. Corticosterone is also involved in the development and maintenance of bone tissue, and it has anti-inflammatory effects. In the medical field, corticosterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. It is available as a prescription medication and is typically administered orally or by injection.
Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both of the adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline, which play important roles in regulating various bodily functions. There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be performed, including: 1. Adrenal gland tumors: Benign or malignant tumors of the adrenal gland can cause hormonal imbalances and may need to be removed. 2. Hyperaldosteronism: This condition is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone, which can lead to high blood pressure. Adrenalectomy may be performed to remove the affected adrenal gland. 3. Cushing's disease: This condition is caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can lead to weight gain, high blood pressure, and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may be performed to remove the affected adrenal gland. 4. Pheochromocytoma: This is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland that can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may be performed to remove the affected gland. Adrenalectomy is typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done laparoscopically or through a traditional open incision. The procedure may take several hours, and patients may need to stay in the hospital for a few days following the surgery.
Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that can help reduce inflammation, swelling, and redness in the body. Hydrocortisone is also used to treat conditions such as allergies, asthma, eczema, and psoriasis, as well as to reduce the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone cortisol. It is available in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, and injections.
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is expressed in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, muscle, adipose tissue, and brain. The primary function of 11β-HSD1 is to convert inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. This conversion occurs in the liver and adipose tissue, where 11β-HSD1 is highly expressed. Cortisol is a key hormone involved in the body's stress response and plays a role in regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. In addition to its role in cortisol metabolism, 11β-HSD1 has also been implicated in the development of various diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression. For example, increased activity of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue has been linked to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. Similarly, increased activity of 11β-HSD1 in the brain has been linked to depression and anxiety. Overall, 11β-HSD1 is a critical enzyme involved in regulating cortisol metabolism and has important implications for the development of various diseases.
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating the levels of active glucocorticoids in the body. These enzymes are found in various tissues, including the liver, adipose tissue, and the brain. There are two main isoforms of 11β-HSD: 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2. 11β-HSD1 converts inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol, in the liver and adipose tissue. This enzyme is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. On the other hand, 11β-HSD2 converts active cortisol to its inactive form, cortisone, in the kidneys and other tissues. This enzyme helps to protect the body from the harmful effects of excess cortisol, such as weight gain, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. Dysregulation of 11β-HSD activity has been implicated in various diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression. Therefore, understanding the role of 11β-HSDs in the body and developing drugs that target these enzymes may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of these diseases.
Hormone antagonists are medications that block or inhibit the effects of hormones in the body. They are often used in medical treatments to counteract the effects of hormones that are either overactive or underactive. Examples of hormone antagonists include: 1. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): These medications block the effects of estrogen in some tissues but not others. They are used to treat conditions such as breast cancer and osteoporosis. 2. Progestins: These medications mimic the effects of the hormone progesterone and are used to treat conditions such as menopause symptoms and endometriosis. 3. Androgens: These medications block the effects of testosterone and are used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women). 4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists: These medications block the release of gonadotropins, hormones that stimulate the ovaries and testes to produce sex hormones. They are used to treat conditions such as endometriosis and prostate cancer. Overall, hormone antagonists are an important tool in the medical field for treating a variety of conditions related to hormonal imbalances.
Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and psoriasis. It is also used to treat allergies, asthma, and other respiratory conditions, as well as to reduce swelling and inflammation in the body. In addition, prednisolone is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and leukemia, and to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops, and is typically prescribed by a doctor or other healthcare professional.
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (11β-HSD2) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is primarily found in the liver, kidney, and adipose tissue. The primary function of 11β-HSD2 is to convert cortisol to its inactive form, cortisone. This process helps to prevent cortisol from exerting its effects on various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, muscles, and immune system. In the medical field, 11β-HSD2 is of particular interest because of its role in the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that individuals with reduced activity of 11β-HSD2 are less likely to develop these conditions, suggesting that the enzyme may play a protective role against metabolic disease. In addition, 11β-HSD2 has been implicated in the development of certain psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Research has shown that individuals with reduced activity of 11β-HSD2 may be more susceptible to the effects of stress and may be at increased risk for developing these conditions. Overall, 11β-HSD2 is a critical enzyme that plays a key role in regulating cortisol levels and maintaining metabolic and psychiatric health.
Cortisone is a synthetic form of the hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal glands. It is a corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and psoriasis. Cortisone can also be used to treat allergies, asthma, and other respiratory conditions, as well as to reduce swelling and inflammation in the body. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and creams. Cortisone is a potent medication and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Anti-inflammatory agents are medications that are used to reduce inflammation in the body. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to injury or infection, but chronic inflammation can lead to a variety of health problems, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Anti-inflammatory agents work by blocking the production of inflammatory molecules, such as prostaglandins and cytokines, which are responsible for causing inflammation. They can also reduce the activity of immune cells that contribute to inflammation. There are several types of anti-inflammatory agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and biologic agents. NSAIDs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation in conditions such as arthritis and headaches. Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, are powerful anti-inflammatory agents that are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including asthma, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. Biologic agents, such as TNF inhibitors, are a newer class of anti-inflammatory agents that are used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. It is important to note that while anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation, they can also have side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone. It is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment plan for your individual needs.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Betamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including allergic reactions, skin disorders, respiratory diseases, and autoimmune disorders. Betamethasone is available in various forms, including creams, ointments, injections, and tablets. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system, which can help to reduce swelling, redness, and itching, as well as prevent the body from attacking healthy tissues. Betamethasone is generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but it can cause side effects, including skin thinning, stretch marks, and increased risk of infection. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using betamethasone and to report any side effects that occur.
