Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.CreatinineKidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Iothalamic Acid: A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Renal Plasma Flow: The amount of PLASMA that perfuses the KIDNEYS per unit time, approximately 10% greater than effective renal plasma flow (RENAL PLASMA FLOW, EFFECTIVE). It should be differentiated from the RENAL BLOOD FLOW; (RBF), which refers to the total volume of BLOOD flowing through the renal vasculature, while the renal plasma flow refers to the rate of plasma flow (RPF).Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Punctures: Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Ficoll: A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Chromium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Puromycin Aminonucleoside: PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Glomerular Filtration Barrier: A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Shwartzman Phenomenon: Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Aminohippuric Acids: A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Renal Plasma Flow, Effective: The amount of PLASMA flowing to the parts of the KIDNEY that function in the production of urine. It is the amount of plasma perfusing the KIDNEY TUBULES per unit time, generally measured by P-AMINOHIPPURATE clearance. It should be differentiated from RENAL PLASMA FLOW which is approximately 10% greater than the effective renal plasma flow.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: An autoimmune disease of the KIDNEY and the LUNG. It is characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeting the epitopes in the non-collagenous domains of COLLAGEN TYPE IV in the basement membranes of kidney glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) and lung alveoli (PULMONARY ALVEOLI), and the subsequent destruction of these basement membranes. Clinical features include pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Nephrosis: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Nephrosis, Lipoid: A kidney disease with no or minimal histological glomerular changes on light microscopy and with no immune deposits. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the epithelial cells of KIDNEY TUBULES and in the URINE. Patients usually show NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA with accompanying EDEMA.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cardio-Renal Syndrome: Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).Iodohippuric Acid: An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Hemangioma, Capillary: A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Glomerulonephritis, IGA: A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Hyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Thrombotic Microangiopathies: Diseases that result in THROMBOSIS in MICROVASCULATURE. The two most prominent diseases are PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC; and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME. Multiple etiological factors include VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL damage due to SHIGA TOXIN; FACTOR H deficiency; and aberrant VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR formation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Natriuretic Agents: Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.TetrazolesSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An important measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the volume of fluid filtered from the ... To measure this parameter, a marker substance is injected into the blood stream, and its rate of excretion in urine is compared ... glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per time unit. ... "Glomerular Filtration Rate" B. Watschinger und I. Kobinger: ... T. Buclin, A. Pechere-Bertschi, R. Sechaud et al.: Sinistrin clearance for determination of glomerular filtration rate: a ...
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the ... urine flow rate (Vdt), and the plasma concentration (PCr). Since the product of urine concentration and urine flow rate yields ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is equal to the Clearance Rate when any solute is freely filtered and is neither reabsorbed ...
... and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Glomerular hyperfiltration and an aberrant regulation of RAAS lead to increased ... causing capillary hypertension; and damage to the glomerular capillaries of multiple causes, including mesangial matrix ... Protein loss in the urine due to damage to the glomeruli may become massive, and cause a low serum albumin with resulting ... "Glomerular filtration rate: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-02.. ...
... is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The glomerulus is a tuft of small blood vessels called capillaries located within ... finally exiting into a renal calyx as urine. The main function of the glomerulus is to filter plasma to produce glomerular ... GFR is the glomerular filtration rate. Kf is the filtration coefficient - a proportionality constant Pgc is the glomerular ... The rate at which the glomerulus produces filtrate from plasma (the glomerular filtration rate) is much higher than in systemic ...
... increasing glomerular pressure. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is thus maintained, and blood filtration can continue ... Because the filtration fraction has increased, there is less plasma fluid in the downstream peritubular capillaries. This in ... In exchange for the reabsorbing of sodium to blood, potassium is secreted into the tubules, becomes part of urine and is ... modified pericytes in the glomerular capillary) release the enzyme renin.. *Renin cleaves a decapeptide from angiotensinogen, a ...
This in turn leads to a smaller glomerular filtration rate, and on the whole, less water is transferred from the blood to the ... Such xerocoles have adapted to make their urine as concentrated as possible (i.e. use the least amount of water) to dissolve ... glomeruli being capillary networks where both fluid and waste are extracted from blood). ... The Australian water-holding frog conserves water by retaining urine in the bladder, swelling up like a balloon; it then uses ...
Pressure in glomerular capillaries is therefore maintained and glomerular filtration rate remains adequate. However, in states ... for the osmotic isolation of the inner medulla from the rest of the kidney and so permits the excretion of a hypertonic urine ... This will decrease the glomerular filtration rate, depending on the level of oncotic increase in the capillaries, resulting in ... They play an important role in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate despite fluctuations in blood pressure. In the ...
... s are also involved in regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When podocytes contract, they cause closure of ... Adjacent podocytes interdigitate to cover the basal lamina which is intimately associated with the glomerular capillaries. The ... Konieczny, A; Ryba, M; Wartacz, J; Czyżewska-Buczyńska, A; Hruby, Z; Witkiewicz, W (2013). "Podocytes in urine, a novel ... podocytes and glomerular capillaries" UIUC Histology Subject 1400 podocyte.ca at Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute Physiology ...
A decrease in glomerular filtration rate is related to aging and this results in decreasing efficiency of sodium excretion. The ... concentrated urine, and thirst with higher intake of water. Also, the water movement between cells and the interstitium plays a ... developing of certain diseases such as renal microvascular disease and capillary rarefaction may relate to this decrease in ... Cardiac output is determined by stroke volume and heart rate; stroke volume is related to myocardial contractility and to the ...
Common raven physiology
Once the kidneys receive blood, filtration of substances from the blood into urine takes place. The glomerular filtration rate ... and the vascular capillaries depends upon the ventilation rate and air that is already inhaled. Like all avian species, the ... Urine of birds is typically concentrated to an osmolarity that is two to three times the osmolarity of plasma. Glomerular ... These two functions of AVT allow birds to maintain a concentrated urine. Avian kidneys do not send urine to a bladder. Instead ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide
This increases pressure in the glomerular capillaries, increasing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), resulting in an ... when rat atrial extracts were found to contain a substance that increased salt and urine output in the kidney. Later, the ... This increases pressure in the glomerular capillaries, thus increasing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), resulting in ... Dilates the afferent glomerular arteriole, constricts the efferent glomerular arteriole, and relaxes the mesangial cells. ...
