Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
They receive information from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, forming synapses in neuropils called glomeruli. Axons of ... into a glomerulus receiving input from a population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing identical olfactory receptor ... Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central ... Mitral cells receive input from at least four cell types: olfactory sensory neurons, periglomerular neurons, external tufted ...
... instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to these glomeruli ... Olfactory neurons expressing identified receptor genes project to subsets of glomeruli within the antennal lobe of Drosophila ... "Olfactory neurons expressing identified receptor genes project to subsets of glomeruli within the antennal lobe ofDrosophila ... Stocker RF (2006) Olfactory coding: Connecting odorant receptor expression and behavior in the Drosophila larva (Dispatch). ...
1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor neurons ... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[51] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ... Olfactory bulb projectionsEdit. Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve ... Main olfactory systemEdit. Main article: Olfactory system. In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in ...
Each glomerulus collects information from a specific olfactory receptor neuron. The olfactory signal is then conducted to the ... a dime-sized region located in the nasal cavity that contains olfactory receptor neurons. There are 350 types of olfactory ... receptors, each sensitive to a narrow range of odorants. These neurons send signals to the glomeruli within the olfactory bulb ... An olfactory cue is a chemical signal received by the olfactory system that represents an incoming signal received through the ...
... the olfactory glomeruli function as sorts of way-stations for the information flowing from the olfactory receptor neurons to ... Neurons are necessary for all connections made in the brain, and thus can be thought of as the "wires" of the brain. As in ... For example, the neocortex and olfactory bulb both contain neuropil. White matter, which is mostly composed of myelinated axons ... There is also additional evidence that the neuropil may function in olfactory associative learning and memory. In humans, ...
... further projecting on an olfactory receptor neuron and finally triggering a behavioral response after processing of the ... The fixation of a VOC on a chemoreceptor triggers the activation of an antennal glomerulus, ... Junker, Robert R.; Höcherl, Nicole; Blüthgen, Nico (2010-07-01). "Responses to olfactory signals reflect network structure of ... Guerrieri, Fernando; Schubert, Marco; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin (2005-02-22). "Perceptual and Neural Olfactory ...
... and that the input from all neurons expressing the same receptor is collected by a single dedicated glomerulus of the olfactory ... Buck and Axel have shown that each olfactory receptor neuron remarkably only expresses one kind of olfactory receptor protein ... Buck and Axel cloned olfactory receptors, showing that they belong to the family of G protein coupled receptors. By analyzing ... specifically mapping the parts of the brain that are sensitive to specific olfactory receptors. He holds the titles of ...
... and that the input from all neurons expressing the same receptor is collected by a single dedicated glomerulus of the olfactory ... Buck and Axel have shown that each olfactory receptor neuron remarkably only expresses one kind of olfactory receptor protein ... To do this, Buck and Axel cloned olfactory receptors, showing that they belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. By ... She was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with Richard Axel, for their work on olfactory receptors ...
... as glomeruli such that each glomerulus receives input primarily from olfactory receptor neurons that express the same olfactory ... As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory ... The olfactory sensory neuron axons that form synapses in olfactory bulb glomeruli are also capable of regeneration following ... made up of the axons from approximately ten million olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa, a region of the nasal ...
Each olfactory sensory neuron expresses a single odorant receptor type and targets the same glomeruli as other olfactory ... The interaction between the olfactory receptor neurons, local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input ... sensory neurons expressing that receptor type, such that each glomeruli houses all or the majority of sensory neurons of a ... For instance, there are 32 glomeruli in mosquito, 43 glomeruli in the fruit fly antennal lobe, and 203 glomeruli in cockroach. ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Olfactory receptor neurons.. *NIF Search - Olfactory receptor neuron via the ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ...
The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. ORs, which ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ... The olfactory receptor neuron has a fast working negative feedback response upon depolarization. When the neuron is ...
... further projecting on an olfactory receptor neuron and finally triggering a behavioral response after processing of the ... The fixation of a VOC on a chemoreceptor triggers the activation of an antennal glomerulus, ... The simultaneous perception of various VOCs may cause the activation of several glomeruli, but the output signal may not be ... "Responses to olfactory signals reflect network structure of flower-visitor interactions". Journal of Animal Ecology. 79 (4): ...
... are integral to receiving stimuli in gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... The chemoreceptors in the receptor neurons that start the signal cascade are G protein-coupled receptors. ...
... convergence of olfactory sensory neuron axons expressing the same odorant receptors onto the same glomerulus at the olfactory ... Olfactory sensory neurons Supporting cells Basal cells Brush cells The olfactory receptor neurons are sensory neurons of the ... The olfactory epithelium contains olfactory sensory neurons, whose axons innervate the olfactory bulb. In order for olfactory ... Composition of the Olfactory receptor neuron (captions in German) olfactory epithelium pig Phantosmia Moran, David T.; Rowley ...
... olfactory bulb such that the projections from neurons expressing a specific receptor converge on 2 out of the 1800 glomeruli. ... However, the olfactory sensory neurons to which olfactory bulb neurons are connected are also distributed across the receptor ... Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only one of the thousand receptor genes, such that neurons are functionally ... Olfactory neurons differ from one another by the nature of the receptor that they possess. ...
Olfactory nerves are bundles of very small unmyelinated axons that are derived from olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory ... the bundled axons cross the cribriform plate and enter the overlying olfactory bulb ending as glomeruli. Each branch is ... It contains an area of specialised cells, olfactory receptor neurons responsible for the sense of smell (olfaction). Olfactory ... The axons are in varying stages of maturity, reflecting the constant turnover of neurons in the olfactory epithelium. A ...
Recovery of the olfactory receptor neurons in the African Tilapia mariae following exposure to low copper level. Bologna, Italy ... located within the epithelium of the Glomerulus bulb. Odorants bind to receptor proteins that are held within individual OSNs. ... Dissolved neurotoxins may: 1) compete with natural odorants for binding sites on olfactory neuron receptor proteins 2) change ... Olfactory information is received by sensory neurons, like the olfactory nerve, that are in a covered cavity separated from the ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal Epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor cells ... olfactory glands, olfactory neurons, and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves.[1] ... Olfactory neurons are receptor cells in the epithelium that detect odor molecules dissolved in the mucus and transmit ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... the olfactory tubercle may play a role in behavior. Rats rely heavily on olfactory sensory input from olfactory receptors for ... The olfactory tubercle has been shown to be concerned primarily with the reception of sensory impulses from olfactory receptors ... 1985). "Neuron production in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of the adult rat brain: addition or replacement?". Ann N Y Acad ...
... : 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the ... The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, ... The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, ...
... s are found within the olfactory glomeruli. They receive input from the receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium ... Mitral cell-Another neuron in the olfactory glomerulus ALLISON, A. C.; WARWICK, R. T. TURNER (1 January 1949). "QUANTITATIVE ... Both tufted cells and mitral cells are called projection neurons. Projection neurons send the signals from the glomeruli deeper ... Projection neurons therefore transmit a sharpened olfactory signal to the deeper parts of the brain. Tufted cells project onto ...
Inside of these olfactory organs there are neurons called olfactory receptor neurons which, as the name implies, house ... Much like in vertebrates, axons from the sensory neurons converge into glomeruli, but differ in where the glomeruli are housed ... The majority of olfactory receptor neurons typically reside in the antenna. These neurons can be very abundant, for example ... team on the surface of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN). This leads to the neuron firing an action potential down the axon. ...
Inside of these olfactory organs there are neurons called olfactory receptor neurons which, as the name implies, house ... Glomeruli aggregate signals from these receptors and transmit them to the olfactory bulb, where the sensory input will start to ... In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. Odor receptor nerve cells function like ... The majority of olfactory receptor neurons typically reside in the antenna. These neurons can be very abundant, for example ...
Each glomerulus receives input from olfactory receptor neurons expressing only one type of olfactory receptor. The glomerular ... The olfactory receptor neurons (ORN), which originate in the nasal epithelium express only one type of olfactory receptor (OR ... A glomerulus is made up of a globular tangle of axons from the olfactory receptor neurons, and dendrites from the mitral and ... The olfactory nerve zone is composed of preterminals and terminals of the olfactory nerve and is where the olfactory receptor ...
In mammals, each olfactory receptor protein has one type of molecule that it responds to, known as the one-olfactory-one-neuron ... An odorant's features are detected by the olfactory system's glomeruli and mitral cells which can be found in the olfactory ... Expression in olfactory receptor neurons has been confirmed for a limited subset of the huge number of odorant receptor genes. ... Olfactory receptor molecules are very similar to G-protein-linked receptors and belong to the odorant receptor gene family. The ...
In each glomerulus the axons of the receptor neurons contact the apical dendrites of mitral cells, which are the principal ... Cell bodies of mitral cells are located in a distinct layer deep in the olfactory glomeruli. Each mitral cell extends a primary ... GABAergic neurons have been found vulnerable to excitotoxic action of glutamate at the kainate receptor. These receptors are ... As neurons mature, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA) receptors are added, increasing synaptic transmission. ...
... s (save for those of the olfactory bulb) have a structure typical of a neuron consisting of dendrites, a soma (cell ... those activated by an AMPA receptor and those activated by a NMDA receptor. This allows the granule cells to regulate the ... Together these cells form the glomeruli.[10] Granule cells are subject to feed-forward inhibition: granule cells excite ... Olfactory bulb granule cell[edit]. The main intrinsic granule cell in the vertebrate olfactory bulb lacks an axon (as does the ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... are integral to receiving stimuli as gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the ... The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... Receptors[edit]. Main article: sensory receptor. The initialization of sensation stems from the response of a specific receptor ...
1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor neurons ... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[10] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ... Olfactory bulb projectionsEdit. Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve ... Main olfactory systemEdit. Main article: Olfactory system. In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in ...
... are integral to receiving stimuli in gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... ReceptorsEdit. Main article: sensory receptor. The initialization of sensation stems from the response of a specific receptor ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and ... The chemo-receptors involved in olfactory nervous cascade involve using G-protein receptors to send their chemical signals down ...
... long-term cellular memory trace after spaced olfactory conditioning". Neuron. 52 (1): 845-55. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.10.030 ... Immediately after conditioning, an additional set of projection neurons in a set of eight glomeruli in the AL becomes ... which acts as a memory formation suppressor through one of its inhibitory GABAergic receptors. Decrease in calcium response of ... Xu, Liu; Davis, Ronald (January 2009). "The GABAergic anterior paired lateral neuron suppresses and is suppressed by olfactory ...
... prepuce prepyriform cortex presacral space prevertebral fascia primary fissure primary olfactory cortex primary sensory neuron ... gingiva gizzard glabella gland glandula glans glenohumeral joint glenoid fossa glia globose nucleus globus pallidus glomerulus ... plate cistern quadrigeminus quadriplegia radial artery radius radula rami communicantes ramus raphe raphe nuclei receptor layer ... cortex olfactory bulb olfactory cortex olfactory epithelium olfactory mucosa olfactory nerve olfactory striae olfactory system ...
Olfactory mechanisms in the moth Manduca sexta:Response characteristics and morphology of central neurons in the antennal lobes ... Each trichoid sensilla is innervated by two male specific olfactory receptor cells, with each cell being tuned (most sensitive ... and have found that projection neurons with dendritic arborizations in the macroglomerular complex and ordinary glomeruli were ... By evolving larger, pheromone-specific receptors in the peripheral olfactory system, male M. sexta have an improved sensitivity ...
... the olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium, mitral cells, and olfactory pyramidal neurons. At the level of the ... The olfactory bulb houses glomeruli, or cell junctures, on which thousands of receptors of the same type, in addition to mitral ... Smell receptors are bipolar neurons that bind odorants from the air and congregate at the olfactory nerve before passing axons ... Duchamp-Viret, P.; Chaput, M. A.; Duchamp, A. (1999-06-25). "Odor Response Properties of Rat Olfactory Receptor Neurons". ...
... olfactory lobe, as well as striatal and cortical lesions in a case of chorea. In 1878, he also discovered a receptor organ that ... According to Ramón y Cajal's neurone theory, the nervous system is but a collection of individual cells, the neurones, which ... of the nephron returns to its originating glomerulus, a finding that he published in 1889 ("Annotazioni intorno all'Istologia ... Cimino G (1999). "Reticular theory versus neuron theory in the work of Camillo Golgi". Physis Riv Int Stor Sci. 36 (2): 431-472 ...