Triamcinolone is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions. It is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent that can help reduce swelling, redness, and itching caused by conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Triamcinolone is available in various forms, including creams, ointments, injections, and inhalers. It is typically prescribed for conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and allergic reactions. It can also be used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Triamcinolone works by suppressing the immune system and reducing inflammation in the affected area. It can also help reduce the production of certain chemicals that contribute to inflammation and swelling. While triamcinolone is generally safe and effective when used as directed, it can cause side effects such as skin thinning, stretch marks, and increased risk of infection. It is important to follow your doctor's instructions carefully and to report any side effects to your healthcare provider.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones in the body. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of one form of a steroid hormone to another by removing or adding a hydroxyl group. There are several types of HSDs, each with a specific function and localization in the body. For example, some HSDs are found in the liver, where they help regulate the levels of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. Other HSDs are found in the brain, where they play a role in the regulation of mood and behavior. HSDs are also involved in the metabolism of other types of hormones, such as cortisol and aldosterone. Dysfunction of HSDs can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hormonal imbalances, mood disorders, and metabolic disorders.
Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to reduce inflammation and swelling, as well as to suppress the immune system. Methylprednisolone is often prescribed to treat conditions such as asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. It is also used to treat severe allergic reactions, as well as to reduce inflammation and swelling after surgery. Methylprednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is typically administered orally or by injection.
Metyrapone is a medication that is used to treat Cushing's syndrome, a hormonal disorder that occurs when the body produces too much cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Metyrapone works by inhibiting the production of cortisol in the adrenal glands, which helps to reduce the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome, such as weight gain, high blood pressure, and muscle weakness. It is usually taken orally in tablet form and is typically prescribed for patients who have not responded to other treatments for Cushing's syndrome. Metyrapone can also be used to help diagnose Cushing's syndrome by suppressing cortisol production and causing the symptoms of the condition to improve.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Triamcinolone acetonide is available in various forms, including injectable solutions, ointments, creams, and inhalers. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as asthma, allergic reactions, skin disorders, and joint pain. In higher doses, triamcinolone acetonide can have serious side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, and osteoporosis. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider and to monitor for any potential side effects.
Receptors, Mineralocorticoid are a type of protein found in cells throughout the body that bind to and respond to hormones called mineralocorticoids. These hormones, which include aldosterone and cortisol, play a key role in regulating the body's electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and blood volume. When mineralocorticoids bind to their receptors, they trigger a series of chemical reactions within the cell that help to regulate these processes. Receptors, Mineralocorticoid are found in a variety of tissues, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, and blood vessels. They are also involved in the regulation of other physiological processes, such as glucose metabolism and immune function.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Annexin A1 is a protein that is expressed by a variety of cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. It is a member of the annexin family of proteins, which are characterized by their ability to bind to phospholipids and other molecules in the cell membrane. In the medical field, Annexin A1 has been studied for its potential role in a number of different processes, including inflammation, cell death, and cancer. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, and may play a role in regulating the immune response. It has also been implicated in the process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and may play a role in the development and progression of certain types of cancer. Annexin A1 has been the subject of a number of clinical trials, and is being investigated as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and cardiovascular disease.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress and regulates metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. ACTH is also involved in the regulation of other hormones, such as aldosterone, which helps regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance, and androgens, which are male sex hormones. In the medical field, ACTH is often used to diagnose and treat disorders related to the adrenal glands, such as Cushing's disease, which is caused by an overproduction of cortisol, and Addison's disease, which is caused by a deficiency of cortisol. ACTH is also used to stimulate the adrenal glands to produce cortisol in cases where the glands are not producing enough of the hormone on their own.
Tyrosine transaminase, also known as tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of tyrosine, an amino acid that is essential for the production of various hormones, neurotransmitters, and other important molecules in the body. TAT is primarily found in the liver, kidneys, and brain, where it catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from tyrosine to α-ketoglutarate, producing L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and α-ketoglutarate. L-DOPA is then converted into dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are important neurotransmitters involved in regulating mood, attention, and other physiological processes. In addition to its role in tyrosine metabolism, TAT also plays a role in the metabolism of other amino acids, including tryptophan and phenylalanine. TAT activity is regulated by various factors, including hormones, nutrients, and drugs, and alterations in TAT activity have been associated with a number of diseases, including liver disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and certain types of cancer.
I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medication called "Cortodoxone" in the medical field. It's possible that you may have misspelled the name of the medication or that it is not a commonly used medication. Can you please provide more information or clarify your question?
Cycloheximide is a synthetic antibiotic that is used in the medical field as an antifungal agent. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of proteins in fungal cells, which ultimately leads to their death. Cycloheximide is commonly used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and hair, as well as systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. It is usually administered orally or topically, and its effectiveness can be enhanced by combining it with other antifungal medications. However, cycloheximide can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions, and it may interact with other medications, so it should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
The adrenal glands are two small endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys in the human body. They are responsible for producing a variety of hormones that play important roles in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the stress response. The adrenal glands are composed of two main parts: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which help regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal medulla, on the other hand, produces hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. In the medical field, the adrenal glands are often studied and monitored for a variety of conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and pheochromocytoma. These conditions can result from problems with the production or regulation of hormones by the adrenal glands, and can have a significant impact on a person's overall health and well-being.
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a peptide hormone that is produced by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the brain. It plays a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the body's response to stress. CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. Cortisol is a stress hormone that helps the body respond to physical and emotional stress by increasing blood sugar levels, suppressing the immune system, and increasing blood pressure. CRH is also involved in other physiological processes, such as the regulation of appetite, metabolism, and the sleep-wake cycle. It is synthesized and secreted in response to stress, both physical and psychological, and plays a role in the body's response to trauma, illness, and other stressful events. In the medical field, CRH is used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the function of the HPA axis and to diagnose certain disorders, such as Cushing's disease, which is characterized by excessive cortisol production. It is also used in research to study the effects of stress on the body and to develop new treatments for stress-related disorders.
