The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The amount of PLASMA that perfuses the KIDNEYS per unit time, approximately 10% greater than effective renal plasma flow (RENAL PLASMA FLOW, EFFECTIVE). It should be differentiated from the RENAL BLOOD FLOW; (RBF), which refers to the total volume of BLOOD flowing through the renal vasculature, while the renal plasma flow refers to the rate of plasma flow (RPF).
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Excision of kidney.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The amount of PLASMA flowing to the parts of the KIDNEY that function in the production of urine. It is the amount of plasma perfusing the KIDNEY TUBULES per unit time, generally measured by P-AMINOHIPPURATE clearance. It should be differentiated from RENAL PLASMA FLOW which is approximately 10% greater than the effective renal plasma flow.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.
A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)
Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
A chronic, acquired, idiopathic, progressive eruption of the skin that occurs in the context of RENAL FAILURE. It is sometimes accompanied by systemic fibrosis. The pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial, with postulated involvement of circulating fibrocytes. There is a strong association between this disorder and the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents.
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (1/6121)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Renal function tests: what do they mean? A review of renal anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology. (2/6121)

Renal physiology, biochemistry, and anatomy are reviewed. For the most part, those aspects of these disciplines will be discussed which relate directly to the question of the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. In addition, emphasis is placed on those procedures and techniques which are useful in the evaluation of nephrotoxicity. A detailed discussion of histological and anatomical considerations is not given, since this is probably the least useful criterion for evaluation of renal damage. This information is intended as background for the remainder of the symposium which will be directed toward an understanding of specific nephrotoxicity phenomena.  (+info)

NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive African Americans: antipressor and hemodynamic effects of potassium bicarbonate. (3/6121)

In 16 African Americans (blacks, 14 men, 2 women) with average admission mean arterial pressure (MAP, mm Hg) 99.9+/-3.5 (mean+/-SEM), we investigated whether NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction attends salt sensitivity and, if so, whether supplemental KHCO3 ameliorates both conditions. Throughout a 3-week period under controlled metabolic conditions, all subjects ate diets containing 15 mmol NaCl and 30 mmol potassium (K+) (per 70 kg body wt [BW] per day). Throughout weeks 2 and 3, NaCl was loaded to 250 mmol/d; throughout week 3, dietary K+ was supplemented to 170 mmol/d (KHCO3). On the last day of each study week, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using renal clearances of PAH and inulin. Ten subjects were salt sensitive (SS) (DeltaMAP >+5%) and 6 salt resistant (SR). In NaCl-loaded SS but not SR subjects, RBF (mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 920+/-75 to 828+/-46 (P<0.05); filtration fraction (FF, %) increased from 19. 4+/- to 21.4 (P<0.001); and renal vascular resistance (RVR) (10(3)xmm Hg/[mL/min]) increased from 101+/-8 to 131+/-10 (P<0.001). In all subjects combined, DeltaMAP varied inversely with DeltaRBF (r =-0.57, P=0.02) and directly with DeltaRVR (r = 0.65, P=0.006) and DeltaFF (r = 0.59, P=0.03), but not with MAP before NaCl loading. When supplemental KHCO3 abolished the pressor effect of NaCl in SS subjects, RBF was unaffected but GFR and FF decreased. The results show that in marginally K+-deficient blacks (1) NaCl-induced renal vasoconstrictive dysfunction attends salt sensitivity; (2) the dysfunction varies in extent directly with the NaCl-induced increase in blood pressure (BP); and (3) is complexly affected by supplemented KHCO3, GFR and FF decreasing but RBF not changing. In blacks, NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction may be a pathogenetic event in salt sensitivity.  (+info)

Recovery following relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat. (4/6121)

BACKGROUND: Obstructive nephropathy is a primary cause of renal insufficiency in infants and children. This study was designed to distinguish the reversible and irreversible cellular consequences of temporary unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the developing kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to UUO or sham operation in the first 48 hours of life, and the obstruction was removed five days later (or was left in place). Kidneys were removed for study 14 or 28 days later. In additional groups, kidneys were removed at the end of five days of obstruction. Immunoreactive distribution of renin was determined in arterioles, and the distribution of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin was determined in tubules and/or interstitium. The number of glomeruli, glomerular maturation, tubular atrophy, and interstitial collagen deposition was determined by morphometry. Renal cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the TdT uridine-nick-end-label technique, respectively. The glomerular filtration rate was measured by inulin clearance. RESULTS: Renal microvascular renin maintained a fetal distribution with persistent UUO; this was partially reversed by the relief of obstruction. Although glomerular maturation was also delayed and glomerular volume was reduced by UUO, the relief of obstruction prevented the reduction in glomerular volume. Although relief of obstruction did not reverse a 40% reduction in the number of nephrons, the glomerular filtration rate of the postobstructed kidney was normal. The relief of obstruction did not improve tubular cell proliferation and only partially reduced apoptosis induced by UUO. This was associated with a persistent reduction in the tubular epidermal growth factor. In addition, the relief of obstruction reduced but did not normalize tubular expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, clusterin, and vimentin, all of which are evidence of persistent tubular injury. The relief of obstruction significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin by interstitial fibroblasts, but not to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relief of obstruction in the neonatal rat attenuates, but does not reverse, renal vascular, glomerular, tubular, and interstitial injury resulting from five days of UUO. Hyperfiltration by remaining nephrons and residual tubulointerstitial injury in the postobstructed kidney are likely to lead to deterioration of renal function later in life.  (+info)

Plasma total homocysteine and cysteine in relation to glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus. (5/6121)

BACKGROUND: The plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) and total cysteine (tCys) are determined by intracellular metabolism and by renal plasma clearance, and we hypothesized that glomerular filtration is a major determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys. We studied the relationships between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma tHcy and tCys in populations of diabetic patients with particularly wide ranges of GFR. METHODS: We measured GFR, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER), plasma tHcy, tCys, methionine, vitamin B12, folate, C-peptide, and routine parameters in 50 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 30 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. All patients underwent intensive insulin treatment and had a serum creatinine concentration below 115 micromol/liter. RESULTS: Mean plasma tHcy in diabetic patients (0.1 micromol/liter) was lower than in normal persons (11.1 micromol/liter, P = 0.0014). Mean plasma tCys in diabetic patients (266.1 micromol/liter) was also lower than in normal persons (281.9 micromol/liter, P = 0.0005). Seventy-three percent of the diabetic patients had relative hyperfiltration. Plasma tHcy and tCys were closely and independently associated with GFR, serum folate, and serum B12. However, plasma tHcy was not independently associated with any of the 22 other variables tested, including age, serum creatinine concentration, UAER, total daily insulin dose, and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Glomerular filtration rate is an independent determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations, and GFR is rate limiting for renal clearance of both homocysteine and cysteine in diabetic patients without overt nephropathy. Declining GFR explains the age-related increase in plasma tHcy, and hyperfiltration explains the lower than normal mean plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations in populations of diabetic patients.  (+info)

Acute haemodynamic and proteinuric effects of prednisolone in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. (6/6121)

BACKGROUND: Administration of prednisolone causes an abrupt rise in proteinuria in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: To clarify the mechanisms responsible for this increase in proteinuria we have performed a placebo controlled study in 26 patients with a nephrotic syndrome. Systemic and renal haemodynamics and urinary protein excretion were measured after prednisolone and after placebo. RESULTS: After i.v. administration of 125-150 mg prednisolone total proteinuria increased from 6.66+/-4.42 to 9.37+/-6.07 mg/min (P<0.001). By analysing the excretion of proteins with different charge and weight (albumin, transferrin, IgG, IgG4 and beta2-microglobulin) it became apparent that the increase of proteinuria was the result of a change in size selectivity rather than a change in glomerular charge selectivity or tubular protein reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate rose from 83+/-34 ml to 95+/-43 ml/min (P<0.001) after 5 h, whereas effective renal plasma flow and endogenous creatinine clearance remained unchanged. As a result filtration fraction was increased, compatible with an increased glomerular pressure, which probably contributes to the size selectivity changes. Since corticosteroids affect both the renin-angiotensin system and renal prostaglandins, we have evaluated the effects of prednisolone on proteinuria after pretreatment with 3 months of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or after 2 weeks of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin. Neither drug had any effect on prednisolone-induced increases of proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisolone increases proteinuria by changing the size selective barrier of the glomerular capillary. Neither the renin-angiotensin axis nor prostaglandins seem to be involved in these effects of prednisolone on proteinuria.  (+info)

Antiproteinuric efficacy of verapamil in comparison to trandolapril in non-diabetic renal disease. (7/6121)

BACKGROUND: Non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as verapamil are equally effective in reducing proteinuria as ACE inhibitors in hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy. To date it is unknown whether verapamil elucidates such an antiproteinuric capacity in non-diabetic renal disease. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, random cross-over study which compared the antiproteinuric effect of 6 weeks treatment with verapamil SR (360 mg) to that of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril (4 mg), and their fixed combination vera/tran (180 mg verapamil SR and 2 mg trandolapril) in 11 non-diabetic patients with proteinuria of 6.6 (5.1-8.8) g/day, a creatinine clearance of 87 (74-106) ml/min, and a 24-h blood pressure of 136/85 (126/76-157/96) mmHg at baseline. RESULTS: Twenty-four-hour mean arterial pressure did not change during verapamil, whereas both trandolapril and vera/tran induced a significant reduction in MAP. Verapamil showed no significant effects on renal haemodynamics. Trandolapril and vera/tran did not significantly change GFR, but ERPF increased and FF decreased during both treatments (P<0.05). The antiproteinuric response of verapamil was significantly less compared to that of trandolapril and vera/tran (-12% (-17/-1) vs -51% (-56/-25) and -41% (-50/-19) respectively). The blood pressure and antiproteinuric response during verapamil tended to be greater in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients, although this difference was not significant. Baseline blood pressure was related to the change in blood pressure during verapamil (r = -0.70; P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The antiproteinuric and antihypertensive response of verapamil is less than that of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril in patients with non-diabetic renal disease. In contrast to the antiproteinuric response of trandolapril, the antiproteinuric reponse of verapamil seems to be completely dependent from effective blood pressure reduction. The fixed combination of verapamil and ACE inhibition at half doses has similar effects as ACE inhibition at full dose.  (+info)

Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in children with chronic renal failure. (8/6121)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia has been identified as a significant risk factor for the occurrence of atherosclerosis in adults with chronic renal failure. Because of its presumed direct toxic effect on the vascular wall, long-standing hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in children with chronic renal failure might have an important influence on their risk of future development of atherosclerosis. Hitherto no data on hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in children with renal failure have been published. METHODS: We investigated 16 children with chronic renal failure on conservative management, 12 children on haemodialysis and 17 children with a renal transplant. Age-matched controls were used for comparison. Plasma homocyst(e)ine levels after an overnight fast were determined by HPLC. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Schwartz formula. RESULTS: Mean plasma homocyst(e)ine levels were 12.6 +/- 5.2 micromol/l in the conservatively managed group, 22.2 +/- 13.5 micromol/l in the haemodialysed group, 14.2 +/- 2.1 micromol/l in transplanted children with an estimated GFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 17.5 +/- 5.1 micromol/l in transplanted children with a lower estimated GFR. In all groups homocyst(e)ine levels were significantly elevated as compared to controls. Homocyst(e)ine levels were significantly correlated with age and negatively correlated with estimated GFR and serum folate levels. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a feature of chronic renal failure in children as well as in adults. Elevated homocyst(e)ine levels can already be demonstrated in children with renal failure before end-stage renal disease has developed and persist after renal transplantation. Whether treatment of hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in children with renal failure decreases the risk for future atherosclerosis remains to be proven.  (+info)

Is the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinineâ cystatin C equation useful for glomerular filtration rate estimation in the elderly? Xun Liu,1,2,* Huijuan Ma,1,* Hui Huang,3 Cheng Wang,1 Hua Tang,1 Ming Li,1 Yanni Wang,1 Tanqi Lou1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 2College of Biology Engineering, South China University of Technology, 3Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to the paperBackground: We aimed to evaluate the performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinineâ cystatin C equation in a cohort of elderly Chinese participants.Materials and methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in 431 elderly Chinese participants by the technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging method, and was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relation of low glomerular filtration rate to metabolic disorders in individuals without diabetes and with normoalbuminuria. AU - Lorenzo, Carlos. AU - Nath, Subrata D.. AU - Hanley, Anthony J.G.. AU - Abboud, Hanna E.. AU - Haffner, Steven M.. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - Background and objectives: Microalbuminuria increases cardiovascular risk and is considered a metabolic disorder. Low glomerular filtration rate is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the relation of low glomerular filtration rate to metabolic disorders is not well understood. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Designed as a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study, the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study was conducted in four centers: San Antonio (Texas), San Luis Valley (Colorado), and Oakland and Los Angeles (California). The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was used to classify individuals without diabetes and with normoalbuminuria (n = 856; age 40 to 69 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Data on the relation between renal biomarkers and measured glomerular filtration rate. AU - Pottel, Hans. AU - Dubourg, Laurence. AU - Schaeffner, Elke. AU - Eriksen, Bjørn Odvar. AU - Melsom, Toralf. AU - Lamb, Edmund J.. AU - Rule, Andrew D.. AU - Turner, Stephen T.. AU - Glassock, Richard J.. AU - De Souza, Vandréa. AU - Selistre, Luciano. AU - Goffin, Karolien. AU - Pauwels, Steven. AU - Mariat, Christophe. AU - Flamant, Martin. AU - Bevc, Sebastjan. AU - Delanaye, Pierre. AU - Ebert, Natalie. N1 - Funding Information: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC) was conducted by the CRIC Investigators and supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) . The data from the CRIC Study reported here were supplied by the NIDDK Central Repositories. This manuscript was not prepared in collaboration with Investigators of the CRIC study and does not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of the CRIC study, the NIDDK Central ...
The duration of warm ischemia time is associated with short and long-term kidney transplant function. A quick rise in graft temperature is reported during the vascular anastomosis. This study was initiated, to gain insight into the effect of graft temperature on short-term transplant function. From 2013 to 2015, data of living donor kidney transplant recipients was prospectively collected. At set intraoperative timepoints, the graft temperature was measured using a non-contact infrared thermometer. Primary endpoint was measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) at 3- and 6-months post-transplantation. Univariable and multivariable associations were identified using linear regression analyses. Multivariable analysis included models with donor, recipient and procedure characteristics. We evaluated 152 patients, 83 (55%) were male, mean ±SD age was 50.3 ±13.4 years and 79 (52%) were pre-emptively transplanted. In univariable analysis graft temperature, after 10 minutes of warm ischemia, was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Performance of formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate in Indigenous Australians with and without Type 2 diabetes: The eGFR Study. AU - Maple-Brown, Louise. AU - Ekinci, Elif. AU - Hughes, Jaquelyne. AU - Chatfield, Mark. AU - Lawton, Paul. AU - Jones, Graham. AU - Ellis, Andrew. AU - Sinha, Ashim. AU - Cass, Alan. AU - Hoy, Wendy. AU - ODea, Kerin. AU - Jerums, George. AU - MacIsaac, Richard. PY - 2014/7/1. Y1 - 2014/7/1. N2 - Aims: It has been proposed that the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula estimates glomerular filtration rate more accurately than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. With the very high incidence of diabetes and end-stage kidney disease in Indigenous Australians, accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate is vital in early detection of kidney disease. We aimed to assess the performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Cockcroft-Gault ...
Reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are prevalent in elderly people. However, most of the studies that have examined the association between the two conditions were performed in patients with renal dysfunction, but not in the general elderly population. Thus, we investigated an association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ADMA concentration among community-dwelling older Koreans. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 269 men and 382 women (mean age, 71.6 years) enrolled in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP), a population-based cohort study of health determinants in elderly Koreans. We calculated eGFR using chronic kidney disease- Epidemiology Collaboration Group (CKD-EPI) equation. ADMA concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between eGFR and ADMA concentrations was analyzed by multiple linear regression models. The mean ADMA was significantly higher in people with
The aim of this study was to determine whether the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI)- or Cockcroft-Gault (CG)-based estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) performs better in the cohort setting for predicting moderate/advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD ...
Definition of glomerular filtration rate in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is glomerular filtration rate? Meaning of glomerular filtration rate as a legal term. What does glomerular filtration rate mean in law?
The Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease in February 2002. Of the 15 guidelines, the first six are of greatest relevance to family physicians. Part II of this two-part review covers guidelines 4, 5, and 6. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall indicator of kidney function. It is superior to the serum creatinine level, which varies with age, sex, and race and often does not reflect kidney function accurately. The glomerular filtration rate can be estimated using prediction equations that take into account the serum creatinine level and some or all of specific variables (age, sex, race, body size). In many patients, estimates of the glomerular filtration rate can replace 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance measurements. Urine dipsticks generally are acceptable for detecting proteinuria. To quantify proteinuria, the ratio of protein or albumin to creatinine in an untimed (spot)
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AimsWe aimed to investigate the impact of admission estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) on the development of poor myocardial perfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in patients presenting with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Materials and
The link between lifestyle modification and changes in both proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) was evaluated in Japanese subjects with proteinuria who were not taking medications. We used data from 51 men (35.8±10.0 years) and 74 women (38.0±11.0 years) with proteinuria at baseline and a 1-year follow up. eGFR was defined by a new equation developed specifically for Japanese subjects. Subjects were given advice for dietary and lifestyle improvement at the initial appointment. At the 1-year follow up, eGFR was increased in both sexes, but not at significant levels. (men:p=0.7709, women:p=0.2180). Proteinuria was also improved in many subjects. A decrease in proteinuria may be associated with improving eGFR in Japanese ...
Serum creatinine concentration is widely used as an index of renal function, but this concentration is affected by factors other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To develop an equation to predict GFR from serum creatinine concentration and other factors. Cross-sectional study of GFR, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine concentration, and demographic and clinical characteristics in patients with chronic renal disease. 1628 patients enrolled in the baseline period of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study, of whom 1070 were randomly selected as the training sample; the remaining 558 patients constituted the validation sample. The prediction equation was developed by stepwise regression applied to the training sample. The equation was then tested and compared with other prediction equations in the validation sample. To simplify prediction of GFR, the equation included only demographic and serum variables. Independent factors associated with a lower GFR included a higher ...
Title: Prediction of Glomerular Filtration Rate From Body Cell Mass and Plasma Creatinine. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Carlo Donadio, Cristina Consani, Michela Ardini, Francesca Caprio, Giulia Grassi and Annalisa Lucchesi. Affiliation:Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.. Keywords:glomerular filtration rate, estimate of renal function, plasma creatinine, body composition, electrical body impedance, body cell mass, renal excretion of drugs, renal failure. Abstract: The gold standards for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are inulin clearance and radioisotopic methods. However, creatinine clearance is the most used test to evaluate GFR in clinical practice. Its adequacy is questionable, since its repeatability is quite poor, mainly due to errors in the collection of urine. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new method to predict GFR from the body cell mass (BCM) and plasma creatinine (Pcr), avoiding urine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mild decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the general population. AU - Oh, Se Won. AU - Baek, Seon Ha. AU - Kim, Yong Chul. AU - Goo, Ho Suk. AU - Heo, Nam Ju. AU - Na, Ki Young. AU - Chae, Dong Wan. AU - Kim, Suhnggwon. AU - Chin, Ho Jun. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - Background. A recent collaborative meta-analysis by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes reported that an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ,60 mL/min/1.73m 2 and an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥10 mg/g were independent predictors for mortality in the general population. However, selection bias, heterogeneity of the cohorts and measurement issues could be limitations.Methods.We analyzed the relationship of eGFR and proteinuria with mortality in the Korean general population, represented by 112115 participants, aged ≥20 years, who had a voluntary health check-up with homogenous calibration of ...
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We performed a validation study of 17 preselected plasma protein markers with reported high evidence for the prediction of eGFR decline in patients with type 2 diabetes and incident or early-stage CKD. We showed in an univariable analysis that 9 of the markers had significantly different concentration levels between patients with stable eGFR and fast progression of eGFR decline and that 14 biomarkers significantly contributed to the prediction of eGFR levels. However, most of the predictive ability was attributable to the association with baseline GFR. In the multivariable analysis of eGFR decline over time, only five markers (KIM1, FGF23, NTproBNP, HGF, and MMP1) remained significant but exhibited only a modest predictive power on top of clinical covariates. Furthermore, if the longitudinal analysis was adjusted for baseline eGFR, none of the biomarkers were able to contribute a relevant portion of explained variability, suggesting that baseline eGFR is the key variable in prediction of renal ...
Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients. Impairment in kidney where to get viagra malaysia tubular function in patients receiving tenofovir is associated with higher tenofovir plasma concentrations. Persistent decline in estimated but not measured glomerular filtration rate on tenofovir may reflect prozac and singulair tubular rather than glomerular toxicity. Is phosphatemia the best tool to monitor renal tenofovir toxicity? Effect of prozac and singulair tenofovir on renal glomerular and tubular function. Randomized controlled trial of once-daily tenofovir, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir versus remaining on the prozac and singulair same regimen in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients jiyong topamax on their first PI-containing HAART regimen. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for prozac and singulair prozac and singulair the treatment of HIV infection in adults: the first 4 years. Renal transport ...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 mt2, persisting for 3 months or more, irrespective of the cause.[1] It is a state of progressive loss of kidney function ultimately resulting in the need for renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation). Kidney damage refers to pathologic abnormalities either suggested by imaging studies or renal biopsy, abnormalities in urinary sediment, or increased urinary albumin excretion rates. The 2012 KDIGO CKD classification recommends details about the cause of the CKD and classifies into 6 categories based on glomerular filtration rate (G1 to G5 with G3 split into 3a and 3b). It also includes the staging based on three levels of albuminuria (A1, A2, and A3), with each stage of CKD being sub-categorized according to the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio in (mg/gm) or (mg/mmol) in an early morning
Introduction: Kidney function is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events [1]. In a high risk CVD population it had been suggested that cystatin C based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) show better prognostic value than creatinine (Cr) based ones [2]. However, in population-based settings the situation is less clear. In addition it is controversial whether albuminuria carries additional information. The aim of this study was to estimate the association of Cr- and cystatin C-based eGFR and albuminuria with CVD in a population of older adults.. Material & methods: The study included participants, aged 50-75 years, of a statewide cohort study (ESTHER) conducted in the state of Saarland. Stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were defined by the Cr based simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI), and by the cystatin C based Arnal-Dade estimating equations. Active follow-up was conducted ...
We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected for CKD of diverse etiology. After adjustment for potential confounders and albuminuria, we found that a 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower eGFR below a threshold of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was significantly associated with mortality and ESRD (pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.47 and 6.24, respectively). There was significant heterogeneity between studies for both HR estimates. After adjustment for risk factors and eGFR, an eightfold higher albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with mortality (pooled HR 1.40) without evidence of significant heterogeneity and with ESRD (pooled HR 3.04), with significant heterogeneity between HR estimates. Lower eGFR and more severe albuminuria ...
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), the worldwide Public Health problem, is also one of the rising non-communicable diseases in low and middle-income countries. Its early detection and treatment using readily available, inexpensive therapies can slow or prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), high grade albuminuria, and associated factors among adult patients admitted to Jimma University Medical Center in South west Ethiopia. Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from November 1, 2016 to April 30, 2017. Consecutive sampling method was used to select study participants. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to generate factors associated with impaired estimated GFR and albuminuria. A P-value of | 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study involved 422 patients admitted to Jimma University Medical Center who had at least one test result for urinalysis and serum creatinine level
Serum creatinine is measured to assess for the presence of kidney disease, which can be either the cause or the result of hypertension. Serum creatinine alone may overestimate glomerular filtration rate and recent guidelines advocate the use of predictive equations such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).[27] eGFR can also provide a baseline measurement of kidney function that can be used to monitor for side effects of certain anti-hypertensive drugs on kidney function. Additionally, testing of urine samples for protein is used as a secondary indicator of kidney disease. Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG) testing is done to check for evidence that the heart is under strain from high blood pressure. It may also show whether there is thickening of the heart muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy) or whether the heart has experienced a prior minor disturbance such as a silent heart attack. A chest X-ray or an echocardiogram may also be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Limitations of estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine in the general population. AU - Rule, Andrew D. AU - Rodeheffer, Richard J.. AU - Larson, Timothy S.. AU - Burnett, John C Jr.. AU - Cosio, Fernando G. AU - Turner, Stephen T. AU - Jacobsen, Steven J.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To compare estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) In the general population on the basis of equations derived from different subsets of the general population. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Admits (ages ≥45 years) were randomly selected from 1997 to 2000 from the Olmsted County, Minnesota, population and had their serum creatinine levels measured. The GFR was estimated using previously reported equations derived tram a sample of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a sample of healthy persons, and the combined samples. Serum creatinine was measured with the same assay used to derive these equations. RESULTS: Of 4203 subjects, 2042 (47% participation rate) were ...
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the important index for measuring kidney function. Generally speaking, if the gfr declines, it means your kidneys will be damaged and renal function decline. Can kidney glomerular filtration rate be incre
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide problem. This study was designed to survey the prevalence and risk factors for CKD in Korea. The 2,356 subjects were selected in proportion to age, gender, and city. Subjects 35 yr of age or older were selected from 7 cities. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation, with albuminuria defined as a urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g or more. The overall prevalence of CKD was 13.7%. The prevalences of CKD according to stage were 2.0% stage 1, 6.7% stage 2, 4.8% stage 3, 0.2% stage 4, and 0.0% stage 5. The prevalences of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were 8.6% and 1.6%, respectively. The prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was 5.0%. Age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and fasting blood glucose were independent factors related to the presence of CKD. In ...
Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were observed. Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. In saline-loaded rats, i.v. doses of U-37883A of 1.7, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg increased absolute and fractional Na+ excretion dose-dependently without changing K+ excretion. The glomerular filtration rate remained constant during diuresis. In water-loaded (hypotonic dextrose) rats, free-water clearance studies revealed that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker significantly decreased an index of solute reabsorption (free-water clearance adjusted for chloride clearance) in the diluting segment during peak natriuretic activity. In addition, U-37883A significantly ...
Patients with chronic kidney disease and severely decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are at high risk for kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. Accurate estimates of risk and timing of these clinical outcomes could guide patient counseling and therapy. Therefore, we developed models using data of 264,296 individuals in 30 countries participating in the international Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium with estimated GFR (eGFR)s under 30 ml/min/1.73m2. Median participant eGFR and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were 24 ml/min/1.73m2 and 168 mg/g, respectively. Using competing-risk regression, random-effect meta-analysis, and Markov processes with Monte Carlo simulations, we developed two- and four-year models of the probability and timing of kidney failure requiring kidney replacement therapy (KRT), a non-fatal CVD event, and death according to age, sex, race, eGFR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and ...
BACKGROUND: Proteinuria is included in the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) risk stratification for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. However, the importance of proteinuria in patients with renal cancer has not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic impact of preoperative proteinuria on overall survival (OS) and renal function stability (RFS) for patients managed with renal cancer surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From 1999 to 2008, 977 patients who underwent renal cancer surgery had preoperative data recorded for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation (G1 ≥90, G2 60-89, G3a 45-59, G3b 30-44, G4 15-29, and G5 ,15ml/min/1 ...
FRIDAY, April 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Kidney disease is a major cause of cardiovascular deaths worldwide, according to a study published online April 13 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.. Based on data from 188 countries at six time points between 1990 and 2013, the researchers estimated that in 2013, reduced glomerular filtration rate was associated with 4 percent of deaths worldwide, or 2.2 million deaths. More than half of these deaths (1.2 million) were cardiovascular-related, while 0.96 million were caused by end-stage renal disease.. The investigators also found that reduced glomerular filtration rate ranked below high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose, but was similar to high total cholesterol, as a risk factor for disability-adjusted life years.. Understanding the true health impact of kidney disease on society necessitates considering cardiovascular as well as end-stage renal disease deaths and disability, study ...
Early kidney disease is asymptomatic and strongly associated with morbidity and mortality, hence an accurate estimation of kidney function is crucial for its diagnosis. In turn, an appropriate diagnosis and treatment of chronic and acute kidney disease depends on early detection. Currently markers like blood concentrations of creatinine and Cystatin-C are used to estimate glomerular filtration rate, and others as proteinuria help to assess renal damage, but all of these have different limitations indicating the need for new biomarkers that can discriminate and detect damage, especially in the most critical situation during the development of kidney disease. Given that kidneys are the most important excretory organ, changes in blood concentration levels of a wide variety of metabolites can be a reflection of reduction of kidney function and renal damage. An ideal biomarker for renal disease has to be able to predict early diagnosis of kidney disease, allowing for identification of the type and ...
Background:Observational studies relying on clinically obtained data have shown that acute kidney injury (AKI) is linked to accelerated chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, prior reports lacked uniform collection of important confounders such as proteinuria and pre-AKI kidney function trajectory, and may be susceptible to ascertainment bias, as patients may be more likely to undergo kidney function testing after AKI. Methods:We studied 444 adults with CKD who participated in the prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study and were concurrent members of a large integrated healthcare delivery system. We estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) trajectories using serum creatinine measurements from (i) the CRIC research protocol (yearly) and (ii) routine clinical care. We used linear mixed effects models to evaluate the associations of AKI with acute absolute change in eGFR and post-AKI eGFR slope, and explored whether these varied by source of creatinine results. ...