Nitrate is cleared from the plasma by the kidney at rates approaching the rate of glomerular filtration. As a result of its ... Most of it moves across the pulmonary capillary bed where it combines with hemoglobin that is 60% to 100% oxygen-saturated. ... Nitrate has been identified as the predominant nitric oxide metabolite excreted in the urine, accounting for >70% of the nitric ... Nitric oxide/oxygen blends are used in critical care to promote capillary and pulmonary dilation to treat primary pulmonary ...
"Glomerular filtration rate: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-02.. ... causing capillary hypertension; and damage to the glomerular capillaries of multiple causes, including mesangial matrix ... The status of DN may be monitored by measuring two values: the amount of protein in the urine - proteinuria; and a blood test ... The value of the serum creatinine can be used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which reflects the ...
The diagnosis of AKI encompasses tests of the blood, urine, and imaging of the kidneys. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is ... manifest by low glomerular blood flow or perfusion pressure to the renal capillary system, hypoxic injury to the renal ... and rate of excretion by the kidney itself. The rate of urine production (i.e., urine output) is also interpreted as a marker ... Based on GFR, serum creatinine values, and urine output plotted against time of admission, RIFLE, a mnemonic for three levels ...
... and its analog sinistrin are used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ... glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. Inulin is of particular use as it is not secreted or reabsorbed ... Of note, the clearance of PAH is reflective only of RPF to portions of the kidney that deal with urine formation, and, thus, ... Physiology: 7/7ch04/7ch04p11 - Essentials of Human Physiology - "Glomerular Filtration Rate" Saad, N.; C. Delattre; M. Urdaci; ...
A global assessment of renal function is often ascertained by estimating the rate of filtration, called the glomerular ... and because the body is reclaiming them from a postglomerular fluid stream that is well on its way to becoming urine (that is, ... which is a tubular structure lined by a single layer of specialized cells and surrounded by capillaries. The major functions of ... That is: Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate - Reabsorption rate + Secretion rate Although the strictest sense of the word ...
The glomerular filtrate next moves to the renal tubule, where it is further processed to form urine. The different stages of ... which also contains mesangial cells supporting these capillaries. These components function as the filtration unit and make up ... Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, ... The four mechanisms used to create and process the filtrate (the result of which is to convert blood to urine) are filtration, ...
The four mechanisms used to create and process the filtrate (the result of which is to convert blood to urine) are filtration, ... About one-fifth of the plasma is filtered as the blood passes through the glomerular capillaries; four-fifths continues into ... Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, ... The filtering structure (glomerular filtration barrier) has three layers composed of endothelial cells, a basement membrane, ...
Beneath the visceral layer lie the glomerular capillaries. Filtration barrier-The filtration barrier is ... or glomerular filtration), and the normal rate of filtration is 125 ml/min, equivalent to 80 times the daily blood volume.[ ... tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A ... Measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a diagnostic test of kidney function. A decreased GFR may be ...
Hypertensive kidney disease
... which causes glomerular collapse (wrinkling and thickening of capillary basement membranes and collapse of capillary lumen) and ... "Normal variations in rate of albumin excretion and albumin to creatinine ratios in overnight and daytime urine collections in ... a network of dense capillaries that carries out the kidney filtration process, is affected; with one theory identifying ... Protein in the urine (proteinuria) is best identified from a 24-hour urine collection. Bilateral renal artery stenosis should ...
... and the glomerular filtration rate and the tubular reabsorption rate, for the kidney. A physiologic interpretation of clearance ... Clearance is a function of glomerular filtration, secretion from the peritubular capillaries to the nephron, and re-absorption ... CU is the urine concentration [mmol/L] (in the USA often [mg/mL]) Q is the urine flow (volume/time) [mL/min] (often [mL/24 h]) ... the calculated clearance is equivalent to the glomerular filtration rate. Inulin clearance is also used to estimate glomerular ...
Lipiduria or loss of lipids in the urine is indicative of glomerular pathology due to an increase in the filtration of ... It is characterized clinically by a rapid decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by at least 50% over a short period ... HIV: the virus' antigens provoke an obstruction in the glomerular capillary's lumen that alters normal kidney function. ... This pronounced loss of proteins is due to an increase in glomerular permeability that allows proteins to pass into the urine ...
Increased glomerular filtration rates during pregnancy contribute to some 50% of women having glucose in their urine on ... Target ranges advised by the Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society are as follows: fasting capillary blood glucose levels ... This test will identify fewer women who are at risk, and there is only a weak concordance (agreement rate) between this test ... Women with GDM may have high glucose levels in their urine (glucosuria). Although dipstick testing is widely practiced, it ...
... which is nearly equal to the entire sodium content in human blood under normal glomerular filtration rates. Aldosterone, ... In other words, these drugs stimulate the excretion of sodium and water in urine, while they block the excretion of potassium. ... from angiotensin II must take place indirectly from decreased blood flow through the liver due to constriction of capillaries. ... Aldosterone is increased at low sodium intakes, but the rate of increase of plasma aldosterone as potassium rises in the serum ...
Hypertensive kidney disease
Patient prognosis is dependent on numerous factors including age, ethnicity, blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. ... which causes glomerular collapse (wrinkling and thickening of capillary basement membranes and collapse of capillary lumen) and ... Protein in the urine (proteinuria) is best identified from a 24-hour urine collection. ... Glomerular hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration. An alternative mechanism of hypertensive nephropathy is prolonged ...
... decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], abnormal urinalysis); and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (e.g., diarrhea ... HUS develops about 5-10 days after onset of diarrhea, with decreased urine output (oliguria), blood in the urine (hematuria), ... The arterioles and capillaries of the body become obstructed by the resulting complexes of activated platelets, which have ... Patients with aHUS and ESRD have also had to undergo lifelong dialysis, which has a 5-year survival rate of 34-38%. In recent ...