Receptors, Steroid are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to and respond to steroid hormones, such as cortisol, estrogen, and testosterone. These hormones are important regulators of various physiological processes, including metabolism, growth and development, and immune function. When a steroid hormone binds to its receptor, it triggers a cascade of events within the cell that leads to changes in gene expression and ultimately alters the cell's behavior. Receptors, Steroid play a critical role in the body's response to hormones and are the target of many drugs used to treat conditions such as diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.
Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called corticosteroids. It is a synthetic version of the hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal gland. Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate is used to treat a variety of conditions, including inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers. When taken in high doses or for extended periods of time, Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate can have serious side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased risk of infections.
Dactinomycin is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA, which are essential for the growth and division of cancer cells. Dactinomycin is usually given intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can also be administered as a cream or ointment to treat skin cancer. Common side effects of dactinomycin include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the lining of the mouth and throat.
Budesonide is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It works by reducing inflammation in the airways and lungs, which can help to improve breathing and reduce symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Budesonide is available in a variety of forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and oral tablets. It is typically used on a long-term basis to manage chronic conditions, and may be used in combination with other medications to provide more effective treatment. Budesonide is generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated, although it can cause side effects such as headache, nausea, and throat irritation. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when using budesonide, and to report any side effects or concerns to your doctor.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Hydroxycorticosteroids are a class of hormones that are synthesized in the adrenal gland and have a variety of physiological effects on the body. They are a type of corticosteroid, which are hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex and have a wide range of effects on various body systems. Hydroxycorticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol and are structurally similar to the hormone cortisol, which is also produced by the adrenal gland. They are involved in a number of important physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pressure, the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, and the immune response. Hydroxycorticosteroids are often used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. They are also used to treat certain types of cancer and to manage symptoms of certain types of arthritis. In general, hydroxycorticosteroids are effective at reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system, which can help to alleviate symptoms and improve outcomes in a variety of conditions.
Clobetasol is a potent corticosteroid medication used to treat a variety of skin conditions, including eczema, psoriasis, and dermatitis. It is available in various forms, such as creams, ointments, and solutions, and is applied topically to the affected area. Clobetasol works by reducing inflammation, itching, and redness, and can help to relieve symptoms of skin conditions. However, it should be used with caution, as prolonged or excessive use can lead to side effects such as skin thinning, stretch marks, and increased risk of infection. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when using clobetasol and to avoid using it on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) is a protein that plays a role in regulating cell signaling pathways by removing phosphate groups from specific proteins. It is a member of the dual specificity phosphatase family, which are enzymes that can remove phosphate groups from both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on target proteins. DUSP1 is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been implicated in the regulation of several signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is involved in cell growth and differentiation, and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is involved in cell survival and proliferation. DUSP1 has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, DUSP1 has been shown to be downregulated in many types of cancer, and its overexpression has been associated with a better prognosis in some cases. In addition, DUSP1 has been shown to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease by regulating the activity of signaling pathways involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Overall, DUSP1 is an important regulator of cell signaling pathways that is involved in a variety of cellular processes and has been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases.
Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when the body produces too much of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. There are several causes of Cushing syndrome, including: 1. Taking corticosteroid medications for a long time 2. Having a tumor in the pituitary gland that produces too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 3. Having a tumor in the adrenal gland that produces too much cortisol 4. Having a tumor in the pancreas that produces too much ACTH 5. Having a genetic condition that causes the body to produce too much cortisol Symptoms of Cushing syndrome can include weight gain, particularly in the face, neck, and abdomen, thinning skin that bruises easily, muscle weakness, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and osteoporosis. Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome typically involves blood tests to measure cortisol levels, as well as imaging tests to look for tumors in the pituitary gland, adrenal gland, or pancreas. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the syndrome and may include surgery to remove tumors, radiation therapy, or medications to lower cortisol levels.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.
Carbenoxolone is a medication that is used to treat peptic ulcers, a condition in which the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) is damaged. It works by reducing the production of stomach acid and by increasing the production of a substance called prostaglandin, which helps to protect the stomach lining. Carbenoxolone is available in the form of tablets and is usually taken two to four times a day, with or without food. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking this medication.
Beclomethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions, including asthma, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), and eczema. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to allergens and other irritants. Beclomethasone is available in a variety of forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and creams, and is typically prescribed by a healthcare provider. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully and to speak with a healthcare provider if you experience any side effects or if your symptoms do not improve with treatment.
In the medical field, steroids refer to a class of drugs that are derived from the natural hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal gland. Steroids are used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, allergies, and certain types of cancer. There are two main types of steroids: corticosteroids and anabolic steroids. Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, while anabolic steroids are used to build muscle mass and increase strength. Steroids can be administered in various forms, including oral tablets, injections, creams, and inhalers. They can have a range of side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, high blood pressure, and increased risk of infections. It is important to note that the use of steroids is closely monitored by healthcare professionals, and they are typically prescribed only for specific medical conditions and under the guidance of a doctor.。
Transcortin, also known as serum amyloid P component (SAP), is a plasma protein that plays a role in the transport and clearance of various molecules, including cortisol, thyroid hormones, and some drugs. It is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it circulates at a relatively constant concentration. Transcortin has been shown to bind to cortisol and other steroid hormones, forming complexes that are transported throughout the body. This transport is important for maintaining the proper levels of these hormones in the bloodstream and for regulating their activity at the cellular level. In addition to its role in hormone transport, transcortin has also been implicated in the clearance of certain drugs and toxins from the body. It has been shown to bind to a variety of drugs, including barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and some antibiotics, and to facilitate their elimination from the body. Overall, transcortin plays an important role in maintaining the proper levels and activity of various molecules in the body, and its dysfunction has been associated with a number of diseases and disorders, including certain types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders.
In the medical field, "Liver Neoplasms, Experimental" refers to the study of liver tumors or cancer in experimental settings, such as in laboratory animals or tissue cultures. This type of research is typically conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer and to develop new treatments or therapies for the disease. Experimental liver neoplasms may involve the use of various techniques, such as genetic manipulation, drug administration, or exposure to environmental toxins, to induce the development of liver tumors in animals or cells. The results of these studies can provide valuable insights into the biology of liver cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the disease.