Methods : Data from patients who met the criteria for the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative(K/DOQI) CKD stage 2 to 4 between August 1999 and March 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. The estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) was calculated by the Schwartz formula, using serum creatinine levels and height. We calculated the annual eGFR change from the difference between the baseline eGFR and the last eGFR divided by the duration(years) of the follow-up period. We analyzed the association between the annual eGFR change and factors such as age, gender, K/DOQI stage, underlying renal disease, serum calcium, and inorganic phosphorous during the follow-up period ...
factors affecting glomerular filtration rate:Effective filtration pressure The changes in any of the three factors that affect the effective filtration pressure can affect the effective filtration pressure, thereby altering the glomerular filtration r
Background: The DIAMOND study of de novo liver transplant patients showed that prolonged-release tacrolimus exposure in the acute post-transplant period maintained renal function over 24 weeks of treatment. To assess these findings further, we performed a post-hoc analysis in patients according to baseline kidney function, Model for End-stage Liver Disease [MELD] scores, and donor age. Material/Methods: Patients received prolonged-release tacrolimus (initial-dose, Arm 1: 0.2 mg/kg/day, Arm 2: 0.15-0.175 mg/kg/day, Arm 3: 0.2 mg/kg/day delayed until Day 5), mycophenolate mofetil and 1 steroid bolus. Arms 2 and 3 also received basiliximab. The recommended tacrolimus target trough levels to Day 42 post-transplantation were 5-15 ng/mL in all arms. In this post-hoc analysis, change in renal outcome, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), Modified Diet in Renal Disease-4 (MDRD4), values from baseline to Week 24 -post-transplantation, were assessed according to baseline patient factors: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discontinuation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Chronic Kidney Disease. AU - Qiao, Yao. AU - Shin, Jung Im. AU - Sang, Yingying. AU - Inker, Lesley A.. AU - Secora, Alex. AU - Luo, Shengyuan. AU - Coresh, Josef. AU - Alexander, G. Caleb. AU - Jackson, John W.. AU - Chang, Alex R.. AU - Grams, Morgan E.. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Objective: To assess the patterns of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) discontinuation in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in real-world clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We identified incident ACE-I/ARB users with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without end-stage renal disease in the Geisinger Health System between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015. We investigated the associations of CKD stage, hospitalizations with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), serum ...
Clinical assessment of kidney function is part of routine medical practice for adults, essential for assessing overall health, interpreting signs and symptoms, dosing drugs that are excreted by the kidneys, preparing for invasive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, and detecting, evaluating and monitoring acute and chronic kidney diseases. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best overall index of kidney function in health and disease. GFR cannot be measured easily in clinical practice. Instead, GFR is estimated from equations using serum creatinine, age, race, sex and body size (1,2). One such equation, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation, has gained widespread acceptance (3,4), and estimated GFR using this equation is reported by most clinical laboratories when measurement of serum creatinine is ordered (5). The MDRD Study equation is also used to assess the burden of chronic kidney disease in epidemiologic studies and public health (6). ...
The clinical assessment of the urinary tract generally focuses separately upon (i) identifying the presence of a disease and (ii) evaluating the effects of a disease process upon function of the tract. Thus, renal structure and function must be evaluated separately as they are often not clearly related. Tests performed to detect the presence of structural change affecting the kidneys include urinalysis, imaging studies, and renal biopsy. The impact of a disease process on renal function, however, is generally assessed by tests that evaluate glomerular filtration rate (e.g., measurement of serum concentrations of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen or specialized tests to estimate glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow), glomerular permselectivity (e.g., measures of proteinuria), and by consideration of renal solute handling and urinary concentrating ability. Evaluating glomerular function: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Massive amounts of glomerular filtrate are formed continuously, ...
AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF AADE. SAN DIEGO (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) - Assessing the risk of kidney disease in diabetes requires estimating the glomerular filtration rate. One of the big campaigns is Know Your Numbers, and we think of ABC, also known as hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels, noted Andrew Bzowyckyj, PharmD, BCPS, CDE. Now we have eGFR, which measures kidney function. Its something quantifiable that patients can follow.. Earlier this year, the Food and Drug Administration encouraged wider use of metformin in certain patients with kidney disease based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels. But some providers havent fully embraced the importance of eGFR in evaluating the appropriateness of metformin, Dr. Bzowyckyj says. Weve all been so entranced by looking at serum creatinine since 1994, when metformin was introduced in the United States, he says. Theres 20 years of history you have to undo. Dr. Bzowyckyj of the University of ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Creatinine Clearance, Glomerular Filtration Rate, GFR, CrCl, Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, MDRD, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, CKD-EPI.
OBJECTIVES: Both renal disease and systemic inflammation predict non-AIDS-defining events and overall mortality in HIV-infected patients. Here, we sought to determine the relationships between renal disease and circulating inflammation markers.. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s to determine if markers of renal disease [urine protein:creatinine ratio (uPCR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (uACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine and cystatin C-creatinine] were associated with markers of systemic inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF-α receptor I (sTNFRI), sTNFRII, and soluble vascular cellular and intercellular adhesion molecules]. We correlated these renal and inflammatory markers prior to antiretroviral initiation and after 96 weeks of therapy.. RESULTS: We found that eGFR ...
Background: Though renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is counterbalanced by a salt-sensitivity in hypertensive state, both were reported to be up-regulated in CKD patients. To investigate the interaction is valuable for the treatment, but a useful marker of a salt-sensitivity has not been established. In this study, we investigated the candidates for a salt-sensitive marker, and the relation with RAS and the atherosclerosis.. Methods: Consecutive 213 pre-dialysis CKD patients without contractile cardiac dysfunction (ejection fraction (EF) ,40%) were enrolled, and measured estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), uremic albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone, BNP and hs-CRP. The extent of atherosclerosis was elucidated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Echocardiograms were performed and measured EF, E/A and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) as markers of cardiac function. We analyses the relations between cardiac, renal function and hormonal markers ...
Objectives: To examine the relation between static and dynamic blood pressure (BP) measurements and the evolution of kidney function in older people, adjusted for the presence of multimorbidity. Design: Retrospective cohort study during a 10-year time interval (2002-2012) in three age strata of patients aged 60 and older. Setting: Primary care registration network with 97 general practitioners working in 55 practices regularly submitting collected patient data. Participants: All patients with at least one BP measurement in 2002 and at least four serum creatine measurements after 2002 (n=8636). A modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (mCCI) at baseline was registered. Change in systolic and diastolic BP (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) from 2002 onwards was calculated. The relation between kidney function evolution and baseline BP and change in BP was examined using linear and logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measures: The slope of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, MDRD, Modification
Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in patients with essential hypertension before and after tratment with alprenolol. ...
Cockcroft-Gault Versus Modification of Diet in Renal Disease: Importance of Glomerular Filtration Rate Formula for Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes Editorial Comment
Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause for initiation of renal replacement therapy and early symptoms in patients include increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), decreased oxygen tension and albuminuria, followed by a progressive decline in GFR and loss of kidney function. Experimental models of diabetes display increased GFR, decreased tissue oxygenation and nitric oxide bioavailability. These findings are likely to be intertwined in a mechanistic pathway to kidney damage and this thesis investigated their roles in the development of diabetic nephropathy. In vivo, diabetes-induced oxidative stress stimulates renal tubular Na+ transport and in vitro, proximal tubular cells from diabetic rats display increased transport-dependent oxygen consumption, demonstrating mechanisms contributing to decreased kidney oxygenation. In control animals, endogenous adenosine reduces vascular resistance of the efferent arteriole via adenosine A2-receptors resulting in reduced filtration fraction. However, in ...
Endothelial dysfunction is considered an early step of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), plays a critical role in the process of atherosclerosis in a uremic environment. Increased plasma ADMA not only works as a cardiovascular morbidity biomarker but it is also involved in the genesis of atherosclerosis in renal disease. Considering the relationships of apolipoprotein E(ApoE) polymorphism with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and coronary risk, it is possible that it brings on susceptibility to endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis seen on uremia. Six hundred twenty patients were stratified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKDEPI) formula: group I | 60 mL/min, group II ≤ 60 mL/min and | 15 mL/min, and group III ≤ 15 mL/min or in hemodialysis. Polymorphic ApoE analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification
Subject has an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than or equal to 16 mL/min/1.73 m2 and less than or equal to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2 as determined by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD EPI) formula at Screening, and is undergoing coronary artery bypass graft or single valve surgery ...
Introduction: Several studies have found that albuminuria, a marker of kidney damage, predicts incident hypertension. In contrast, conflicting results have been observed for measures of kidney function such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of note, only a few studies have simultaneously investigated these two kidney measures in this context, leaving further uncertainties regarding respective contribution of kidney function and damage in the development of hypertension.. Methods: We studied 4,927 ARIC Study participants without hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications) and history of cardiac disease at baseline (1996-98). Incident hypertension was defined as self-reported medication use for hypertension via annual follow-up phone calls. We primarily assessed GFR estimated by the best available equation published in 2012 using serum creatinine and cystatin C (CKD-EPI eGFRcre+cys) and albuminuria quantified by urine albumin:creatinine ratio ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreasing serum uric acid levels are associated with improving estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) in Japanese women.. AU - Shikata, Kenichi. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. M3 - Article. VL - 3. SP - 40. EP - 43. JO - Open Journal of Epidemiology. JF - Open Journal of Epidemiology. IS - 2. ER - ...
Background: It is unknown if ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with lower renal function, a cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: We investigated whether long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a cohort of older men living in the Boston Metropolitan area. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 669 participants from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study with up to four visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1,715 visits). Serum creatinine was measured at each visit, and eGFR was calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. One-year exposure to PM2.5 prior to each visit was assessed using a validated spatiotemporal model that utilized satellite remote-sensing aerosol optical depth data. eGFR was modeled in a time-varying linear mixed-effects regression model as a continuous function of 1-year PM2.5, adjusting for important covariates. Results: One-year PM2.5 exposure was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing renal function after partial nephrectomy using renal nuclear scintigraphy and estimated glomerular filtration rate. AU - Sankin, Alexander I.. AU - Sfakianos, John P.. AU - Schiff, Jeffrey. AU - Sjoberg, Daniel. AU - Coleman, Jonathan A.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - Objective: To create a model intended to more accurately characterize renal function alteration after partial nephrectomy using a combination of renal scintigraphy and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods: Thirty-two partial nephrectomy patients from a single center with preoperative and postoperative renal scans were reviewed. Renal scan data were used to calculate proportional eGFR in the involved kidney as a product of the percentage function of the operated kidney and total eGFR. Linear regression models were created to describe endpoints (postoperative eGFR, involved kidney percent function, proportional eGFR) as functions of clinical variables associated with kidney damage. Results: ...
Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rates by Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Equations in a Cohort of Omani Patients
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glomerular filtration rate in children following renal transplantation. AU - Seikaly, Mouin G.. AU - Browne, Richard. AU - Simonds, Nancy. AU - Atkins, Carolyn. AU - Alexander, Steven R.. PY - 1998/8/1. Y1 - 1998/8/1. N2 - Most studies evaluating renal function post-renal transplantation in children have used serum creatinine (SCr) or estimates of its clearance (CSCH). When renal function is impaired both SCr and the CSCH overestimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), especially during cyclosporine therapy. This study measured GFR in 64 children (age range: 4-19 years) with stable renal function who received renal allografts at the Childrens Medical Center of Dallas, 31 from live related donors (LRD) and 33 from cadaveric donors (CAD). 125I- iothalamate clearance (CIO) was used as the reference standard for measuring GFR. Data from 100 CIO studies, were analyzed and results reported as mean ± S.E.M. CIO performed during the first year after renal transplantation in 23 children ...
1. This study was designed to quantify the role of angiotensin II in determining the chronic relationships between arterial pressure, renal haemodynamics and sodium excretion.. 2. In six control dogs sodium balance was achieved during chronic increases in sodium intake from 5 to 495 mmol/day with small increases in arterial pressure (7mmHg), moderate increases in glomerular filtration rate (19%) and decreases in filtration fraction. Similar increases in sodium intake in dogs whose circulating levels of angiotensin II were fixed, due to a constant intravenous infusion of 4.85 pmol of angiotensin II min−1 kg−1, caused large increases in arterial pressure (42%), glomerular filtration rate (31%), filtration fraction and calculated renal sodium reabsorption above control. In six dogs whose angiotensin II formation was blocked by SQ 14 225, sodium balance at intakes of 5-80 mmol/day occurred at reduced arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate, filtration fraction and sodium reabsorption ...
in American Journal of Kidney Diseases (2013), 61(2), 279-284. Background: The utility of serum cystatin C (SCysC) as a filtration marker in kidney transplantation is uncertain. We took advantage of the recent validation of a reference calibrator for SCysC and of ... [more ▼]. Background: The utility of serum cystatin C (SCysC) as a filtration marker in kidney transplantation is uncertain. We took advantage of the recent validation of a reference calibrator for SCysC and of newly developed CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equations (2012) expressed for use with standardized SCysC level to reassess the performance of SCysC as a filtration marker in kidney transplant recipients. Study Design: Study of diagnostic test accuracy. Setting & Participants: 670 kidney transplant recipients from 3 centers undergoing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements from December 2006 to November 2012. Index Test: Estimated GFR (eGFR) using the 2012 SCysC-based and serum creatinine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intensive diabetes therapy and glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetes. AU - De Boer, Ian H.. AU - Sun, Wanjie. AU - Cleary, Patricia A.. AU - Lachin, John M.. AU - Molitch, Mark E.. AU - Steffes, Michael W.. AU - Zinman, Bernard. PY - 2011/12/22. Y1 - 2011/12/22. N2 - BACKGROUND: An impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) leads to end-stage renal disease and increases the risks of cardiovascular disease and death. Persons with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for kidney disease, but there are no interventions that have been proved to prevent impairment of the GFR in this population. METHODS: In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), 1441 persons with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned to 6.5 years of intensive diabetes therapy aimed at achieving near-normal glucose concentrations or to conventional diabetes therapy aimed at preventing hyperglycemic symptoms. Subsequently, 1375 participants were followed in the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of 6 months of increased water intake on blood sodium, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure, and quality of life in elderly (aged 55-75) men. AU - Spigt, M.G.. AU - Knottnerus, J.A.. AU - Westerterp, K.R.. AU - Olde Rikkert, M.G.. AU - van Schayck, C.P.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVES: To study whether there are any negative or positive effects of 6 months of increased fluid intake in reasonably healthy elderly men. DESIGN: Randomized trial. SETTING: Community-based. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-one healthy participants aged 55 to 75. INTERVENTION: One group was given the advice to increase their daily fluid intake by 1.5 L of water; the other group was given placebo medication (8 mL inactive syrup per day). MEASUREMENTS: At 6 months blood sodium, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), blood pressure, and quality of life (QOL) were measured. The changes in water turnover were measured using deuterium. RESULTS: Most subjects did not manage to ...