The AOC gives rise to the olfactory tract, which ends in the olfactory bulb. Developing neurons travel toward the olfactory ... In the adult SVZ, astrocytes express Robo receptors and regulate the rapid migration of SLIT1-expressing neuroblasts through ... which is initiated by Reelin and tenascin and move radially toward glomeruli, this migration is dependent on tenascin-R, and ... the olfactory tract and the olfactory bulb. Developing neurons leave the subventricular zone and enter the RMS and travel ...
We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the ... We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the ... Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, ... Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, ...
... of stress-related proteins within the glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb following damage to olfactory receptor neurons. In: ... of stress-related proteins within the glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb following damage to olfactory receptor neurons. ... of stress-related proteins within the glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb following damage to olfactory receptor neurons, ... of stress-related proteins within the glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb following damage to olfactory receptor neurons. ...
We examined this question in rat olfactory bulb slices in recordings from output mitral cells. Electrical stimulati … ... Odor elicits a well-organized pattern of glomerular activation in the olfactory bulb. However, the mechanisms by which this ... Olfactory Bulb / cytology* * Olfactory Bulb / physiology* * Olfactory Receptor Neurons / physiology* * Periodicity * ... Glomerulus-specific Synchronization of Mitral Cells in the Olfactory Bulb Neuron. 2001 Aug 30;31(4):639-51. doi: 10.1016/s0896- ...
They have variously been considered a functional unit, an organizational unit and a crucial component of the olfactory coding ... The nearly 2,000 glomeruli that cover the surface of the olfactory bulb are so distinctive that they were noted specifically in ... Olfactory Bulb / cytology* * Olfactory Bulb / physiology* * Olfactory Receptor Neurons / cytology * Olfactory Receptor Neurons ... How the olfactory bulb got its glomeruli: a just so story? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009 Aug;10(8):611-8. doi: 10.1038/nrn2666. Epub ...
1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor neurons ... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[10] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ... Olfactory bulb projectionsEdit. Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve ... Main olfactory systemEdit. Main article: Olfactory system. In vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in ...
Elucidating the neuronal architecture of olfactory glomeruli in the drosophila antennal lobe. Cell Rep. 16, 3401-3413 (2016).. ... Structured odorant response patterns across a complete olfactory receptor neuron population. Neuron 101, 950-962.e7 (2019).. ... Antagonism in olfactory receptor neurons and its implications for the perception of odor mixtures. eLife 7, e34958 (2018).. ... Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties. J. Neurosci. 32, 2900-2910 (2012). ...
In mammals, olfactory nerve (ON) axons arising from olfactory receptor neurons expressing the same odorant receptor converge ... Glomeruli, the initial sites of synaptic processing in the olfactory system, contain at least three types of neurons ... Each glomerulus therefore represents the odorant specificity of the receptor expressed by the uniform population of olfactory ... Schoppa NE, Westbrook GL (2001) Glomerulus-specific synchronization of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. Neuron 31: 639-651. ...
The axon terminals of these neurons innervate the DM1 glomerulus. M, Mean presynaptic electrical responses (n = 6) in DM1 to 1 ... Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor- ... Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor- ... Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor- ...
... each of which corresponds to a unique glomerulus in the first olfactory relay of the brain. Crosstalk between glomeruli has ... we selectively removed most interglomerular input to genetically identified second-order olfactory neurons. Here we show that ... and our results imply that this is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on the same nerve terminal. The fruit ... The results could shed light on vertebrate neuronal circuits such as those of the olfactory bulb or visual cortex. A study that ...
... it is not possible to determine which precise olfactory receptors neurons (ORNs) and subsequently, which precise glomeruli are ... olfactory receptor neurons. PNs. projections neurons. RNAi. RNA interference. ROI. region of interest. RyR. ryanodine receptor ... In Drosophila, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors ... 2009). Presynaptic peptidergic modulation of olfactory receptor neurons in Drosophila. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 13070- ...
Olfactory, gustatory and tactile antennal stimuli evoked phasic calcium transients in sparse ensembles of responding KCs. ... Olfactory, gustatory and tactile antennal stimuli evoked phasic calcium transients in sparse ensembles of responding Kenyon ... We investigated experience dependent plasticity of their intrinsic neurons, the Kenyon cells (KCs). Using calcium imaging, we ... We investigated experience dependent plasticity of their intrinsic neurons, the Kenyon cells. Using calcium imaging, we ...
olfactory system. 1: Olfactory. bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone. 4: Nasal epithelium. 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory. receptor neurons ... These receptors are found in receptor cells.. Each receptor cell contains only one type of odour receptor and each receptor can ... This is due to the olfactory receptors. This is the key idea in making foods that bring the gastronomic experience without ... They discovered a large family of about 1000 different genes that produce an equivalent number of types of olfactory receptors ...
... glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics ... In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in ... Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neuron ... The olfactory bulb (OB) is involved in odour processing, but exactly how is unclear. Tatti et al.identify a population of ...
... as glomeruli such that each glomerulus receives input primarily from olfactory receptor neurons that express the same olfactory ... As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory ... The olfactory sensory neuron axons that form synapses in olfactory bulb glomeruli are also capable of regeneration following ... Therefore, the olfactory bulb plays this role for the olfactory system. Accessory olfactory bulb[edit]. The accessory olfactory ...
Input from olfactory receptor neurons is first organized and processed in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Olfactory ... glomeruli serve as functional units in coding olfactory information and contain a complex network of synaptic connections. Odor ... Coding and synaptic processing of sensory information in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb.. Wachowiak M1, Shipley MT. ...
They receive information from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, forming synapses in neuropils called glomeruli. Axons of ... into a glomerulus receiving input from a population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing identical olfactory receptor ... Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central ... Mitral cells receive input from at least four cell types: olfactory sensory neurons, periglomerular neurons, external tufted ...
Odorant receptor map in the mouse olfactory bulb: in vivo sensitivity and specificity of receptor-defined glomeruli. Neuron 52: ... 2004) Odorant receptor gene choice in olfactory sensory neurons: the one receptor-one neuron hypothesis revisited. Curr Opin ... 2012) Neurons expressing trace amine-associated receptors project to discrete glomeruli and constitute an olfactory subsystem. ... 2014) Olfactory receptor and neural pathway responsible for highly selective sensing of musk odors. Neuron 81:165-178, doi: ...
Immunohistochemical identification of discrete subsets of rat olfactory neurons and the glomeruli that they innervate RING G ... ラット嗅糸切断後の嗅上皮における神経栄養因子の効果 [in Japanese] The effect of neurotrophic factor on the rat olfactory receptor neurons following ... Transforming growth factor-a and other growth factors stimulate cell division in olfactory epithelium
... instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to these glomeruli ... Olfactory neurons expressing identified receptor genes project to subsets of glomeruli within the antennal lobe of Drosophila ... "Olfactory neurons expressing identified receptor genes project to subsets of glomeruli within the antennal lobe ofDrosophila ... Stocker RF (2006) Olfactory coding: Connecting odorant receptor expression and behavior in the Drosophila larva (Dispatch). ...
... olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing a common olfactory receptor target their axons to specific glomeruli with high ... Each olfactory receptor neuron typically expresses only one olfactory receptor from many receptor genes (1000 in mice). In mice ... olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing specific olfactory receptors converge their axons onto specific glomeruli, ... Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor project their axons to the same glomerulus. Projection ...
... olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing a common olfactory receptor target their axons to specific glomeruli with high ... Each olfactory receptor neuron typically expresses only one olfactory receptor from many receptor genes (1000 in mice). In mice ... olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing specific olfactory receptors converge their axons onto specific glomeruli, ... Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor project their axons to the same glomerulus. Projection ...
Johnson MA et al. Neurons expressing trace amine-associated receptors project to discrete glomeruli and constitute an olfactory ... Works MG et al. Soluble TNF receptor 1-secreting ex vivo-derived dendritic cells reduce injury after stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow ... Lee SW et al. ASXL1 represses retinoic acid receptor-mediated transcription through associating with HP1 and LSD1. J Biol Chem ... Schaefer A et al. Control of cognition and adaptive behavior by the GLP/G9a epigenetic suppressor complex. Neuron 64:678-91 ( ...
Processing and integration of chemical information in the neuro-olfactory system followed by salivary actions facilitate blood ... Thus, deciphering the underlying molecular mechanism of odor sensing through the detection machinery (olfactory system), odor ... receptor neurons that express a particular type of receptor on their dendrites project their axons into the same glomerulus [8 ... Primarily, odorants bind with their cognate receptors, present on the dendritic membrane of the olfactory receptor neurons ( ...
Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) produce a constant synaptic density across different glomeruli. Each ORN within a class ... Neurons expressing Or67d converge into the DA1 glomerulus in the antennal lobe, where they synapse onto projection neurons (PNs ... was identified that is essential for ammonia responses in a class of coeloconic olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), but is not ... Love makes smell blind: mating suppresses pheromone attraction in Drosophila females via Or65a olfactory neurons. Sci Rep 4: ...
... animal showing β-gal activity in ORN axons projecting to the olfactory glomeruli. (G) An olfactory epithelium section of an O/ ... Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection ... Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection ... Genetic disruptions of O/E2 and O/E3 genes reveal involvement in olfactory receptor neuron projection ...
... but does not directly damage olfactory receptor neurons or their axons that innervate the olfactory bulb. ... 2001) Glomerulus-specific synchronization of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. Neuron 31:639-651. ... 2005) Connexin36 mediates spike synchrony in olfactory bulb glomeruli. Neuron 46:761-772. ... cells is important for amplification of odorant inputs from olfactory receptor neurons and correlated output to olfactory ...
2006). Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same odorant receptor converge on the same antennal lobe glomerulus (Gao et ... 2003 Olfactory neurons expressing identified receptor genes project to subsets of glomeruli within the antennal lobe of ... Gao, Q., B. Yuan and A. Chess, 2000 Convergent projections of Drosophila olfactory neurons to specific glomeruli in the ... Although numerically simpler than the mammalian olfactory system in terms of the number of olfactory sensory neurons, the ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Olfactory receptor neurons.. *NIF Search - Olfactory receptor neuron via the ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ...
LacZ is expressed in place of any olfactory receptor sequence. ... receptor expression and the related olfactory sensory neuron ... not coalescing into glomeruli. ... LacZ is expressed in place of any olfactory receptor sequence. ... It does not drive expression of any olfactory receptor sequence. It is useful in mapping promoter elements important for ... Homeodomain binding motifs modulate the probability of odorant receptor gene choice in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Neurosci 46(2 ...
In Drosophila, 50 classes of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) connect to 50 class-specific and uniquely positioned glomeruli ... Combinations of DIPs and Dprs control organization of olfactory receptor neuron terminals in Drosophila., Plos Genetics, vol. ... Many ORN classes express a unique combination of DIPs/dprs, with neurons of the same class expressing interacting partners, ... Analysis of DIP/Dpr expression revealed that ORNs that target neighboring glomeruli have different combinations, and ORNs with ...