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. IL-1 is produced by various types of immune cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells, in response to infection, injury, or inflammation. IL-1 has multiple functions in the immune system, including promoting the activation and proliferation of immune cells, enhancing the production of other cytokines, and regulating the inflammatory response. It can also stimulate the production of fever, which helps to fight off infections. In the medical field, IL-1 is often studied in the context of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also being investigated as a potential target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
Fluocinonide is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid medication used to treat a variety of skin conditions, including eczema, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system in the affected area. Fluocinonide is available in various strengths and forms, including creams, ointments, gels, and solutions, and is typically applied to the affected skin once or twice daily. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when using fluocinonide to ensure safe and effective treatment.
Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in regulating the balance of salt and water in the body, and helps to maintain blood pressure and blood volume. Aldosterone acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions. This helps to conserve water and increase blood volume, which in turn raises blood pressure. Aldosterone also stimulates the production of renin, another hormone that helps to regulate blood pressure. In addition to its role in fluid and electrolyte balance, aldosterone also has other effects on the body. It can stimulate the growth of blood vessels and the production of red blood cells, and it can also affect the metabolism of glucose and lipids. Aldosterone is often measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool for conditions such as Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, and primary aldosteronism. It is also used as a treatment for certain types of hypertension and heart failure.
Adrenal cortex hormones are a group of hormones produced by the adrenal gland's outer layer, the cortex. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal cortex hormones are divided into three main categories based on their chemical structure and function: 1. Glucocorticoids: These hormones, including cortisol, are responsible for regulating metabolism and the body's response to stress. They help the body break down stored carbohydrates and fats to provide energy, and they also suppress the immune system to reduce inflammation. 2. Mineralocorticoids: These hormones, including aldosterone, regulate the body's electrolyte balance and blood pressure. They help the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which helps maintain proper blood pressure. 3. Androgens: These hormones, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and deepening of the voice. They also play a role in the body's response to stress. Adrenal cortex hormones are produced in response to signals from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and their levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, and medications. Imbalances in adrenal cortex hormone levels can lead to a range of health problems, including Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and adrenal insufficiency.
Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and certain types of cancer. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system, which can help to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prednisone is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is typically prescribed in doses that are gradually increased or decreased over time, depending on the patient's response to the medication and the specific condition being treated. While prednisone can be effective in treating a wide range of medical conditions, it can also have side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased risk of infections. Therefore, it is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and adjust the dosage as needed.
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process that occurs naturally in the body. It is a vital mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliminating damaged or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of changes that ultimately lead to their death and removal from the body. These changes include chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are engulfed by neighboring cells or removed by immune cells. Apoptosis plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune function. However, when apoptosis is disrupted or dysregulated, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the lining of the joint capsule, which leads to pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. RA can also affect other organs, such as the lungs, heart, and eyes. RA is a systemic disease, meaning that it affects the entire body, not just the joints. It is an inflammatory disease, meaning that it is caused by the immune system attacking healthy cells and tissues in the body. RA is a progressive disease, meaning that it can worsen over time if left untreated. However, with proper treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. The exact cause of RA is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors for RA include being female, having a family history of the disease, and smoking.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine, a type of signaling protein, that plays a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli. TNF-alpha has multiple functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting cell growth and differentiation, and mediating inflammation. It can also induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis, in some cells, which can be beneficial in fighting cancer. However, excessive or prolonged TNF-alpha production can lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, TNF-alpha is often targeted in the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs called TNF inhibitors, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are used to block the action of TNF-alpha and reduce inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions.
Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors (MIF) are a group of proteins that are produced by various cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells. MIF plays a role in regulating the immune response by inhibiting the migration of macrophages and other immune cells to sites of inflammation or infection. It also has other functions, such as regulating the production of cytokines and modulating the activity of certain enzymes. MIF has been implicated in a number of diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases.
Progesterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system. It is produced by the ovaries and the placenta during pregnancy and is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the pregnancy. Progesterone also helps to regulate the menstrual cycle and can be used as a contraceptive. In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone has a number of other effects on the body. It can help to reduce inflammation, promote bone density, and regulate mood. Progesterone is also used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. Progesterone is available as a medication in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, injections, and creams. It is important to note that progesterone can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, and mood changes. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of using progesterone with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Blotting, Northern is a laboratory technique used to detect and quantify specific RNA molecules in a sample. It involves transferring RNA from a gel onto a membrane, which is then hybridized with a labeled complementary DNA probe. The probe binds to the specific RNA molecules on the membrane, allowing their detection and quantification through autoradiography or other imaging methods. Northern blotting is commonly used to study gene expression patterns in cells or tissues, and to compare the expression levels of different RNA molecules in different samples.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a type of complex carbohydrate found on the surface of gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of a lipid A moiety, a core polysaccharide, and an O-specific polysaccharide. LPS are important components of the bacterial cell wall and play a role in the innate immune response of the host. In the medical field, LPS are often studied in the context of sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation. LPS can trigger a strong immune response in the host, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators that can cause tissue damage and organ failure. As a result, LPS are often used as a model for studying the pathophysiology of sepsis and for developing new treatments for this condition. LPS are also used in research as a tool for studying the immune system and for developing vaccines against bacterial infections. They can be purified from bacterial cultures and used to stimulate immune cells in vitro or in animal models, allowing researchers to study the mechanisms of immune responses to bacterial pathogens. Additionally, LPS can be used as an adjuvant in vaccines to enhance the immune response to the vaccine antigen.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PEDs) refer to the long-term health effects that can occur in an individual as a result of exposure to environmental or genetic factors during pregnancy. PEDs can manifest in a variety of ways, including physical, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, and can occur even if the exposure occurred many years before the individual's birth. PEDs can result from exposure to a wide range of substances, including drugs, alcohol, tobacco, pollutants, and infections. These exposures can affect the developing fetus in various ways, including disrupting normal growth and development, altering gene expression, and causing damage to organs and systems. PEDs can also result from genetic factors, such as inherited disorders or mutations. These genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain health conditions, such as autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities, even if the individual was not exposed to any environmental factors during pregnancy. Overall, PEDs highlight the importance of taking steps to protect pregnant women and their developing fetuses from exposure to harmful substances and environmental factors, as well as the need for ongoing monitoring and support for individuals who may be at risk for PEDs.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Tetrahydrocortisol is a metabolite of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is a minor metabolite of cortisol and is not considered to be biologically active. Tetrahydrocortisol is produced by the conversion of cortisol to tetrahydrocortisone (THC) by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which is primarily found in the liver and adipose tissue. In the body, THC is further converted to tetrahydrocortisone acetate (THCA), which is a more stable form of THC that is stored in the body and can be converted back to cortisol when needed.
