A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Glucose in blood.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Abstaining from all food.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of GLICENTIN. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions, delay gastric emptying, and reduced food intake.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.

Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep. (1/3774)

Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia.  (+info)

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (2/3774)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (3/3774)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel calcium response element in the glucagon gene. (4/3774)

To maintain blood glucose levels within narrow limits, the synthesis and secretion of pancreatic islet hormones is controlled by a variety of extracellular signals. Depolarization-induced calcium influx into islet cells has been shown to stimulate glucagon gene transcription through the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein that binds to the glucagon cAMP response element. By transient transfection of glucagon-reporter fusion genes into islet cell lines, this study identified a second calcium response element in the glucagon gene (G2 element, from -165 to -200). Membrane depolarization was found to induce the binding of a nuclear complex with NFATp-like immunoreactivity to the G2 element. Consistent with nuclear translocation, a comigrating complex was found in cytosolic extracts of unstimulated cells, and the induction of nuclear protein binding was blocked by inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity by FK506. A mutational analysis of G2 function and nuclear protein binding as well as the effect of FK506 indicate that calcium responsiveness is conferred to the G2 element by NFATp functionally interacting with HNF-3beta binding to a closely associated site. Transcription factors of the NFAT family are known to cooperate with AP-1 proteins in T cells for calcium-dependent activation of cytokine genes. This study shows a novel pairing of NFATp with the cell lineage-specific transcription factor HNF-3beta in islet cells to form a novel calcium response element in the glucagon gene.  (+info)

Identification of domains mediating transcriptional activation and cytoplasmic export in the caudal homeobox protein Cdx-3. (5/3774)

The caudal genes have important functions in embryonic development and cell differentiation. The caudal-related protein Cdx-2/3 (the protein designated Cdx-2 in the mouse and Cdx-3 in the hamster) is expressed in the gastrointestinal epithelium and in islet and enteroendocrine cells, where it activates proglucagon gene transcription. We show here that Cdx-3 sequences amino-terminal to the homeodomain (amino acids 1-180) function as a heterologous transcriptional activation domain when fused to the LexA DNA binding domain. A Cdx-3-Pit-1 fusion protein containing only the first 83 amino acids of Cdx-3 linked to the POU domain of Pit-1 markedly stimulated the transcriptional activity of a Pit-1-responsive promoter. Analysis of the transcriptional properties of Cdx-3 mutants in fibroblasts and islet cells revealed distinct amino-terminal subdomains that function in a cell-specific manner. Point mutations within the amino-terminal A domain were associated with reduced transcriptional activity. Furthermore, internal deletions and selected point mutations within domain A, but not the B or C domains, resulted in accumulation of mutant Cdx-3 in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, mutation of an Asp-Lys-Asp motif within domain A identified a putative cytoplasmic membrane-associated export signal that mediates Cdx-3 compartmentalization. These experiments delineate unique activities for specific amino-terminal sequences that are functionally important for Cdx-3 biological activity.  (+info)

Role of glucagon on the control of hepatic protein synthesis and degradation in the rat in vivo. (6/3774)

The effect of glucagon on hepatic protein systhesis and proteolysis has been investigated. The intraperitoneal administration of 200 mug of glucagon produced an increase of the polypeptide chains completion time which was maximal 5 min after its administration and approached control values at 20 min. The increase of the polypeptides chains completion time observed at 5 min after the hormone administration represents a 38% inhibition of the hepatic protein synthetic rate. When glucagon was continuously supplied by intravascular infusion, maximal inhibition was attained throughout the experiment. This inhibition of protein synthesis brought about by glucagon was accompanied by an increase in the polyribosomal state of aggregation, indicating that the hormone acts mainly if not exclusively, on the elongation or termination step, or both. The administration of glucagon produced also a progressive increase in the hepatic valine concentration. This increase could not be accounted for the the decrease in plasma valine levels, suggesting that the rise in haptic valine concentration is an expression of hepatic proteolysis rather than the result of an accelerated transport of amino acids across the hepatocyte plasma membrane. The different time sequence in the glucagon-induced effects of protein synthesis and proteolysis suggests that both effects are independent and probably mediated by different mechanisms.  (+info)

Characterization of beta cells developed in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium. (7/3774)

The present study evaluates the development and functional properties of beta cells differentiated in vitro. The authors have previously demonstrated that when E12.5 rat pancreatic rudiments are cultured in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme, the majority of the epithelial cells differentiate into endocrine beta cells. Thus, depletion of the mesenchyme provokes the expansion of endocrine tissue at the expense of exocrine tissue. The potential use of this procedure for the production of beta cells led the authors to characterize the beta cells differentiated in this model and to compare their properties with those of the endocrine cells of the embryonic and adult pancreas. This study shows that the beta cells that differentiate in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme express the homeodomain protein Nkx6.1, a transcription factor that is characteristic of adult mature beta cells. Further, electron microscopy analysis shows that these beta cells are highly granulated, and the ultrastructural analysis of the granules shows that they are characteristic of mature beta cells. The maturity of these granules was confirmed by a double-immunofluorescence study that demonstrated that Rab3A and SNAP-25, two proteins associated with the secretory pathway of insulin, are strongly expressed. Finally, the maturity of the differentiated beta cells in this model was confirmed when the cells responded to stimulation with 16 mM glucose by a 5-fold increase in insulin release. The authors conclude that the beta cells differentiated in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic rudiments devoid of mesenchyme are mature beta cells.  (+info)

Inactivation of the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha affects glucose homeostasis and islet glucagon gene expression in vivo. (8/3774)

Mice homozygous for a null mutation in the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha showed severe postnatal growth retardation followed by death between P2 and P12. Homozygous mutant mice were hypoglycemic despite unchanged expression of HNF3 target genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Whereas insulin and corticosteroid levels were altered as expected, plasma glucagon was reduced markedly in the mutant animals despite the hypoglycemia that should be expected to increase glucagon levels. This correlated with a 70% reduction in pancreatic proglucagon gene expression. We also showed that HNF3alpha could bind to and transactivate the proglucagon gene promoter. These observations invoke a central role for HNF3alpha in the regulatory control of islet genes essential for glucose homeostasis in vivo.  (+info)

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate glucose levels in the blood by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream. This process helps to raise blood sugar levels when they are too low, such as during hypoglycemia.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is derived from the preproglucagon protein. It works by binding to glucagon receptors on liver cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown.

In addition to its role in glucose regulation, glucagon has also been shown to have other physiological effects, such as promoting lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Glucagon is often used clinically in the treatment of hypoglycemia, as well as in diagnostic tests to assess pancreatic function.

Glucagon receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in the body, particularly in the liver, fat, and muscle tissues. These receptors bind to the hormone glucagon, which is produced and released by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).

When glucagon binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the breakdown of glycogen (a stored form of glucose) in the liver and the release of glucose into the bloodstream. This helps to raise blood sugar levels back to normal.

Glucagon receptors also play a role in regulating fat metabolism, as activation of these receptors in adipose tissue can stimulate the breakdown of triglycerides (a type of fat) into free fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be used as energy sources.

Abnormalities in glucagon receptor function or expression have been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including diabetes and obesity.

Glucagon-secreting cells, also known as alpha (α) cells, are a type of cell located in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. These cells are responsible for producing and secreting the hormone glucagon, which plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels.