  • In vertebrates , smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium is made up of at least six morphologically and biochemically different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] The proportion of olfactory epithelium compared to respiratory epithelium (not innervated, or supplied with nerves) gives an indication of the animal's olfactory sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have about 10 cm 2 (1.6 sq in) of olfactory epithelium, whereas some dogs have 170 cm 2 (26 sq in). (wikipedia.org)
  • A dog's olfactory epithelium is also considerably more densely innervated, with a hundred times more receptors per square centimeter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory bulb is supported and protected by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone , which in mammals separates it from the olfactory epithelium , and which is perforated by olfactory nerve axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory epithelium), and one output (mitral cell axons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebf ( O/E1 ) mutant animals showed defects in B-cell lineage and brain regions where it is the only O/E family member expressed, but the olfactory epithelium appeared unaffected and olfactory marker expression was grossly normal in these animals. (biologists.org)
  • The O/E mRNAs are also observed in sensory structures including the olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ (VNO), retina, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and some cranial nerve ganglia. (biologists.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium and VNO continue to express O/E proteins into adulthood, consistent with the continual neuronal differentiation in these tissues and an independent role for the O/E proteins in regulating mature ORN gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • An odorant will dissolve into the mucus of the olfactory epithelium and then bind to an OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the peripheral sensory epithelium display two main differentiation features: the selective expression of a single odorant receptor out of a large genomic repertoire of receptor genes and the synaptic connection to a single type of relay neuron in the primary olfactory CNS target area. (springer.com)
  • Vassar R, Ngai J, Axel R. Spatial segregation of odorant receptor expression in the mammalian olfactory epithelium. (springer.com)
  • In vertebrates the main olfactory system detects odorants that are inhaled through the nose where they come to contact with the olfactory epithelium, which contains the olfactory receptors. (wikibooks.org)
  • Similar to other sensory modalities, olfactory information must be transmitted from peripheral olfactory structures, like the olfactory epithelium, to more central structures, meaning the olfactory bulb and cortex. (wikibooks.org)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are continuously replaced by mitotic division of the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium. (wikibooks.org)
  • In olfaction, the detection of volatile odorants is mediated by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium of the nose. (duke.edu)
  • A reporter allele shows expression of this olfactory receptor by embryonic day 15.5 and throughout olfactory development there is an increase in the numbers of expressing olfactory sensory neurons with expression localized to the dorsal main olfactory epithelium. (jax.org)
  • Every olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the main olfactory epithelium is thought to express just one OR gene, from one allele. (mpg.de)
  • The perception of a smell begins with the activation of receptors expressed by the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which reside in the main olfactory epithelium lining the nasal cavity ( Fig. 1 A ). Each OSN extends a single dendrite to the lumenal surface of the epithelium, from which immotile cilia extend to catch inhaled odorants from the air. (rupress.org)
  • In the mouse, there are 5-10 million OSNs in the olfactory epithelium and ∼1,800 glomeruli in each olfactory bulb, which translates to an ∼10 3 -fold convergence of primary sensory axons onto each olfactory glomerulus ( Firestein, 2001 ). (rupress.org)
  • The present review focuses on the main olfactory epithelium and the multiple roles that the "OR" family of odorant receptors play, not only as detectors of volatile chemicals in the environment, but also as regulators of key developmental decisions made by differentiating OSNs. (rupress.org)
  • Axons of the OSNs in the main olfactory epithelium comprise the olfactory nerve and innervate the olfactory bulb. (rupress.org)
  • B) Each OSN of the main olfactory epithelium expresses only one odorant receptor gene (OR A, OR B, OR C, etc.) out of a repertoire of over 1,000 genes. (rupress.org)
  • Neurons expressing a given OR are organized into broad zones along the dorsal-ventral axis of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and converge to a common glomerulus at corresponding dorsal-ventral zones in the olfactory bulb (OB). (rupress.org)
  • Olfactory receptors are expressed by specialized sensory neurons (OSNs) in the olfactory epithelium. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Apart from developing a technique to measure neuronal activity in the adult olfactory epithelium, we also established the use of GCaMP6-expressing zebrafish to measure neuronal activity in the larval brain. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The pear shaped soma is located in the apical region of the olfactory epithelium. (zfin.org)
  • b) A schematic of the olfactory epithelium (OE) showing the three major cell types. (els.net)
  • Through gene targetting experiments (see text) it is now clear that all the ORNs expressing the same receptor send their axons to the same glomerulus even though the cells are widely distributed on the olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • Ressler KJ, Sullivan SL, and Buck LB (1993) A zonal organization of odorant receptor gene expression in the olfactory epithelium. (els.net)
  • These specialized cells are the final "broadcasting" stations for messages to the mouse's cortex that start out when neurons in the nasal epithelium sense an odor. (photonics.com)
  • Unique to the olfactory system, ongoing adult neurogenesis generates new populations of sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and interneurons centrally. (yale.edu)
  • We have been focusing our efforts on the olfactory system, in part because of the complexity of the map between the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory bulb. (yale.edu)
  • We show in the Xenopus tadpole system that the γ-glomerulus, which receives input from olfactory neurons, is highly sensitive to temperature drops at the olfactory epithelium. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • Temperature drops at the contralateral olfactory epithelium also induced responses in the γ-glomerulus and in mitral cells. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • The Rockefeller team's collaborators in China, led by Minmin Luo at the National Institute of Biological Sciences in Beijing, found that all the GC-D expressing neurons in the olfactory epithelium were activated by exposure to carbon dioxide. (innovations-report.com)
  • Their discoveries provide a detailed picture of how odorants are detected by sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium of the nose, which, in turn, transmits this information to the olfactory bulb that passes the signal on to the olfactory cortex ( Fig 1 ). (embopress.org)
  • The odorant receptors are localized on olfactory sensory neurons, which occupy a small area in the upper part of the nasal epithelium. (embopress.org)
  • Whereas a given OR is expressed by neurons scattered in broad zones of the olfactory epithelium (OE), axons from OSNs that express the same OR converge onto defined a glomerulus in the olfactory bulb (OB). (creativebiomart.net)
  • The olfactory epithelium (OE) of vertebrates is made up of three main cell types: OSNs, basal cells and supporting non-neuronal cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • As the immature neurons start to differentiate, they migrate away from the basal layer of the epithelium. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In vertebrate olfactory epithelium, OSNs turn over constantly. (creativebiomart.net)
  • OSNs expressing the same OR are distributed through of the olfactory epithelium, albeit restricted within roughly defined zones. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Smell (or Olfaction to get technical) is when odour molecules reach your nose (specifically the Olfactory Epithelium) and through a complicated process pass messages to your brain which interprets them as a 'smell' [ 8 ] . (wine-vagabond.com)
  • Sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb (OB) are organized as a discrete map in the glomerular layer (GL). (nih.gov)
  • More remarkably, the regenerated neurons must dispatch their axons on a path through the nasal epithelium to the brain through a distance a thousand times the length of the cell, where they make the proper connections. (mindzilla.com)
  • epithelium as odorans interact with their receptors. (coursera.org)
  • In addition to the olfactory neurons, the epithelium is composed of supporting cells, Bowman glands and ducts unique to the olfactory epithelium, and basal cells that allow for the regeneration of the epithelium, including the olfactory sensory neurons. (medscape.com)
  • The odor information originates in the epithelium of the nasal cavity and is transported to the brain via components of the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve 1 - CNI) and the olfactory pathway . (kenhub.com)
  • To understand the olfactory nerve and its clinical implications, this article will trace the olfactory nerve from its receptor cells, located in the nasal epithelium, to the olfactory cortex and beyond. (kenhub.com)
  • These cells are located in the olfactory epithelium , a mucosal membrane that lines the roof and sides of the nasal cavity. (kenhub.com)
  • There are three cell types contained within the epithelium: the olfactory receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal (stem) cells. (kenhub.com)
  • One projection, the dendrite, extends to the surface of the olfactory epithelium. (kenhub.com)
  • The cilia contain receptors for odor molecules that pass into the nasal cavity and are captured in the fluid covering the olfactory epithelium. (kenhub.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although fish have only one recognized olfactory epithelium, Dulka (1993) [ 19 ] suggested a functional division of the primary olfactory pathway in goldfish that may be analagous to the output neurons from the MOE and VOE in tetrapods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the Drosophila antennal lobe (a region analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb), we selectively removed most interglomerular input to genetically identified second-order olfactory neurons. (nature.com)
  • The strength of this inhibitory signal scales with total feedforward input to the entire antennal lobe, and has similar tuning in different glomeruli. (nature.com)
  • Wilson, R. I., Turner, G. C. & Laurent, G. Transformation of olfactory representations in the Drosophila antennal lobe. (nature.com)
  • Olsen, S. R., Bhandawat, V. & Wilson, R. I. Excitatory interactions between olfactory processing channels in the Drosophila antennal lobe. (nature.com)
  • Transmission of olfactory information between three populations of neurons in the antennal lobe of the fly. (nature.com)
  • In Drosophila , olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors and transmit olfactory information to the antennal lobes. (biologists.org)
  • The antennal lobes comprise 43 glomeruli and contain about 100 interneurons. (biologists.org)
  • Olfactory, gustatory and tactile antennal stimuli evoked phasic calcium transients in sparse ensembles of responding KCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adopting the Gal4-UAS method for the cell-type specific manipulation of neurons as established by Brand and Perrimon in 1993 (Development 118, 401-415), this allowed him and his co-workers to describe at unprecedented detail and completeness the first relay of the olfactory system, the antennal lobe, and how it develops during metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are currently using two-photon calcium imaging, optogenetics, and quantitative behavioral assays to identify principles of information processing at the antennal lobe and in higher olfactory centers suggested by previous anatomical studies. (stanford.edu)
  • In Drosophila, 50 classes of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) connect to 50 class-specific and uniquely positioned glomeruli in the antennal lobe. (duke.edu)
  • Analysis of DIP/Dpr expression revealed that ORNs that target neighboring glomeruli have different combinations, and ORNs with very similar DIP/Dpr combinations can project to distant glomeruli in the antennal lobe. (duke.edu)
  • As a test-bed for this approach, we focus on a well-characterized microcircuit - a single olfactory glomerulus in the adult Drosophila antennal lobe. (elifesciences.org)
  • The antennal lobe is the first brain relay in the fly olfactory system, analogous to the mammalian olfactory bulb. (hhmi.org)
  • In total, the antennal lobe has about 50 glomeruli, each corresponding to a unique odorant receptor gene. (hhmi.org)
  • Mass-stainings of antennal olfactory receptor neurons revealed that the sensory tracts divide the antennal lobe into six clusters of glomeruli (T1-T6). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The results of both behavioral and neuroanatomical studies in Atta vollenweideri suggest that developmental plasticity of antennal-lobe phenotypes promotes differences in olfactory-guided behavior which may underlie task specialization within ant colonies. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The last part of my project focuses on the evolutionary origin of the macroglomerulus and the number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • I compared the number, volumes and position of the glomeruli of the antennal lobe of 25 different species from all three major Attini groups (lower, higher and leaf-cutting Attini). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The antennal lobes of all investigated Attini comprise a high number of glomeruli (257-630). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Much like in vertebrates, axons from the sensory neurons converge into glomeruli in the antennal lobe . (gutenberg.org)
  • In a cooperation project, anatomical expertise on the antennal lobe system was applied by identification and classification of intracellulary recorded projection neurons, combined wtih a 4D representation of the data obtained. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Loss of sema1a function in larvae results in defective olfactory receptor neuron targeting, as well as projection neuron defects coincident with a collapse in the shape and structure of the antennal lobe and individual glomeruli [ 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first brain structure to process olfactory information in insects is the antennal lobe (AL), which is composed of its functional and morphological units, the olfactory glomeruli. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • We used unilateral antennal backfills of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) with neural tracers, revealing the AL structure. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • When bees smell, the odorants bind to smell receptors on one end of olfactory neurons, which carry the signal to areas of the brain called antennal lobes. (chemistryworld.com)
  • The antennal lobes contain clusters of neuron endings called glomeruli, and each odour elicits a distinct fingerprint pattern of activation across all the glomeruli. (chemistryworld.com)
  • In the antennal lobes (a region analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb) ORNs make synaptic contacts with second-order neurons, the projection neurons (PNs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We discovered that a given odorant elicits a distinct spatial pattern of activity in the antennal lobe, demonstrating a functional map of olfactory activity in the antennal lobe. (searlescholars.net)
  • By expressing G-CaMP in all neurons, we identified the V glomerulus as the only region in the antennal lobe that shows response to CO 2 , which elicits innate avoidance behavior in the T-maze paradigm. (searlescholars.net)
  • Three classes of neurons form synapses in the antennal lobe of Drosophila, the insect counterpart of the vertebrate olfactory bulb: olfactory receptor neurons, projection neurons, and inhibitory local interneurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose) and also retronasally (exhalation), enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs) can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odor concentration increased. (frontiersin.org)