... increases glomerular filtration rate without increasing intra-glomerular pressure and filtration fraction. This ... No significant amount of unchanged drug was excreted in urine. In the urine collected for 24 h after an oral dosing, 1.1 % of ... Efonidipine equalizes the hydrostatic pressure across the capillary bed through equal arteriolar and venular dilatation, thus ... The negative chronotropic effect of Efonidipine decreases heart rate, myocardial oxygen demand and increases coronary blood ...
... diel variation in glomerular filtration rate in Selasphorus platycercus". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 207 (25): 4383- ... While capillary action was believed to be what drew nectar into these tubes, high-speed photography has revealed that the tubes ... "The ability of rufous hummingbirds Selasphorus rufus to dilute and concentrate urine". Journal of Avian Biology. 35: 54-62. doi ... hummingbird kidneys process water via glomerular filtration rates (GFR) in amounts proportional to water consumption, thereby ...
Benign and malignant nephrosclerosis differ in the rate of progressive hardening of renal arterioles.… Malignant ... In order to reduce the glomerular filtration rate and to prevent excess loss of electrolytes and tubular overloads, afferent ... They usually smell like urine (uremic fetor). Assessment of renal function is based on laboratory analysis of blood and urine ... Because arteries and, in decreasing order, arterioles and capillaries are more severely affected by systemic hypertension than ...
Acute kidney injury: an overview of pathophysiology and treatments. - Free Online Library
If the blood flow is reduced, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) drops, decreasing urine output and filtration, and ... The glomerular capillaries are supplied by the afferent arteriole; blood then flows out of the glomerular capillaries via the ... Glomerular Filtration Rate Urine Output Criteria Criteria RISK Increased creatinine x 1.5 Urine output less than 0.5 or GFR ... which results in decreased glomerular capillary filtration pressure (Porth, 2007). Tubular injury is frequently reversible if ...
Refresher of M1 Renal Physiology Flashcards by Victor Redmon | Brainscape
What are the physical forces causing filtration by glomerular capillaries and what are their average values? ... Which of the following is more associated with a change in urine output? ... Glomerular Filtration Rate: 125 ml/min. Efferent Plasma Flow: 575 ml/min ... fluid out of the glomerular capillaries and into Bowmans space. Most large proteins, substances bound to protein, and cellular ...
... within glomerular capillary loops and play a role in the physiological regulation of glomerular hemodynamics and filtration (28 ... resulting in a decline of the glomerular filtration rate (11,12). Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic ... At this stage, the kidney may start to excrete albumin in the urine, a condition termed microalbuminuria. As diabetic ... detectable change in the course of diabetic nephropathy is a thickening of the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries, ...
Sinistrin - Wikipedia
An important measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the volume of fluid filtered from the ... To measure this parameter, a marker substance is injected into the blood stream, and its rate of excretion in urine is compared ... glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per time unit. ... "Glomerular Filtration Rate" B. Watschinger und I. Kobinger: ... T. Buclin, A. Pechere-Bertschi, R. Sechaud et al.: Sinistrin clearance for determination of glomerular filtration rate: a ...
Free Veterinary Flashcards about VTNE Ch1 P2
Now called the Glomerular Filtrate; rate at which it is formed is called the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) ... Urine Production: Secretion. Substances are selectivly secreted from peritubular capillaries into the DCT ... Three phases of urine production. Filtration Reabsorption Secretion. Urine Production: Filtration. Blood enters glomerulus by ... substances needed by the body are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate into the peritubular capillaries. ...
The glomerular filtration rate is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule ... Be prepared to describe the narrative of filtration and urine formation with regards to the reabsorption and secretion of water ... The glomerular basement membrane is the basal laminal portion of the glomerulus which performs the actual filtration with the ... Podocytes are cells of the visceral epithelium in the kidneys and form a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier ...
Myeloma kidney | definition of myeloma kidney by Medical dictionary
Blood cells and large proteins are retained within the capillaries. Filtration is a continuous process; the rate varies with ... Formation of Urine. Urine is formed by filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. As blood passes through the glomerulus, water ... As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubules, useful materials such as water, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, ... The urine contains, besides water, a quantity of urea, uric acid, yellow pigments, amino acids, and trace metals. The urine ...
Glomerular filtration rate facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Glomerular filtration rate
Make research projects and school reports about Glomerular filtration rate easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Glomerular filtration rate at Encyclopedia.com. ... glomerular filtration rate (GFR) The volume of fluid (see glomerular filtrate) that is filtered from the capillaries of the ... measuring the rate at which it appears in the urine, and dividing this by the inulin concentration in plasma. Inulin is neither ...
Canada Online Drugstore: Cialis 50 fast delivery!
... next baby.am worried about the glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure inhibition of enzyme activity glomerular filtration ... one to drain urine from the time of glomerular capillaries note a nearby arterial structure a and skaer h the amphibian and a ... as with renal failure is the term opportunistic infection the majority of the glomerular filtration rate falls below the elbow. ... syndrome osteopetrosis associated with glomerular capillary surface area to proximal as shock worsens prolonged capillary ...
Abstracts CPOCT Symposium - AACC.org
Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
... the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is 125 mL/min. The plasma flow rate (Qp) is close to 700 mL/min, with the filtration ... The glomerular filtration barrier consists of the fenestrated capillary endothelium, the extracellular basement membrane, and ... All patients and parents should be trained to monitor first morning urine proteins at home with urine dipstick. Urine testing ... the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is 125 mL/min. The plasma flow rate (Qp) is close to 700 mL/min, with the filtration ...
Two-Point Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate by Iohexol Plasma Disappearance - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... capillary, as well as venous, sampling can be employed . Extrarenal elimination of iohexol in a setting of reduced GFR is ... Iohexol is excreted completely unmetabolized in the urine with 100% recovery within 24 hours after injection . Since ... glomerular filtration rate [ Time Frame: Change from baseline in glomeular filtration rate at different time points after ... Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline in GFR at 80 to 100 days post transplant ]. *Glomerular ...
Glomerular filtration rate : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the ... urine flow rate (V), and the plasma concentration (PCr). Since the product of urine concentration and urine flow rate yields ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr) ... its rate of excretion is directly proportional to the rate of filtration of water and solutes across the glomerular filter. ...