Glucagon works in opposition to insulin, another hormone produced by different cells in the pancreas called beta (β) cells. When blood glucose levels are low, such as during fasting or exercise, glucagon is released into the bloodstream and travels to the liver, where it stimulates the breakdown of glycogen (stored glucose) into glucose, which is then released into the bloodstream to raise blood glucose levels.

Abnormalities in glucagon-secreting cells can contribute to various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes and hypoglycemia.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the release of several hormones and also has a role in slowing down digestion. It is produced by the body in various parts of the body, including the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin exists in two forms: somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28, which differ in their length. Somatostatin-14 is the predominant form found in the brain, while somatostatin-28 is the major form found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes, including:

* Inhibiting the release of several hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin
* Slowing down digestion by inhibiting the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and reducing blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
* Regulating neurotransmission in the brain

Somatostatin is used clinically as a diagnostic tool for detecting certain types of tumors that overproduce growth hormone or other hormones, and it is also used as a treatment for some conditions such as acromegaly (a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production) and gastrointestinal disorders.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

The Islets of Langerhans are clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. These islets are named after Paul Langerhans, who first identified them in 1869. They constitute around 1-2% of the total mass of the pancreas and are distributed throughout its substance.

The Islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including:

1. Alpha (α) cells: These produce and release glucagon, a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver when blood sugar levels are low.
2. Beta (β) cells: These produce and release insulin, a hormone that promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells throughout the body, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
3. Delta (δ) cells: These produce and release somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of both insulin and glucagon and helps regulate their secretion in response to changing blood sugar levels.
4. PP cells (gamma or γ cells): These produce and release pancreatic polypeptide, which plays a role in regulating digestive enzyme secretion and gastrointestinal motility.

Dysfunction of the Islets of Langerhans can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, where insulin-producing beta cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to impaired blood sugar regulation.

Proglucagon is a precursor protein that gets cleaved into several hormones, including glucagon, GLP-1 (Glucagon-like peptide-1), and GLP-2 (Glucagon-like peptide-2). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating blood sugar levels, energy balance, and gut function. Proglucagon is primarily produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas and L cells in the intestine. Glucagon helps to raise blood sugar levels during fasting or hypoglycemia, while GLP-1 and GLP-2 contribute to glucose regulation, satiety, and gut motility, among other functions.

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Generally, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), although symptoms may not occur until the blood sugar level falls below 55 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L).

Hypoglycemia can occur in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or medications that increase insulin production, as well as those with certain medical conditions such as hormone deficiencies, severe liver illnesses, or disorders of the adrenal glands. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, shaking, confusion, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or seizures.

Hypoglycemia is typically treated by consuming fast-acting carbohydrates such as fruit juice, candy, or glucose tablets to rapidly raise blood sugar levels. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even death.

Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that occurs in the liver, kidneys, and to a lesser extent in the small intestine. It involves the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and certain amino acids. This process becomes particularly important during periods of fasting or starvation when glucose levels in the body begin to drop, and there is limited carbohydrate intake to replenish them.

Gluconeogenesis helps maintain blood glucose homeostasis by providing an alternative source of glucose for use by various tissues, especially the brain, which relies heavily on glucose as its primary energy source. It is a complex process that involves several enzymatic steps, many of which are regulated to ensure an adequate supply of glucose while preventing excessive production, which could lead to hyperglycemia.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are hormones that are produced in the intestines in response to food consumption. They belong to a class of hormones known as incretins, which play a role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the pancreas to produce insulin and inhibiting the release of glucagon.

There are two main types of GLPs: GLP-1 and GLP-2. GLP-1 is secreted in response to meals and stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin, suppresses glucagon production, slows gastric emptying, and promotes satiety. GLP-2, on the other hand, promotes intestinal growth and improves nutrient absorption.

GLP-1 receptor agonists are a class of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes. They mimic the effects of natural GLP-1 by stimulating insulin secretion, suppressing glucagon release, slowing gastric emptying, and promoting satiety. These medications have been shown to improve blood sugar control, reduce body weight, and lower the risk of cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes.

Pancreatic hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen. The two main types of pancreatic hormones are insulin and glucagon, which are released by specialized cells called islets of Langerhans.

Insulin is produced by beta cells and helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take in sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream. It also helps the body store excess glucose in the liver for later use.

Glucagon is produced by alpha cells and has the opposite effect of insulin. When blood sugar levels are low, glucagon stimulates the release of stored glucose from the liver to raise blood sugar levels.

Together, insulin and glucagon help maintain balanced blood sugar levels and are essential for the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. Other hormones produced by the pancreas include somatostatin, which regulates the release of insulin and glucagon, and gastrin, which stimulates the production of digestive enzymes in the stomach.

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas, specifically by the F cells located in the islets of Langerhans. It is a small protein consisting of 36 amino acids, and it plays a role in regulating digestive functions, particularly by inhibiting pancreatic enzyme secretion and gastric acid secretion.

PP is released into the bloodstream in response to food intake, especially when nutrients such as proteins and fats are present in the stomach. It acts on the brain to produce a feeling of fullness or satiety, which helps to regulate appetite and eating behavior. Additionally, PP has been shown to have effects on glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, and energy balance.

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential therapeutic uses of PP for a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of acinar cells that produce and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in food.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans, which include alpha, beta, delta, and F cells. These cells produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin and glucagon are critical regulators of blood sugar levels, with insulin promoting glucose uptake and storage in tissues and glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose when it is low.

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that is secreted by the intestines in response to food intake. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels through several mechanisms, including stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, inhibition of glucagon release, slowing gastric emptying, and promoting satiety. GLP-1 is an important target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to its insulin-secretory and glucose-lowering effects. In addition, GLP-1 receptor agonists are used in the management of obesity due to their ability to promote weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Liver glycogen is the reserve form of glucose stored in hepatocytes (liver cells) for the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. It is a polysaccharide, a complex carbohydrate, that is broken down into glucose molecules when blood glucose levels are low. This process helps to maintain the body's energy needs between meals and during periods of fasting or exercise. The amount of glycogen stored in the liver can vary depending on factors such as meal consumption, activity level, and insulin regulation.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of cells in the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors recognize and respond to specific hormones that are released by enteroendocrine cells in the GI tract. Examples of GI hormones include gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), motilin, and ghrelin.

When a GI hormone binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function. These changes can include increased or decreased secretion of digestive enzymes, altered motility (movement) of the GI tract, and regulation of appetite and satiety.

Abnormalities in GI hormone receptors have been implicated in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity. Therefore, understanding the role of these receptors in GI physiology and pathophysiology is an important area of research.

Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and metabolism. Adenylate cyclase is activated by hormones and neurotransmitters that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the cell membrane, leading to the production of cAMP, which then acts as a second messenger to regulate various intracellular responses. There are several isoforms of adenylate cyclase, each with distinct regulatory properties and subcellular localization.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

C-peptide is a byproduct that is produced when the hormone insulin is generated in the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels, and it is produced in the pancreas by specialized cells called beta cells. When these cells produce insulin, they also generate C-peptide as a part of the same process.

C-peptide is often used as a marker to measure the body's insulin production. By measuring C-peptide levels in the blood, healthcare providers can get an idea of how much insulin the body is producing on its own. This can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring conditions such as diabetes, which is characterized by impaired insulin production or function.