Blotting, Western is a laboratory technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample by transferring proteins from a gel to a membrane and then incubating the membrane with a specific antibody that binds to the protein of interest. The antibody is then detected using an enzyme or fluorescent label, which produces a visible signal that can be quantified. This technique is commonly used in molecular biology and biochemistry to study protein expression, localization, and function. It is also used in medical research to diagnose diseases and monitor treatment responses.
Antirheumatic agents, also known as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), are a class of medications used to treat rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and lupus. These drugs work by suppressing the immune system and reducing inflammation, which can slow down or stop the progression of the disease and alleviate symptoms such as joint pain and stiffness. There are several types of antirheumatic agents, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and biologic agents. NSAIDs are used to relieve pain and inflammation, while corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. Biologic agents are a newer class of drugs that target specific components of the immune system and are often used when other treatments have not been effective. Antirheumatic agents can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage, and may interact with other medications. They are typically prescribed by a rheumatologist or other specialist and may need to be taken for several months or years to be effective.
Adrenal insufficiency is a medical condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough of certain hormones, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are small endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys, and they play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the stress response. There are two main types of adrenal insufficiency: primary and secondary. Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, is caused by damage to the adrenal glands themselves, usually due to an autoimmune response or an infection. Secondary adrenal insufficiency, on the other hand, is caused by a problem with the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, which are responsible for regulating the production of hormones by the adrenal glands. Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, dizziness, and nausea. In severe cases, it can lead to shock and even death if not properly treated. Treatment typically involves hormone replacement therapy to replace the missing hormones, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Osteoporosis is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in bone density and strength, making bones more fragile and prone to fractures. It is a common condition, particularly in older adults, and can affect both men and women. In osteoporosis, the bones become porous and brittle, which can lead to fractures even with minor trauma or falls. The most common sites for osteoporosis-related fractures are the spine, hip, and wrist. Osteoporosis is often diagnosed through a bone density test, which measures the amount of bone mineral density in the hip and spine. Risk factors for osteoporosis include age, gender, family history, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions such as thyroid disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment for osteoporosis typically involves medications to increase bone density and reduce the risk of fractures, as well as lifestyle changes such as regular exercise and a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.
Cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two or more daughter cells. This process is essential for the growth, development, and repair of tissues in the body. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process by which somatic cells (non-reproductive cells) divide to produce two identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the process by which germ cells (reproductive cells) divide to produce four genetically diverse daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction. Abnormalities in cell division can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cancer. In cancer, cells divide uncontrollably and form tumors, which can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body.
Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the urea cycle, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for removing excess nitrogen from the body. ASL catalyzes the hydrolysis of argininosuccinate to arginine and fumarate, which are both important intermediates in the urea cycle. In the medical field, ASL deficiency is a rare genetic disorder known as argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA). ASA is characterized by the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in the blood and urine, which can lead to neurological symptoms such as seizures, developmental delays, and intellectual disability. Treatment for ASA typically involves dietary restrictions and supplementation with arginine and citrulline, which can help to reduce the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in the body. ASL is also being studied as a potential target for cancer therapy, as it is overexpressed in certain types of tumors. Inhibitors of ASL have shown promise in preclinical studies as potential cancer treatments, and are currently being investigated in clinical trials.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that is synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. It is a large protein that is cleaved into several smaller peptides, including α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone), β-endorphin, and ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). In the medical field, POMC and its cleavage products are important for regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and immune function. For example, α-MSH is involved in the regulation of skin pigmentation and the body's response to stress, while β-endorphin is a natural painkiller that is involved in the body's response to stress and pain. Abnormalities in the production or function of POMC and its cleavage products can lead to various medical conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, POMC and its cleavage products are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field, with the goal of developing new treatments for these conditions.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell proliferation. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, and its levels are regulated by various hormones and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, cAMP is often studied in the context of its role in regulating cellular signaling pathways. For example, cAMP is involved in the regulation of the immune system, where it helps to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. It is also involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, where it helps to regulate heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, cAMP is often used as a tool in research to study cellular signaling pathways. For example, it is commonly used to activate or inhibit specific signaling pathways in cells, allowing researchers to study the effects of these pathways on cellular function.
Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the endocrine system that regulate various bodily functions. They are transported through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and trigger a response. Hormones play a crucial role in regulating growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and other essential processes in the body. Examples of hormones include insulin, thyroid hormones, estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Imbalances in hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, infertility, and mood disorders.
In the medical field, "Animals, Newborn" typically refers to animals that are less than 28 days old. This age range is often used to describe the developmental stage of animals, particularly in the context of research or veterinary medicine. Newborn animals may require specialized care and attention, as they are often more vulnerable to illness and injury than older animals. They may also have unique nutritional and behavioral needs that must be addressed in order to promote their growth and development. In some cases, newborn animals may be used in medical research to study various biological processes, such as development, growth, and disease. However, the use of animals in research is highly regulated, and strict ethical guidelines must be followed to ensure the welfare and safety of the animals involved.