Glomerular filtration rate legal definition of glomerular filtration rate
What is glomerular filtration rate? Meaning of glomerular filtration rate as a legal term. What does glomerular filtration rate ... Definition of glomerular filtration rate in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Capillary electrophoresis method to measure p-aminohippuric acid in urine and plasma for the assessment of renal plasma flow ... Glomerular filtration rate legal definition of glomerular filtration rate https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
A case of swollen hands
... leakage unto the urine and a decrease in urine volume (oliguria). Oliguria which develops as the glomerular filtration rate ( ... The glomerular capillary membrane is similar to that of other capillaries except that it has three major layers instead of the ... The patient persisted with rapidly progressive renal failure, a glomerular filtration rate failing to normalize, persistent ... immune complexes during glomerular filtration due to disrupted barrier function between the capillaries and the Bowmans ...
Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention - Today's Dietitian Magazine
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a calculation of the volume of fluid filtered through these capillaries over time, is ... As kidney function falls, GFR rises.6 Protein in the urine (albuminuria) is also an early sign of kidney disease, indicating ... The cells between the glomerular capillaries (called the mesangial matrix) expand, eventually impinging on the capillaries, the ... 6. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR). National Kidney Foundation website. https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/gfr ...
DiVA - Search result
The efficacy was measured as change in 24-h urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate ... VEGF is secreted in high amounts by podocytes into the primary urine, back-filtered across the glomerular capillary wall to act ... Single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) and/or local filtration flux were manipulated by partial renal mass ablation ... estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss or kidney failure] and the rate of eGFR decline over a follow-up period ...
Glomerulonephritis: Overview | Lecturio Online Medical Library
Study with the help of our exam questions! Filtration process ✓, hematuria ✓, berger disease ✓, nephrotic syndrome ✓, ... The more glomeruli are affected the more overall kidney function is lost with a decreasing glomerular filtration rate.. Note: ... The glomerular basement membrane connects the capillaries and the surrounding Bowmans capsule. It is made up of a dense ... A count of ,5 red blood cells/μl of urine, without any red coloring of the urine, is considered a microhematuria. When there is ...
Focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis - The Clinical Advisor
FSGS frequently presents as nephrotic syndrome, a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), microscopic hematuria, and ... causing increased permeability and injury to the glomerular capillary bundle and podocytes. There are numerous secondary causes ... The best test for monitoring is spot urine protein/creatinine ratio.. E. Common Pitfalls and Side-Effects of Management.. ... MCD is more common in children and affected patients rarely have hypertension or abnormal glomerular filtration rates; MN is ...
Sciences for Health Programs Courses
Describe glomerular filtration rate (GFR), state the average value of GFR.. *Predict how the following factors will increase or ... features that create high glomerular capillary blood pressure and explain why this blood pressure is significant for urine ... Define the processes of capillary filtration and reabsorption and indicate where each occurs in capillaries. ... Define metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate. Describe factors that affect metabolic rate. ...
Renal function - Wikipedia
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the ... urine flow rate (Vdt), and the plasma concentration (PCr). Since the product of urine concentration and urine flow rate yields ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is equal to the Clearance Rate when any solute is freely filtered and is neither reabsorbed ...
Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease
Glomerular filtration rate, GFR. This is the rate (ml/min) at which urine is filtered through the renal glomeruli. GFR is used ... Primary urine. The fluid, which is pressed out of the glomerular capillaries into the space of Bowmans capsule is called ... A kind of sack that surrounds the glomerular capillaries within a glomerulus. The primary urine is pressed out of the ... It is an appropriate measure of GFR (glomerular filtration rate), which is used to estimate kidney function. ...
Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) | Immunopaedia
... leakage unto the urine and a decrease in urine volume (oliguria). Oliguria which develops as the glomerular filtration rate ( ... The glomerular capillary membrane is similar to that of other capillaries except that it has three major layers instead of the ... immune complexes during glomerular filtration due to disrupted barrier function between the capillaries and the Bowmans ... that together form a highly efficient filtration system. Fluid from the glomerular capillaries leaks out across these layers ...
Nephrons separate and recycle resources : Modern Human - AskNature
At a glomerular filtration rate of 125 ml/min., the kidneys produce 180 liters of filtrate daily. Yet the average urine output ... "Tubular reabsorption is the movement of fluid and solutes from the tubular system into the peritubular capillaries. This ... The filtration aspect of the kidney can be thought of as a collection of hundreds of thousands to over a million independent ... More water is also absorbed, so that by the time the filtrate reaches the bladder as fully formed urine, it contains only one ...
Week 13 Objectives Assignment - 6 Define renal clearance and explain how this value summarizes the way a substance is handled...
Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation 2. Compare the intrinsic and extrinsic controls of the glomerular filtration ... 3. Describe the mechanisms underlying water and solute reabsorption from the renal tubules into the peritubular capillaries. 4 ... rate. ... Urine 1. Describe the normal physical and chemical properties ... of urine. s. r. a. Ureters 1. Describe the general location, structure, and function of ureter Urinary Bladder 1. Describe the ...
Lange). Glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the Cockroft-Gault formula. Nonfasting plasma glucose levels before and ... Urine samples. First morning urine samples were collected for determination of microalbuminuria (Micral-Test; Roche Diagnostics ... capillary blood sampling was performed after a 10-h overnight fasting using heparinized glass capillaries. Blood analyses were ... Ventilatory and heart rate responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Thorax 1989;44:251-257pmid: ...
PPT - Pathophysiology Review PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 116403-MTcwZ
capillaries *Filtration of Plasma Glomerular Filtration * Unit Time Rate or (GFR). 75. Objective 4 Identify tests of renal ... polydipsia, low urine specific gravity, low urine osmolality and high-normal plasma osmolality ... the injured glomerular filtration membrane. Basement membrane of the glomerulus looses negative charge. Hypoalbuminemia ensues ... Protein level in urine is gt 3.5 g. Serum albumin decreases, and cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides increase. ...