It's worth noting that C-peptide is not typically used as a treatment for any medical conditions. Instead, it is primarily used as a diagnostic tool to help healthcare providers better understand their patients' health status and make informed treatment decisions.

Secretin is a hormone that is produced and released by the S cells in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is released in response to the presence of acidic chyme (partially digested food) entering the duodenum from the stomach. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich alkaline secretions, which help neutralize the acidity of the chyme and create an optimal environment for enzymatic digestion in the small intestine.

Additionally, secretin also promotes the production of watery fluids from the liver, which aids in the digestion process. Overall, secretin plays a crucial role in maintaining the pH balance and facilitating proper nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.

An islet cell adenoma is a rare, typically benign tumor that develops in the islets of Langerhans, which are clusters of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. The islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including beta cells that produce insulin, alpha cells that produce glucagon, and delta cells that produce somatostatin.

Islet cell adenomas can cause various endocrine disorders depending on the type of hormone-producing cells involved. For example, if the tumor consists mainly of beta cells, it may secrete excessive amounts of insulin, leading to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Conversely, if the tumor is composed primarily of alpha cells, it may produce too much glucagon, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and a condition known as glucagonoma.

Islet cell adenomas are usually slow-growing and small but can become quite large in some cases. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and hormone levels may be measured to determine the type of cells involved. Treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, medication to manage hormonal imbalances, and, in rare cases, radiofrequency ablation or embolization.

Hyperglycemia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as a fasting blood glucose level greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) on two separate occasions. Alternatively, a random blood glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL in combination with symptoms of hyperglycemia (such as increased thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, and fatigue) can also indicate hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia is often associated with diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. However, hyperglycemia can also occur in other conditions such as stress, surgery, infection, certain medications, and hormonal imbalances.

Prolonged or untreated hyperglycemia can lead to serious complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), and long-term damage to various organs such as the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Therefore, it is essential to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and maintain them within normal ranges through proper diet, exercise, medication, and lifestyle modifications.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

Lactates, also known as lactic acid, are compounds that are produced by muscles during intense exercise or other conditions of low oxygen supply. They are formed from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of adequate oxygen to complete the full process of cellular respiration. This results in the production of lactate and a hydrogen ion, which can lead to a decrease in pH and muscle fatigue.

In a medical context, lactates may be measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and metabolic status. Elevated levels of lactate in the blood, known as lactic acidosis, can indicate poor tissue perfusion or hypoxia, and may be seen in conditions such as sepsis, cardiac arrest, and severe shock. It is important to note that lactates are not the primary cause of acidemia (low pH) in lactic acidosis, but rather a marker of the underlying process.

Somatostatin-secreting cells, also known as delta cells or D cells, are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the pancreatic islets and the central nervous system. These cells produce and secrete somatostatin, a peptide hormone that inhibits the release of several other hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and gastrin.

Somatostatin has a wide range of physiological effects, including inhibition of gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and blood flow; modulation of neurotransmission; and regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Somatostatin-secreting cells play an essential role in maintaining hormonal homeostasis by regulating the release of other hormones in response to various physiological stimuli.

In the pancreas, somatostatin-secreting cells are located in the islets of Langerhans, where they represent about 10% of the endocrine cell population. They are scattered among the insulin-producing beta cells and glucagon-producing alpha cells and form a dense network of fine processes that surround other islet cells. Somatostatin released from these cells acts in a paracrine manner to regulate the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and other hormones produced by the islet cells.

In the central nervous system, somatostatin-secreting cells are found in various regions, including the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex. They play a role in regulating neurotransmission, neuronal excitability, and synaptic plasticity. Dysfunction of somatostatin-secreting cells has been implicated in several neurological and endocrine disorders, such as diabetes, acromegaly, and certain types of tumors.

A glucagonoma is a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the alpha cells of the pancreas, where the hormone glucagon is produced. This tumor can lead to an overproduction of glucagon, resulting in a characteristic syndrome known as the "glucagonoma syndrome."

The symptoms of glucagonoma syndrome may include:

1. A distinctive rash called necrolytic migratory erythema, which is characterized by red, swollen, and painful skin lesions that can affect various parts of the body.
2. Weight loss
3. Diabetes or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
4. Anemia
5. Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the deep veins)
6. Depression and confusion
7. A decreased appetite
8. Fatigue and weakness
9. Diarrhea or steatorrhea (fatty stools)
10. High levels of amino acids, fatty acids, and zinc in the blood.

Glucagonomas are typically slow-growing tumors, but they can metastasize (spread) to other organs such as the liver, lymph nodes, and bones. Treatment options for glucagonoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the tumor's progression and manage any associated symptoms.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Oxyntomodulin is a hormone that is produced and released by the intestines in response to food consumption. It is a 37-amino acid peptide, derived from the preproglucagon gene, which also encodes several other related peptides such as glucagon and GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1).

Oxyntomodulin has two primary effects on the body:

1. Incretin effect: Oxyntomodulin acts as an incretin hormone, which means that it enhances the secretion of insulin and inhibits the release of glucagon in response to a meal. This helps to regulate blood sugar levels and maintain metabolic homeostasis.
2. Appetite regulation: Oxyntomodulin also acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and promote weight loss. It does this by activating receptors in the brain that signal satiety, leading to a decrease in food intake.

Overall, oxyntomodulin plays an important role in regulating energy balance, glucose metabolism, and body weight.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a group of hormones that are secreted by cells in the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake and digestion. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite regulation, gastric acid secretion, motility of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin secretion, and pancreatic enzyme release.

Examples of GI hormones include:

* Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.
* Ghrelin: Produced by the stomach, ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite and food intake.
* Cholecystokinin (CCK): Secreted by I cells in the small intestine, CCK promotes digestion by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver. It also inhibits gastric emptying and reduces appetite.
* Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Produced by K cells in the small intestine, GIP promotes insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release.
* Secretin: Released by S cells in the small intestine, secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum.
* Motilin: Secreted by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin promotes gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for cleaning out the small intestine between meals.

These hormones work together to regulate digestion and maintain homeostasis in the body. Dysregulation of GI hormones can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide (GIP) is a 42-amino acid long peptide hormone that is released from the K cells in the duodenum and jejunum of the small intestine in response to food intake, particularly carbohydrates and fats. It is also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.

GIP has several physiological effects on the body, including:

* Incretin effect: GIP stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas in a glucose-dependent manner, which means that it only increases insulin secretion when blood glucose levels are high. This is known as the incretin effect and helps to regulate postprandial glucose levels.
* Inhibition of gastric acid secretion: GIP inhibits the release of gastric acid from the stomach, which helps to protect the intestinal mucosa from damage caused by excessive acid production.
* Increase in blood flow: GIP increases blood flow to the intestines, which helps to facilitate nutrient absorption.
* Energy storage: GIP promotes the storage of energy by increasing fat synthesis and reducing fat breakdown in adipose tissue.

Overall, GIP plays an important role in regulating glucose metabolism, energy balance, and gastrointestinal function.

3-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyric acid, is a type of ketone body that is produced in the liver during the metabolism of fatty acids. It is a colorless, slightly water-soluble compound with a bitter taste and an unpleasant odor.