  • Olfaction occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a new study, researchers have found that a functional relationship exists between molecular volume of odorants and the olfactory neural response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules of odorants passing through the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus that lines the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The glomeruli layer represents a spatial odor map organized by chemical structure of odorants like functional group and carbon chain length. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. (nature.com)
  • A second hypothesis is that the olfactory bulb network acts as a dynamical system that decorrelates to differentiate between representations of highly similar odorants over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odorants must dissolve in the aqueous perilymph to reach their cognate membrane-associated odorant receptors. (genetics.org)
  • Olfactory neurons respond to various odorants according to which olfactory receptors, of many, they express. (sciencemag.org)
  • Volatile odorants are sensed by two bilaterally symmetric olfactory sensory appendages, the third segment of the antenna and the maxillary palps, which respectively contain approximately 1200 and 120 olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) each. (springer.com)
  • The signal then goes forth to the olfactory cortex where it will be recognized and compared with known odorants (i.e. olfactory memory) involving also an emotional response to the olfactory stimuli. (wikibooks.org)
  • The olfactory system is capable of detecting odorants at very low concentrations. (mit.edu)
  • However, the contemporary model for olfactory signal transduction provides that odorants bind to olfactory receptors with relatively low specificity and consequently low affinity, making this detection of low-concentration odorants theoretically difficult to understand. (mit.edu)
  • The receptors that detect odorants, pheromones, and many tastants including bitter and sweet chemicals are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which typically have seven transmembrane domains. (duke.edu)
  • How do tens of thousands of different chemicals (tastants, odorants, or pheromones) interact with more than one thousand chemosensory receptors (about 1000 odorant receptors, 40 taste receptors and 200 vomeronasal receptors in the case of mice or rats)? (duke.edu)
  • Odorants are detected by about 1000 different types of odorant receptors that are encoded by a multigene family. (duke.edu)
  • Supporting this idea about the synthetic capacity of the olfactory cortex, Buck and Zhihua Zou have shown that binary odorant mixtures stimulate cortical neurons that were not activated by the initial individual odorants, therefore creating a new odour image in the brain ( Zou & Buck, 2006 ). (embopress.org)
  • Interestingly, across diverse phyla, olfactory systems are remarkably similar, suggesting there may be one best way to process information about odorants. (nih.gov)
  • We and others have shown that the firing patterns of these neurons contain information about the identity, concentration, and timing of odorants. (nih.gov)
  • This contrasts with the standard view in which different smells are determined by the shape of the odorants, which sit within the binding sites of receptors like a lock and key. (chemistryworld.com)
  • Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via retronasal olfaction. (medscape.com)
  • Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. (medscape.com)
  • Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor-Driven Behavioral Kinetics. (nih.gov)
  • To address this question, we delivered to Drosophila melanogaster flies pulses of high odor intensity that induce sustained peripheral responses in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). (nih.gov)
  • Altogether, our results indicate that for long odor applications in Drosophila , the olfactory response depends on intracellular Ca 2+ stores within the axon terminals of the ORNs. (biologists.org)
  • He provided a detailed account of the anatomy and development of the olfactory system, in particular across metamorphosis, for which he received the Théodore-Ott-Prize of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences in 2007, and pioneered the use of larval Drosophila for the brain and behavioural sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as one of the best characterized olfactory systems, which in addition to a family of odorant receptors, contains an approximately equal number of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), encoded by a multigene family of 51 genes. (genetics.org)
  • Drosophila provides an excellent model system for studies of olfaction due to its well-established genetics and the relative simplicity of its olfactory system. (genetics.org)
  • The olfactory system of Drosophila , although similar in structural and functional organization compared to mammals, does not seem to involve odorant receptors in the selection of OR gene expression and target cell recognition, suggesting distinct developmental control mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Drosophila as a focus in olfactory research: mapping of olfactory sensilla by fine structure, odor specificity, odorant receptor expression and central connectivity. (springer.com)
  • A novel family of divergent seven-transmembrane proteins: candidate odorant receptors in Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • Vosshall LB, Amrein H, Morozov PS, Rzhetsky A, Axel R. A spatial map of olfactory receptor expression in the Drosophila antenna. (springer.com)
  • Recent advances in genomics and molecular neurobiology have provided an unprecedented level of detail into how the adult Drosophila olfactory system is organized. (springer.com)
  • This chapter will review the molecular biology, neuroanatomy and function of the peripheral olfactory system of Drosophila . (springer.com)
  • A gene affecting the specificity of the chemosensory neurons of Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • Olfactory microcircuits and brain dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster . (mpg.de)
  • To investigate how structural variation among synaptic connections might affect neural computation, we examined primary afferent connections in the Drosophila olfactory system. (elifesciences.org)
  • Her work focuses on the fruit fly Drosophila , with a special emphasis on the olfactory and mechanosensory processing systems. (hhmi.org)
  • One of the most experimentally tractable sensory systems in the Drosophila brain is the olfactory system, and thus much of our research has focused on this system. (hhmi.org)
  • The fruit fly Drosophila is repelled by CO 2 and has its sensing neurons on its antennae. (sciencemag.org)
  • found that mutating a microRNA in the Drosophila genome produces a new class of CO 2 -sensing neurons on the maxillary palps. (sciencemag.org)
  • Loss of a microRNA in Drosophila leads to misexpression of CO 2 -sensing neurons in the maxillary palps, an arrangement that is a hybrid between that of the fruit fly and the mosquito. (sciencemag.org)
  • The underlying olfactory anatomy that supports chemotaxis behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster relies on a 'labeled line' strategy that provides a reliable mechanism for responding to a wide number of attractive and aversive olfactory cues ( Semmelhack and Wang, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • Focusing on examples from the mouse retina and Drosophila olfactory system, I present worked examples illustrating how formalization of cell ontologies can enhance querying of data-driven cell-classifications and how ontologies can be extended by integrating the outputs of data-driven cell classifications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While these receptors are mostextensively studied for their roles in chemosensory detection in insects, recent work has implicated two family members, IR21a and IR25a, in thermosensation in Drosophila. (harvard.edu)
  • Topics ranged from the mechanics of cell-shape change during Drosophila embryonic development to ideas for understanding the representation of smells by networks of neurons in mammals. (simonsfoundation.org)
  • Recently, in Drosophila , we reported that odor-induced Ca 2+ -response in axon terminals of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is related to odor duration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An array of powerful genetic tools is available in Drosophila to label and manipulate a subpopulation of neurons within a circuit, making it an attractive model system to study the mechanism of olfaction. (searlescholars.net)
  • We examined this question in rat olfactory bulb slices in recordings from output mitral cells. (nih.gov)
  • Electrical stimulation of incoming afferents elicited slow ( approximately 2 Hz) oscillations that originated in glomeruli and were highly synchronized for mitral cells projecting to the same glomerulus. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that these oscillations maintain the fidelity of the spatial map by ensuring that all mitral cells within a glomerulus-specific network respond to odor as a functional unit. (nih.gov)
  • It does not contain many cell bodies , rather mostly dendrites of mitral cells and GABAergic granule cells [3] are also permeated by dendrites from neurons called mitral cells , which in turn output to the olfactory cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous interneuron types exist in the olfactory bulb including periglomerular cells which synapse within and between glomeruli, and granule cells which synapse with mitral cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells receive excitatory input from olfactory sensory neurons and external tufted cells on their primary dendrites, whereas inhibitory input arises either from granule cells onto their lateral dendrites and soma or from periglomerular cells onto their dendritic tuft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells together with tufted cells form an obligatory relay for all olfactory information entering from the olfactory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, each mitral cell sends a single primary dendrite into a glomerulus receiving input from a population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing identical olfactory receptor proteins, yet the odor responsiveness of the 20-40 mitral cells connected to a single glomerulus (called sister mitral cells) is not identical to the tuning curve of the input cells, and also differs between sister mitral cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • One prominent hypothesis is that mitral cells encode the strength of an olfactory input into their firing phases relative to the sniff cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells are a neuronal cell type in the mammalian olfactory bulb, distinguished by the position of their somata located in an orderly row in the mitral cell layer of the bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells are closely related to the second type of projection neuron in the mammalian bulb, known as the tufted cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The morphology of mitral cells was an advantage in early studies of synaptic processing, because the soma and the primary dendrite could be independently stimulated by appropriate positioning of stimulating electrodes in different layers of the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells are a key part of the olfactory bulb microcircuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells receive input from at least four cell types: olfactory sensory neurons, periglomerular neurons, external tufted cells and granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that tufted cells receive strong olfactory nerve input, fire close to inhalation onset and their firing phase is relatively concentration insensitive, whereas mitral cells receive relatively weak olfactory nerve input and strong periglomerular inhibition, which delays their firing relative to the tufted cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the olfactory bulb, gap junctions between apical dendrites of mitral cells increase excitability and synchronize firing within each glomerulus. (pnas.org)
  • In the olfactory bulb, each glomerulus comprises a functional microcircuit, in which mitral cells that project their apical dendrites to the same glomerulus are electrically coupled ( 19 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Excitability within the glomerulus is influenced by glutamate release from mitral cells that leads to autoexcitation ( 22 - 26 ) and lateral excitation ( 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • Summated chemical and electrical transmission between mitral cells is important for amplification of odorant inputs from olfactory receptor neurons and correlated output to olfactory cortex ( 27 , 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • Fig. 1 A ), consistent with electrical coupling between mitral cells that project their apical dendrite to the same glomerulus ( 19 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • The EC 10-90 intensity tuning ranges (ITRs) of whole olfactory glomeruli and postsynaptic mitral cells are considerably broader than the commensurate ITRs of individual OSNs. (mit.edu)
  • We have constructed a model of the early olfactory system which is capable of a fuzzy signaling of concentration, through glomerular competition resulting in inhibition of most mitral cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our model consists of three separate subsystems: an olfactory receptor neuron array, a glomerulus module with inhibitory competition between mitral cells, and a bulb model with mitral and granule cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The competitive glomerular dynamic (see Figs. 1 and 2 ) is at present modeled separately in MATLAB, and input is given to the NEURON model as a voltage clamp of the mitral cells glomerular compartments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that it is possible to achieve a fuzzy interval code for concentration in a glomerulus, with only a few mitral cells active (Fig. 3 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our experimental approach employs an olfactory bulb brain slice preparation using whole-cell patch-clamp recording from mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb. (mdpi.com)
  • Mitral cells are the principal output neurons of the main olfactory bulb, receiving olfactory receptor neuron input at their dendrites within glomeruli, and projecting glutamatergic axons through the lateral olfactory tract to the olfactory cortex. (mdpi.com)
  • The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose dendrites the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The glomeruli each have about 15,000 axons feeding into them, and each, in turn, signals via primary dendrites to mitral cells. (photonics.com)
  • One glomerulus may be connected to as many as 30 mitral cells, all of which are also located in the olfactory bulb. (photonics.com)
  • By directly activating glomeruli in the olfactory bulb with tiny beams of light, the team was able to identify mitral cells with great specificity. (photonics.com)
  • The scientists were also able to identify and monitor activity of "nonsister" mitral cells, ones whose firing activity is fundamentally dissimilar because of the comparatively wide contrast in the odors that their glomeruli report. (photonics.com)
  • Only mitral cells connected to the glomerulus take up the tracer with subsequent uptake by cortical neurons. (openwetware.org)
  • External tufted (ET) cells are the major excitatory elements coordinating the activities of glomerulars and mediating the input from the olfactory neurons to mitral cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we investigate whether a neuronal trace of temperature stimulation can be observed in the glomeruli and mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, using calcium imaging and fast line-scanning microscopy. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • We observed that thermo-induced activity in the γ-glomerulus is conveyed to the mitral cells innervating this specific neuropil. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • In the glomerulus, the receptor nerve endings excite mitral cells that forward the signal to higher regions of the brain. (embopress.org)
  • Mitral cells population activity was heterogeneous and only mildly correlated with the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) inputs, supporting the view that discrete input maps undergo significant transformations at the output level of the OB. (nih.gov)
  • Najac D., De Saint Jan D. , Reguero L., Grandes P., Charpak S. (2011) Monosynaptic and polysynaptic feed-forward inputs to mitral cells from olfactory sensory neurons. (eni-net.org)
  • We use optical electrophysiology to directly measure electrical responses in presynaptic terminals and demonstrate that sustained peripheral responses are temporally sharpened by the combined activity of two types of inhibitory GABA receptors to generate contrast-enhanced voltage responses in central OSN axon terminals. (nih.gov)