Anatomical Organization Review Sheet Essay - 1169 Words
... what happened to the glomerular capillary pressure and the glomerular filtration rate? How well did the results compare with ... Compare the urine volume in your baseline data with the urine volume as you increased the blood pressure. How did the urine ... 7. Describe the effect of increasing the efferent radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate ... A C T I V I T Y 2 The Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration 1. As blood pressure increased, ...
Diabetic nephropathy - Wikipedia
... and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Glomerular hyperfiltration and an aberrant regulation of RAAS lead to increased ... causing capillary hypertension; and damage to the glomerular capillaries of multiple causes, including mesangial matrix ... Protein loss in the urine due to damage to the glomeruli may become massive, and cause a low serum albumin with resulting ... "Glomerular filtration rate: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-02.. ...
AlbuminSamplesSecretionBasementNephronHydrostaticCollecting tubulesEndotheliumPodocytesArteriolesPeritubular capillaryFiltrateSolutesMembraneEndothelialPermeabilityMesangialSubstancesUrinaryBarrierHypertensionDecline in glomerular filtNephrotic syndromeTubular ReabsorptionKidney functionEpithelialBowman's CapsuleLoop of HeFormationPassesCapsuleProcessesConsistsProliferationFlowsConcentrationAfferent arterioleStage renal diseaseHemodynamicsSlitsExcreteUltrafiltrationSodium
- The complex mechanics of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion constitute the subject matter of urinary physiology, which has major overlap with important topics from general chemistry. (wikipremed.com)
- Be prepared to describe the narrative of filtration and urine formation with regards to the reabsorption and secretion of water, ions, urea, ammonia, glucose and amino acids. (wikipremed.com)
- The major functions of these lining cells are the reabsorption of water and small molecules from the filtrate into the blood, and the secretion of wastes from the blood into the urine . (wikipedia.org)
- However, in cases of severe renal dysfunction, the creatinine clearance rate will be overestimated because the active secretion of creatinine will account for a larger fraction of the total creatinine cleared. (statemaster.com)
- they cleanse the blood of toxins and balance the constituents of the circulation to homeostatic set points through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. (oregonstate.edu)
- It helps in secretion of urine from the blood plasma that enters into it every minute. (drvikram.com)
- So urine formation is a result of 3 mechanisms filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. (drvikram.com)
- In addition, may also be due to renal ischemia, renal blood perfusion of the afferent arteriole reduced, directly stimulate the juxtaglomerular cell to release renin angiotensin II increased, resulting in contraction of afferent arterioles, decreased glomerular filtration rate and aldosterone secretion, promote sodium and water retention. (tongshanclinic.com)
- Secretion is the process of transporting solutes into the renal tubule so that they can be excreted in the urine. (rnceus.com)
- Secretion allows substances such as hydrogen ions to be eliminated at a rate that exceeds glomerular filtration. (rnceus.com)
- When kidney function becomes compromised by disease, the processes of glomerular filtration and renal tubular reabsorption and secretion become affected. (rnceus.com)
- Urine is formed by filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. (unboundmedicine.com)
- 5. What part of the kidney controls renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion? (studydaddy.com)
- The earliest detectable change in the course of diabetic nephropathy is a thickening of the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries, arterioles, and collecting tubules. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Humps of electron-dense immune-type deposits noted in the glomerular basement membrane overlying the mesangium. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- The glomerular basement membrane connects the capillaries and the surrounding Bowman's capsule. (lecturio.com)
- These nephritogenic antigens are thought to mediate damage to the glomerular basement membrane which disrupts the filtering function and allows antigens to cross into the Bowman's space. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Alternatively antibodies bind to free antigen already trapped in the glomerular basement membrane to form "in situ" immune complexes during glomerular filtration due to disrupted barrier function between the capillaries and the Bowman's capsule. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- The (1) endothelium, (2) basement membrane and (3) layer of epithelial cells (continuous with the epithelium lining the Bowman's capsule) known as podocytes, that surround the outer surface of the capillary basement membrane. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Each component brings its own unique function- the endothelium is fenestrated, the basement membrane has a negative electrical charge and prevents the passage of plasma proteins and the podocyte foot processes form slit-pores - that together form a highly efficient filtration system. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- The basement membrane also restricts by size (approximately 1 kDa) and by charge, since the negative charge of basement membrane protein repels other proteins but favors filtration of cations. (statpearls.com)
- A thin basement membrane lies between the glomerular endothelium and the podocytes. (oregonstate.edu)
- The measurement of glomerular basement membrane components and glycated albumin as improved markers of incipient diabetic nephropathy. (ukzn.ac.za)
- Diabetes causes early structural changes to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), which alters its function and leads to loss of protein in urine. (ukzn.ac.za)
- A prospective study was undertaken at the Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH) to evaluate the relationship of serum glycated albumin, urinary and serum components of capillary basement membrane and DN in South African Black and Indian patients with type 1 diabetes. (ukzn.ac.za)
- In case of high blood pressure, when excess blood is pumped by heart every minute it exerts more pressure on the glomerular basement membrane to pass excess of plasma and hence the basement membrane gets filled with a lot of trashy substances that create damage to the membrane. (drvikram.com)
- Introduction The basement membrane of the glomerular capillaries of the mammalian kidney has been a favorite object for studies on the structure, function, and composition of basement membranes because of its important physiological role in glomerular filtration of macromolecules and because it is often. (23bjz.tk)
- The middle layer, the capillary basement membrane , is a gel-like acellular meshwork of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, with a structure like a kitchen sponge. (tomhsiung.com)
- In order to facilitate diagnosis, researchers have speculated that some markers, such as components of the glomerular basement membrane, cytokines, receptors, and matrix components, as well as their soluble forms and oxidative stress markers, could be potential future diagnostic tools for FSGS (summarized in Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
- Fluids and dissolved salts in the blood pass through the walls of the capillaries and are collected within the malpighian capsule , the central capsule of each nephron. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Each nephron begins with a filtration component that filters the blood entering the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
- This filtrate then flows along the length of the nephron, which is a tubular structure lined by a single layer of specialized cells and surrounded by capillaries . (wikipedia.org)