In the body, 3-hydroxybutyric acid is produced when there is not enough glucose available to meet the body's energy needs, such as during fasting, starvation, or prolonged intense exercise. It can also be produced in large amounts in people with uncontrolled diabetes, particularly during a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis.

3-Hydroxybutyric acid is an important source of energy for the brain and other organs during periods of low glucose availability. However, high levels of 3-hydroxybutyric acid in the blood can lead to a condition called ketosis, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and confusion. If left untreated, ketosis can progress to diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes.

Secretory rate refers to the amount or volume of a secretion produced by a gland or an organ over a given period of time. It is a measure of the productivity or activity level of the secreting structure. The secretory rate can be quantified for various bodily fluids, such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, hormones, or milk, depending on the context and the specific gland or organ being studied.

In clinical settings, measuring the secretory rate might involve collecting and analyzing samples over a certain duration to estimate the production rate of the substance in question. This information can be helpful in diagnosing conditions related to impaired secretion, monitoring treatment responses, or understanding the physiological adaptations of the body under different circumstances.

Ketone bodies, also known as ketones or ketoacids, are organic compounds that are produced by the liver during the metabolism of fats when carbohydrate intake is low. They include acetoacetate (AcAc), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone. These molecules serve as an alternative energy source for the body, particularly for the brain and heart, when glucose levels are insufficient to meet energy demands.

In a healthy individual, ketone bodies are present in low concentrations; however, during periods of fasting, starvation, or intense physical exertion, ketone production increases significantly. In some pathological conditions like uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, the body may produce excessive amounts of ketones, leading to a dangerous metabolic state called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Elevated levels of ketone bodies can be detected in blood or urine and are often used as an indicator of metabolic status. Monitoring ketone levels is essential for managing certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, where maintaining optimal ketone concentrations is crucial to prevent complications.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Phosphorylases are enzymes that catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of a bond, often a glycosidic bond, in a carbohydrate molecule, releasing a sugar moiety and a phosphate group. This reaction is important in metabolic pathways such as glycogenolysis, where glycogen is broken down into glucose-1-phosphate by the action of glycogen phosphorylase. The resulting glucose-1-phosphate can then be further metabolized to produce energy. Phosphorylases are widely found in nature and play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy metabolism and signal transduction.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental." However, I can provide you with information about experimental diabetes research and its relevance to understanding the disease.

Experimental diabetes models are used in biomedical research to study the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and to test potential therapies or treatments. These models can be broadly categorized into two types: chemically-induced and genetically modified.

1. Chemically-induced diabetes models: These involve administering chemicals, such as alloxan or streptozotocin, to animals (commonly mice or rats) to destroy their pancreatic β-cells, which produce insulin. This results in hyperglycemia and symptoms similar to those seen in type 1 diabetes in humans.
2. Genetically modified diabetes models: These involve altering the genes of animals (commonly mice) to create a diabetes phenotype. Examples include non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which develop an autoimmune form of diabetes similar to human type 1 diabetes, and various strains of obese mice with insulin resistance, such as ob/ob or db/db mice, which model aspects of type 2 diabetes.

These experimental models help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind diabetes development and progression, identify new therapeutic targets, and test potential treatments before moving on to human clinical trials. However, it's essential to recognize that these models may not fully replicate all aspects of human diabetes, so findings from animal studies should be interpreted with caution.

Glycogenolysis is the biochemical process by which glycogen, a polymer of glucose, is broken down into its constituent glucose molecules. This process occurs primarily in the liver and muscles and is critical for maintaining normal blood glucose levels between meals and during periods of increased physical activity.

Glycogenolysis is initiated by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase, which cleaves off individual glucose molecules from the end of a glycogen branch, resulting in the formation of glucose-1-phosphate. This compound is then converted to glucose-6-phosphate by the enzyme phosphoglucomutase.

Glucose-6-phosphate can be further metabolized through several pathways, including glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway, depending on the energy needs of the cell. In the liver, glucose-6-phosphatase can remove the phosphate group from glucose-6-phosphate to produce free glucose, which is released into the bloodstream and transported to other tissues for use as an energy source.

Overall, glycogenolysis plays a crucial role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels and providing energy to cells during periods of increased demand.

Hydroxybutyrates are compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a butyric acid group. More specifically, in the context of clinical medicine and biochemistry, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is often referred to as a "ketone body."

Ketone bodies are produced by the liver during periods of low carbohydrate availability, such as during fasting, starvation, or a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. BHB is one of three major ketone bodies, along with acetoacetate and acetone. These molecules serve as alternative energy sources for the brain and other tissues when glucose levels are low.

In some pathological states, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, the body produces excessive amounts of ketone bodies, leading to a life-threatening metabolic acidosis. Elevated levels of BHB can also be found in other conditions like alcoholism, severe illnesses, and high-fat diets.

It is important to note that while BHB is a hydroxybutyrate, not all hydroxybutyrates are ketone bodies. The term "hydroxybutyrates" can refer to any compound containing both a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a butyric acid group.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Insulin-secreting cells, also known as beta cells, are a type of cell found in the pancreas. They are responsible for producing and releasing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels by allowing cells in the body to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Insulin-secreting cells are clustered together in the pancreatic islets, along with other types of cells that produce other hormones such as glucagon and somatostatin. In people with diabetes, these cells may not function properly, leading to an impaired ability to regulate blood sugar levels.