In potential living kidney donors, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often evaluated from the creatinine clearance (Ccr) or is predicted using formulas based on serum creatinine (SCr) or cystatin C (SCys) concentration. Ultrasonography is used to evaluate renal structure and dimensions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of estimation of GFR from echographic renal dimensions in 66 potential live kidney donors (46 women and 20 men; age range, 25-73 years). The GFR was measured as the renal clearance of technetium 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. The GFR was also estimated from the SCr concentration using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG-Ccr) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-GFR) formulas and from SCys (Cys-GFR). Renal diameters were measured using conventional gray-scale renal ultrasound to estimate total and parenchymal renal volume using ellipsoid formulas. The GFR was predicted from renal dimensions on the basis of their relationship to measured ...
Feature Story. For the purpose of drug dosing, which method is better: using the MDRD Study equation to estimate eGFR, or using the Cockcroft-Gault formula to estimate creatinine clearance? Whats important, the NKDEP says, is to consistently use a single kidney function estimate. A critical study in the development of the NKDEP recommendations (Stevens LA, et al. Comparison of drug dosing recommendations based on measured GFR and kidney function estimating equations. Am J Kid Dis. 2009;54:33-42) looked at the most frequently prescribed drugs that need to have an adjusted dosage, notes Greg Miller, PhD, of Virginia Commonwealth University. The researchers calculated eGFR based on a standardized creatinine value by the MDRD Study equation and by the Cockcroft-Gault formula, the one most frequently used in drug labeling, and compared the differences in dosages that would be made based on those equations. What they found was that it made little difference which equation you used except in a small ...
Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle-Aged Populations: A Meta-Analysis of 15 Cohort Studies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Adverse impact of bleeding on prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes.In persons 30 years or younger, the normal GFR is. estimate glomerular filtration rate from.Normally, healthy people have two kidneys, and their GFR (glomerular filtration rate).Creatinine clearance rates tend to fall later in life as the glomerular filtration rate.Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC, Bailey SR, Bittl JA, Cercek B, Chambers CE, Ellis SG, Guyton RA, Hollenberg SM, Khot UN, Lange RA, Mauri L, Mehran R, Moussa ID, Mukherjee D, Nallamothu BK, Ting HH Writing Committee Members.The 24-hour urine collection method, or one of the GFR estimation formulas, can more accurately identify the decline in kidney function.RUBY-1: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and tolerability of the novel oral factor Xa inhibitor darexaban (YM150) following acute coronary syndrome.However, the risk-to-benefit ratio with antithrombotic therapies may be altered in CKD.. Impact of proteinuria and ...
C-peptide reduces diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetic patients and experimental animal models. However, the mechanisms mediating the beneficial effect of C-peptide remain unclear. We investigated whether altered renal afferent-efferent arteriole tonus or alterations in tubular Na+ transport (T(Na)) in response to C-peptide administration mediate the reduction of diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration. Glomerular filtration rate, filtration fraction, total and cortical renal blood flow, total kidney O2 consumption (QO2), T(Na), fractional Na+ and Li+ excretions, and tubular free-flow and stop-flow pressures were measured in anesthetized adult male normoglycemic and streptozotocin-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. The specific effect of C-peptide on transport-dependent QO2 was investigated in vitro in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells. C-peptide reduced glomerular filtration rate (-24%), stop-flow pressure (-8%), and filtration fraction (-17%) exclusively in diabetic ...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 13.6% of the adult population of the United States, with a projected increase to 16.7% expected by 2030.1,2 Risk factors for progression of CKD include diabetes, albuminuria, and various cardiovascular comorbidities, which provide the targets for current CKD management.3-6 Adverse cardiovascular events and mortality increase with CKD progression.7-11 The associations between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and risk for major cardiovascular events and death appear independent of concomitant chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease or heart failure).7. Prevalence estimates of CKD, based on cross-sectional analyses,12,13 provide a snapshot with little information about CKD progression over time. Most information on effects of CKD progression on health care costs were also derived from cross-sectional studies. Notwithstanding these limitations, a direct association between progression and cost was demonstrated in Australia, where annual ...
Serum creatinine does not accurately measure kidney function in patients with mild renal insufficiency or in certain other patient populations (for example, individuals with malnutrition, muscle wasting, cancer, or the elderly) [8, 9]. The serum creatinine level and related estimating equations, routinely used clinical measures to estimate kidney function, are dependent on muscle mass, and influenced by age, race, gender, and weight.[10, 11]. Patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant may have large fluctuations in their nutritional status, muscle mass and weight that will influence glomerular filtration rates based on estimation equations or serum creatinine levels. In fact, a recently published position paper recommends that research be done specifically to evaluate the accuracy of golemular filtration rate estimating equations in cancer patients with a particular focus on reducing the influence of confounding factors such as muscle wasting, malnutrition and extracellular fluid volume ...
In this post hoc SPRINT analysis, we found that intensive systolic BP lowering resulted in similar absolute effects on ≥40% eGFR decline in those with and without albuminuria. This observation was in contrast to our expectation that the effects of intensive systolic BP lowering on ≥40% eGFR decline may be augmented in those with albuminuria, given higher baseline risk among those with albuminuria. In time to event analyses, intensive systolic BP lowering resulted in a stronger relative risk of ≥40% eGFR decline in participants without albuminuria compared with those with albuminuria. In terms of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, intensive systolic BP lowering reduced risk similarly in patients with and without albuminuria on both the absolute and relative risk scales.. On the basis of the results of ≥40% eGFR decline on the hazard ratio scale, one should not conclude that the absence of albuminuria somehow augments the risk for eGFR decline with intensive systolic BP ...
OBJECTIVE: to assess the association of kidney function with quality-of-life in community-dwelling older adults aged 75 years or more in the UK. DESIGN: cross-sectional study. SETTING: primary care; 12 UK general practices participating in a cluster trial of health screening. SUBJECTS: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m(2)) using the four-variable modified diet in renal disease equation was derived in 1,195 men and 1,772 women with available bloods, these were 92% of 3,211 study participants who consented to interviews and 73% of those invited into the original cluster trial of health screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: interviews by trained fieldworker using the Sickness Impact Profile (home management, mobility, self-care, social interaction), and the Philadelphia Geriatric Morale Scale. Higher scores imply worse quality-of-life in a given domain. RESULTS: in age- and co-morbidity-adjusted analyses there was an association of eGFR ,45 and the highest scores (defined as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting the development of surgically induced chronic kidney disease after total nephrectomy using body surface area-adjusted renal cortical volume on CT angiography. AU - You, Sung Hye. AU - Sung, Deuk Jae. AU - Yang, Kyung Sook. AU - Kim, Myung-Gyu. AU - Han, Na Yeon. AU - Park, Beomjin. AU - Kim, Min Ju. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to predict the probability of surgically induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) developing in patients who underwent total nephrectomy by measuring the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted renal cortical volume (RCV) with preoperative CT angiography (CTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of 105 patients with a normal preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) who underwent preoperative CTA and subsequent total nephrectomy for kidney donation (n = 67) or a renal tumor (n = 38) were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into group A (patients without surgically induced ...
Background The pleiotropic cytokine osteopontin (OPN) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between OPN and renal function, a cardiovascular risk factor itself, is not known. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between OPN plasma levels and renal function in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).. Methods We studied 49 non-diabetic and non-smoking patients with primary kidney disease at different CKD stages (K/DOQI 1-5). True glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients was assessed using the inulin-clearance technique. To examine the role of an abrupt change in GFR on circulating OPN, 15 living related kidney donors were studied before and after unilateral nephrectomy. Twenty matched non-smoking healthy subjects served as controls.. Results OPN plasma levels in patients with CKD stage 1 (i.e. GFR above 90 mL min−1 1·73 m−2) were comparable with controls. OPN levels increase in a linear fashion with declining ...
The use of allopurinol in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains one of the most controversial areas in gout management. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of baseline kidney function on safety and efficacy of allopurinol dose escalation to achieve serum urate (SU) |6 mg/dl. We undertook a post hoc analysis of a 24-month allopurinol dose escalation treat-to-target SU randomized controlled trial, in which 183 people with gout were randomized to continue current dose allopurinol for 12 months and then enter the dose escalation phase or to begin allopurinol dose escalation immediately. Allopurinol was increased monthly until SU was |6 mg/dl. The effect of baseline kidney function on urate lowering and adverse effects was investigated. Irrespective of randomization, there was no difference in the percentage of those with creatinine clearance (CrCL) |30 ml/min who achieved SU |6 mg/dl at the final visit compared to those with CrCL ≥30 to |60 ml/min and those with CrCL ≥60 ml/min,
Patients who receive transplanted kidneys from deceased donors (DDs) age 60 and older with acute kidney injury (AKI) have worse allograft outcomes than some other DD kidney recipients, according to new research discussed at the 2019 American Transplant Congress in Boston.. A team led by J. Kim, MD, of Daejeon St. Marys Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea, examined clinical outcomes for 709 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving kidneys from 569 DDs at 4 transplant centers. For analyses, KTRs were stratified by donor age (younger or older than 60 years) and the presence of donor AKI. Allograft function deteriorated significantly more in recipients of AKI kidneys from older versus younger DDs: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 46.8 vs 56.0; 45.3 vs 56.0; and 46.7 vs 61.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 3, 6, and 12 months after transplant, respectively, by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. At 12 months, grafts from AKI-young DDs fared similarly to those from ...
Background Pregnancy increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease. We previously showed pregnant women with sickle cell disease to have a relatively low plasma renin concentration in late pregnancy, associated with a lack of the expected plasma volume expansion. We hypothesized this to be due to increased systemic vascular resistance through an imbalance between the vasodilator prostacyclin and vasoconstrictor thromboxane, associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective To compare estimated prostacyclin, thromboxane and GFR in non-pregnant and pregnant women with hemoglobin SS (HbSS) and AA (HbAA). Study design Four groups of 20 normotensive, nulliparous women were studied in Lagos, Nigeria: pregnant HbSS or HbAA women at 36-40 weeks gestation; non-pregnant HbSS and HbAA controls. We measured stable metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GFR using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Data analysis was by independent
TY - JOUR. T1 - The correlation between fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease. AU - Chen, Po Chun. AU - Kao, Wei Yu. AU - Cheng, Yuan Lung. AU - Wang, Yuan Jen. AU - Hou, Ming Chih. AU - Wu, Jaw Ching. AU - Su, Chien Wei. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background/purpose: The impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not fully elucidated. We aimed to assess the correlation between NAFLD and CKD in a large population study. Methods: We included consecutive subjects who had received health check-up service at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. NAFLD was diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound, and advanced liver fibrosis was determined with NAFLD fibrosis score (NAFLD-FS). CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) , 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Results: Among the 29,797 subjects enrolled in this study, NAFLD and CKD were diagnosed in 44.5% and 20.2% of the population, respectively. Subjects with ...
Background Mannitol is currently used as a renal protective agent to mitigate the effects of renal ischemia during nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This routine practice lacks rigorous methodological study. Objective To assess the effect on renal function outcomes after surgery of mannitol infusion prior to renal ischemia during NSS. Design, setting, participants This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial included 199 patients with a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45 ml/min/1.73m2 scheduled for NSS; the trial was conducted between July 2012 and July 2015. Intervention Patients undergoing NSS were randomized to receive mannitol (12.5 g) or placebo intravenously within 30 min prior to renal vascular clamping. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary outcome was the difference in eGFR (renal function) between the two groups at 6 mo following surgery assessed with an analysis of covariance model using preoperative eGFR, treatment ...
Normally, if glomerular filtration rate is not lower than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and there are abnormalities point to kidney disease, then this person will be diagnosed with stage 1 Chronic Kidney Disease, even if the kidney function is normal. Gradually, when glomerular filtration rate decreases to the range from 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2, meanwhile, there are renal damage founded by examination, and then we can say, Chronic Kidney Disease has run to stage 2. Generally, there are no obvious symptoms during these two stages; therefore, Chronic Kidney Disease in early stage is easy to be neglected ...
The use of allopurinol to treat patients with chronic kidney disease does not slow down progression of their disease, researchers found.. Specifically, researchers from Australia and New Zealand determined that urate-lowering treatment with allopurinol failed to slow the decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Moreover, they did not find an association between the use of allopurinol and a greater decrease in proteinuria, blood pressure, or the risk of the composite kidney outcome of a decline in the eGFR, end-stage kidney disease, or death in these patients.. The study, by Sunil V. Badve, PhD, the George Institute for Global Health, Newtown, Australia, and colleagues, was published in The New England Journal of Medicine.. As pointed out by the studys authors, elevated serum urate levels are associated with increased risks of onset and progression of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. Here, in the CKD-FIX study, Badve ...
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalised patients and is associated with adverse long-term consequences. There is an urgent need to understand these sequelae in general hospitalised patients utilising a prospective cohort-based approach. We aimed to test the feasibility of study methodology prior to commencing a large-scale study and investigate the effects of AKI on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and proteinuria. METHODS: Pilot study testing novel methodology for remote patient recruitment within a prospective case-control design. 300 cases (hospitalised patients with AKI) and controls (hospitalised patients without AKI) were matched 1:1 for age and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). 70% of cases had AKI stage 1, 16% AKI stage 2 and 14% AKI stage 3. Renal function and proteinuria were measured 3 and 12 months after hospital admission. RESULTS: The study met pre-defined recruitment, withdrawal and matching criteria. Renal function was worse in ...
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and NM Renal DMSA process explained. One of the evaluation tests for becoming a Living Kidney Donor.
We determined the influence of age on the effects of glucose and blood pressure control on diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 721 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 41-85 years and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/ [min · 1.73 m2], were enrolled in this study between August 2001 and December 2002. All participants were followed up at our clinics until December 31, 2010. Primary outcomes were the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were the development of clinical albuminuria and a severe decline in eGFR. During the follow-up period (median: 8.3 years), 27 (3.7%) patients developed ESRD, 130 (18.0%) patients died without developing ESRD, and 16 (2.2%) patients died after developing ESRD. Mortality rate increased with age, but the incidence rate of ESRD did not. Poor glucose and blood pressure control was associated with the development of clinical albuminuria and with a severe decline in
An epidemic of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) is killing thousands of agricultural workers along the Pacific coast of Central America, but the natural history and aetiology of the disease remain poorly understood. We have recently commenced a community-based longitudinal study to investigate Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Nicaragua. Although logistically challenging, study designs of this type have the potential to provide important insights that other study designs cannot. In this paper we discuss the rationale for conducting this study and summarize the findings of the baseline visit. The baseline visit of the community-based cohort study was conducted in 9 communities in the North Western Nicaragua in October and November 2014. All of the young men, and a random sample of young women (aged 18-30) without a pre-existing diagnosis of CKD were invited to participate. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated with CKD-EPI equation, along with clinical measurements, questionnaires, biological and
The close relationship between kidney and heart is well known. Cardiovascular impairment contributes to the worsening of renal function and kidney failure worsens cardiovascular health. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent issue in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and several studies have demonstrated that AF impacts negatively on their quality of life and outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms leading to the progression of CKD, new-onset AF and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a key issue. The evaluation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) could make the difference in this equilibrium and suggests specific strategies in the treatment of the population at major risk of cardiovascular events. This intriguing connection paves the way for necessary further investigations.