Glucocorticoids in hippocampal development
Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
Membrane glucocorticoid receptor
Glucocorticoid deficiency 1
Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator
Biological aspects of fluorine
Steroid dementia syndrome
Treatment of equine lameness
Vitamin D receptor
Late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Effects of stress on memory
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center
Anaphylaxis Induced by Glucocorticoids
Pediatric Tracheomalacia Medication: Glucocorticoids
Glucocorticoids Regulate Thrombopoiesis by Remodeling the Megakaryocyte Transcriptome
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics
Frontiers | The regulation of muscle mass by endogenous glucocorticoids
JCI - Nonenzymatic addition of glucocorticoids to lens proteins in steroid-induced cataracts.
Stress and glucocorticoids promote oligodendrogenesis in the adult hippocampus. - CIRM
Interactions between methylsulfonyl PCBs and the glucocorticoid receptor.
Researchers interested in Glucocorticoids | Yale School of Medicine
New Web Application to Study Cellular Responses to Glucocorticoids | NIAMS
Glucocorticoids and resilience - PubMed
GENETICS OF EPIGENETIC RESPONSE TO HIGH CIRCULATING GLUCOCORTICOIDS AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
Grant Abstract: Critical Role of the Gut Microbiota in Prunes' Prevention of Glucocorticoid Induced Osteoporosis
Acinetobacter baumannii among Patients Receiving Glucocorticoid Aerosol Therapy during Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, China -...
Historically controlled comparison of glucocorticoids with or without tocilizumab versus supportive care only in patients with...
Teriparatide or alendronate in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis - PubMed
Epigenomic effects of Glucocorticoids on Macrophages | NIH Research Festival
Glucocorticoids regulate TCR-induced elevation of CD4: functional implications. :: MPG.PuRe
Glucocorticoids inhibit lung cancer cell growth through both the extracellular signal-related kinase pathway and cell cycle...
glucocorticoids | NIH Intramural Research Program
Dexamethasone | Glucocorticoid agonist | CAS [50-02-2] | Axon 3258 | Axon Ligand™ with |99% purity available from stock from...
Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Negative Feedback Inhibition: Enhanced Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Signaling despite Lower...
High-dose Intravenous Glucocorticoid Induces Hyperamylasemia
Glucocorticoids, Stress, and Fertility - AlphaZita
Glomerular Disease Primer: Therapy for Glomerular Disease - Kidney Disease Section - NIDDK
Haemophilus Influenzae Infections Medication: Antibiotics, Glucocorticoids
- Activated ACTH receptor can then attach (bind) to ACTH, and this binding triggers the adrenal glands to produce glucocorticoids . (medlineplus.gov)
- Without the binding of the ACTH receptor to its hormone, there is no signal to trigger the adrenal glands to produce glucocorticoids. (medlineplus.gov)
- Interactions between methylsulfonyl PCBs and the glucocorticoid receptor. (nih.gov)
- It is well known that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammatory signals while dexamethasone (Dex) induces anti-inflammatory signals through activation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Past studies have been centering on the antagonistic effects of LPS and Dex in inducing inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory responses (via NF-kappaB and GR). Previous data have shown that the treatment of Dex alone can introduce pronounced epigenomic effects on non-immune cell lines. (nih.gov)
- Dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory steroid, is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. (axonmedchem.com)
- We assessed CSC effects on hippocampal glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and FK506 binding protein (FKBP51) expression, acute heterotypic stressor-induced GR translocation, as well as GC effects on gene expression and cell viability in isolated hippocampal cells. (uni-regensburg.de)
- The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone has been shown to rapidly and effectively ameliorate symptoms of psychotic major depression. (rug.nl)
- Cortisol, the physiologic glucocorticoid in humans, is produced by the zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex in response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) released by the anterior pituitary. (frontiersin.org)
- Glucocorticoids inhibit lung cancer cell growth through both the extracellular signal-related kinase pathway and cell cycle regulators. (nih.gov)
- Glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of various cell types, but the mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear. (nih.gov)
- In addition to profound changes in the physiology and function of multiple tissues, stress and elevated glucocorticoids can also inhibit reproduction, a logical effect for the survival of self. (alphazita.com)
- For example, glucocorticoids can inhibit the release of inflammation-causing chemicals by immune cells, reducing inflammation in the body. (gelacs.com)
- Experiments using reverse transcription-PCR indicate that glucocorticoids inhibit IL-4 generation in basophils on the level of transcription. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are conserved down to teleosts where they play a similar role in metabolism ( Wendelaar Bonga, 1997 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Glucocorticoids work by binding to specific receptors in the body, known as glucocorticoid receptors. (gelacs.com)
- The mechanism of action of glucocorticoids is not fully understood, but it is thought that they work by binding to specific receptors on cells and modulating the activity of certain enzymes. (gelacs.com)
Actions of Glucocorticoids1
- To address whether the generation of IL-4 by basophils is similarly affected, we investigated the actions of glucocorticoids on the in vitro release of this cytokine induced by anti-IgE Ab or by the human recombinant histamine-releasing factor. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Glucocorticoids have both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, which can be beneficial in the treatment of conditions like allergies, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. (gelacs.com)
- If you had a glucocorticoid that didn't produce side effects but was anti-inflammatory, it could be used at 10 times the rate of today because you could use it in older people, in women who are postmenopausal, and others," he said. (nih.gov)
- A synthetic glucocorticoid called dexamethasone, used for decades to treat conditions ranging from arthritis to immune system disorders, may hold promise for critically ill patients, according to an NIEHS scientist and his academic collaborator. (nih.gov)
- The present study was designed to analyze the extent to which this blunted arteriolar response may be attributed in SHR to the concurrent elevation of circulating glucocorticoids through the use of adrenalectomy with and without dexamethasone supplementation. (elsevierpure.com)