  • The axon terminals of the ORNs make synaptic contact with dendrites of a few uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs), which propagate olfactory information to higher brain centers, such as the mushroom bodies. (biologists.org)
  • Using MARCM (see below) to label individual fly PNs, we found that PN axon terminals exhibit striking stereotypy at the lateral horn according to the glomeruli they send dendrites to. (stanford.edu)
  • By contrast, PN axon terminal arborizations in the mushroom body, the olfactory learning and memory center, exhibit much less stereotypy. (stanford.edu)
  • Despite the identification of cell surface receptors regulating axon guidance, how ORN axons sort to form 50 stereotypical glomeruli remains unclear. (duke.edu)
  • During development, olfactory receptors instruct axon sorting to form discrete glomeruli. (sciencemag.org)
  • Olfactory receptors generate a combinatorial code of axon-sorting molecules whose expression is regulated by neural activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, it remains unclear how neural activity induces olfactory receptor - specific expression patterns of axon-sorting molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Axon guidance of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by odorant receptors and the beta2 adrenergic receptor. (springer.com)
  • A neuronal identity code for the odorant receptor-specific and activity-dependent axon sorting. (springer.com)
  • At the other end of the neuron, a single, unbranched axon projects to the olfactory bulb, a specialization of the forebrain that serves as the first relay station in this neural pathway. (rupress.org)
  • RID bears the anatomic hallmarks of a specialized endocrine neuron: it harbors near-exclusive dense core vesicles that cluster periodically along the axon, and expresses multiple neuropeptides, including the FMRF-amide-related FLP-14. (harvard.edu)
  • [3] In vertebrates , ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the inferior space of the nasal cavity and an axon that passes through the cribiform plate then travels along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb . (gutenberg.org)
  • This method has been used in studying projection neuron axon pathways. (openwetware.org)
  • Semaphorins are known to play an important role in axon guidance of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons to their targets in specific glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, olfactory axon projections provide an excellent model to study molecular mechanisms for the formation and maintenance of functional neuronal connections. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This phenomenon prevented using traditional gene knockout strategy to investigate the role of OR in olfactory axon guidance. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This experiment yielded the unexpected result that axons of M12-expressing P2 neurons converged onto glomeruli distinct from either the wild-type P2 or M12 glomeruli, but close to the normal P2 glomeruli, suggesting that odorant receptors play an instructive role but cannot be the sole determinant in the axon guidance mechanism. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chooses to express only one OR and converges its axon according to its OR identity to a stereotypic glomerulus. (elsevier.com)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This study aims to understand the regulatory mechanism that controls the identity of olfactory sensory neurons in their odorant receptor choice and their expression of adhesion molecules for axon targeting. (elsevier.com)
  • Juxtaglomerular cells include different types of neurons like inhibitory periglomerular cells, excitatory external tufted cells and mixed dopaminergic-GABAergic short axon cells. (eni-net.org)
  • Each receptor cell has an axon extending from its basal surface. (kenhub.com)
  • Here, we used a genetic approach to investigate the function of BACE1 in axon guidance of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), a well-studied model of axon targeting in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In wild-type mice, BACE1 was present in OSN axon terminals in OB glomeruli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BACE1 -/- mice exhibited M72 OSN axons that were mis-targeted to ectopic glomeruli, indicating impaired axon guidance in BACE1 -/- mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that BACE1 is required for the accurate targeting of OSN axons and the proper formation of glomeruli in the OB, suggesting a role for BACE1 in axon guidance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurogenesis and the regeneration of neurons and axons occur in other adult populations of peripheral and central neurons that also require axon guidance throughout life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are numerous different odorant molecules in nature but only a relatively small number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in brains. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we investigate possible optimal olfactory coding strategies by maximizing mutual information between odor mixtures and ORNs' responses with respect to the bipartite odor-receptor interaction network (ORIN) characterized by sensitivities between all odorant-ORN pairs. (pnas.org)
  • For ORNs with a finite basal activity, we find that having inhibitory odor-receptor interactions increases the coding capacity and the fraction of inhibitory interactions increases with the ORN basal activity. (pnas.org)
  • In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to several odors. (biologists.org)
  • However, in invertebrates, especially in sensory neurons such as ORNs, similar mechanisms have not yet been detected. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that disrupting the intracellular Ca 2+ stores in the ORNs has functional consequences since Ins P 3 R- or RyR-RNAi expressing flies were defective in olfactory behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor project their axons to the same glomerulus. (stanford.edu)
  • Subsequently, mature ORN proteins including those essential for transducing odorant signals are induced as immature ORNs differentiate into functional neurons. (biologists.org)
  • [3] In vertebrates , ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perturbations of DIP/dpr gene function result in local projection defects of ORN axons and glomerular positioning, without altering correct matching of ORNs with their target neurons. (duke.edu)
  • We used large-scale serial section electron microscopy to reconstruct all the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons that target a left-right pair of glomeruli, as well as all the projection neurons (PNs) postsynaptic to these ORNs. (elifesciences.org)
  • It receives input from a well-characterized population of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), and its anatomy is highly organized: all the ORNs that express the same odorant receptor gene project their axons to the same compartment (or glomerulus). (hhmi.org)
  • ORNs make excitatory synapses with second-order neurons called projection neurons (PNs). (hhmi.org)
  • First, each glomerulus pools independent signals from ~40 ORNs, each of which represents an independent snapshot of a particular region of olfactory space. (hhmi.org)
  • Application of GABAergic receptor antagonists, both GABA A or GABA B , abolishes the adaptation, while RNAi targeting the GABAB R (a metabotropic receptor) within the ORNs, blocks the Ca 2+ -store dependent component, and consequently disrupts the adaptation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, at the behavioral level, using an olfactory test, genetically impairing the GABA B R or its signaling pathway specifically in the ORNs disrupts olfactory adapted behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vertebrate ORNs, like other types of sensory neurons, adapt to a given stimulus, by time-dependent modification in sensitivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example in vertebrates, presynaptic Ca 2+ stores relying on either the ryanodine receptor (RyR) or the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) have been reported to participate in synaptic transmission, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and in basket cell-Purkinje cell synapses. (biologists.org)
  • They receive information from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, forming synapses in neuropils called glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synapses made by external tufted cells and olfactory sensory neurons are excitatory, whereas those of granule cells and periglomerular neurons are inhibitory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the adult rodent brain, connexin (Cx)36 is responsible for the majority of electrical synapses between neurons ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Axons of OSNs that express the same OR coalesce into the same structures in the olfactory bulb, termed glomeruli, where they form synapses with second-order neurons in the olfactory pathway. (mpg.de)
  • The brain is generally studied either at the level of individual neurons and synapses or at the level of neural systems. (hhmi.org)
  • Once the axons reach the olfactory bulb, they make synapses with the dendrites of projection neurons, within discrete structures known as glomeruli. (rupress.org)
  • Cells with the same sensitivity report their signals to a single specialized spherical unit - literally a ball of synapses - in the mouse's olfactory bulb. (photonics.com)
  • Intraoperative diagnostic cystoscopy should be traced to the two stimulation points should cluster in a particular angle show up as a nonselective competitive blocker of angiotensin are mediated by olfactory receptor neurons that restrain other neurons via synapses (1), typical neurons being involved in the vascular supply, which crosses the blood concentration of some external support, kneeling with support, half kneeling, etc. (yogachicago.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to map retronasal odor intensity coding at the inputs of the first synaptic relay, the glomeruli, in the dorsal OB of the rat, a model of flavor neuroscience. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study suggests that reactive astrocytes may be involved in axonal regeneration and synaptic remodeling in the olfactory system, through the recapitulation of developmentally regulated proteins, such as nestin and HSP27. (elsevier.com)
  • Glomeruli, the initial sites of synaptic processing in the olfactory system, contain at least three types of neurons collectively referred to as juxtaglomerular (JG) neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The glomeruli are the initial site of synaptic integration in the olfactory pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • The glomeruli layer of the olfactory bulb is the first level of synaptic processing . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] The next level of synaptic processing in the olfactory bulb occurs in the external plexiform layer, between the glomerular layer and the mitral cell layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it has been reported in invertebrates that almost all sensory systems (including olfactory) adapt to stimuli variations and display synaptic plasticity, similarly to mammals, the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and more particularly, the involvement of the internal Ca 2+ stores remain relatively unexplored. (biologists.org)
  • Learning leads to the modification of neuronal excitability and synaptic strength between neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3 + ) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse OB as well as several of their synaptic targets. (nature.com)
  • At this level, OSNs establish synaptic contacts with the apical dendrites of OB output neurons and with different populations of juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. (nature.com)
  • Coding and synaptic processing of sensory information in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory glomeruli serve as functional units in coding olfactory information and contain a complex network of synaptic connections. (nih.gov)
  • We are also investigating how the glomerular map in the mouse olfactory bulb is represented in olfactory cortex using virus-mediated trans-synaptic tracing. (stanford.edu)
  • In Hebbian plasticity, the correlated activity of pre- and postsynaptic neurons strengthens synaptic connections, whereas uncorrelated activity or lack of activity weakens them. (sciencemag.org)
  • Axons of olfactory sensory neurons can converge to form glomerular-like structures even in mutant mice lacking synaptic partners, suggesting another activity-dependent mechanism for glomerular segregation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, the odorant receptors are also involved in a number of developmental decisions, including the regulation of their own expression and the patterning of the olfactory sensory neurons' synaptic connections in the brain. (rupress.org)
  • The molecular differentiation and integration of these adult generated neurons into synaptic circuits is an ongoing interest in the lab. (yale.edu)
  • In parallel studies we are examining the molecular and synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb glomeruli. (yale.edu)
  • In addition, working with colleagues, we are using a GFP tag to test hypotheses regarding the specificity of synaptic organization within glomeruli. (yale.edu)
  • Second, using antibodies synaptic vesicle related proteins and confocal microscopy we have begun to describe a hitherto unrecognized segregation of local and projection synaptic circuits in the glomeruli. (yale.edu)
  • When the drug is withdrawn, there are temporary deficiencies of synaptic serotonin and norepinephrine, as well as a hypoactive state of receptors that can persist for weeks. (microship.com)
  • I am interested in describing synaptic circuits in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station for odor processing in the brain. (eni-net.org)
  • My earlier work focused on intraglomerular excitatory interactions that amplify the complex and unique long-lasting synaptic response of mitral and tufted cells to an olfactory nerve input. (eni-net.org)
  • We have targeted a genetically encoded optical reporter of synaptic transmission to each of these classes of neurons and visualized population responses to natural odors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The activation of an odor-specific ensemble of olfactory receptor neurons leads to the activation of a symmetric ensemble of projection neurons across the glomerular synaptic relay. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In mammals, olfactory nerve (ON) axons arising from olfactory receptor neurons expressing the same odorant receptor converge onto one or few glomeruli in each main olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • The axons of OSNs expressing the same odorant receptors converge onto the same glomerulus at the olfactory bulb, allowing for the organization of olfactory information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb . (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, axons from olfactory neurons that express the same olfactory receptor converge to share the same glomeruli. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the mouse olfactory system, axons from various olfactory sensory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor converge onto a few spatially invariant glomeruli, generating the olfactory glomerular map in the olfactory bulbs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Axons of neurons expressing the same receptor all converge in a few glomeruli in the olfactory bulb of the brain. (duke.edu)
  • Second, in Sema3A −/− mice, many P2 axons are abnormally distributed throughout the ventral OB nerve layer and converge in atypical locations compared with littermate controls where P2 axons converge on stereotypically located lateral and medial glomeruli. (wiley.com)
  • Receptor cells of the same type are randomly distributed in the nasal mucosa but converge on the same glomerulus. (embopress.org)
  • developed a genetic approach to visualize axons from olfactory sensory neurons expressing a particular receptor axons converge on only two topographically fixed glomeruli of the OB. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In the mammalian olfactory system, sensory inputs converge in the olfactory bulb in spatially segregated anatomical structure called glomeruli. (eni-net.org)
  • Each receptor neuron expresses just one receptor gene and neurons expressing the same receptor gene converge with high accuracy onto a single glomerulus in the olfactory bulb, establishing the notion that the olfactory system employs spatial segregation of sensory input to encode the quality of odors. (searlescholars.net)
  • Inhibition of neural transmission in receptor neurons that converge onto the V glomerulus, using a temperature-sensitive mutant Shibire gene ( Sh ts1 ), blocks the avoidance response to CO 2 , suggesting that the functional map is required for behavioral output. (searlescholars.net)