Urinary TGF-beta1 was not independently associated with renal function in diabetes mellitus Rani Sauriasari, Mia Yuliana Pratiwi Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia Background: Several clinical studies have shown increased level of urinary TGF-β1 in diabetic nephropathy patients and its correlation with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), but other studies showed different results. Because of this contradiction, this study aims to analyze the correlation between urinary TGF-β1 concentration and UACR, and also estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients by controlling some confounding factors.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, and the samples were obtained using consecutive sampling technique. The study was performed on 99 subjects (62 DM normoalbuminuria patients, 27 DM albuminuria patients, and 10 non-DM patients as controls) at Pasar Minggu Community Health Center. Urinary TGF-β1 concentration was measured by ELISA,
We analyzed genome-wide association studies (GWASs), including data from 71,638 individuals from four ancestries, for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function used to define chronic kidney disease (CKD). We identified 20 loci attaining genome-wide-significant evidence of association (p , 5 × 10(-8)) with kidney function and highlighted that allelic effects on eGFR at lead SNPs are homogeneous across ancestries. We leveraged differences in the pattern of linkage disequilibrium between diverse populations to fine-map the 20 loci through construction of credible sets of variants driving eGFR association signals. Credible variants at the 20 eGFR loci were enriched for DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) in human kidney cells. DHS credible variants were expression quantitative trait loci for NFATC1 and RGS14 (at the SLC34A1 locus) in multiple tissues. Loss-of-function mutations in ancestral orthologs of both genes in Drosophila melanogaster were associated with ...
A 72-year old man had a collapse, severe hypertension (RR 200/100 mmHg), and malaise. He had a history of nicotine abuse and had been started on acenocoumarol because of pulmonary embolism four months earlier. At the outpatient clinic, his blood pressure was 180/95 mmHg and no oedema or skin lesions were observed. Screening blood tests showed acute renal insufficiency, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) that had decreased from 74 to 41 ml/min/1.73 m2 over the past five months. Urinary sediment microscopy showed 3-10 non-dysmorphic erythrocytes per view. The albumin/creatinine ratio was 44 mg/mmol. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any postrenal obstruction or renal parenchymal abnormalities; the kidneys were normal in size. It did, however, show aneurysmatic dilatation of the abdominal aorta, maximum diameter 3.6 cm. Doppler ultrasonography did not show renal artery stenosis. Analyses of secondary causes of hypertension were negative. Because of progressive renal failure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Renal Impairment and Hemodialysis on the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of the Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir Combination in Hepatitis C Virus-Negative Subjects. AU - Kosloski, Matthew P.. AU - Zhao, Weihan. AU - Marbury, Thomas C.. AU - Preston, Richard A. AU - Collins, Michael G.. AU - Pugatch, David. AU - Mensa, Federico. AU - Kort, Jens. AU - Liu, Wei. PY - 2018/3/1. Y1 - 2018/3/1. N2 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an independent risk factor for developing chronic renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Limited treatment options are available for HCV genotype 2, 3, 5, and 6 infections in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30 ml/min. Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir are active against all six major HCV genotypes, are primarily excreted in the bile, and have minimal renal elimination. Therefore, combined treatment with these direct-acting antivirals may be useful for patients with HCV infection and chronic kidney disease. A phase 1, ...
Table 1: Effects of Moderate-to-Severe Impairment of the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and of Proteinuria on the Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness in Middle-Aged Healthy Japanese Men
BACKGROUND. Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.. METHODS. Patients with at least three serum creatinine measurements after 1 January 2004 and known HCV antibody status were included. Baseline was defined as the first eligible estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (Cockcroft-Gault equation), and CKD was either a confirmed (,3 months apart) eGFR of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or less for patients with a baseline eGFR more than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or a confirmed 25% decline in eGFR for patients with a baseline eGFR of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or less. Incidence rates of CKD were compared between HCV groups (anti-HCV-negative, anti-HCV-positive with or without viremia) using Poisson regression.. RESULTS. Of 8235 patients with known anti-HCV status, 2052 (24.9%) were anti-HCV-positive of whom 983 (47.9%) were HCV-RNA-positive, 193 ...
Background and Purpose- Kidney dysfunction is common among patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke. Understanding the association of kidney disease with poststroke outcomes is important to properly adjust for case mix in outcome studies, payment models and risk-standardized hospital readmission rates. Methods- In this cohort study of fee-for-service Medicare patients admitted with ischemic stroke to 1579 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke participating hospitals between 2009 and 2014, adjusted multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and dialysis status with 30-day and 1-year postdischarge mortality and rehospitalizations. Results- Of 204 652 patients discharged alive (median age [25th-75th percentile] 80 years [73.0-86.0], 57.6% women, 79.8% white), 48.8% had an eGFR ≥ 60, 26.5% an eGFR 45 to 59, 16.3% an eGFR 30 to 44, 5.1% an eGFR 15 to 29, 0.6% an eGFRdialysis, and 2.8% were receiving dialysis.
In an analysis of the AWARD-7 study, people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) who took 1.5 mg of dulaglutide once weekly had a reduction of clinical events associated with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) including dialysis and with a kidney transplant, and a slower rate of kidney function decline compared to people who used insulin or a lower dose of dulaglutide. The study is an abstract titled Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Outcomes with Dulaglutide (DU) Versus Insulin Glargine (IG) in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and Moderate-to-Severe CKD by Albuminuria Status: AWARD-7, presented today at the American Diabetes Associations® (ADAs) 79th Scientific Sessions® at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco.. Because many medications used for the treatment of diabetes are filtered by the kidneys, treatment of kidney disease is challenging. Clinical trials initially designed to assess cardiovascular (CV) safety of glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor ...
It is known to all that stages of Chronic Kidney Disease are made in the light of GRF which is short for glomerular filtration rate. According to the international standard, when glomerular filtration rate decreases to the range from 30 ml/min/1.73m2 to 59 ml/min/1.73m2, then we can diagnose that this disease has run to the third stage. With the arrival of stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease, some worrisome symptoms will appear and on the basis of these perceptible symptoms, we can infer how much our kidneys has been damaged.Fist of all, with the occurrence of stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease, usually, some urination changes may occur to you. For example, while you are urinating, you may found there are foams in your urine, which results from the leakage of large amount of protein from kidneys. In addition, your urine color may appear to be brown, tea colored or even red. Changed urine color and foamy urine all implies that kidneys have been damaged greatly and they already can not keep some substances ...
Introduction Impaired renal function and/or pre-existing atherosclerosis in the deceased donor increase the risk of delayed graft function and impaired long-term renal function in kidney transplant recipients. Case presentation We report delayed graft function occurring simultaneously in two kidney transplant recipients, aged 57-years-old and 39-years-old, who received renal allografts from the same deceased donor. The 62-year-old donor died of cardiac arrest during an asthmatic state. Renal-allograft biopsies performed in both kidney recipients because of delayed graft function revealed cholesterol-crystal embolism. An empiric statin therapy in addition to low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was initiated. After 10 and 6 hemodialysis sessions every 48 hours, respectively, both renal allografts started to function. Glomerular filtration rates at discharge were 26 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 23.9 ml/min/1.73 m2, and remained stable in follow-up examinations. Possible donor and surgical procedure-dependent ...
Both a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known risk factors for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To determine their joint contribution to ESRD and other kidney outcomes, we performed a meta-analysis of nine general population cohorts with 845,125 participants and an …
2019 Elsevier B.V. Background: Population studies have shown that black race is a natriuretic peptide (NP) deficiency state. We sought to assess whether the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on N-terminal-pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) levels differ in white and black individuals. Methods: The study population consisted of a stratified random cohort from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. The study outcomes were the effects of age, sex, BMI and eGFR on NT-proBNP levels independent of socioeconomic and cardiovascular disease factors. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effects of age, sex, BMI and eGFR on NT-proBNP levels in blacks and whites. Results: Of the 27,679 participants in the weighted sample, 54.7% were females, 40.6% were black, and the median age was 64 years. Every 10-year higher age was associated with 38% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%-45%] and 34% (95% CI: ...
The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a measure of kidney function. Adding a race adjustment to kidney algorithms ... "Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate With vs Without Including Patient Race". JAMA Internal Medicine. 180 (5): 793-795. doi ... "A New Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate". Annals of Internal Medicine. 150 (9): 604-612. doi:10.7326/0003-4819- ... Curtin, Sally C.; Kozak, Lola Jean (December 1998). "Decline in U.S. Cesarean Delivery Rate Appears to Stall". Birth. 25 (4): ...
Reduction in renal glomerular filtration rate may occur; people with renal artery stenosis may be at higher risk. Hyperkalemia ...
Levey, Andrew (1999). "A More Accurate Method to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate From Serum Creatinine: A New Prediction ... Levey, Andrew (2009). "A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate". Ann Intern Med. 150 (9): 604-12. doi:10.7326/ ... Inker, Leslie (2012). "Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate from Serum Creatinine and Cystatin C". New England Journal of ... research and public health by developing equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and leading the global ...
ANP increases glomerular filtration rate and glomerular permeability. ANP directly dilates the afferent arteriole and ... ANP increases the radius and number of glomerular pores, thereby increasing glomerular permeability and resulting in greater ...
Perkovic, V; Cass, A (2010). "Glomerular filtration rate and the risk of stroke". BMJ. 341: c4390. doi:10.1136/bmj.c4390. PMID ...
Chronic exposure to chlortalidone decreases the glomerular filtration rate. Chlortalidone's diuretic effect is diminished in ... Edema due to increased hydrostatic pressure may be a result of serious cardiopulmonary disease (which reduces glomerular ... perfusion in the kidney) or to kidney injury or disease (which may reduce glomerular excretion of salt and water by the kidney ...
... estimated glomerular filtration rate 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2; levels of liver enzymes in liver function tests between 41-59 U/L, ... Each subject was asked to rate a specific statement on a five-point Likert-type scale, based on how often they suffered various ... The SHSQ-25 is a self-rated questionnaire of perceived health complaints, which can be used as a new instrument for predictive ... Behavioral medicine Chronic illness Global Forum for Health Research Health Health promotion Malaise Self-rated health Severity ...
... and its analog sinistrin are used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ... Inulin is used to determine glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys. Inulin is a heterogeneous collection of fructose ... Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 7, Chapter 4, Glomerular Filtration Rate". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original ... for comparison with other means of estimating glomerular filtration rate. Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate present in ...
The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into ... One of the measures of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Other tests that can assess the function of the ... A global assessment of renal function is often ascertained by estimating the rate of filtration, called the glomerular ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) - "Glomerular Filtration Rate" Ganong (2016). "Renal Function & Micturition". Review of ...
"Guidelines for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate using plasma sampling". Nuclear Medicine Communications. 25 (8): ...
... s are also involved in regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When podocytes contract, they cause closure of ... Jarad, G.; Miner, J. H. (2009). "Update on the glomerular filtration barrier". Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. ... Disruption of the filtration slits or destruction of the podocytes can lead to massive proteinuria, where large amounts of ... This decreases the GFR by reducing the surface area available for filtration. A loss of the foot processes of the podocytes (i. ...
June 2011). "Effect of creatine supplementation on measured glomerular filtration rate in postmenopausal women". Applied ... On average, it is produced endogenously at an estimated rate of about 8.3 mmol or 1 gram per day in young adults. Creatine is ... Table 1 Comparison of rates of creatine synthesis in young adults with dietary intakes of the three precursor amino acids and ... absorption rate, and half life. A clear pharmacokinetic profile would need to be established prior to optimal clinical dosing. ...
"Glomerular Filtration Rate" B. Watschinger und I. Kobinger: Wiener Zeitschrift für Innere Medizin 45 (1964) 219-228. T. Buclin ... An important measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the volume of fluid filtered from the ... A. Pechere-Bertschi, R. Sechaud et al.: Sinistrin clearance for determination of glomerular filtration rate: a reappraisal of ... To measure this parameter, a marker substance is injected into the blood stream, and its rate of excretion in urine is compared ...
Glomerular filtration rate measurement with MR renography in patients with cirrhosis". Radiology. 259 (2): 462-70. doi:10.1148/ ... Lee's initial work developed methods to measure kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and perfusion, noninvasively using ...
... increases glomerular filtration rate without increasing intra-glomerular pressure and filtration fraction. This ... The negative chronotropic effect of Efonidipine decreases heart rate, myocardial oxygen demand and increases coronary blood ...
Pressure in glomerular capillaries is therefore maintained and glomerular filtration rate remains adequate. However, in states ... This will decrease the glomerular filtration rate, depending on the level of oncotic increase in the capillaries, resulting in ... They play an important role in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate despite fluctuations in blood pressure. In the ... a decreased filtration fraction. Afferent arteriole Malpighian corpuscle. Glomerulus. Renal corpuscle Nosek, Thomas M. "Section ...
Kidney - poor urine output (less than 0.5 mL/kg), low glomerular filtration rate. Skin - pallor or mottled appearance, ...
Reubi FC (September 1953). "Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow and blood viscosity during and after diabetic coma". ...
Renal blood flow Reubi FC (September 1953). "Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow and blood viscosity during and after ... PAH undergoes both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion), and therefore the rate at which the kidneys can clear PAH from ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can also be used to reduce glomerular filtration rate. In young babies and ... can be used to reduce glomerular filtration, and can be very useful, although may cause gastric irritation and should be ...
... decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], abnormal urinalysis); and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (e.g., diarrhea ... The overall mortality rate from HUS is 5-15%. Children and the elderly have a worse prognosis. The country with the highest ... People with aHUS and ESRD have also had to undergo lifelong dialysis, which has a 5-year survival rate of 34-38%. HUS is one of ... receptor on the surface of the glomerular endothelium. This action includes a cascade of signaling events leading to apoptosis ...
... diel variation in glomerular filtration rate in Selasphorus platycercus". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 207 (Pt 25): ...
Adverse effects of indomethacin include a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, and gastrointestinal disturbances. ...
... or glomerular filtration), and the normal rate of filtration is 125 ml/min, equivalent to 80 times the daily blood volume.[ ... Beneath the visceral layer lie the glomerular capillaries.[citation needed] Filtration barrier-The filtration barrier is ... Measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a diagnostic test of kidney function. A decreased GFR may be a sign of kidney ... Bowman's capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the ...
The glomerular filtration rate(GFR) in patients is regulated by vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole. When ACEI is taken ... to determine whether the kidney is functioning well or not since it is removed from the kidney through glomerular filtration. ... Kidney ischemia is a disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Blood vessels shrink and undergo apoptosis which results ...
Glomerular filtration rate falls and the kidney is unable to perform its normal excretory functions. This causes disruption of ... The rate of fluid administration may be altered to achieve a high urine output (200-300 ml/h in adults), unless there are other ... Rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute kidney impairment in patients with traumatic injury may have a mortality rate of 20%. ... coma or abnormal heart rate and rhythm. The urine may be dark, often described as "tea-colored", due to the presence of ...
... estimated glomerular filtration rate ...