- Glucocorticoids Regulate Thrombopoiesis by Remodeling the Megakaryocyte Transcriptome [ Abstract Glucocorticoids Regulate Thrombopoiesis by Remodeling the Megakaryocyte Transcriptome ] [ Synopsis Glucocorticoids Regulate Thrombopoiesis by Remodeling the Megakaryocyte Transcriptome ] Grodzielski M, Cidlowski JA. (nih.gov)
- Abstract: Prolonged glucocorticoid use can lead to glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis (GIO) and subsequently increase fracture risk in as little as three months. (nih.gov)
- We report a patient with an immediate and delayed type hypersensitivity to several glucocorticoids, the diagnostic work-up, including challenge testing, and the options for future treatment with glucocorticoids in patients with glucocorticoid allergy. (medscape.com)
- Glucocorticoid aerosol is a common inhalation therapy in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. (cdc.gov)
- We conducted a prospective cohort study to analyze the association between glucocorticoid aerosol therapy and A. baumannii isolation from ventilator patients in China. (cdc.gov)
- Patients receiving glucocorticoid aerosol had a higher cumulative hazard for A. baumannii isolation and analysis showed that glucocorticoid aerosol therapy increased A. baumannii isolation in most subpopulations. (cdc.gov)
- Glucocorticoid aerosol was not a direct risk factor for 30-day mortality, but A. baumannii isolation was independently associated with 30-day mortality in ventilator patients. (cdc.gov)
- Studies of anabolic therapy in patients who are receiving long-term glucocorticoids and are at high risk for fracture are lacking. (nih.gov)
- Four Asian female patients, aged between 26 and 71 years, were diagnosed with hyperamylasemia after intravenous administration of high-dose glucocorticoid. (medscape.com)
- Patients receiving glucocorticoid replacement for previously diagnosed hypoadrenalism may require an increase in maintenance or stress doses following initiation of EGRIFTA SV. (nih.gov)
- The authors, both experts on glucocorticoids, analyzed the recent Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) clinical trial, which included thousands of patients in the United Kingdom. (nih.gov)
- Glucocorticoids suppress immune activity, making them more beneficial for patients experiencing hyperinflammation, according to the authors. (nih.gov)
- Low doses also help patients avoid glucocorticoid resistance, which would make the drug ineffective. (nih.gov)
- Prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with improved ARDS outcomes: analysis of individual patients' data from four randomized trials and trial-level meta-analysis of the updated literature. (nih.gov)
- Meduri GU, Bridges L, Shih MC, Marik PE, Siemieniuk RAC, Kocak M. Prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with improved ARDS outcomes: analysis of individual patients' data from four randomized trials and trial-level meta-analysis of the updated literature. (nih.gov)
- PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of prolonged glucocorticoid treatment for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (nih.gov)
- Glucocorticoids are known to cause bone loss and fractures, yet many patients receiving or initiating glucocorticoid therapy are not appropriately evaluated and treated. (ox.ac.uk)
- PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis (GIO) results in increased fracture risk and is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis worldwide. (nih.gov)
- Bisphosphonate therapy is the current standard of care for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. (nih.gov)
- In an 18-month randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, we compared teriparatide with alendronate in 428 women and men with osteoporosis (ages, 22 to 89 years) who had received glucocorticoids for at least 3 months (prednisone equivalent, 5 mg daily or more). (nih.gov)
- However, due to their potent effects, long-term use of glucocorticoids can lead to significant side effects, such as osteoporosis, diabetes, and weight gain. (gelacs.com)
- Management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. (ox.ac.uk)
- This review summarizes the available evidence-based data that form the basis for therapeutic intervention and covers the current status of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) management, regulatory requirements, and risk-assessment options. (ox.ac.uk)
- Named for their ability to increase serum glucose, glucocorticoids have important roles in modifying carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism as well as numerous other physiologic functions. (frontiersin.org)
- Our results indicate that the impaired dilator response to histamine in SHR is related to an enhanced adrenal glucocorticoid secretion. (elsevierpure.com)
- Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is a condition that occurs when the adrenal glands, which are hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney, do not produce certain hormones called glucocorticoids . (medlineplus.gov)
- A shortage of adrenal hormones (adrenal insufficiency) causes the signs and symptoms of familial glucocorticoid deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
- Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced naturally by the adrenal gland and also manufactured synthetically for use as medication. (gelacs.com)
- Glucocorticoids are a group of hormones produced by the body's adrenal glands. (gelacs.com)
- Glucocorticoids are hormones that are produced by the adrenal gland in response to stress. (gelacs.com)
- Aristocort, or glucocorticoids, are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal gland. (gelacs.com)
- Glucocorticoids are hormones that occur naturally in the body. (nih.gov)
- The kinetics of all these changes indicate that inhibition of the ERK/MAPK pathway precedes the cell cycle effects, suggesting that regulation of this MAPK-signaling pathway may be an alternative mechanism for glucocorticoid-induced cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition. (nih.gov)
- This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms believed to mediate glucocorticoid inhibition of reproductive functions and the anatomical sites at which these effects take place. (alphazita.com)
- This inhibition, which requires RNA and protein synthesis, has been postulated to be mediated by a glucocorticoid-induced protein. (clinicalgate.com)
- Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a group of primary adrenal insufficiencies characterized clinically by neonatal hyperpigmentation, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and recurrent infections, and biochemically by glucocorticoid deficiency without mineralocorticoid deficiency. (nih.gov)
- Other features of familial glucocorticoid deficiency can include recurrent infections and skin coloring darker than that of other family members (hyperpigmentation). (medlineplus.gov)
- Modifications of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids form a key component of the response of an organism to stressful challenges. (alphazita.com)