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They described glucagon in 1923. The amino acid sequence of glucagon was described in the late 1950s. A more complete ... Glucagon binds to the glucagon receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, located in the plasma membrane. The conformation change ... In this situation glucagon intravenously may be useful to treat their low blood pressure. Glucagon relaxes the lower esophageal ... Glucagon acts very quickly; common side-effects include headache and nausea. Drug interactions: Glucagon interacts only with ...
... is the emergency injection of glucagon in case of severe diabetic hypoglycemia. It is needed during seizures ... Novo Nordisk manufactures the GlucaGen HypoKit and Eli Lilly and Company manufactures the Glucagon emergency kit. Glucagon must ... "Glucagon for Injection, rDNA formulation" (PDF). Lilly. Retrieved 23 February 2014. "Stable liquid glucagon formulations for ... The glucagon rescue kit facilitates rapid rescue by a simple injection, which does not require medical expertise, and can be ...
... glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon-like peptide-2) derived from the proglucagon polypeptide. The last receptor binds ... Glucagon receptor Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor The ... The glucagon receptor family is a group of closely related G-protein coupled receptors which include: ... "Glucagon Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor Glucagon-like peptide-2 Type 2 diabetes GLP-1 analogs : exenatide, liraglutide, dulaglutide, ... Mojsov, S; Weir, G C; Habener, J F (1987-02-01). "Insulinotropin: glucagon-like peptide I (7-37) co-encoded in the glucagon ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30- or 31-amino-acid-long peptide hormone deriving from the tissue-specific ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists gained approval as drugs to treat diabetes and obesity starting in the 2000s. ...
Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor Akita, Tomomi; Kimura, Ryosuke; Akaguma, Saki; Nagai, Mio; Nakao, Yusuke; Tsugane, Mamiko; ... Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see ... "Usefulness of cell-penetrating peptides and penetration accelerating sequence for nose-to-brain delivery of glucagon-like ... by specific post-translational proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon in a process that also liberates the related glucagon-like ...
Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP-2R) - binds glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) Glucagon receptor v t e (Articles lacking ... The glucagon-like peptide receptors (GLPRs) include the following two receptors: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) - ...
Like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and glucagon itself, it is derived from the proglucagon peptide encoded by the GCG gene. ... "Entrez Gene: Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor". Burrin DG, Petersen Y, Stoll B, Sangild P (Mar 2001). "Glucagon-like peptide 2 ... Glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor (GLP-2R) is a protein that in human is encoded by the GLP2R gene located on chromosome 17. The ... Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Receptor at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ...
GLP1R binds glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and glucagon as its natural endogenous agonists. Agonists: GLP-1 - endogenous in ... "Crystal structure of glucagon-like peptide-1 in complex with the extracellular domain of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor ... The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) is a receptor protein found on beta cells of the pancreas and on neurons of the ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone consisting of 30 amino acids. It is released by intestinal L cells when nutrients ...
... s, also known as GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1-RA), incretin mimetics, or GLP-1 ... 1 April 2010). "Glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptor agonists activate rodent thyroid C-cells causing calcitonin release and C-cell ... Ali ES, Hua J, Wilson CH, Tallis GA, Zhou FH, Rychkov GY, Barritt GJ (September 2016). "The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue ... Das A, Geetha KM, Hazarika I (29 August 2019). "Contemporary Updates on the Physiology of Glucagon like Peptide-1 and Its ...
There is actually no evidence at present that glucagon has any effect on lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Glucagon is now ... It was previously thought that upon release of glucagon from the pancreas, glucagon receptors cause a phosphorylation cascade ... Lawrence AM (1969). "Glucagon". Annual Review of Medicine. 20: 207-22. doi:10.1146/annurev.me.20.020169.001231. PMID 4893399. ... 4 (5). Gravholt CH, Møller N, Jensen MD, Christiansen JS, Schmitz O (May 2001). "Physiological levels of glucagon do not ...
... glucagon; acetylcholine (muscarinic effect); chemokines; lipid mediators of inflammation (e.g., prostaglandins, prostanoids, ...
Delta cells in the islet also secrete somatostatin which decreases the release of insulin and glucagon. Glucagon acts to ... Glucagon release is stimulated by low blood glucose or insulin levels, and during exercise. Insulin acts to decrease blood ... This occurs around the third month of development, and insulin and glucagon can be detected in the human fetal circulation by ... The main factor influencing the secretion of insulin and glucagon are the levels of glucose in blood plasma. Low blood sugar ...
... but his rediscovery of glucagon confirmed his theses. In 1953 he experimentally demonstrated that glucagon did influence the ... The hormone glucagon was discovered by C.P. Kimball and John R. Murlin in 1923 as a hyperglycaemic (blood-sugar elevating) ... It was de Duve who realised that Sutherland's HG factor was in fact the same as glucagon; this rediscovery led to its permanent ... The biological importance of glucagon was not known and the name itself was essentially forgotten. It was a still a mystery at ...
Glucagon (53-81) Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, 92-128) - first seven residues further cleaved Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2 ... "Pro-glucagon". PDBe-KB Aggregated Views of Proteins. Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire: EMBL-EBI. (Genes on human ... Proglucagon is a precursor of glucagon, and several other components. It is generated in the alpha cells of the pancreas and in ... Schroeder WT, Lopez LC, Harper ME, Saunders GF (1984). "Localization of the human glucagon gene (GCG) to chromosome segment ...
Hosseinnezhad A, Black RM, Aeddula NR, Adhikari D, Trivedi N (2011). "Glucagon-induced pheochromocytoma crisis". Endocrine ...
Together with glucagon-like peptide-1, GIP is largely responsible for the secretion of insulin after eating. It is involved in ... "Glucagon Receptor Family: GIP". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Brubaker PL, Drucker DJ (2002). "Structure-function of the glucagon receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors: the ... glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2 receptors". Recept. Channels. 8 (3-4): 179-188. doi:10.1080/10606820213687. PMID 12529935. ...
... glucagon-like protein I, glucagon-like protein II, and glicentin. The structure of glucagon itself is fully conserved in all ... One such hormone, glucagon, is widely distributed and produced in the alpha-cells of pancreatic islets. It affects glucose ... Glucagon is produced, like other peptide hormones, as part of a larger precursor (preproglucagon), which is cleaved to produce ... Glucagon/gastric inhibitory polypeptide/secretin/vasoactive intestinal peptide hormones are a family of evolutionarily related ...
Insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas glucagon raises it. Glucagon is, therefore, an antagonist of ... Glucagon A hormone that raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood by forcing the liver to release some of its ... Insulin is a hormone as are glucagon, adrenaline, and angiotensin II. Human insulin Man-made insulins that is identical to the ... insulin and glucagon. Somogyi effect A swing to a high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood from an extremely low level, ...
Glucagon is increased in cirrhosis. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is increased as blood is shunted into the intestinal system ...
... negative correlation with glucagon expression". Histochemistry and Cell Biology. 106 (6): 535-42. doi:10.1007/BF02473268. PMID ...
Heightened glucagon secretion can be treated with the administration of octreotide, a somatostatin analog, which inhibits the ... Glucagonoma is a very rare tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells that results in the overproduction of the hormone, glucagon. ... Diabetes is not present in all cases of glucagonoma, but does frequently result from the insulin and glucagon imbalance. The ... When a person presents with a blood glucagon concentration greater than 500 mg/mL along with the glucagonoma syndrome, a ...
Inhibits the release of glucagon Suppresses the exocrine secretory action of the pancreas Octreotide (brand name Sandostatin, ... Somatostatin inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion. Somatostatin has two active forms produced by the alternative cleavage of ... glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone, and has a much longer half-life (about 90 minutes, compared to 2-3 minutes for ... including glucagon{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) Costoff A. "Sect. 5, Ch. 4: Structure, Synthesis ...
This stimules these cells to secrete GLP-1 (i.e., glucagon-like peptide-1) and PYY (i.e., peptide YY) into the blood. GLP-1 ... Since insulin causes cells to take up blood glucose and glucagon causes the liver to release glucose into the blood, FFAR2 ... also stimulates glucagon secretion; however, the net effect of GIP is to reduce blood glucose levels. GIP also slows gastric ... "Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)". Molecular Metabolism. 30: 72-130. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2019.09.010. PMC 6812410. PMID ...