This location is critical to its function in regulating renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Renin is produced by ... the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)). When there is a decrease in the sodium concentration, less sodium is reabsorbed in the ... often due to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate Extraglomerular mesangial cells are located in the junction between the ... This decreases the amount of blood coming from the afferent arterioles to the glomerular capillaries, and therefore decreases ...
A high protein diet affects the feedback activity by making the single nephron glomerular filtration rate higher, and the Na ... Tubuloglomerular feedback is one of several mechanisms the kidney uses to regulate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). It ... TGF stabilizes the fluid and solute delivery into the distal portion of the loop of Henle and maintain the rate of filtration ... Vasodilation of the afferent arteriole, which results in increased glomerular filtration pressure and tubular fluid flow, ...
For these methods, glomerular filtration rate, or GFR, and time since gadodiamide was given should be recorded. Ultimately, ...
... called the creatinine clearance or estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). More specialized tests can be ordered to ...
is more familiarly known as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the rest of the body's capillaries, J. v. {\displaystyle J ... Glomerular capillaries have a continuous glycocalyx layer in health and the total transendothelial filtration rate of solvent ( ... is the trans endothelial solvent filtration volume per second.. *. [. P. c. −. P. i. ]. −. σ. [. π. p. −. π. i. ]. {\ ... The rate at which fluid is filtered across vascular endothelium (transendothelial filtration) is determined by the sum of two ...
Inhibits reabsorption of Na+, increase glomerular filtration rate 1. tubules Chemically, diuretics are a diverse group of ... The reduced concentration of calcium in the urine can lead to an increased rate of calcium in serum. The sparing effect on ... The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ...
Patient prognosis is dependent on numerous factors including age, ethnicity, blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. ... Glomerular hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration[edit]. An alternative mechanism of hypertensive nephropathy is prolonged ... Light micrograph showing hypertensive glomerular lesion of hypertensive nephropathy: global glomerular collapse and filling of ... identifying glomerular ischemia as the main contributor to HN and the other identifying glomerular hypertension and glomerular ...
In mammals and common ostriches, the increase of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine flow rate (UFR) is due to a ... the glomerular filtration rate is approximately 92 ml/min. However, when an ostrich experiences dehydration for at least 48 ... a fairly reliable marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR).[61] It has been seen that during normal hydration within the ... displaystyle \mathrm {Metabolic\ Rate} =70M^{0.75}}. where M. {\displaystyle M}. is body mass, and metabolic rate is measured ...
... leads to improvement in glomerular filtration rate (which is a quantitative measure of kidney function) in patients with ... The prognosis of individuals with type 1 HRS is particularly grim, with a mortality rate exceeding 50% after one month.[4] ... on the day of admission and on the third day in hospital reduced both the rate of kidney insufficiency and the mortality rate.[ ... and studies show that their survival rates at three years are similar to those who have received liver transplants for reasons ...
... result of multiple factors including physiologic changes associated with aging such as decreases in glomerular filtration rate ...
... vasodilate to increase blood flow to the kidney perfusion and increase glomerular filtration across undamaged glomeruli. ... "Normal variations in rate of albumin excretion and albumin to creatinine ratios in overnight and daytime urine collections in ... identifying glomerular ischemia as the main contributor to HN and the other identifying glomerular hypertension and glomerular ... The degree of scarring correlates with the degree of glomerular filtration deficit. Malignant nephrosclerosis occurs in ...
The blood pressure fall is detected by a decrease in blood flow and thus a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). ... In contrast, heart rate differs markedly, largely depending on the size of the animal (larger animals have slower heart rates). ... Blood pressure is one of the vital signs, along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and body temperature. ... The rate of mean blood flow depends on both blood pressure and the resistance to flow presented by the blood vessels. In the ...
This decreases plasma volume, thus lowering the glomerular filtration rate and enhancing the absorption of sodium and water in ...
... and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).[20] Glomerular hyperfiltration and an aberrant regulation of RAAS lead to increased ... "Glomerular filtration rate: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-02.. ... Likewise, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may progressively fall from a normal of over 90 ml/min/1.73m2 to less ... The value of the serum creatininecan be used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which reflects the ...
... also affects the kidney by increased renal blood flow and increased glomerular filtration rate. A mild diuretic effect ... For heart rate control (atrial fibrillation), plasma levels are less defined and are generally titrated to a goal heart rate. ... Overall, the heart rate is decreased while blood pressure is increased, resulting in a net increase in stroke volume, leading ... High ventricular rate leads to insufficient diastolic filling time. By slowing down the conduction in the AV node and ...
Microscopic analysis can also identify the presence of urinary casts and crystals.[25] The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can ... Renal replacement therapy, in the form of dialysis or kidney transplantation, is indicated when the glomerular filtration rate ... Dialysis may be instituted when approximately 85%-90% of kidney function is lost, as indicated by a glomerular filtration rate ... measurement of kidney function by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatinine; and ...
... this last caused by decreased glomerular filtration and increased tubular calcium reabsorption. Both renal factors are ... Annane et al.'s landmark 2002 study found a very high rate of relative adrenal insufficiency among the enrolled patients with ...
... in the glomerulus of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate. *acts on parietal cells in the stomach wall to inhibit ...
A common complaint, caused by increased intravascular volume, elevated glomerular filtration rate, and compression of the ... The rate of pregnancy, as well as the ages at which it occurs, differ by country and region. It is influenced by a number of ... The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 was estimated to be highest in Niger (7.03 children/woman) and lowest in Singapore (0.79 ... Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst arrives ...
A better estimation of kidney function is given by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). eGFR can be ... which correlates approximately with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Blood creatinine levels may also be used alone to ... Creatinine is removed from the blood chiefly by the kidneys, primarily by glomerular filtration, but also by proximal tubular ... If the filtration in the kidney is deficient, creatinine blood levels rise. Therefore, creatinine levels in blood and urine may ...
This is due to the decrease in glomerular filtration rate,[citation needed] which leads to uric acid retention. Use of ... to increase the contractility cycling rates.[27] Constitutively high levels of mitochondrial Ca2+. cause inappropriate MPTP ...
Patients starting on an ACE inhibitor usually have a modest reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that stabilizes after ... This finding was made after it was discovered that regular use of ramipril reduced mortality rates even in test subjects not ... demonstrated an ability to reduce the mortality rates of patients suffering from a myocardial infarction, and to slow the ... "Acute and Chronic Effects of the Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Enalapril and Lisinopril on Reflex Control of Heart Rate in ...
The filtering structure (glomerular filtration barrier) has three layers composed of endothelial cells, a basement membrane, ... Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, ... Fig.2) Schematic of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). A. The endothelial cells of the glomerulus; 1. endothelial pore ( ... The glomerular blood pressure provides the driving force for water and solutes to be filtered out of the blood plasma, and into ...
Increased glomerular filtration rates during pregnancy contribute to some 50% of women having glucose in their urine on ... High rate of abnormal glucose tolerance after GDM". Diabetes Care. 20 (6): 943-947. doi:10.2337/diacare.20.6.943. PMID 9167104. ... This test will identify fewer women who are at risk, and there is only a weak concordance (agreement rate) between this test ... Diet and physical activity interventions designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain reduce the rates of gestational ...
The amount of filtrate produced every minute is called the glomerular filtration rate or GFR and amounts to 180 litres per day ... Following filtration of blood and further processing, wastes (in the form of urine) exit the kidney via the ureters, tubes made ... Urine is formed in the kidneys through a filtration of blood. The urine is then passed through the ureters to the bladder, ... The first step in urine formation is the filtration of blood in the kidneys. In a healthy human the kidney receives between 12 ...
Chronic:Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) , 15[6]. Treatment. Acute: Depends on the cause[7]. Chronic: Hemodialysis, peritoneal ... Glomerular filtration rate. A normal GFR varies according to many factors, including sex, age, body size and ethnic background ... Renal professionals consider the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be the best overall index of kidney function.[30] The ... Chronic kidney failure is measured in five stages, which are calculated using a patient's GFR, or glomerular filtration rate. ...
... increases glomerular filtration rate, and renal plasma flow from the kidneys thus increasing phosphate excretion, as ... Infants born to mothers with high gestational cortisol during the first trimester of pregnancy had lower rates of growth in ... It also stimulates the main rate-limiting step in cortisol synthesis, in which cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone and ... 5-Beta reductase is also the rate-limiting factor in the conversion of cortisone to tetrahydrocortisone. ...
... of filtered glomerular filtration rates.[27] Sodium retention is also a response of the distal colon and sweat glands to ... The adrenal glands have one of the greatest blood supply rates per gram of tissue of any organ: up to 60 small arteries may ... Glucocorticoids such as cortisol influence metabolism rates of proteins, fats and sugars ("glucose").[26] ... with effects that include an increase in blood pressure and heart rate.[23] The actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline are ...
Glomerular filtration rate[edit]. Main article: Glomerular filtration rate. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the ... "Glomerular Filtration Rate" *^ Ganong (2016). "Renal Function & Micturition". Review of Medical Physiology, 25th ed. McGraw- ... One of the measures of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Other tests that can assess the function of the ... There are several different techniques used to calculate or estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR or eGFR). The above ...
Glomerular filtration rate. *Creatinine clearance. *Renal clearance ratio. *Urea reduction ratio. *Kt/V ... This is achieved by changes in the rate and depth of breathing (i.e. by hyperventilation or hypoventilation), which blows off ... The respiratory centres then determine the average rate of ventilation of the alveoli of the lungs, to keep the partial ... reflexly causes an increase in the rate and depth of breathing. Normal breathing is resumed when the partial pressure of carbon ...
Glomerular filtration rate. *Creatinine clearance. *Renal clearance ratio. *Urea reduction ratio. *Kt/V ...
... restrictions on use of GBCAs in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (a measure of renal function) under 60 ...
A common complaint, caused by increased intravascular volume, elevated glomerular filtration rate, and compression of the ... The rate of pregnancy, as well as the ages at which it occurs, differ by country and region. It is influenced by a number of ... Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days ... The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 was estimated to be highest in Niger (7.03 children/woman) and lowest in Singapore (0.79 ...
Glomerular Filtration Rate. Br Med J 1967; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5555.837 (Published 24 June 1967) Cite this as ...
What is a glomerular filtration rate test?. Your kidneys are your bodys main filtration system. They remove waste products ... Glomerular Filtration Rate Test. Medically reviewed by Modern Weng, D.O. - Written by Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA - Updated on ... How is a glomerular filtration rate test performed?. A GFR test is a simple blood test that doesnt require you to do anything ... Why do I need a glomerular filtration rate test?. The GFR test can indicate how well your kidneys are functioning. Your doctor ...
This employs the serum creatinine (mg/dL), the childs height (cm), and a constant to estimate the glomerular filtration rate: ... Microalbuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Paediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis. Neena Verma,1 Chandra Shekhar Lal,1,2 ... Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) Measurement. eGFR was measured in children using Schwartz formula. ... In a cross-sectional study of 50 patients with chronic visceral leishmaniasis, a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in ...
An impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as a sustained estimated GFR of less than 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 ... Intensive diabetes therapy and glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetes.. DCCT/EDIC Research Group, de Boer IH, Sun W, ... An impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) leads to end-stage renal disease and increases the risks of cardiovascular disease ... Improvement of glomerular filtration rate by intensified insulin therapy : the DCCT and EDIC studies]. [Internist (Berl). 2012] ...
Make research projects and school reports about Glomerular filtration rate easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Glomerular filtration rate at Encyclopedia.com. ... glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (glom-e-roo-ler) n. the rate at which substances are filtered from the blood of the glomeruli ... glomerular filtration rate (GFR) The volume of fluid (see glomerular filtrate) that is filtered from the capillaries of the ...
Measurement of Perioperative Glomerular Filtration Rate. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Accurate, direct measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may provide a tool to monitor perioperative onset of rapidly ... Our objective is to monitor glomerular filtration rate (GFR)during the perioperative phase of patients undergoing robotic ... Clinical Observational Study Using Iohexol to Measure Perioperative Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Undergoing Robotic ...
It is not possible to raise ones glomerular filtration rate, or GFR, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and ... Glomerular filtration rate refers to how well a persons kidneys are filtering, states the National Institute of Diabetes and ... It is not possible to raise ones glomerular filtration rate, or GFR, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and ...
Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D (1999) A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate ... Serum vitamin D in obese and overweight subjects according to estimated glomerular filtration rate. ... Previous studies in Greek populations have found rates of vitamin D deficiency (levels , 20 ng/ml) as high as 96% among ... increases intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption and calcium reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. Most authorities ...
... at estimated glomerular filtration rate of 10.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or less. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 15.5 ... dialysis is being initiated at increasingly higher levels of glomerular filtration rate. A higher glomerular filtration rate at ... We defined the initiation of dialysis as early if estimated glomerular filtration rate was above 10.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2.4,6,17 ... Association between estimated glomerular filtration rate at initiation of dialysis and mortality. William F. Clark, Yingbo Na, ...
Compare and contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate. Your friend is in a car accident and experiences ... Blood loss and glomerular filtration rate. Add. Remove. This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get ... This solution defines glomerular filtration rate. It then explains how excessive loss of blood affects the GFR. It also ... brainmass.com/biology/human-anatomy-and-physiology/blood-loss-and-glomerular-filtration-rate-15121 Solution Preview. Blood ...
The relationship of maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in pregnancy to fetal size needs to be better characterized as it ... Maternal Glomerular Filtration Rate in Pregnancy and Fetal Size Alternate Title:Maternal Glomerular Filtration and Fetal Size ... Table 3 Relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR in pregnancy and birth weight, estimated in three studies. Study. ... The relationship of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in pregnancy to fetal size needs to be better characterized because the ...
Estimation of GFR. For routine identification of reduced GFR, See eGFR.. For GFR estimation for drug dosing, see Creatinine clearance Cockcroft and Gault.. For GFR estimation in extremes of body composition, see Creatinine clearance.. ...
Comparisons between validated estimated glomerular filtration rate equations and isotopic glomerular filtration rate in HIV ... Tenofovir Renal Toxicity and Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Validation. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). Tenofovir. Serum creatinine (sCr). 24 hr urine creatinine clearance. Serum Cystatin C[40]. ...
Glomerular filtration rate. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr) ... its rate of excretion is directly proportional to the rate of filtration of water and solutes across the glomerular filter. ... Glomerular filtration rate · Creatinine clearance · Renal clearance ratio · Urea reduction ratio · Kt/V · Standardized Kt/V · ...
Avhandlingar om GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE. Sök bland 90249 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar ... glomerular filtration rate. . *. 1. Glomerular filtration rate in adults a single sample plasma clearance method based on the ... glomerular filtration rate; kidney disease; Glomerular proteinuria; tubular proteinuria; Sammanfattning : Evaluation of long- ... Sammanfattning : Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a key parameter in evaluating kidney function. After a bolus injection of ...