  • They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our understanding of mammalian olfactory coding has been impeded by the paucity of information about the odorant receptors (ORs) that respond to a given odorant ligand in awake, freely behaving animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mammalian Olf1/EBF (O/E) family of repeated helix-loop-helix (rHLH) transcription factors has been implicated in olfactory system gene regulation, nervous system development and B-cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • The sensory neurons of the mammalian olfactory system are remarkable in their ability to undergo continuous replacement throughout the lifespan of the animal ( Mackay-Sim and Kittel, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
  • The mammalian olfactory system displays species-specific adaptations to different ecological niches. (sciencemag.org)
  • To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) subtypes across mammalian evolution, we applied RNA sequencing of whole olfactory mucosa samples from mouse, rat, dog, marmoset, macaque, and human. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1998) Functional expression of a mammalian odorant receptor. (els.net)
  • Mori K and Yoshihara Y (1995) Molecular recognition and olfactory processing in the mammalian olfactory system. (els.net)
  • Clowney EJ, Magklara A, Colquitt BM, Pathak N, Lane RP, Lomvardas S. (2011) High-throughput mapping of the promoters of the mouse olfactory receptor genes reveals a new type of mammalian promoter and provides insight into olfactory receptor gene regulation. (forth.gr)
  • As a neural circuit , the glomerular layer receives direct input from afferent nerves , made up of the axons from approximately ten million olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa , a region of the nasal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory sensitivity is directly proportional to the area in the nasal cavity near the septum reserved to the olfactory mucous membrane, which is the region where the olfactory receptor cells are located. (wikibooks.org)
  • a) Sagittal section of human head showing nasal cavity and olfactory mucosa lining the turbinates. (els.net)
  • Each olfactory bulb integrates and codes temperature signals originating from receptor neurons of the ipsilateral and contralateral nasal cavities. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • Most olfactory sensory neurons express odorant receptor molecules and reside within the lining of the nasal cavity that detect odors. (innovations-report.com)
  • Conversely, all the cells in the lining of the nasal cavity that were activated by carbon dioxide are the GC-expressing neurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • Odorant molecules in the environment are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) located in the nasal cavity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron has a single dendrite terminating in olfactory cilia, where odorant receptors (OR) and the signaling cascade are located, that extend into the lumen of the nasal cavity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The olfactory neuroepithelium is located at the upper area of each nasal chamber adjacent to the cribriform plate, superior nasal septum, and superior-lateral nasal wall. (medscape.com)
  • To stimulate the olfactory receptors, airborne molecules must pass through the nasal cavity with relatively turbulent air currents and contact the receptors. (medscape.com)
  • The average nasal cavity contains more than 100 million such neurons. (medscape.com)
  • CN I formed out of a collection of olfactory receptor cell axons, which pass through the cribriform plate and into the roof of the nasal cavity. (kenhub.com)
  • The basal surface of olfactory receptor cells is located directly inferior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone which makes up the bony roof of the nasal cavity. (kenhub.com)
  • Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human olfactory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key-lock system: if the airborne molecules of a certain chemical can fit into the lock, the nerve cell will respond. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. (nih.gov)
  • (A) Frontal view of the honeybee central olfactory system. (frontiersin.org)
  • This escape from inhibition can be sped up by increasing the stimulating odorant concentration, and thus mitral cell firing phase acts as one possible way the olfactory system encodes concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assembly of the fly olfactory system requires precise glomerular targeting of axons from each of the 50 ORN classes, as well as dendrites of each of the 50 PN classes. (stanford.edu)
  • Processing and integration of chemical information in the neuro-olfactory system followed by salivary actions facilitate blood meal uptake process. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, deciphering the underlying molecular mechanism of odor sensing through the detection machinery (olfactory system), odor processing and decision-making by decision machinery (brain), and regulation of saliva secretion by the action machinery (salivary gland) is likely to reveal molecular pathways which can be targeted to disrupt mosquitoes' feeding behavior. (intechopen.com)
  • An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory system throughout the animal kingdom is characterized by a large number of highly specialized neuronal cell types. (springer.com)
  • In the mouse olfactory system, odorant receptors themselves play a central role in the coordination of both types of ORN differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Feinstein P, Mombaerts P. A contextual model for axonal sorting into glomeruli in the mouse olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Komiyama T, Luo L. Development of wiring specificity in the olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Jefferis GS, Hummel T. Wiring specificity in the olfactory system. (springer.com)
  • Understanding how the adult olfactory system supports the perception of these odorous chemicals and translates them into appropriate attraction or avoidance behaviors is an important goal in contemporary sensory neuroscience. (springer.com)
  • Firestein S. How the olfactory system makes sense of scents. (springer.com)
  • Probably the oldest sensory system in the nature, the olfactory system concerns the sense of smell. (wikibooks.org)
  • The olfactory system is physiologically strongly related to the gustatory system, so that the two are often examined together. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this article we will first focus on the organs composing the olfactory system , then we will characterize them in order to understand their functionality and we will end explaining the transduction of the signal and the commercial application such as the eNose. (wikibooks.org)
  • It is also interesting to note that the human genome has about 600 - 700 genes (~2% of the complete genome) specialized in characterizing the olfactory receptors, but only 350 are still used to build the olfactory system . (wikibooks.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12689762 The vertebrate olfactory system must cope with a staggering developmental problem: how to connect millions of olfactory neurons expressing different odorant receptors to appropriate targets in the brain. (jove.com)
  • Ecologically labeled lines in the insect olfactory system. (mpg.de)
  • The olfactory system of mice entails a developmental program that wires neurons expressing similar olfactory receptors into glomeruli together. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the adult olfactory system continues to produce and incorporate new neurons, it cannot withstand severe damage (see the Perspective by Cheetham and Belluscio ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Benton studies how the olfactory system adapted to this highly specialized lifestyle. (embo.org)
  • How the olfactory system encodes odor concentration is a comparatively underexplored and largely unresolved question. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactory system detects and discriminates myriad chemical structures across a wide range of concentrations. (rupress.org)
  • To meet this task, the system utilizes a large family of G protein-coupled receptors-the odorant receptors-which are the chemical sensors underlying the perception of smell. (rupress.org)
  • This review will focus on the diverse roles of the odorant receptor in the function and development of the olfactory system. (rupress.org)
  • Anatomy of the rodent peripheral olfactory system. (rupress.org)
  • Behavioral studies have shown a rich diversity of olfactory-guided behaviors, and the olfactory system seems to be highly developed and very sensitive. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • To allow fine-tuned behavioral responses to different tasks, adaptations within the olfactory system of different sized workers are expected. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In the second part I address the question if there are more structural differences, besides the MG, in the olfactory system of different sized workers. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • CMV lesions were found in the olfactory system of children with congenital CMV infection but no study has hitherto examined the impact of congenital CMV infection on olfaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and diverse array of chemical ligands called odours. (els.net)
  • Graziadei GAM and Graziadei PPC (1979) Neurogenesis and neuron regeneration in the olfactory system of mammals. (els.net)
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y., Oct. 28, 2010 - A team co-led by neuroscientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has shed light - literally - on circuitry underlying the olfactory system in mammals, giving us a new view of how that system may pull off some of its most amazing feats. (photonics.com)
  • These systems can be based on an array of nonspecific chemical sensors with a pattern recognition engine, taking inspiration from the olfactory system. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • In the olfactory system, ~1,000 subpopulations of sensory neurons express different odor receptors. (yale.edu)
  • It may be that this segregation underlies the lateral inhibitory systems that are believed to be operative in the olfactory system. (yale.edu)
  • Olfactory dysfunction is commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be related to disorder of the central olfactory processing system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • But why a long-term perceptual effect on the olfactory system? (microship.com)
  • Our patient had no issues with her olfactory system prior to this event - on the contrary, she considered herself to have a more acute sense of smell than those around her. (microship.com)
  • However, in recent years several studies brought evidence that temperature perception also takes place in the olfactory system of rodents. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • Temperature thus appears to be a relevant physiological input to the Xenopus olfactory system. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • The knowledge about anatomy and function of the medfly olfactory system is still limited. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Compared to the vertebrate, the insect nervous system contains relatively few neurons, most of which are readily accessible for electrophysiological study. (nih.gov)
  • The Italian team, led by Albrecht Haase at the University of Trento, says that their results lend support to a controversial model of olfaction in which different neural signals are generated in the olfactory system by a mechanism that detects the vibrations of odorant molecules bound to olfactory receptor proteins. (chemistryworld.com)
  • Yu envisions the studies in the olfactory system will provide clues on how a regenerated neuron, either through a natural process in the case of the olfactory neuron, or by stem technology, find their target and make the right connection. (mindzilla.com)
  • So in this system, then although the signaling in the nose actually is not so clear-cut, because the receptor neuron is distributed. (coursera.org)
  • Most animals are endowed with an olfactory system that is essential for finding foods, avoiding predators, and locating mating partners. (searlescholars.net)
  • How is olfactory information represented and processed in the fly central nervous system? (searlescholars.net)
  • The crazy-quilt map of odor-processing neurons on the front lines of the olfactory system is described by Harvard University neuroscientists in the February issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience. (redorbit.com)
  • In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is a result of the expression of a single odorant receptor (OR) from a large receptor gene repertoire in the genome. (prolekare.cz)
  • The high regulatory demands placed on the nervous system are typified by the olfactory sensory system, in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses only one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from its genomic repertoire of one hundred to one thousand ORs [ 4 - 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A dual olfactory system is thought to be unique to tetrapods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It sends olfactory information to be further processed in the amygdala , the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the hippocampus where it plays a role in emotion, memory and learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main olfactory bulb connects to the amygdala via the piriform cortex of the primary olfactory cortex and directly projects from the main olfactory bulb to specific amygdala areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spatial map of the glomeruli layer may be used for perception of odor in the olfactory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cav1.2 channels mediate persistent chronic stress-induced behavioral deficits that are associated with prefrontal cortex activation of the p25/Cdk5-glucocorticoid receptor pathway. (abcam.com)
  • Due to phylogeny, olfactory sensory activity is transferred directly from the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex, without a thalamic relay. (wikibooks.org)
  • Their data, published in Nature Neuroscience, indicates that "there are many more information output channels leaving the olfactory bulb [en route to the cortex] than the number of information types entering it," from sensory receptors in the nose. (photonics.com)
  • Visualization of cortical neurons provides insight into olfactory cortex organization. (openwetware.org)
  • Axons coming from neurons in the olfactory bulb then link with several partly overlapping clusters of neurons in the olfactory cortex. (embopress.org)
  • This results in a sensory map that is radically different from that in the olfactory bulb because the olfactory cortex neurons might receive signals from dozens of different ORs. (embopress.org)
  • Following this scheme, neurons in the olfactory cortex might act as 'coincident detectors' that require input from more than one OR to become active. (embopress.org)
  • Neuropil has been found in the following regions: outer neocortex layer, barrel cortex , inner plexiform layer and outer plexiform layer , posterior pituitary , and glomeruli of the cerebellum . (omicsgroup.org)
  • For instance, the olfactory glomeruli function as sorts of way-stations for the information flowing from the olfactory receptor neurons to the olfactory cortex. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Third, lateral inhibitory interactions between glomeruli perform an important gain control function. (hhmi.org)
  • These glomeruli contain and share excitatory and inhibitory local interneurons and mainly excitatory principal neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Virtually all excited glomeruli receive inhibitory input from local interneurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Odor elicits a well-organized pattern of glomerular activation in the olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • Within a glomerulus, ON axons synapse with the apical dendrites of mitral-tufted cells and with an extensive population of neurons intrinsic to the glomerular layer, the juxtaglomerular (JG) neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Odorant response properties of individual neurons in an olfactory glomerular module. (wikipedia.org)
  • They typically have a single primary dendrite, which they project into a single glomerulus in the glomerular layer, and a few lateral dendrites that project laterally in the external plexiform layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Input from olfactory receptor neurons is first organized and processed in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • In this region there are between 1000 and 2000 glomerular cells which combine and interpret the potentials coming from different receptors. (wikibooks.org)