Insulin counteracts glucagon by inhibiting gluconeogenesis. Type 2 diabetes is marked by excess glucagon and insulin resistance ... Global control of gluconeogenesis is mediated by glucagon (released when blood glucose is low); it triggers phosphorylation of ... Donkin SS, Armentano LE (February 1995). "Insulin and glucagon regulation of gluconeogenesis in preruminating and ruminating ... Compensatory induction of gluconeogenesis occurs in the kidneys and intestine, driven by glucagon, glucocorticoids, and ...
Insulin and glucagon secretion from pancreas. Inhibit histamine-release from mast cells. Increase protein content of secretions ...
Glucose (dextrose) Glucagon Diazoxide Huang, Qin; Bu, Shizhong; Yu, Yongwei; Guo, Zhiyong; Ghatnekar, Gautam; Bu, Min; Yang, ... and glucagon injections when severe hypoglycemia occurs. Diazoxide, which is used to counter hypoglycemia in disease states ... increases blood glucose and decreases insulin secretion and glucagon accelerates breakdown of glycogen in the liver ( ...
Fernandes CM, Daya MR (April 1995). "Sotalol-induced bradycardia reversed by glucagon". Canadian Family Physician. 41: 659-60, ...
... operates through the same mechanism as endogenous glucagon, acting as an agonist at glucagon receptors expressed ... Binding to liver glucagon receptors, dasiglucagon activates Gsα and Gq, resulting in the activation of adenylate cyclase. This ... The time for patients to recover glycemic levels above 70 mg/dL was similar between dasiglucagon (≥0.3 mg) and glucagon (0.5 mg ... The glycokinetic response of dasiglucagon was 2-4 times higher than that of glucagon. Dasiglucagon had a higher overall effect ...
Excising the eyestalk in young crayfish produces glucagon-induced hyperglycemia. Glucagon binds to the glucagon receptor, a G ... have glucagon receptors. When glucagon binds to the glucagon receptors, the liver cells convert the glycogen into individual ... The pancreas releases glucagon when the amount of glucose in the bloodstream is too low. Glucagon causes the liver to engage in ... Glucagon belongs to the secretin family of hormones. Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide. Its primary structure in humans ...
Glucagon Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Glucagon is also used in diagnostic testing of the stomach and other digestive organs. Glucagon is in a class of medications ... Glucagon can be injected with the prefilled syringe or autoinjector in the upper arm, thigh, or stomach. Never inject glucagon ... Before using glucagon injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to glucagon, lactose, any other ...
Glucagon is a peptide compromised of 29 amino acids in a single chain. It is produced by the alpha-cells in the exocrine ... Glucagon signaling occurs by way of glucagon receptors located on the surface of hepatocytes. Binding of glucagon and its ... Additional information on glucagon and glucose levels is as follows:. * For basic reference, the interval for glucagon is 50- ... Because glucagon has a half-life of just 3-6 minutes, collection of serum glucagon needs to occur in a chilled collecting tube ...
Fass environmental information for Glucagon Novo Nordisk (downloaded 2022-04-11).. According to the European Medicines Agency ...
Glucagon is dispensed as a "Glucagon Emergency Kit" or a "Glucagon Emergency Kit for Low Blood Sugar." ... 6.01.8 When insulin and/or glucagon should be administered, how insulin and/or glucagon should be prepared, the dosage and side ... 6.01.3 What insulin and glucagon are and how insulin and glucagon work; ... administer insulin and/or glucagon shall provide insulin and/or glucagon injections only in the absence or unavailability of a ...
The results of two new trials show that LGD-6792, a glucagon receptor antagonist, could have benefits for people with type 2 ... Study investigates how drug that inhibits glucagon affects type 2 diabetes patients. ... and the biopharmaceutical company hopes the drug could be used to lower glucagon levels among type 2 diabetes patients and ... also discovered that treatment with LGD-6792 increased the amount of insulin patients produced and decreased glucagon in ...
Consultation to remove glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist analogues from the pharmacist extemporaneous ...
Tag: glucagon. Experimental treatment subdues Type 1 diabetes in laboratory mice. Categories: *Faculty/Staff ...
Pancreatic alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans produce glucagon, a polypeptide hormone. Glucagon increases blood glucose ... Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonists. Class Summary. GLP-1 receptor agonists are incretin mimetics that enhance ... Glucagon also increases the force of contraction in the heart and has a relaxant effect on the gastrointestinal tract. ... Glucagon elevates blood glucose levels by inhibiting glycogen synthesis and enhancing the formation of glucose from ...
F. M. Red OLaughlin, III, is a researcher, author, and public speaker. He speaks on health and wellness, aging, personal growth, and motivation. Red states often that, "If you treat symptoms, you will always treat symptoms. You must treat the cause of a problem to correct it." I research what happens at the cellular level in the human body, biochemically speaking. I look for cause and effect relationships. I identify the causes of health problems. I write and speak about those causes and the potential options for correcting those problems.. ...
A new FDA-approved Glucagon Emergency Kit providing flexibility and choice to your patients. A hypoglycemic episode can occur ... Glucagon for Injection is contraindicated in patients with pheochromocytoma because Glucagon for Injection may stimulate the ... has been reported postmarketing following continuous glucagon infusion and resolved with discontinuation of the glucagon. ... The Glucagon Emergency Kit from Fresenius Kabi is a cost effective alternative to emergency solutions you have trusted for ...
7. Glucagon-like peptide-1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). is a hormone produced in your gut when nutrients enter your ... 2015). Weight loss effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics on obese/overweight adults without diabetes: A systematic review ... 2016). Glucagon-like peptide 1 in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of clinical obesity.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ... 2019). Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812410/. ...
Category Archives: Glucagon Receptor Glucagon Receptor An obsessive-compulsive personality structure was perceivable without ... Glucagon Receptor This finding shows that great things about TTh on libido plateau after three months of therapy. November 24 ... Glucagon Receptor The expression degrees of and in these cells cultured within their counterpart medium (SWAP) was tested with ... Glucagon Receptor Melanoma is an immunogenic tumor whose romantic relationship with defense cells citizen in the ...
Unlike most Ii CLIP mutants for I-Ag7 (and I-Ed), variants with huge acidic (negatively charged) P9 CLIP anchors (M98D and E) inhibited peptide presentation even in the current presence of excess exogenous p79 peptide (Fig. that Ii having a CLIP area optimized for I-Ag7 binding could be preferentially constructed with I-Ag7 actually 5-BrdU in the current presence of higher degrees of wild-type Ii. This 5-BrdU locating shows that, although additional parts of Ii connect to course II, CLIP binding towards the groove may very well be a dominating event in set up of nascent course II substances with Ii in the ER. polymerase, having a pGEM-mIi-p31 build as the initial template (present of E.K. Bikoff, College or university of Oxford, Oxford, UK). Ii, I-Ag7, DM and I-Ad cDNAs were cloned in to the appropriate vectors and verified by sequencing. 293T cells had been transfected with pBUD-I-Ag7 by calcium mineral phosphate precipitation and chosen with Zeocin (Invitrogen). Single-cell clones had been ...
... Grieco M.;Giorgi A.;Gentile M. C.;dErme M.;Morano S.;Maras B.; ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut released hormone, is attracting attention as a possible link between metabolic and brain ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut released hormone, is attracting attention as a possible link between metabolic and brain ...
Glucagon is a peptide compromised of 29 amino acids in a single chain. It is produced by the alpha-cells in the exocrine ... Glucagon is an initial precursor in the metabolism of glucose increasing cAMP, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Glucagon works ... encoded search term (Glucagon) and Glucagon What to Read Next on Medscape ... glucagon is a potent inotropic and chronotropic effect mediated by cAMP; in the small intestine, glucagon has been known to ...
Glucagon is a peptide compromised of 29 amino acids in a single chain. It is produced by the alpha-cells in the exocrine ... Glucagon is an initial precursor in the metabolism of glucose increasing cAMP, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Glucagon works ... encoded search term (Glucagon) and Glucagon What to Read Next on Medscape ... glucagon is a potent inotropic and chronotropic effect mediated by cAMP; in the small intestine, glucagon has been known to ...
Insulin and glucagon regulate the activation of two distinct membrane-bound cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases in hepatocytes ... The glucagon receptor of rat liver plasma membrane can couple to adenylate cyclase without activating it. ... The phorbol ester, TPA inhibits glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. scientific article published on 01 May 1984 ...