- Filtration is carried out in a special compartment called the nephron and in humans, the number of nephrons in each kidney ranges from 200,000 to 2.5 million. (edu.au)
- Each nephron has a vascular (capillary) component and a tubular component. (healthdocbox.com)
- Cells of the PCT are very metabolically active have a brush border for absorption at this high rate cytoplasm very eosinophilic more than any cells of the rest of the nephron. (healthdocbox.com)
- The rate of filtration in each nephron is a function of hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries, hydrostatic pressure from the ultrafiltrate in Bowman's space, mean colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries, colloid osmotic pressure of the ultrafiltrate in Bowman's space, and the properties of the filtering membrane. (veteriankey.com)
- A functional part of the nephron because of their role in urine concentration, ion salvaging, and acid-base balance. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- Compare and contrast composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate.The remainder of the nephron, the renal tubule, The remainder of the nephron, the renal tubule. (23bjz.tk)
- The renal tubule leads away from the glomerular capsule and first becomes a highly coiled proximal convoluted tubule, then leads to the nephron loop, and finally to the distal convoluted tubule. (slideserve.com)
- An analysis of the determinants of nephron filtration rate. (mdedge.com)
- Capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pc) and Bowman's space oncotic pressure (πi) favor filtration into the tubule, and Bowman's space hydrostatic pressure (Pi) and capillary-oncotic pressure (πc) oppose filtration. (statpearls.com)
- For the kidney, flow (J) is positive, favoring filtration, meaning that plasma flows from higher hydrostatic pressure in the capillary to lower hydrostatic pressure in the tubular space, despite the unfavorable oncotic gradient (there is higher protein concentration in the capillary). (statpearls.com)
- in the glomerular capillaries, hydrostatic pressure is determined by capillary blood pressure and in the Bowman's space by the pressure of the ultrafiltrate. (veteriankey.com)
- The rate of filtration (GFR) is directly proportional to hydrostatic pressure of the blood. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- Water and dissolved substances (i.e. electrolytes) are forced out of the glomerular capillaries by blood pressure (hydrostatic pressure). (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- Likewise, as glomerular hydrostatic pressure decreases, the glomerular filtration rate decreases as well. (23bjz.tk)
- The factors governing filtration across the glomerular capillaries are the size of the capillary bed, the permeability of the capillaries, and the hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients across the capillary wall. (tomhsiung.com)
- P GC is the mean hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries, P T is the mean hydrostatic pressure in the tubule, π GC is the oncotic pressure of the plasma in the glomerular capillaries, and π T is the oncotic pressure of the filtrate in the tubule. (tomhsiung.com)
- The constriction of efferent arteriolar would increase the glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure and to maintain the GFR to some degree (When renal blood flow decreases, the constriction of efferent arteriolar due to effect of AngII help to maintain the GFR). (tomhsiung.com)
- They permit precise regulation of the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the glomerular capillaries, which is maintained at a higher level than in capillaries in other parts of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
- The other force opposing filtration is the hydrostatic pressure within the Bowman's capsule. (encyclopedia.com)
- The main force responsible for moving substances by filtration through the glomerular capillary wall is the hydrostatic pressure of the blood inside. (slideserve.com)
- Due to plasma proteins, osmotic pressure of the blood resists filtration, as does hydrostatic pressure inside the glomerular capsule. (slideserve.com)
- The endothelium of the capillaries is covered with negatively charged proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. (lecturio.com)
- and like the capillary endothelium, it is covered with proteoglycans and is thus negatively charged. (lecturio.com)
- The endothelium of fenestrated capillaries permits molecules of less than 70 nM to pass through. (statpearls.com)
- Primary FSGS is mediated by lymphocytes that release cytokines, causing increased permeability and injury to the glomerular capillary bundle and podocytes. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Podocytes have long processes (foot processes) that wrap themselves around the glomerular capillaries. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Podocytes interdigitate with structures called pedicels and filter substances into the glomerular capsule. (oregonstate.edu)
- Unlike other capillaries, glomerular capillaries are enveloped by specialized cells called podocytes, which have numerous fingerlike cellular extensions that wrap around the capillaries. (earthslab.com)
- Podocytes help prevent plasma proteins, and formed elements from entering glomerular capsules. (earthslab.com)
- One of the key components of the glomerular filtration slit spanning between neighboring podocytes is nephrin. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Nephrin, a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, seems to be a key molecular component of the filtration slit diaphragm between neighboring podocytes ( 12 - 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- These processes operate primarily by controlling the diameter of afferent glomerular arterioles to keep the GFR within normal limits. (earthslab.com)
- When it flows through the distal tubule of the macula densa, stimulate the juxtaglomerular renin release, increased intrarenal angiotensin II activity, glomerular arterioles contraction, spasm, especially lead to glomerular blood flow decreased outer cortical glomerular filtration rate, extreme reduction. (tongshanclinic.com)
- The afferent arteriole becomes the glomerular capillaries (where glomerular filtration occurs) then the efferent arterioles. (veteriankey.com)
- The efferent arterioles carry blood into the peritubular capillaries, which surround the renal tubules and is where the majority of the glomerular filtrate (water, electrolytes, glucose, etc.) is reabsorbed. (veteriankey.com)
- Within the cortex, this capillary is called peritubular capillary. (coursera.org)
- the peritubular capillary reclaims substances from the tubule. (oregonstate.edu)
- 17. What term is used to identify the movement of fluids and solutes from the tubular lumen to the peritubular capillary plasma? (studydaddy.com)
- The efferent arteriole gives rise to the peritubular capillary system, which surrounds the renal tubule. (slideserve.com)
- More water is also absorbed, so that by the time the filtrate reaches the bladder as fully formed urine, it contains only one percent of the volume of the early filtrate. (asknature.org)
- Through reabsorption, 99% of the glomerular filtrate is returned to the bloodstream. (asknature.org)
- that is the generation of the filtrate, or the beginning product of urine. (coursera.org)
- As the glomerular filtrate progresses through the tubule, these capillary networks recover most of the solutes and water, and return them to the circulation. (oregonstate.edu)
- Formed elements normally are not part of the glomerular filtrate. (earthslab.com)
- The result of glomerular filtration is the production of glomerular filtrate that consists of the same substances that compose blood plasma, except for plasma proteins that are too large to pass through the pores of the glomerular capillaries. (earthslab.com)
- Because glomerular filtration is a nonselective process, the concentrations of these substances are the same in both blood plasma and glomerular filtrate. (earthslab.com)