  • Three possible ways in which ORN axons could be wired to their glomerular targets in the olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • The ET cells participate in inter-and intra-glomerular microcircuits in the olfactory bulb , link the isofunctional odor columns within the same olfactory bulb , and play an important role in olfactory information processing . (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of the putative role that odorant receptor molecules such as P2 could play in establishing appropriate glomerular destinations for growing olfactory axons, we have also determined the spatial organization of P2 glomeruli in semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) mutant mice. (wiley.com)
  • Glomerular interneurons were also highly correlated with the ORN inputs, but showed higher activation thresholds suggesting that these neurons are driven by strongly activated glomeruli. (nih.gov)
  • This thesis deals with machine learning techniques for the extraction of structure and the analysis of the vertebrate olfactory pathway based on related methods. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we report an in vivo assay that is based on a novel gene-targeted mouse strain, S100a5-tauGFP, in which a fluorescent reporter selectively marks olfactory sensory neurons that have been activated recently in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • Because each olfactory sensory neuron expresses a single OR gene, multiple ORs responding to a given odorant ligand can be identified simultaneously by capturing the population of activated olfactory sensory neurons and using expression profiling methods to screen the repertoire of mouse OR genes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Homeodomain binding motifs modulate the probability of odorant receptor gene choice in transgenic mice. (jax.org)
  • Allelic inactivation regulates olfactory receptor gene expression. (springer.com)
  • We, as well as other groups, have found families of candidate pheromone receptors by comparing gene expression between single VNO neurons. (duke.edu)
  • In the mouse, the sense of smell (olfaction) is mediated by more than 1200 odorant receptors (ORs), the largest gene family in the genome. (mpg.de)
  • We find that OSN subtypes, representative of all known mouse chemosensory receptor gene families, are present in all analyzed species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most olfactory receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and form large gene families. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The first step of the investigation involved using genetic engineering to generate a line of mice whose sensory neurons expressed a gene borrowed from a kind of algae that makes them fire when beams of light are focused upon them. (photonics.com)
  • 1996), which used IRES to enable the translation of the P2 receptor (an olfactory receptor gene which is expressed in a restricted subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons) and the tau-lacZ fusion protein (the protein tau functions in microtubule binding, while lacZ is a common reporter gene) from one mRNA. (openwetware.org)
  • The coding region of an odorant receptor gene P2 was replaced by that of another receptor gene M12. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Later on, she joined, for her post-doctoral training, the Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression at the National Institutes of Health (NCI/NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, where she worked on mechanisms of action of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer (supervisor Dr. C.L. Smith). (forth.gr)
  • And also Richard Axel and Linda Buck in 1991, they cloned the receptor gene. (coursera.org)
  • That receptor gene is really a olfactory function gene. (coursera.org)
  • FOREIGN] receptor gene. (coursera.org)
  • FOREIGN] But unfortunately this receptor gene is very difficult to be expressed in the X casual sale. (coursera.org)
  • FOREIGN] That's a receptor gene. (coursera.org)
  • FOREIGN] These experiments only tell you those receptor gene indeed can bind to the chemical, can signal in the chemical, okay? (coursera.org)
  • But you still don't know the receptor gene, right? (coursera.org)
  • Neurons, for example, are remarkably robust: their function can be maintained for one hundred years, implying that gene function is also maintained during this time. (prolekare.cz)
  • [7] As the Epicurean and atomistic Roman philosopher Lucretius (1st century BCE) speculated, different odors are attributed to different shapes and sizes of "atoms" (odor molecules in the modern understanding) that stimulate the olfactory organ [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • This spatial map is divided into zones and clusters, which represent similar glomeruli and therefore similar odors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (springer.com)
  • Manduca sexta senses repellent odors in feces from larvae via the dedicated Ionotropic receptor IR8a. (mpg.de)
  • Through the actions of interglomerular circuitry, principal neurons respond to odors with complex patterns of action potentials. (nih.gov)
  • Further, spikes from many principal neurons tend to fire together in oscillatory synchrony that is required for precise discrimination of odors. (nih.gov)
  • Inexplicably, this seemingly random arrangement is faithfully preserved across individuals and even species, with cells that process the same scent located in precisely the same location on the olfactory bulb, the brain's first processing station for odors. (redorbit.com)
  • Meister and Murthy then analyzed whether nearby glomeruli detect similar odors, such as those with similar chemical structures. (redorbit.com)
  • Each glomerulus therefore represents the odorant specificity of the receptor expressed by the uniform population of olfactory receptor neurons that innervate it. (jneurosci.org)
  • [8] Of the genes that code for odor receptors, only a portion are functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have far fewer active odor receptor genes than other primates and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies were instrumental to map the wiring of olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptor genes to these glomeruli and to understand the functional significance of this wiring for the combinatorial coding of odours. (wikipedia.org)
  • We analyzed the sequences of 13 Obp genes in two chromosomal clusters in a population of wild-derived inbred lines, and asked whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with variation in olfactory responsiveness. (genetics.org)
  • In vertebrates, odorant induced signal is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, which are encoded by a family of ~1000 odorant receptor (OR) genes in mouse. (creativebiomart.net)
  • There, she studied mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of the olfactory receptor genes in mice. (forth.gr)
  • The 1,000 olfactory receptor genes. (coursera.org)
  • Several key findings made in the last decade or so have shaped our understanding of the olfactory sense, particularly the discovery of a large family of some 1,000 different olfactory receptor genes in the mouse genome. (searlescholars.net)
  • High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) express odorant receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These OSNs express a divergent family of seven transmembrane domain odorant receptors (ORs) with no homology to vertebrate ORs, which determine the odor specificity of a given OSN. (springer.com)
  • These data are difficult to reconcile with certain contemporary hypotheses that convergent OSNs in mammals exhibit a homogeneous population of olfactory receptors and identical tuning for odor stimuli. (mit.edu)
  • We show that heterogeneity in spare receptor capacities within a convergent OSN population can increase the ITR (EC 10-90 ) of a convergent population of OSNs regardless of the presence or absence of a diversity of receptor expression within the population. (mit.edu)
  • We present a model illustrating that these processes can underlie both how OSNs come to exhibit high sensitivity to odorant stimuli without necessitating increased ligand-receptor binding affinities or specificities and how a population of convergent OSNs could exhibit a broader concentration sensitivity than its individual constituent neurons, even given a population expressing identical odorant receptors. (mit.edu)
  • The axons of OSNs in the periphery together comprise the olfactory nerve. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we identified the cell type of amine-sensitive OSNs in the zebrafish nose, which show typical properties of ciliated neurons. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Basal cells can be identified with antibodies against keratin, differentiated immature neurons with antibodies against GAP43 and mature OSNs with antibodies against olfactory marker protein. (creativebiomart.net)
  • OSNs mature from GAP43 expressing immature neurons into OMP position mature neurons. (creativebiomart.net)
  • OSNs expressing the same ORs terminate their axons in the same loci in the olfactory bulb. (creativebiomart.net)
  • OSNs expressing the same OR project their axons to the same glomerulus in the brain and create a functional unit, the OSN class, that exists in both insects and mammals [ 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Over the years the Stocker lab at Fribourg University provided early insight into the neurogenetic and developmental bases of chemosensation and sexual behaviour as well as into the origin of chemosensory neurons and their fate across metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, unc-3 worms display specific defects in ASI chemosensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • The cells often have multiple primary dendrites innervating different glomeruli and they are sometimes called simply projection neurons, to indicate that they are the main neural element which project outside the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have developed mosaic marking systems in flies and mice and used them to study how signals are transduced from cell surface receptors to the cytoskeleton, how neuronal processes are pruned, and how neural circuits are organized and built. (stanford.edu)
  • The prevailing model for the activity-dependent development of neural circuits postulates an interaction between pre- and postsynaptic neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neural integration and analysis of olfactory stimuli may not involve topographic organization beyond the olfactory bulb, meaning that spatial or frequency axis are not needed to project the signal. (wikibooks.org)
  • Dendrites are structures that are specialized to receive and process inputs in neurons, thus their specific morphologies reflect neural connectivity and influence information flow through circuits. (biologists.org)
  • Paffhausen B, Fuchs I, Duer A, Hillmer I, Dimitriou IM, Menzel R (2020) Neural correlates of social behavior in mushroom body extrinsic neurons of the honeybee. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Zwaka H, Bartels R, Grünewald B and Menzel R (2018) Neural Organization of A3 Mushroom Body Extrinsic Neurons in the Honeybee Brain. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In neonates, this area is a dense neural sheet, but, in children and adults, the respiratory and olfactory tissues interdigitate. (medscape.com)
  • By integrating several neural techniques, including single-neuron electrophysiology, optical imaging with genetically encoded activity indicators and genetic tools to silence or activate specific neurons in the stereotypic olfactory circuit, we hope to understand the neuronal bases of olfactory behaviors and test different hypotheses of olfactory codes with unprecedented resolution. (searlescholars.net)
  • Despite the striking aromatic differences between coffee, peppermint, and pine, a new mapping of the nose's neural circuitry suggests a haphazard patchwork where the receptors for such disparate scents are as likely as not to be neighbors. (redorbit.com)
  • The weak-shape theory, known as the odotope theory , suggests that different receptors detect only small pieces of molecules, and these minimal inputs are combined to form a larger olfactory perception (similar to the way visual perception is built up of smaller, information-poor sensations, combined and refined to create a detailed overall perception) [ citation needed ] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3 + neurons firing. (nature.com)
  • The current model describes the transfer of olfactory information as a multistep excitation mechanism (that is, feedforward excitation) in which the inputs to M/T cells is augmented by ET cells. (nature.com)
  • In order to model olfactory bulb activation patterns, we can copy the single module multiple times and add interglomerular connections, so that we get a setup with a suitable number of glomeruli with different inputs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their targets and complexity influence the range of inputs that a neuron receives. (biologists.org)
  • Each natural odor stimulus typically activates multiple glomeruli, and so it has long been thought that higher olfactory neurons must integrate inputs from multiple glomeruli. (hhmi.org)
  • It maps directly onto one of several glomeruli visible in the frame - spherical structures colored green in the image - that gather and transmit raw sensory inputs coming from receptors in the nose. (photonics.com)
  • Neurons expressing the same OR link with neurons in a segregated area of the olfactory bulb, where a 'first map' of odour inputs is formed. (embopress.org)
  • Functional transformations of odor inputs in the mouse olfactory bulb. (nih.gov)
  • A substantial portion of this interglomerular inhibition acts at a presynaptic locus, and our results imply that this is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on the same nerve terminal. (nature.com)
  • Mitral cell output is not a passive reflection of their input from the olfactory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human skull showing the Cribriform Plate in green and Olfactory nerve in yellow. (wikibooks.org)
  • Vomeronasal sensory neurons project their axons via a separate tract, the vomeronasal nerve, to innervate the accessory olfactory bulb. (rupress.org)
  • Ovoid body resting on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone where the olfactory nerve terminates. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In related studies we continue to characterize a unique population of glial cells, ensheathing cells, found in the olfactory nerve. (yale.edu)
  • These GC-D expressing neurons also project their nerve endings to an unusual structure in the back of the olfactory bulb called necklace glomeruli, which resemble a string of beads. (innovations-report.com)
  • Head anatomy with olfactory nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory nerve is the first of the 12 cranial nerves and one of the few cranial nerves that carries special sensory information only. (kenhub.com)
  • In this case, the olfactory nerve is responsible for our sense of smell . (kenhub.com)
  • It is important to note that the olfactory nerve is only one component of the overall pathway and is, in fact, made up of multiple nerve fibers/rootlets coming from the receptors cells. (kenhub.com)
  • As the axons project from the cell body, they combine with other receptor cell axons, making up bundles of nerve fibers/rootlets. (kenhub.com)
  • All of these axonal bundles can collectively be thought of as the olfactory nerve (CNI) . (kenhub.com)
  • The information is transferred to the olfactory bulb glomeruli, which represent the first relay station for olfactory processing in the brain. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Axons sort into 1,000 functional subsets that are targeted with high specificity to olfactory bulb glomeruli. (yale.edu)
  • Charpak S. (2009) External tufted cells drive the output of olfactory bulb glomeruli. (eni-net.org)
  • [9] In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron expresses only one receptor type out of 1000 receptors. (duke.edu)
  • Every olfactory receptor cell expresses only one odorant receptor. (embopress.org)
  • Kansas City, MO - The human nose expresses nearly 400 odorant receptors, which allow us to distinguish a large number of scents. (mindzilla.com)
  • They have variously been considered a functional unit, an organizational unit and a crucial component of the olfactory coding circuit. (nih.gov)
  • Accordingly, each glomerulus is a functional unit for processing sensory input. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite their large number and strategic location, the functional roles of JG cells in olfactory processing are poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • We simultaneously monitored glutamate release and local blood flow in olfactory glomeruli, and found that presynaptic transmitter release and functional hyperemia are highly correlated. (harvard.edu)
  • This experimental paradigm, therefore, may help elucidate the individual roles of neurons and astrocytes in generating signals used in functional neuroimaging, as well as how they contribute to neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. (harvard.edu)