... and glucagon receptors in one molecule, was associated with unprecedented drops in weight from people with or without type 2 ... Adding Glucagon Agonism Ups Liver-Fat Clearance "When you add glucagon activity," one of the three agonist actions of ... "To my knowledge, no mono-agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor [such as semaglutide or liraglutide] produces ...
Home»Health»Link between glucagon and kidney health unveiled in new research ... Link between glucagon and kidney health unveiled in new research. February 26, 2024. ... New research from UT Southwestern Medical Center highlights the pivotal role of glucagon, a hormone primarily associated with ... To elucidate the role of kidney-based glucagon receptors, Dr. Scherer and his team employed genetic manipulation techniques in ...
Glucagon increases contractility of the heart muscle by stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity and elevation of cAMP. We ... N2 - Glucagon increases contractility of the heart muscle by stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity and elevation of cAMP. ... AB - Glucagon increases contractility of the heart muscle by stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity and elevation of cAMP. ... abstract = "Glucagon increases contractility of the heart muscle by stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity and elevation of ...
Home»Health»Link between glucagon and kidney health unveiled in new research ... Link between glucagon and kidney health unveiled in new research. February 26, 2024. ... New research from UT Southwestern Medical Center highlights the pivotal role of glucagon, a hormone primarily associated with ... To elucidate the role of kidney-based glucagon receptors, Dr. Scherer and his team employed genetic manipulation techniques in ...
Detailed drug Information for Jantoven. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Detailed drug Information for Atropine. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Plasma insulin and glucagon responses to propionate infusion into femoral and mesenteric veins in sheep. In: Journal of animal ... Plasma insulin and glucagon responses to propionate infusion into femoral and mesenteric veins in sheep. / Sano, H.; Hayakawa, ... Sano H, Hayakawa S, Takahashi H, Terashima Y. Plasma insulin and glucagon responses to propionate infusion into femoral and ... Plasma insulin and glucagon responses to propionate infusion into femoral and mesenteric veins in sheep.. ...
In the 1999-2004 data, question "For how long have you been taking insulin" was released as three variables (DID060G, DID060Q and DIQ060U). In the 2005-2006 data, however, this information was released as two variables (DID060 and DIQ060U). There were a few instances for which the reported duration of insulin use was greater than the duration of diabetes. Users should carefully examine such data and decide whether or not to include these values in a given analysis. In the 1999-2004 surveys, question "Are you now taking diabetic pills to lower blood sugar?" (DIQ070) was only asked of persons who reported having diabetes. In the 2005-2006 survey, this question was asked both of persons who reported having diabetes, and of persons who reported having prediabetes. Missing values for persons who reported having prediabetes in the leading question (DIQ010=3) were imputed based on the Prescription Medication data (as described in the preceding Data Processing and Editing section). The variable was ...
Antagonism of the consequences of glucagon while an adjunct therapy with. Antagonism of the consequences of glucagon while an ... We conclude that total blockade from the glucagon sign leads to tumorigenesis which the Personal computer2-ko mouse represents ... weeks Apicidin for insulin and glucagon analyses. The plasma small fraction was separated by centrifugation at 1940?for 10?min ...
Once-weekly (QW), subcutaneous efpeglenatide (efpeg) is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, with glucose- ... Efpeglenatide, a Long-Acting Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist-Immunogenicity Profile Based on Preclinical and Clinical ...
Shop Amphastar Glucagon Emergency Kit 1 mg/mL for Low Blood Sugar with big discount. ... glucagon emergency Gvoke Glucagon Injection 1 mg Per 0.2 mL Syringe with Vial Online Hot Sale. 0 out of 5 ... glucagon emergency Gvoke HydoPen Glucagon Injection 1 mg Per 0.2 mL Autoinjector on Sale. 0 out of 5 ... glucagon emergency GlucaGen HypoKit (glucagon) for injection 1mg/mL Online Hot Sale. 0 out of 5 ...
  • As plasma glucose levels recede, the subsequent reduction in amylin secretion alleviates its suppression of the α cells, allowing for glucagon secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion of glucagon is stimulated by: Hypoglycemia Epinephrine (via β2, α2, and α1 adrenergic receptors) Arginine Alanine (often from muscle-derived pyruvate/glutamate transamination (see alanine transaminase reaction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholine Cholecystokinin Gastric inhibitory polypeptide Gastrin Secretion of glucagon is inhibited by: Somatostatin Amylin Insulin (via GABA) PPARγ/retinoid X receptor heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases of hypoglycemia, however, increased glucagon secretion is the primary counterregulatory mechanism through which normal levels of plasma glucose are restored. (medscape.com)
  • Key regulators of glucagon secretion are insulin and glucose [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes have disproportionately elevated fasting glucagon levels and also exhibit reduced early glucose-induced suppression of glucagon secretion in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic influence on glucagon secretion in response to a glucose challenge has not been widely studied in large populations, mostly due to the strict sample handling protocol necessary to preserve the labile hormone and obtain valid results along with the use of validated assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rybelsus works by mimicking the effects of GLP-1, stimulating insulin secretion and reducing glucagon production, ultimately lowering blood sugar levels. (wcil.org)
  • They mimic the action of GLP-1 to reduce glucose levels through stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. (lu.se)
  • Increased urea production Glucagon-like peptide-1 Glucagon generally elevates the concentration of glucose in the blood by promoting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic glucagon employs gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to regulate plasma glucose levels. (medscape.com)
  • If the person does not awaken within 15 minutes after an injection, give one more dose of glucagon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You need a second dose of glucagon. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we designed three d-GLP-2 agonists that activated the glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor (GLP-2R) cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation without stimulating the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). (bvsalud.org)
  • Liraglutide is better known as Novo Nordisk's Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) Victoza. (integrateddiabetes.com)
  • Proglucagon is then cleaved by proprotein convertase 2 to glucagon (amino acids 33-61) in pancreatic islet α cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon consists of 29 amino acids in a single-chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 3485. (medscape.com)
  • Glucagon is a peptide compromised of 29 amino acids in a single chain. (medscape.com)
  • Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. (prebiotin.com)
  • Excising the eyestalk in young crayfish produces glucagon-induced hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excess glucagon levels contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis is confirmed via the presence of a fasting glucagon level elevated to over 150 pg/mL, hyperglycemia, and hypoproteinemia. (medscape.com)
  • By stimulating the release of insulin and inhibiting the release of glucagon, Rybelsus helps regulate blood sugar levels and reduce hyperglycemia. (wcil.org)
  • Ask your doctor or pharmacist to show you, family, or caregivers who could be injecting the medication how to use and prepare glucagon injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Before a friend or family member uses glucagon injection for the first time, read the patient information that comes with it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Following a glucagon injection, an unconscious person with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) will usually wake within 15 minutes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not use glucagon injection if it is cloudy, contains particles, or if the expiration date has passed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have low blood sugar often, keep glucagon injection with you at all times. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to glucagon, lactose, any other medications, beef or pork products, or any of the ingredients in glucagon injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's important to contact a doctor for emergency medical treatment immediately after receiving a glucagon injection. (cdc.gov)
  • If a person faints (passes out) due to severely low blood sugar, they'll usually wake up within 15 minutes after a glucagon injection. (cdc.gov)
  • If you or a family member lives with diabetes , include a juice box, glucose tablets and gels, and an emergency glucagon injection kit. (cdc.gov)
  • A glucagon injection (of 1 mg/ml) was indicated for the treatment of acute severe hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes - to support efforts in many countries to ensure that the appropriate treatment was added to the Lists, in view of the increasing number of patients with diabetes. (who.int)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are established pharmaceutical therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (lu.se)