Reduced Glomerular Filtration Rate Major Cause of CV Deaths. Last Updated: April 14, 2017. ... The investigators also found that reduced glomerular filtration rate ranked below high systolic blood pressure, high body mass ... reduced glomerular filtration rate was associated with 4 percent of deaths worldwide, or 2.2 million deaths. More than half of ... "This is especially important within the developing world, where the death rate has increased since 1990." ...
What is glomerular filtration rate? Meaning of glomerular filtration rate as a legal term. What does glomerular filtration rate ... Definition of glomerular filtration rate in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Glomerular filtration rate legal definition of glomerular filtration rate https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ... Related to glomerular filtration rate: creatinine, creatinine clearance Rate. Value, measure, or degree; a charge, payment, or ...
Inflammation, oxidative stress, glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria in elderly men: a cross-sectional study. Nerpin, ... Accordingly, we aimed at investigating the associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ... epidemiology, chronic kidney disease, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, ... measured with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was associated to improve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR ...
Circulating levels of osteopontin are closely related to glomerular filtration rate and cardiovascular risk markers in patients ... True glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients was assessed using the inulin-clearance technique. To examine the role of an ...
Creatinine fluctuation has a greater effect than the formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate on the prevalence of ... Cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are defined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the ...
A Simple Estimate of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children Derived From Body Length and Plasma Creatinine. G. J. Schwartz, G. ... A Simple Estimate of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children Derived From Body Length and Plasma Creatinine ... Extracellular Volume and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease ... A Simple Estimate of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children Derived From Body Length and Plasma Creatinine ...
Five-year prospective study of glomerular filtration rate and albumin excretion rate in normofiltering and hyperfiltering ... GFR, glomerular filtration rate. Because of its detrimental clinical outcomes, including end-stage renal disease and ... The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cigarette smoking and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in ... The major aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cigarette smoking and glomerular filtration rate ( ...
Stable Glomerular Filtration Rate in Normotensive IDDM Patients With Stable Microalbuminuria: A 5-year prospective study. ... Stable Glomerular Filtration Rate in Normotensive IDDM Patients With Stable Microalbuminuria: A 5-year prospective study ... Stable Glomerular Filtration Rate in Normotensive IDDM Patients With Stable Microalbuminuria: A 5-year prospective study ... Stable Glomerular Filtration Rate in Normotensive IDDM Patients With Stable Microalbuminuria: A 5-year prospective study ...
Slope-only glomerular filtration rate and single-sample glomerular filtration rate as measurements of the ratio of glomerular ... The acute effect of a protein intake on glomerular filtration rate in man. Glomerular filtration rate in response to an acute ... Effects of acute hypochloremia on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in the dog. Glomerular filtration rate ... Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate From a Panel of Filtration Markers-Hope for Increased Accuracy Beyond Measured Glomerular ...
Glomerular filtration rate reduced on day 14 of HS falling from 1.53±0.06 mL/min per 100 g body weight to 1.27±0.04. By day 21 ... Transcutaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate using FITC-sinistrin in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:2997- ... Glomerular filtration rate by single-injection inulin clearance: definition of a workable protocol for children. Ann Clin ... Influence of three anesthetic protocols on glomerular filtration rate in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:807-811. ...
Acute Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibition in Patients with Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate GW Lipkin ; GW Lipkin ... Acute Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibition in Patients with Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 July 1992; 83 (s27 ... Feedback-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration during acetazolamide infusion in insulin-dependent diabetic patients Clin ... Effects of cyclosporin A on glomerular barrier function in the nephrotic syndrome Clin Sci (Lond) (June,1992) ...
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much ...
A. S. Levey, L. A. Stevens, C. H. Schmid et al., "A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate," Annals of Internal ... Glomerular Filtration Rate and/or Ratio of Urine Albumin to Creatinine as Markers for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Ten-Year Follow- ... J. Wu, J. Geng, L. Liu, W. Teng, L. Liu, and L. Chen, "The relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate and ... From our data, we would encourage further studies to determine the glomerular filtration rate and the relationship of DR in ...
Abstract 14230: Decreased Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Deteriorates Long-term Prognosis After St-segment Elevation ... Abstract 14230: Decreased Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Deteriorates Long-term Prognosis After St-segment Elevation ... Abstract 14230: Decreased Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Deteriorates Long-term Prognosis After St-segment Elevation ... Abstract 14230: Decreased Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Deteriorates Long-term Prognosis After St-segment Elevation ...
Determination of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate in human subjects by using CT Kwon SH, Saad A, Herrmann SM, Textor SC ... Determination of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate in human subjects by using CT. Radiology. April 2015:141892. ... hypoxia in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis but fails to reverse inflammatory pathways or glomerular filtration rate Saad ... hypoxia in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis but fails to reverse inflammatory pathways or glomerular filtration rate. Circ ...
  • Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using either the MDRD Study equation or the CKD-EPI equation is an estimate of GFR, not the actual GFR. (nih.gov)
  • The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is used to screen for and detect early kidney damage, to help diagnose chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and to monitor kidney status. (labtestsonline.org)
  • We examined the relationship between increased serum bilirubin and renal function evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using CKD-EPI equations modified by a Japanese coefficient. (hindawi.com)
  • Lots of studies have shown a positive relationship between serum bilirubin and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [ 5 - 9 ], showing that serum bilirubin has a potential renoprotective effect. (hindawi.com)
  • There are several different techniques used to calculate or estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR or eGFR). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Accordingly, we aimed at investigating the associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and markers of different inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress in a community based cohort of elderly men. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present study was conducted to identify any relation between the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and coronary plaque characteristics using integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS), which can detect coronary plaque composition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To improve appropriateness of referrals, automatic reporting of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by laboratories was introduced in the province of Ontario, Canada, in March 2006. (cmaj.ca)
  • This test provides a measurement for Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate or eGFR . (requestatest.com)
  • We evaluated changes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as well as serum creatinine, urea-nitrogen, and glucose concentrations, white blood cell count, and body-mass index, and tested associations of eGFR with selected factors, using standard bivariate contrasts and regression modeling. (harvard.edu)
  • Over the past few years, we have hypothesized, and begun to test the hypothesis, that a panel of filtration markers (panel eGFR) from a single blood draw would require fewer demographic or clinical variables and could estimate GFR as accurately as measured GFR. (gsajournals.org)
  • Aims We aimed to investigate the impact of admission estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) on the development of poor myocardial perfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in patients presenting with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). (ovid.com)
  • The predictive ability of cystatin C and equations used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), including Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD, and the new Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation, were evaluated for their ability to predict the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or MI within 1 year. (acc.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate whether serum IGF-I or IGFBP-3 are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a population-based study of Caucasian adults. (springer.com)
  • Objectives To perform a cross-sectional comparison of endogenous markers of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (plasma symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and estimated GFR (eGFR)) with a direct measure of GFR (using the plasma clearance of Inutest (In-GFR)), and a longitudinal evaluation of these markers in relation to the development of microalbuminuria, in young people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions In this longitudinal study of young people with T1D, measurement of SDMA, in contrast to eGFR, proved to be a reliable marker in identifying changes in filtration rates associated with the development of microalbuminuria (MA). (bmj.com)
  • An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) test is a blood test that's used to figure out how well your kidneys are doing their job. (verywellhealth.com)
  • So, your eGFR rate is actually how much blood these glomeruli filter per minute, and it works by measuring the levels of creatinine in your blood. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The eGFR test is not 100 percent accurate and it can only give an estimate of your filtration rate. (verywellhealth.com)
  • We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The recent Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 CKD guidelines recommend estimating GFR from serum creatinine (eGFR cr ) as a first-line test to assess kidney function and using cystatin C or measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as confirmatory tests. (elsevier.com)
  • This study compared mean estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in patients on long term lithium, against matched controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The eGFR is short for Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate. (thefreecalculator.com)
  • The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a measure of kidney function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimating glomerular filtration rate. (nih.gov)
  • Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Performance of creatinine-based equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate changes over time. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The current standard scintigraphic method for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs is the integral method, which normalizes renal GFR to body weight. (avmi.net)
  • Your kidneys are your body's main filtration system. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor may order a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) test if they suspect your kidneys aren't working properly. (healthline.com)
  • Glomerular filtration rate refers to how well a person's kidneys are filtering, states the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (reference.com)
  • Your GFR is $$GFR-Value$$, indicating your kidneys are working at approximately $$GFR-Value$$ percent of the normal rate. (davita.com)
  • Completely healthy kidney function is measured at a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of around 100, which means that the kidneys are working at 100 percent. (davita.com)
  • If your GFR is 45, you know that your kidneys are working at approximately 45 percent of the normal rate. (davita.com)
  • A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a blood test that checks how well your kidneys are working. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be calculated by measuring any chemical that has a steady level in the blood, and is freely filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted by the kidneys. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • The kidneys receive 20% to 25% of the cardiac output (about 1.0 to 1.1 liters per minute) with the blood entering individual glomerular tufts via the afferent arteriole and exiting through the efferent arteriole. (statpearls.com)
  • This filtration happens in the kidneys. (thefreecalculator.com)
  • In a cross-sectional study of 50 patients with chronic visceral leishmaniasis, a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 28% of the cases is reported [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Until recently, the serum creatinine concentration was used universally as an index of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to identify and monitor chronic kidney disease. (cmaj.ca)
  • The Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy study of chronic nondiabetic nephropathies aimed to address whether glomerular protein traffic influences renal-disease progression, and whether an ACE inhibitor was superior to conventional treatment, with the same blood-pressure control, in reducing proteinuria, limiting GFR decline, and preventing endstage renal disease. (nih.gov)
  • In chronic nephropathies with proteinuria of 3 g or more per 24 h, ramipril safely reduces proteinuria and the rate of GFR decline to an extent that seems to exceed the reduction expected for the degree of blood-pressure lowering. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which is mostly carried in blood by IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), was associated to the glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease in a multiethnic study among US adults. (springer.com)
  • Apart from chronic kidney disease (CKD) with slow deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the other forms of kidney involvement in SSc are: scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), which affects about 10% of SSc patients, normotensive SRC, microalbuminuria, proteinuria and rather rare vasculitis [3, 4]. (termedia.pl)
  • The study investigated plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine (PECCT), exo-iohexol (PexICT) and endo-iohexol (PenICT) in six healthy cats, four cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and six hyperthyroid (HT) cats to assess potential differences in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement over a wide range of GFR values. (avmi.net)
  • Chronic kidney disease, most commonly defined by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or abnormal concentrations of proteinuria, or both, is an important public health problem, affecting 10-15% of the adult general population. (bmj.com)
  • Effective June 24, 2019, PathGroup will begin calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation instead of the previously utilized Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. (pathgroup.com)
  • Recent developments in the evaluation of glomerular filtration rate: is there a place for [beta]-trace? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Evaluation of glomerular filtration rate and of albuminuria/proteinuria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We compared the results of Tc-99 evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) vs. the calculation of the creatinine clearance (CCrC) as a predictor for the development of renal insufficiency in pediatric patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (northwestern.edu)
  • Laboratory protocols and methods for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The gold standards for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are inulin clearance and radioisotopic methods. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) represents the best overall index of kidney function (1), and the National Kidney Foundation has recommended that clinical laboratories routinely report an estimate of GFR (1,2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Context Guidelines recommend that laboratories estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with equations that use serum creatinine level, age, sex, and ethnicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In their study of prognostic factors for new-onset kidney disease in community-dwelling individuals, Dr Fox and colleagues 1 used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study formula to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). (jamanetwork.com)
  • The VBAC is used to estimate success rates for vaginal birth among expectant mothers with histories of previous cesarean delivery and is used by clinicians to counsel whether to offer trials of labor or repeat cesarean section. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) and albuminuria contribute to higher risks for all-cause death and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • All of the estimating equations depends on a prediction of the 24-hour creatinine excretion rate, which is a function of muscle mass. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The glomerular filtration rate can be estimated using prediction equations that take into account the serum creatinine level and some or all of specific variables (age, sex, race, body size). (aafp.org)
  • This study was conducted to compare the accuracy Cockcroft Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equations for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in Nepalese population. (nepjol.info)
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate was measured as creatinine clearance from 24 hour timed urinary collections and estimated using both the Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equations for all the patients. (nepjol.info)
  • Bragadottir and colleagues found utilization of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)estimating equations of limited value, no value or perhaps even negative value inintensive care unit (ICU) acute kidney injury (AKI) patients [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The beneficial effect of intensive therapy on the risk of an impaired GFR was fully attenuated after adjustment for glycated hemoglobin levels or albumin excretion rates. (nih.gov)
  • Since inulin is neither reabsorbed nor secreted by the kidney after glomerular filtration, its rate of excretion is directly proportional to the rate of filtration of water and solutes across the glomerular filter. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Glomerular filtration rate was higher after red meat intake and postprandial urea excretion was similar after either treatment. (gsajournals.org)
  • Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N'-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Jacobs C., Nicolay D., Grellet J., Curet P., Jardin A. (1987) Effects of Intravenous Infusion of Urographic Contrast Agents on Glomerular Filtration Rate, Serum Concentration and Urinary Excretion of Uric Acid in Subjects with Normal Renal Function. (springer.com)
  • This is the first step in the process of ultrafiltration, or glomerular filtration which removes the waste for excretion as urine. (thefreecalculator.com)
  • glomerular filtration rate ( GFR ) The volume of fluid (see glomerular filtrate ) that is filtered from the capillaries of the glomeruli into the kidney tubules per unit time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The forces that govern filtration in the glomerular capillaries are the same as any capillary bed. (statpearls.com)
  • In the advanced stage of hypertension, due to the narrow nature of the lesion of the arterial generator, it can also reduce the blood pressure of the glomerular capillaries, and cause the decrease of glomerular filtration rate, resulting in oliguria and even urine. (kidneytcm.org)
  • The rate is, in part, a measurement of pressure from the renal glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's Capsule within a certain time, where the Bowman's capsule is the point where the fluid is transferred from the capillaries into the nephrons. (thefreecalculator.com)
  • The increase of plasma colloid osmotic pressure is closely related to glomerular plasma flow. (kidneytcm.org)