  • The determination of OR-ligand pairs should reveal how ORs generate diverse perceptions, although these studies are complicated by the extremely large size of the OR family and by the poor functional expression of these receptors in heterologous cells. (embopress.org)
  • Little is known about the functional organization of the circuits downstream of glomeruli. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons that share an expressed receptor make a functional class. (prolekare.cz)
  • Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3 + neuron photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odour-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. (nature.com)
  • However, using optogenetic circuit dissection, we show that VGLUT3 neurons have a different connectivity profile than previously described ET cells and that they differentially connect JG cells and output neurons. (nature.com)
  • Ashesh Dhawale, whom I met at a CSHL course on advanced imaging methods three years ago, and I decided to use light stimulation of the sensory neurons coupled with electrical recordings from the output neurons of the bulb to solve this problem. (photonics.com)
  • Olfactory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor project in specific glomeruli where they transmit sensory information to ~25 mitral and tufted cells, the principal output neurons of the bulb. (eni-net.org)
  • In most vertebrates, the olfactory bulb is the most rostral (forward) part of the brain, as seen in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, neurons diversified, but many cell types once thought to be specific to vertebrates are also present in annelids, indicating an early evolutionary origin. (embo.org)
  • In vertebrates and invertebrates, sensory neurons adapt to variable ambient conditions, such as the duration or repetition of a stimulus, a physiological mechanism considered as a simple form of non-associative learning and neuronal plasticity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory stimuli generate cellular responses by modifying the levels of different second messengers in both vertebrates and invertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each odor receptor molecule recognizes only a particular molecular feature or class of odor molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each sensory neuron is specialized to express a single molecular odor receptor type, from among some 1500 in a mouse's olfactory palette. (photonics.com)
  • The sensory neuron axons segregate in the olfactory bulb based on odor receptor expression, producing a highly specific molecular map. (yale.edu)
  • Across species, large numbers of odor receptor neurons with diverse sensitivities line peripheral structures. (nih.gov)
  • FOREIGN] Odor receptor I7. (coursera.org)
  • The neuroscientists found that across individuals and even across the two species, bundles of neurons from a given type of odor receptor -- known as glomeruli -- were found in almost exactly the same spot on the olfactory bulb, a sensory structure measuring some four to five millimeters across and located at the very front of the brain. (redorbit.com)
  • A modern demonstration of that theory was the cloning of olfactory receptor proteins by Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel (who were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2004), and subsequent pairing of odor molecules to specific receptor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both taste and smell receptors are chemoreceptors that are stimulated by molecules soluted respectively in mucus or saliva. (wikibooks.org)
  • Pheromone molecules may induce their effects by activating some of these receptors, which ultimately affect particular regions of the brain. (duke.edu)
  • Imamura K, Mataga N, and Mori K (1992) Coding of odor molecules by mitral/tufted cells in rabbit olfactory bulb. (els.net)
  • It is harder, however, to do the same for smell because most 'olfactory stimuli' consist of mixtures of different odor molecules. (elifesciences.org)
  • Taste molecules, like odor molecules, are complex and diverse, suggesting gustatory and olfactory systems may face similar information-processing challenges. (nih.gov)
  • The olfactory systems from flies to mammals use a similar organizational principle. (stanford.edu)
  • ET cells have extensive dendrites that ramify within a single glomerulus or, rarely, in two adjacent glomeruli. (jneurosci.org)
  • Each PN receives direct ORN input from just a single glomerulus and lateral input from other glomeruli via local interneurons. (hhmi.org)
  • They project to a single glomerulus, mdG5. (zfin.org)
  • [2] Glomeruli aggregate signals from these receptors and transmit them to the olfactory bulb , where the sensory input will start to interact with parts of the brain responsible for smell identification, memory , and emotion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Early scientific study of olfaction includes the extensive doctoral dissertation of Eleanor Gamble , published in 1898, which compared olfactory to other stimulus modalities , and implied that smell had a lower intensity discrimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory bulb transmits smell information from the nose to the brain, and is thus necessary for a proper sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • While smell receptors are distance receptors that do not have any connection to the thalamus, receptors pass up the brainstem to the thalamus and project to the postcentral gyrus along with those for touch and pressure sensibility for the mouth. (wikibooks.org)
  • The aim of the study is to see whether patients with chronic smell impairment after brain injury benefit from a treatment that consists of corticosteroids, and then olfactory training in 3. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The brain then translates this specific 'receptor code' into a distinct smell. (embopress.org)
  • The sense of smell is mediated through stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by volatile chemicals. (medscape.com)
  • However, across a lifespan, not all receptors are replaced, meaning that the sense of smell can diminish with age. (kenhub.com)
  • The cover of Neuron, courtesy of the Murthy lab: Neuronal activity is tightly coupled to local changes in blood flow. (harvard.edu)
  • Using the neuronal activity marker pERK we could show that low concentrations of cadaverine activate a specific, invariant glomerulus in the dorso-lateral cluster of glomeruli (dlG) in the olfactory bulb of zebrafish. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We demonstrate that this combination of receptors is important for neuronal responses to dry air and behavioral discrimination of humidity differences. (harvard.edu)
  • Odorant evoked neuronal activities are transmitted through OSN axons to the olfactory bulb projection neurons. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The neuronal precursor cells divide symmetrically to generate two undifferentiated immature neurons. (creativebiomart.net)
  • GABA receptor antagonists mimic removal of lateral input to a projection neuron. (nature.com)
  • The expression of stress-responsive proteins, such as nestin and a 27-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP27), was immunohistochemically examined in order to demonstrate glial responses in the rat olfactory bulb following sensory deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Olfactory signals are transduced by a large family of odorant receptor proteins, each of which corresponds to a unique glomerulus in the first olfactory relay of the brain. (nature.com)
  • other mechanisms for cellular regulation of spare receptor capacity are also highly plausible (e.g., quantitative regulation of the relative expression levels of receptor and effector proteins). (mit.edu)
  • Olfactory information is then transferred to olfactory cortices through M/T cells' axonal projections. (nature.com)
  • Imai T, Suzuki M, Sakano H. Odorant receptor-derived cAMP signals direct axonal targeting. (springer.com)
  • Manipulating the expression of an odorant receptor or the activity of the olfactory neurons altered olfactory neuron axonal pathfinding. (sciencemag.org)
  • They also analyzed whether odorant receptors are involved in axonal guidance by a receptor swap experiment. (creativebiomart.net)
  • By emplying the FLP-out technique to generate flies containing only one labeled PN, we are able to relate the axonal arbor with the glomerulus a given PN innervates. (searlescholars.net)
  • We discovered that the patterns of axonal arborization of PNs from the same glomerulus are conserved between different animals. (searlescholars.net)
  • PNs innervating the same glomerulus exhibit remarkably similar axonal patterns in the protocerebrum and PNs coming from different glomeruli display different axonal topography. (searlescholars.net)
  • Axonal arbors of different PNs exhibit overlapping distribution in the protocerebrum, suggesting that third order neurons residing in the protocerebrum may integrate olfactory information from multiple glomeruli. (searlescholars.net)
  • These results suggest that BACE1 has an important function in neurons, potentially in the axonal or terminal compartment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early stage of the olfactory pathway. (nature.com)
  • The main olfactory bulb is a key integrative center in the olfactory pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • The Olfactory Pathway - want to learn more about it? (kenhub.com)
  • It will highlight some of the unique characteristics of certain cells within the olfactory pathway, and the connection of the pathway to memory (and behavior ) related brain regions. (kenhub.com)
  • It is the relay station of the olfactory pathway and contains olfactory glomeruli. (kenhub.com)
  • Odor information is carried by excitatory projection neurons of the AL (PN). (frontiersin.org)
  • Projection neurons (PNs) send dendrites to individual glomeruli, and relay olfactory information via their axons to high olfactory centers. (stanford.edu)
  • Dendrites - processes of neurons that are primarily specialized for information input - are one of nature's remarkable architectural feats, and the diverse growth patterns shown by dendritic arbors raise important developmental questions. (biologists.org)
  • This stands to reason because sister cells, by definition, receive information via primary dendrites from the same glomerulus. (photonics.com)
  • In parallel, we study the targeting and differentiation of dendrites to understand the mechanisms that regulate their highly specific interactions with small subsets of the sensory neuron axons. (yale.edu)
  • By comparing odor responses of sensory neuron axons and dendrites of projection neurons (PNs) in the same glomerulus with the expression of G-CaMP in only one cell type, we found similar odor-evoked activity in both pre- and postsynaptic cells, which suggests that activity in PNs derives mainly from their cognate sensory neurons. (searlescholars.net)
  • Using a new method of exploring this question, CSHL scientists, in collaboration with researchers at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass., and at the National Centre for Biological Science in Bangalore, India, have assembled evidence suggesting that the olfactory bulb in mice is not merely a relay station between the nose and brain, as many have supposed. (photonics.com)
  • It is made up of the axons of mitral relay neurons. (kenhub.com)
  • The nearly 2,000 glomeruli that cover the surface of the olfactory bulb are so distinctive that they were noted specifically in the earliest of Cajal's catalogues. (nih.gov)
  • Glomeruli from different receptors line the surface of the olfactory bulb like an array of close-packed marbles," says Murthy, professor of molecular and cellular biology at Harvard. (redorbit.com)
  • We investigated the morphology, spontaneous, and sensory-evoked activity of one class of JG neurons, external tufted (ET) cells, using whole-cell patch-clamp and extracellular recordings in rat olfactory bulb slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • These olfactory sensory cilia are enriched in the odorant receptors and other signaling components that mediate the initial transduction events in the cell ( Firestein, 2001 ). (rupress.org)
  • Firestein, Stuart J(Apr 2001) Olfactory Receptor Neurons. (els.net)
  • Furthermore, we show how these GABA receptors modulate the time course of innate behavioral responses after odor pulse termination, demonstrating an important role for temporal contrast enhancement in odor-guided navigation. (nih.gov)
  • Crosstalk between glomeruli has been proposed to be important in olfactory processing, but it is not clear how these interactions shape the odour responses of second-order neurons. (nature.com)
  • Davison AP, Feng J, Brown D: Dendrodendritic Inhibition and Simulated Odor Responses in a Detailed Olfactory Bulb Network Model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we characterize one of the most deeply conserved receptors, IR93a, and show that it is co-expressed and functions with IR21a and IR25a to mediate physiological and behavioral responses to cool temperatures. (harvard.edu)
  • Author Correction: Nociceptor sensory neurons suppress neutrophil and ?d T cell responses in bacterial lung infections and lethal pneumonia. (harvard.edu)
  • 2007) Disynaptic amplification of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 responses in the olfactory bulb. (eni-net.org)
  • It had been thought that the layout of the olfactory bulb was variable from individual to individual, but followed a chemotopic order where cells handling similar odor responses are near each other," says Markus Meister, the Jeff C. Tarr Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology in Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (redorbit.com)
  • Coding of sweet, bitter and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways. (springer.com)
  • Although various signaling pathways, as cAMP, cGMP, and the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) play a role in adaptation, their precise mechanisms of action at the cellular level remain incompletely understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another example is the analogous organization of olfactory neuropils into spherical glomeruli which exhibit odor-dependent activation. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Each glomerulus thus receives innervation from sensory neurons expressing a single odorant receptor, providing the anatomical basis of the olfactory sensory map. (rupress.org)
  • The optimal coding model provides a unifying framework to understand the peripheral olfactory systems across different organisms. (pnas.org)
  • have been shown to play a role in olfactory signal transduction and adaptation. (biologists.org)
  • Efficiency of human olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation into spinal cysts to improve mobility of the hind limbs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There is great interest in understanding human olfactory experience from a principled and quantitative standpoint. (elifesciences.org)
  • One type of olfactory receptors is the trace amine-associated receptor family (TAAR). (uni-koeln.de)
  • Selective staining of single sensilla and their associated receptor neurons showed that T4-glomeruli are innervated by receptor neurons from the main type of olfactory sensilla, the Sensilla trichodea curvata which are also projecting to glomeruli in all other clusters. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The other type of olfactory sensilla, the Sensilla basiconica, exclusively innervates T6-glomeruli. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • We showed that this pooling step improves the signal-to-noise ratio of olfactory signals, although we have also shown that this pooling is far from optimal. (hhmi.org)
  • Shepherd GM (1994) Discrimination of molecular signals by the olfactory receptor neuron. (els.net)
  • But in such instances, what precisely happens in the "wiring" leading from sensory neurons in the nose to specialized cell s in the olfactory bulb that gather the signals and transmit them to the brain? (photonics.com)
  • On activation, signals from olfactory receptor cells are relayed in the glomeruli-well defined micro‐regions in the olfactory bulb. (embopress.org)
  • This "raises the possibility that single cortical neurons can integrate signals from different ORs that detect the same odorant and, thus, perform an initial step in the reconstruction of an odor image from its deconstructed features" ( Zou & Buck, 2006 ). (embopress.org)
  • Firestein S, Picco C and Menini A (1993) The relation between stimulus and response in olfactory receptor cells of the tiger salamander. (els.net)
  • Temperature has been described as an effective stimulus for sensory neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion located at the entrance of the nose. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • We are presently applying the "toolkit" we have used to study olfaction (relatively simple experimental systems, tight control over stimulus timing, simultaneous recordings from multiple neurons, point-to-point analysis of information flow, and statistical tests of information content) to study gustation. (nih.gov)