  • In addition, GLP-1/glucagon and GLP-1/GIP dual receptor agonists and GLP-1/GIP/glucagon triple receptor agonists have shown the potential to reduce blood glucose levels and body weight through their effects on islets and peripheral tissues, improving beta cell function and stimulating energy expenditure. (lu.se)
  • Similarly, low levels of glucagon are seen when patient is having hypoglycemia (blood glucose less than 70mg/dL). (medscape.com)
  • A condition associated with elevated glucagon, a glucagonoma, usually has levels a 1000-fold greater than normal. (medscape.com)
  • Glucagon belongs to the secretin family of hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin and Glucagon work as antagonistic hormones as they act on the liver causing it to convert glucose into glycogen when blood sugar levels are high (insulin), and transforming glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar levels are low (glucagon). (mindmeister.com)
  • However, the complex interaction of factors impacting patient glucose dynamics is challenging, where stress-induced hormone levels, e.g., epinephrine, cortisol, and glucagon, play pivotal roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis in ICU patients. (confex.com)
  • In intestinal L cells, proglucagon is cleaved to the alternate products glicentin (1-69), glicentin-related pancreatic polypeptide (1-30), oxyntomodulin (33-69), glucagon-like peptide 1 (72-107 or 108), and glucagon-like peptide 2 (126-158). (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to explore the pathophysiology underlying type 2 diabetes we examined the impact of gene variants associated with type 2 diabetes on circulating levels of glucagon during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A known type 2 diabetes variant in EYA2 was significantly associated with higher plasma glucagon level at 30 min during the OGTT (Beta 0.145, SE 0.038, P = 1.2 × 10 -4 ) corresponding to a 7.4% increase in plasma glucagon level per effect allele. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A type 2 diabetes risk variant in the EYA2 locus was associated with higher plasma glucagon levels at 30 min. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ten additional variants were suggestively associated with reduced glucagon suppression without conferring increased type 2 diabetes risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucagon is a key regulator of hepatic glucose production and is therefore intimately linked to type 2 diabetes pathophysiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cost-Utility Analysis of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Agonists Compared with Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors or Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Basal Insulin as Add-On to Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes in Sweden. (lu.se)
  • In the pancreas, ghrelin stimulates the release of glucagon, which increases production and release of glucose from the liver and the fat tissue to the bloodstream. (yourhormones.info)
  • It is important that all patients have a household member who knows the symptoms of low blood sugar and how to administer glucagon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Try to eat or drink a food or beverage with sugar in it, such as hard candy or fruit juice, before it is necessary to administer glucagon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucagon also regulates the rate of glucose production through lipolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because glucagon has a half-life of just 3-6 minutes, collection of serum glucagon needs to occur in a chilled collecting tube with the immediate addition of a proteolytic enzyme inhibitor. (medscape.com)
  • Glucagon works along with insulin to balance glucose distribution in the serum for transport to body tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Abnormalities in glucose levels are the most common reason to measure glucagon levels in serum to see if the hormone is the source versus insulin levels, which tend to be more difficult to interpret. (medscape.com)
  • Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pancreas releases glucagon when the amount of glucose in the bloodstream is too low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research has demonstrated that glucagon production may also take place outside the pancreas, with the gut being the most likely site of extrapancreatic glucagon synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal levels of fasting glucose (80-100 mg/dL) mean that a balance exists and that both insulin and glucagon are adequately produced. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) aiming to identify novel genomic loci affecting plasma glucagon levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They performed a meta-analysis on circulating levels of glucagon measured at two time points, 0 and 120 min, during an OGTT including 3344 Swedish individuals from Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC) and 4905 Finnish individuals from the Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of diabetes Botnia study (PPP-Botnia). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we investigated the impact of genetic variants on circulating plasma levels of glucagon at three time points, 0, 30 and 120 min, during an OGTT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we tested three suggestive loci for fasting and 2 h plasma glucagon levels reported previously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Information regarding both glucagon levels and GWAS was available in 1346 individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue which helps control blood sugar levels and reduce patients' HbA1c. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • He said that the concern is that the drugs work by increasing the levels of a hormone called glucagon-like peptide-1. (gacovinolake.com)
  • Glucagon induces lipolysis in humans under conditions of insulin suppression (such as diabetes mellitus type 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the GWAS, we identified a marker in the MARCH1 locus, which was genome-wide significantly associated with reduced suppression of glucagon during the first 30 min of the OGTT (Beta − 0.210, SE 0.037, P = 1.9 × 10 -8 ), equivalent to 8.2% less suppression per effect allele. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucagon increases energy expenditure and is elevated under conditions of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who have had type 1 diabetes for 1-5 years suffer impairment of the glucagon response, with this response becoming almost undetectable in those who have had the disease for 14-31 years. (medscape.com)
  • Glucagon is also produced by alpha cells in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon is also used in diagnostic testing of the stomach and other digestive organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucagon can be injected with the prefilled syringe or autoinjector in the upper arm, thigh, or stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Liver cells (hepatocytes) have glucagon receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • When glucagon binds to the glucagon receptors, the liver cells convert the glycogen into individual glucose molecules and release them into the bloodstream, in a process known as glycogenolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon causes the liver to engage in glycogenolysis: converting stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon also decreases fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue and the liver, as well as promoting lipolysis in these tissues, which causes them to release fatty acids into circulation where they can be catabolised to generate energy in tissues such as skeletal muscle when required. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these stores become depleted, glucagon then encourages the liver and kidney to synthesize additional glucose by gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon turns off glycolysis in the liver, causing glycolytic intermediates to be shuttled to gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When you add glucagon activity," one of the three agonist actions of retatrutide, "liver-fat clearance goes up tremendously," said Kaplan, who is director of the Obesity, Metabolism and Nutrition Institute at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. (medscape.com)
  • To my knowledge, no mono-agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor [such as semaglutide or liraglutide] produces more than 50% clearance of liver fat," added Kaplan. (medscape.com)
  • Glucagon production appears to be dependent on the central nervous system through pathways yet to be defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • In invertebrate animals, eyestalk removal has been reported to affect glucagon production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat very low blood sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Once the glucagon has been given, immediately contact a doctor and get emergency medical treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you used glucagon because of a severe low (54 mg/dL or below), immediately call your doctor for emergency medical treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Glucagon binds to the glucagon receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, located in the plasma membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injectable glucagon is the best way to treat severely low blood sugar. (cdc.gov)
  • Do glucagon-like peptide-1 based therapies alter the risk of late-onset inflammatory bowel disease? (aau.dk)
  • For years and years (and years), the "red suitcase" was the main glucagon. (tcoyd.org)
  • Never inject glucagon prefilled syringe or autoinjector into a vein or muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Committee also recommended that careful attention be paid to the cost of procuring glucagon and noted that based on the experience with other high-cost medicines, such as the antiretrovirals, inclusion in the Lists of Essential Medicines may help reduce prices. (who.int)