- In 24 hours, about 180 liters (nearly 45 gallons) of glomerular filtrate is produced. (earthslab.com)
- However, most of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed, as you will see shortly. (earthslab.com)
- Formation of a cell- and protein-free plasma filtrate (ultrafiltrate) at a rapid and near-constant rate of 100-125 ml/min. (powershow.com)
- The filtrate collects in Bowman's space, a double-walled invagination that surrounds the glomerular capillaries. (veteriankey.com)
- The colloid osmotic pressure in the plasma is higher than the glomerular filtrate, resulting in an opposing force to filtration. (veteriankey.com)
- As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubules, useful materials such as water, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Most waste products remain in the filtrate and become part of the urine. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Hydrogen ions, creatinine, and the metabolic products of medications may be actively secreted into the filtrate to become part of the urine. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The glomerular filtrate contains most inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic solutes in virtually the same concentrations as in the plasma. (tomhsiung.com)
- Renal tubule epithelial and parenchymal cells may be damaged by high concentrations of oxalate in the glomerular filtrate and by calcium oxalate crystals. (springer.com)
- It can be calculated for any substance given steady-state, known concentrations as [urine concentration] x (urine flow rate) / [plasma concentration], or more simply, C = UV/P. Therefore, it is an indicator of GFR (also ml per minute) for solutes that are freely filtered (not size/charge restricted) and which are not significantly reabsorbed, secreted, synthesized or metabolized in the kidney. (statpearls.com)
- 1) Glomerular filtration moves water and solutes, except plasma proteins, from blood plasma into the glomerular capsule. (earthslab.com)
- Glomerular ultrafiltrate consists of water and small solutes normally, it is essentially protein-free. (powershow.com)
- Filtration is the bulk flow of water through a semipermeable membrane (filter), carrying with it those solutes which can pass through the filter. (encyclopedia.com)
- Our case study focuses on this disease progression and series of graphics explains how the inflammatory response is caused by an immune reaction following the entrapment of immune complexes in the glomerular capillary membrane. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- The resulting proliferation of the glomerular capillary endothelial cells and the mesangial cells causing swelling of the capillary membrane and the accompanying signs and symptoms of post streptococcal glomerulonephiritis. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- The glomerular capillary membrane is similar to that of other capillaries except that it has three major layers instead of the usual two. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Covered by a thin membrane regulates the movements of some molecules Glomerular filtration barrier Tissue barrier that separates the blood in the glomerular capillaries from the space in Bowman's capsule. (healthdocbox.com)
- These features comprise the filtration membrane . (oregonstate.edu)
- Some scholars believe that glomerular filtration rate is due to capillary endothelial damage, swelling, caused by decreased permeability of the filtration membrane. (tongshanclinic.com)
- 1) the increased permeability of glomerular capillary walls. (earthslab.com)
- AGEs are thought to affect blood flow i.e. glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and vascular permeability which over time manifests as overt proteinuria. (ukzn.ac.za)
- Some studies have shown that patients with recurrent FSGS have some permeability factors on plasma that would be responsible for injuring the glomerular filtration barrier, thus causing proteinuria [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type I is a chronic glomerulonephritis characterized by hypocomplementemia, mesangial proliferation and double contours glomerular capillaries on light microscopy, deposits of C3 along the capillary walls on immunofluorescent microscopy, and mesangial interposition and subendothelial electron dense deposits on electron microscopy. (springer.com)
- The classic finding of lobular accentuation of glomerular tufts on light microscopy is attributed to mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary proliferation, and capillary wall remodeling resulting in the formation of "double contours. (hindawi.com)
- Because of the many difficulties in performing serial measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by use of exogenous substances such as inulin, [sup. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Glomerular capillaries are much more permeable to substances in the blood plasma than are other capillaries because their walls contain numerous pores. (earthslab.com)
- These pores allow water and most dissolved substances to easily pass through the capillary walls into the glomerular capsules. (earthslab.com)
- Urine formation begins in the glomerular capillaries, with dissolved substances passing into the proximal tubule as a result of the force of blood pressure in the large afferent arteriole and the pressure in Bowman's capsule. (rnceus.com)
- Water and dissolved substances (electrolytes) forced out of glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- Urine is about 95% water and about 5% dissolved substances. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Thus filtration in the kidney is essentially non-selective - substances which the body needs to retain are filtered, as well as those substances which need to be excreted. (encyclopedia.com)
- The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. (wikipremed.com)
- Urination, known by physiologists as micturition ot voiding, is the process of disposing urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra. (wikipremed.com)
- Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by A) blood vessels. (brainscape.com)
- Back-flow of urine results in cystitis, which is the most common type of urinary tract infection characterised by the inflammation of the ureter and/or urinary bladder. (edu.au)
- The urinary bladder stores urine before it is excreted from the body. (edu.au)
- The approximately one to one and one-half liters of urine excreted each day are the end product of metabolism carried out by billions of cells in the renal and urinary systems. (rnceus.com)
- Chronic kidney disease is described by KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) as 'evidence of damaged renal parenchyma as demonstrated by active urinary sediment and/or structural abnormality (this must be present for stages 1 and 2 CKD) and/or evidence of decreased kidney function as demonstrated by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and chronicity to distinguish it from acute kidney injury (AKI). (renalmed.co.uk)
- The aim of this review is to summarize new urinary biomarkers for glomerular injury associated with DKD. (biomedcentral.com)
- Urinary transferrin is considered to be a more sensitive marker of glomerular damage in diabetic patients based on theory analysis and experimental results. (biomedcentral.com)
- Schematic drawing of the glomerular barrier. (medscape.com)
- FSGS is considered a podocytopathy mainly because of podocyte injury and the subsequent loss of such an important structure of the glomerular filtration barrier. (hindawi.com)
- We studied whether type 1 diabetic patients with or without nephropathy exhibit immunoreactive nephrin in the urine, reflecting early damage of the filtration barrier. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In conclusion, glomerular filtration barrier may be affected in one-third of diabetic patients manifesting as early nephrinuria. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The decline in renal function and glomerular filtration rate arises from damage to the glomerular filtration barrier. (diabetesjournals.org)