- Furthermore, maternal exposure to prenatal stress or exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function and stress-related behaviors in offspring. (alphazita.com)
- Nonenzymatic addition of glucocorticoids to lens proteins in steroid-induced cataracts. (jci.org)
- Glucocorticoid physiology at times has occupied the mainstream of endocrinology, at others, a backwater. (clinicalgate.com)
- We begin by describing some of those ebbs and flows up to the dramatic announcement in 1949 that glucocorticoids have powerful antiinflammatory activity, a discovery that for decades isolated glucocorticoid physiology from the major clinical applications of those newly uncovered "miracle drugs. (clinicalgate.com)
- In response to stress in the form of perceived danger or acute inflammation, glucocorticoids are released from the adrenal gland, rapidly mobilizing energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein stores. (frontiersin.org)
- In medicine, glucocorticoids are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, autoimmune disorders, allergies, and some forms of cancer. (gelacs.com)
- Glucocorticoids are also used as medication to treat a variety of conditions, such as allergies, asthma, and inflammation. (gelacs.com)
- Asthma: Glucocorticoids can help to reduce inflammation in the airways, making it easier for asthmatics to breathe. (gelacs.com)
- Inflammatory bowel disease: Glucocorticoids can help to reduce inflammation in the gut, relieving symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (gelacs.com)
- Glucocorticoids elicit the atrophy of muscle by increasing the rate of protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy lysosome system. (frontiersin.org)
- Glucocorticoids also antagonize the action of anabolic regulators such as insulin further exacerbating the loss of protein and muscle mass. (frontiersin.org)
- We conclude that elevated glucocorticoid levels lead to the formation of glucocorticoid-lens protein adducts both in vitro and in vivo. (jci.org)
- Lens protein modification by glucocorticoids may lead to sufficient biochemical or structural alterations so as to result in cataract formation. (jci.org)
- When Do Symptoms of Familial glucocorticoid deficiency Begin? (nih.gov)
- There are multiple types of familial glucocorticoid deficiency, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. (medlineplus.gov)
- The prevalence of familial glucocorticoid deficiency is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
- Phenotypic characteristics of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) type 1 and 2. (medlineplus.gov)
- We found that immobilization stress decreased neurogenesis and increased oligodendrogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult rat hippocampus and that injections of the rat glucocorticoid stress hormone corticosterone (cort) were sufficient to replicate this effect. (ca.gov)
- Glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat allergic reactions. (medscape.com)
- Therefore, allergic reactions to systemic glucocorticoids in particular are considered most unlikely and are not well known. (medscape.com)
- Clinicians should be aware that allergic reactions to glucocorticoids can occur and that worsening of symptoms does not always mean treatment failure. (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] The antiallergic properties of glucocorticoids would seem to contradict their capacity to induce allergic reactions. (medscape.com)
- Allergic reactions: Glucocorticoids can be used to treat the swelling and itching that can occur with allergic reactions. (gelacs.com)
- Given the burden of wasting diseases and the nodal nature of glucocorticoid signaling, effective anti-glucocorticoid therapy would be a valuable clinical tool. (frontiersin.org)
- The ability of glucocorticoids to form adducts with proteins in vivo also may play a role in some of the other toxic manifestations of long-term glucocorticoid therapy. (jci.org)
- Glucocorticoids regulate TCR-induced elevation of CD4: functional implications. (mpg.de)
- Careful challenge testing is by far the best way to select glucocorticoids that are safe for future treatment. (medscape.com)
- The aim of this study is to explore the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of hyperamylasemia induced by high-dose intravenous glucocorticoids. (medscape.com)
- Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids, unless monitored and kept to a very low dose, is not without its problems," he noted. (nih.gov)
- This case demonstrates the successful treatment of idiopathic venous and pulmonary thrombosis with glucocorticoids. (elsevierpure.com)
- It is advised to stop antiosteoporotic treatment after glucocorticoid cessation, unless the patient remains at increased risk of fracture. (ox.ac.uk)
- Glucocorticoids are widely used in the therapeutic intervention of allergic diseases, affecting the function of a variety of proinflammatory cell types that participate in these disorders. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Stress and glucocorticoids promote oligodendrogenesis in the adult hippocampus. (ca.gov)
- The latter is an under-appreciated consequence of stress, as the damaging effects of chronic stress and chronically elevated glucocorticoids have received much more attention. (nih.gov)
- We suggest here that neural pathways promoting resilience are initiated at the time of stress, and that they involve glucocorticoid signaling. (nih.gov)
- Increased levels of glucocorticoids promote gluconeogenesis, mobilization of amino acids, and stimulation of fat breakdown to maintain circulating levels of glucose necessary to mount a stress response. (alphazita.com)
- Glucocorticoids are part of the environmental stress system," said Cidlowski. (nih.gov)
- A frequent manifestation of long-term glucocorticoid administration is the occurrence of posterior subcapsular cataracts. (jci.org)
- https://evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/view/Cochrane/433023/all/Glucocorticoid_supplementation_during_ovarian_stimulation_for_IVF_or_ICSI. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Glucocorticoids have many side effects, and high-dose intravenous application may cause rare adverse reactions such as hyperamylasemia. (medscape.com)
- Glucocorticoids are vital to many aspects of normal brain development, but fetal exposure to superabundant glucocorticoids can result in life-long effects on neuroendocrine function. (alphazita.com)
- Glucocorticoids are steroids that are produced naturally by the body. (gelacs.com)
- Skin testing with a panel of glucocorticoids showed immediate type reactions to prednisolone, prednisolone hydrogen succinate, prednisone, and betamethasone dihydrogen phosphate. (medscape.com)
- There is increasing evidence that true allergic immediate type reactions to glucocorticoids exist. (medscape.com)
- I'm an immunologist by training, and I joined John's lab as a postdoctoral fellow because he had developed a mouse strain in which a certain immune cell type was not responsive to glucocorticoids," said Cain. (nih.gov)
- diminishing the production of glucocorticoids. (medlineplus.gov)