  • In diabetic nephropathy, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have a greater effect than other antihypertensive drugs on proteinuria and the progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). (nih.gov)
  • Male obese ZSF-1 rats represent an important DN model, manifesting key pathophysiological features including metabolic syndrome, proteinuria, progressive tubular and glomerular fibrosis, and transient hyperfiltration followed by progressive decline in renal function. (figshare.com)
  • Krishnan A, Levin A. Laboratory assessment of kidney disease: glomerular filtration rate, urinalysis, and proteinuria. (adam.com)
  • Creatinine clearance rate ( C Cr ) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Hence, the more accurate Glomerular filtration rate or its approximation of the creatinine clearance are measured whenever renal disease is suspected or careful dosing of nephrotoxic drugs is required. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or creatinine clearance are frequently used as indicators to evaluate renal function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In many patients, estimates of the glomerular filtration rate can replace 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance measurements. (aafp.org)
  • The creatinine clearance rate at admission was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation, and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, coronary anatomy (from angiography), type of revascularization, maximum cardiac enzyme levels, left ventricular ejection fraction and, ultimately, in-hospital mortality were recorded. (revespcardiol.org)
  • The median serum creatinine level on admission was 0.98 mg/dL (0.9-1.1 mg/dL) and the median creatinine clearance rate was 81.29 mL/min (61.2-98.4 mL/min). (revespcardiol.org)
  • A linked measure, the Creatinine Clearance Rate (CCR) is the volume of blood plasma which is effectively cleaned of the waste product, creatinine in a certain time. (thefreecalculator.com)
  • Sequential changes in glomerular filtration rate during development of hypertension in the conscious Dahl salt-sensitive rats were determined using a new method for measurement. (ahajournals.org)
  • To evaluate changes in glomerular filtration rate in acute gastroenteritis. (ovid.com)
  • Experiments prove that the change of glomerular capillary blood pressure, blood pressure in the arteries of 10.7 ~ 24.0kPa (80 ~ 180mmHg) range, renal blood flow autoregulation has remained relatively stable, no significant changes in glomerular capillary pressure. (kidneytcm.org)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates from serum creatinine has not been generalizable across all populations. (nih.gov)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculator,estimates the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney using Jelliffe method. (easycalculation.com)
  • Estimates of the glomerular filtration rate are subscientific. (healthtap.com)
  • These lower estimates may discourage health providers from offering trials of vaginal labor to expectant women of color, although the health benefits of vaginal birth (lower rates of surgical complication, faster recovery, fewer complication in later pregnancies) have been well documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glomerular filtration rate estimated by cystatin C among different clinical presentations. (nih.gov)
  • Calculation of glomerular filtration rate using serum cystatin C in kidney transplant recipients. (nih.gov)
  • Cystatin C--a new marker of glomerular filtration rate in children independent of age and height. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serum level of cystatin C, which measures renal function, was a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events and of mortality in a study of elderly subjects than were creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate , according to Michael G. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cystatin C is an alternative filtration marker for estimating GFR. (nih.gov)
  • as a first-line test to assess kidney function and using cystatin C or measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as confirmatory tests. (gsajournals.org)
  • Aim The aim of this study was to determine the gender differences in serum Cr, cystatin C, and other endogenous glomerular filtration rate (GFR) biomarkers, measured and estimated GFR, Cr clearance, and Cr production rates. (deepdyve.com)
  • Methods We measured GFR by iothalamate plasma clearance in 103 patients with cirrhosis and assessed gender differences in GFR, Cr clearance and production rate, serum Cr, cystatin C and other endogenous GFR biomarkers including beta-trace protein, beta-2 microglobulin, and dimethylarginines. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast to the serum Cr and Cr production rate, men and women exhibited no significant differences in the means of serum cystatin C and other GFR biomarkers, measured GFR, GFR estimated using Cr-cystatin C GFR equation for cirrhosis, measured and estimated Cr clearances. (deepdyve.com)
  • An impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as a sustained estimated GFR of less than 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m 2 of body-surface area. (nih.gov)
  • We defined the initiation of dialysis as early if the estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater than 10.5 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . (cmaj.ca)
  • Mean glomerular filtration rate was 15.5 (SD 7.7) mL/min per 1.73 m 2 among those with early initiation and 7.1 (SD 2.0) mL/min per 1.73 m 2 among those with late initiation. (cmaj.ca)
  • To develop a clinically actionable predictive model to quantitate the risk of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline to ≤45 ml/min/1.73m2 following radical nephrectomy in order to better inform decisions between radical and partial nephrectomy. (urotoday.com)
  • Results - The mean glomerular filtration rate estimated from the Cockcroft Gault equation was 51.29 ml/min/1.73sqm and mean glomerular filtration rate estimated from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was 48.41 ml/min/1.73sqm whereas the mean measured GFR was 53.30ml/ min/1.73sqm. (nepjol.info)
  • With loss of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) the renalreserve may be first lost, reducing the maximally stimulated GFR.Thereafter, as the GFR is lost the serum creatinine (SCr) does not riseuntil the GFR is reduced to around 50 to 60 ml/minute/1.73 m 2 .Therefore, up to two-thirds of the patient's original GFR has beenlost before changes in SCr occur. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CKD is defined by the presence of kidney damage or a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 for 3 or more months, irrespective of cause [ 2 ]. (kjim.org)
  • The median rate age-related GFR decline is 0.75 to 1.00 mL/min/1.73 m 2 per 1 year [ 3 ]. (kjim.org)
  • With simple precautions, the single injection method with inulin is suitable for routine estimation of the glomerular filtration rate. (portlandpress.com)
  • In patients with acute coronary syndrome and a normal creatinine level on admission, estimation of the glomerular filtration rate provided important information on short-term prognosis. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Introduction - Estimation of glomerular filtration is of utmost importance in clinical practice. (nepjol.info)
  • We conclude that the observed reduction of glomerular filtration rate was a consequence and not a cause of the hypertension and that this noninvasive approach could be used in these conscious Dahl salt-sensitive rats for a longitudinal assessment of renal function. (ahajournals.org)
  • The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. (osapublishing.org)
  • The study aimed to further understand the relevance of this model to DN, for which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal fibrosis and several urinary/tissue biomarkers was followed over 24 weeks in ZSF-1 rats. (figshare.com)
  • Tubulointerstitial/glomerular fibrosis in male obese rats was significantly elevated by week 12 post surgery and continued to expand in the ensuing weeks, particularly in uninephrectomized rats. (figshare.com)
  • Randomised placebo-controlled trial of effect of ramipril on decline in glomerular filtration rate and risk of terminal renal failure in proteinuric, non-diabetic nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • The primary endpoint was the rate of GFR decline. (nih.gov)
  • Prediction of Significant Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Decline Following Renal Unit Removal to Aid in the Clinical Choice between Radical and Partial Nephrectomy in Patients with Renal Mass and Normal Renal Function. (urotoday.com)
  • Several studies have shown that long-term lithium use is associated with a subtle decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result of reduced glomerular capillary pressure, ACEIs may reduce GFR in patients with CKD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But if the arterial blood pressure decreased to 10.7kPa (80mmHg) below (such as bleeding), beyond the autoregulation of renal blood flow, glomerular capillary pressure will decrease, reduce the effective filtration pressure, glomerular filtration rate decreased when oliguria, arterial blood pressure dropped to 5.3 ~ 6.7kPa (40 ~ 50mmHg). (kidneytcm.org)
  • Selection of routine method for determination of glomerular filtration rate in adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from fractional renal accumulation of iodinated. (deepdyve.com)
  • Home Research Outputs Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate by Controlled In. (lu.se)
  • OBJECTIVE- Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used to assess the progression of renal disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy varies greatly among individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate From a Panel of Filtration Markers-Hope for Increased Accuracy Beyond Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate? (gsajournals.org)
  • Measured GFR is not practical and is susceptible to error due to variation in clearance methods and in the behavior of exogenous filtration markers. (gsajournals.org)
  • Second, as a result of reduction in vasodilatory prostaglandins, NSAIDs can constrict the renal afferent arteriole leading to reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and in extreme cases acute kidney injury (AKI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate renal dysfunction by studying glomerular filtration rate (GFR), microalbuminuria, and microscopic examination of urine. (hindawi.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the long-term course of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria in order to identify patients with stable or declining kidney function over a 5-year study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accurate, direct measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may provide a tool to monitor perioperative onset of rapidly changing renal function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Because of the many difficulties in performing serial measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by use of exogenous substances such as inulin, [sup. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glomerular filtration rate measurements in clinical trials. (asnjournals.org)
  • In Study I, we evaluated the assessment of kidney function during donor evaluation and found that the accuracy of iohexol glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is compromised by large variations in repeated measurements in presumably healthy donors. (diva-portal.org)
  • There is a close association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR), tubular sodium reabsorption and renal oxygen consumption (RVO2) in humans. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Carlo Donadio, Cristina Consani, Michela Ardini, Francesca Caprio, Giulia Grassi and Annalisa Lucchesi, " Prediction of Glomerular Filtration Rate From Body Cell Mass and Plasma Creatinine", Current Drug Discovery Technologies (2004) 1: 221. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our objective is to monitor glomerular filtration rate (GFR)during the perioperative phase of patients undergoing robotic surgery for rectum or large bowel cancers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is generally accepted as the best overall index of renal function. (diva-portal.org)
  • Determine which stage of kidney disease you're in by calculating a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and start managing your health. (davita.com)
  • Your glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-considered by medical professionals to be the best measure of kidney function-lets kidney care experts figure out your stage of kidney disease. (davita.com)
  • The primary endpoint of the study was the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which was estimated from the plasma clearance of iohexol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An additional problem with serum creatinine as a marker of kidney function in casesof AKI is the slow rate of rise to an equilibrium state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum creatinine is an insensitive marker of the glomerular filtrationrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Short-term effects of protein intake, blood pressure, and antihypertensive therapy on glomerular filtration rate in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. (asnjournals.org)
  • The basement membrane also restricts by size (approximately 1 kDa) and by charge, since the negative charge of basement membrane protein repels other proteins but favors filtration of cations. (statpearls.com)
  • For the kidney, flow (J) is positive, favoring filtration, meaning that plasma flows from higher hydrostatic pressure in the capillary to lower hydrostatic pressure in the tubular space, despite the unfavorable oncotic gradient (there is higher protein concentration in the capillary). (statpearls.com)
  • Only when the plasma protein concentration decreased, the plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased, so that the effective filtration pressure and filtration rate increased, and the urine volume increased. (kidneytcm.org)
  • The GFR is usually estimated by injecting the polysaccharide inulin into the bloodstream, measuring the rate at which it appears in the urine, and dividing this by the inulin concentration in plasma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The rate therefore measured is the quantity of the substance in the urine that originated from a calculable volume of blood. (thefullwiki.org)
  • It can be calculated for any substance given steady-state, known concentrations as [urine concentration] x (urine flow rate) / [plasma concentration], or more simply, C = UV/P. Therefore, it is an indicator of GFR (also ml per minute) for solutes that are freely filtered (not size/charge restricted) and which are not significantly reabsorbed, secreted, synthesized or metabolized in the kidney. (statpearls.com)
  • This shows that the regulation of glomerular filtration function is realized through the regulation of renal blood flow, in order to ensure the normal functioning of the body in the physiological state of urine. (kidneytcm.org)
  • The investigators also found that reduced glomerular filtration rate ranked below high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose, but was similar to high total cholesterol, as a risk factor for disability-adjusted life years. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Model 2 (Age, Sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, glomerular filtration rate) had better discrimination (χ 2 = 10.87, AUC = 0.79) than Model 1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate were measured at regular time intervals before, during, and after GFR calculations. (avmi.net)
  • If blood backs up that means so do these guys, so then they're going to be filtered through these holes and collected into Bowman's space, so our filtration rate will increase, it will increase because there's a lot of backup that allows more time for filtration. (khanacademy.org)
  • glomerular filtration rate ( GFR ) (glom- e -roo-ler) n. the rate at which substances are filtered from the blood of the glomeruli into the Bowman's capsules of the nephrons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) represents the flow of plasma from the glomerulus into Bowman's space over a specified period and is the chief measure of kidney function. (statpearls.com)
  • Capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pc) and Bowman's space oncotic pressure (πi) favor filtration into the tubule, and Bowman's space hydrostatic pressure (Pi) and capillary-oncotic pressure (πc) oppose filtration. (statpearls.com)
  • Intensive diabetes therapy and glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • It is not possible to raise one's glomerular filtration rate, or GFR, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (reference.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cigarette smoking and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a large cross-sectional study carried out in male subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 70 mL/min will cause an overload of the tubular reabsorption capacity for [alpha]1M (10), and the [alpha]1M concentration in the plasma will increase with increasingly restricted filtration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serum creatinine concentration is widely used as an index of renal function, but this concentration is affected by factors other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). (annals.org)
  • In a person with impaired kidney function , the glomerular filtration rate decreases which can cause waste products to build up in the blood. (requestatest.com)
  • when the arterial blood pressure decreased the goal, arterial wall diastolic blood flow resistance decreases, the blood flow of the glomerular capillary is not reduced, the blood pressure is not reduced, and no obvious change of effective filtration pressure and glomerular filtration rate. (kidneytcm.org)
  • on the contrary, glomerular plasma flow decreases, the effective length of glomerular filtrate formation shortened, filtration rate decreased. (kidneytcm.org)
  • Where Kf is the filtration coefficient, and σ is the reflection coefficient, both inherent and fixed values of the epithelium. (statpearls.com)
  • Sex- and age-adjusted mortality and incidence rates were estimated in the groups using Poisson's regression analysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The lowest mortality rate was found in G2. (ahajournals.org)
  • In-hospital mortality (%) with respect to glomerular filtration rate. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Glomerular filtration rate, previous coronary disease, Killip class on admission, and the need for intraaortic balloon counterpulsation were found to be independent predictors of mortality. (revespcardiol.org)
  • These race/ethnicity associations have been challenged by health providers since they have not been thoroughly supported by biology and are concerning as black women have higher rates of maternal mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • That means that our filtration rate will decrease, because the blood is moving away from the place that it would be filtered. (khanacademy.org)
  • If we decrease the amount of runners or blood that can come into the glomerulus, that means there's going to be less fluid filtered out, so a lower filtration rate. (khanacademy.org)
  • The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) is a control unit of the kidney, that regulates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renin release, and hence extracellular volume and blood pressure. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate is often included as part of routine general health blood work. (requestatest.com)
  • Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, renal blood flow, and superior mesenteric blood flow (SMABF) were measured at 48 h. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Self regulation under normal circumstances because of renal blood flow, glomerular plasma flow remained relatively stable, only in the human body for strenuous exercise or in large blood loss, severe hypoxia and other pathological conditions, due to enhanced sympathetic nerve activity, renal vasoconstriction, the renal blood flow and glomerular plasma flow was significantly reduced, caused by glomerular filtration rate decreased. (kidneytcm.org)
  • Relation Between Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Composition of Coronary Arterial Atherosclerotic Plaques. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of the glomerular filtration rate in patients with acute coronary syndrome and a normal baseline creatinine level. (revespcardiol.org)
  • 1. Variations in the glomerular filtration rate ( G.F.R. ) and the renal tubular reabsorption of water are probably important factors in the homoiostatic mechanisms associated with the euryhalinity of the rainbow trout ( Salmo gairdneri ). (biologists.org)
  • In addition, some drugs, such as some sulfanilamide, easy in tubular fluid in the acidic environment of crystallization break out, excessive hemolysis of the filtrate to hemoglobin containing or certain diseases, the drug can block the renal tubular crystals or hemoglobin caused by pressure increased, leading to glomerular filtration rate and effective filtration pressure drop. (kidneytcm.org)
  • 1,25(OH) 2 D, among its numerous other actions, increases intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption and calcium reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. (springer.com)
  • A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. (osapublishing.org)