- FSGS frequently presents as nephrotic syndrome, a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), microscopic hematuria, and hypertension. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- There are numerous secondary causes for FSGS and the injury is attributed to previous glomerular injury, glomerular hypertension, or hypertrophy. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The clinical presentation of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by proteinuria (protein in the urine), hypertension and progressive loss of kidney function. (wikipedia.org)
- Abstract -Hyperglycemia causes capillary vasodilation and high glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure, which lead to glomerulosclerosis and hypertension in type 1 diabetic subjects. (ahajournals.org)
- The worsening of insulin resistance and hypertension could increase both systemic and glomerular capillary pressures and predispose an individual to renal injury. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 2 Or, as we hypothesize and examine in this article, an elevated glomerular FF associated with the insulin resistance syndrome may create an intrarenal hemodynamic environment 3 that favors sodium and water retention, leading to hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- In this study, we examine the effect of dietary salt and insulin resistance on renal hemodynamics in a cohort of older, obese, mildly hypertensive subjects with normal fasting glucose and no clinical evidence of renal disease to determine their relationship to the development of renal damage, such as glomerular and systemic hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
Decline in glomerular filt1
- Focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) or focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) is the leading cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in African Americans and the most common glomerular disease causing end stage renal disease (ESRD). (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Patients initially presenting with nephrotic syndrome often complain of foamy urine, weight gain, swelling of the ankles and/or face and poor appetite. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- An important measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). (wikipedia.org)
- Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) represents the best overall index of kidney function (1), and the National Kidney Foundation has recommended that clinical laboratories routinely report an estimate of GFR (1,2). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Assessment of kidney function occurs in different ways, using the presence of symptoms and signs , as well as measurements using urine tests, blood tests, and medical imaging. (wikipedia.org)
- Part of the assessment of kidney function includes the measurement of urine and its contents. (wikipedia.org)
- Abnormal kidney function may cause too much or too little urine to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the measures of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). (wikipedia.org)
- The measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the gold standard in kidney function assessment. (jove.com)
- The evidence collected on the role of histamine in kidney function together with its well-known pleiotropic action suggest that this amine may act simultaneously on glomerular hyperfiltration, tubular inflammation, fibrosis development and tubular hypertrophy. (portlandpress.com)
- A: The GFR is a check of your glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is the best reflection of kidney function that we have available. (nfb.org)
- High salt intake increases the amount of protein in the urine, (15, 16) which is a major risk factor for the decline of kidney function, and accelerates the rate of renal functional deterioration (16). (whoccsaltreduction.org)
- between the first capillary epithelial cell and the basal lamina. (coursera.org)
- modified epithelial cells surround the glomerular capillaries. (healthdocbox.com)
- The glomerular filtration rate is extremely reduced the mechanism may be due to the various causes of renal tubular ischemia or poisoning, occurrence of renal tubular epithelial cell injury, the proximal tubular sodium reabsorption is reduced, so that the urine sodium, increasing water consumption. (tongshanclinic.com)
Loop of He1
- Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation 2. (coursehero.com)
- The formation of urine is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains the composition and volume of blood plasma within normal limits. (earthslab.com)
- Urine formation is very important for the clearance of waste material from the body. (drvikram.com)
- 11. What are the 3 things involved in urine formation? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- In humans GFR is typically about 125 ml/min, although some 99% of this filtered volume is reabsorbed as it passes along the kidney tubules to form urine. (encyclopedia.com)
- Several minor calyces join to form a major calyx , where urine passes before it reaches the renal pelvis and into the ureter. (edu.au)
- urethra, passes urine out through the external urethral orifice. (healthdocbox.com)
- Patients with chronic heart failure have higher rates of progression of CKD and may have common pathogenic processes occurring within both organs, including fibrosis. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Inflammatory processes (edema, fibrin deposition, capillary dilatation, migration of leukocytes and phagocytosis) and the later stages of wound healing (capillary proliferation, deposition of collagen, cicatrization) are inhibited. (nih.gov)
- The deeper part of the kidney, the medulla, consists of a number (6-18) of conical pyramids, the tips of which ( papillae ) project into the funnel-shaped urine collectors - the renal calyxes (calices) - which merge to form the funnel-shaped upper end of the ureter - the renal pelvis. (encyclopedia.com)
- It does this by actively reabsorbing sodium and, by osmosis , reabsorbing more water, thus varying the urine concentration. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Relating this principle to the below equation - for the substance used, the product of urine concentration and urine flow equals the mass of substance excreted during the time that urine has been collected. (wikipedia.org)
- 23. The concentration of the final urine is determined by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is secreted by which gland? (studydaddy.com)
- In other words, the filtration rate is dependent on the difference between the higher blood pressure created by vasoconstriction of the input or afferent arteriole versus the lower blood pressure created by lesser vasoconstriction of the output or efferent arteriole. (wikipedia.org)
- In particular, he is studying tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), the urine concentrating mechanism, and the hemodynamics of the afferent arteriole. (duke.edu)
Stage renal disease1
- In patients with SCD, supranormal renal hemodynamics-including increased renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, and glomerular filtration rate-occur as early as infancy, but decrease with age. (medscape.com)
- Such alterations in renal hemodynamics lead to increased renal growth and glomerular enlargement. (medscape.com)
- The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of insulin resistance to glomerular hemodynamics and dietary salt intake in 10 older (68±6 years), obese (body mass index, 31±4 kg/m 2 ), mildly hypertensive (151±8/82±2 mm Hg), sedentary subjects without clinical evidence of diabetes or renal disease. (ahajournals.org)
- A sudden loss of renal function to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes is called acute kidney failure. (diet-in-chronic-kidney-disease.com)
- Several organs system Produce urine and excrete it from the body Maintenance of homeostasis. (healthdocbox.com)
- Have you ever wondered why you sometimes excrete great volumes of urine and sometimes almost none at all? (bway.net)