Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Mice, Inbred C57BLMesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Receptor, EphB3: An eph family receptor found in a number of tissues including BRAIN; LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; INTESTINE; and HEART. During embryogenesis EphB3 receptor is expressed at high levels in the brain.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell SeparationGlial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Neuroepithelial Bodies: Innervated clusters of NEUROEPITHELIAL CELLS found in the LUNGS. They act as airway OXYGEN sensors, releasing regulatory PEPTIDES and SEROTONIN in response to HYPOXIA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.STAT Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsLymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors: A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored cell surface receptors that are specific for GLIAL CELL LINE-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS. They form a multi-component receptor complex with PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET and regulate a variety of intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS in conjunction with c-ret protein.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
  • Tissue microarray analysis with 91 HGG tumors demonstrates that the proportion of MELK (+) cells is a statistically significant indicator of postsurgical survival periods. (wiley.com)
  • Aims: Recent studies have observed that cells from high-grade glial tumors are capable of assuming an endothelial phenotype and genotype, a process termed 'vasculogenic mimicry' (VM). (oncotarget.com)
  • These tumors consist of a heterogeneous population of malignant cells, including well-differentiated tumor cells and less differentiated cells with stem cell properties. (jove.com)
  • In these three types of tumors, treatment is more effective in the primary tumor than in BM due to several factors, including BBB. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is, however, little information on the function of the Ang1/Tie2 pathway in the non-stromal cells within human tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the advances in stem cell biology, a debate has emerged regarding the origin of tumors, particularly gliomas. (ommegaonline.org)
  • These are the most common type of brain tumors comprising morphologically different cells expressing an extensive variety of differentiated and undifferentiated markers . (ommegaonline.org)
  • These tumors are conventionally classified according to the normal neural cell type they most resemble: astrocytomas (astrocytes), oligodendrogliomas (oligodendrocytes), or ependymal cells (ependymomas) . (ommegaonline.org)
  • 1. Contribution of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) to neuroblastoma progression: Our laboratory has recently identified in neuroblastoma tumors, CAFs that share phenotypic and functional properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). (usc.edu)
  • Extracellular vesicles and in particular exosomes released by tumor cells are captured by stromal cells and contribute to their education not only in primary tumors but also in the pre-metastatic niche. (usc.edu)
  • The histological features of GBM are presence of central necrosis and microvascular hyperplasia,which distinguishes it from lower grade glial tumors. (ejmr.org)
  • Figure 1 : Cancer stem cell theory representation in glioma tumors, illustrating the impact of clinical treatments on enriching stem cell populations of glioma. (ejmr.org)
  • Earlier research of endogenous NSC homing to gliomas possess examined glioma cell line-based rodent tumors mainly, . (calcipotriol.net)
  • Indication, Collection, and Laboratory Processing of Cytologic Samples -- The Cellular and Acellular Components of the Urinary Sediment -- The Cytologic Makeup of the Urinary Sediment According to the Collection Technique -- Cytologic Manifestations of Benign Disorders Affecting Cells of the Lower Urinary Tract -- Tumors and Related Conditions of the Bladder and Lower Urinary Tract -- Urine-Based Assays Complementing Cytologic Examination in the Detection of Urothelial Neoplasm. (stanford.edu)
  • I will highlight critical roles for circulating S1P produced by tumors and the SphKs/S1P/S1PR axis in obesity-promoted inflammation, metastatic niche formation and breast cancer metastasis. (sphingolipidclub.com)
  • Cancer cells typically interact with stromal cells within solid tumors in vivo, and these interactions extensively contribute to tumor development and therapeutic resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glioblastoma tumor cells release excitotoxic levels of glutamate, which may be a key process in the death of peritumoral neurons, formation of necrosis, local inflammation, and glioma-related seizures. (jove.com)
  • Moreover, elevated glutamate levels in the tumor may act in paracrine and autocrine manner to activate glutamate receptors on glioblastoma tumor cells, resulting in proliferation and invasion. (jove.com)
  • Early research on TME in metastases dates back to 1889 with Stephen Paget's theory of "seed and soil," wherein seeds (tumor cells) prefer to grow on a different soil (organ), i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These steps in which tumor cells are established at another cell niche are not an intrinsic program. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metastasis is a complex and multifaceted process that has an influence on the tumor cells (mutations, epigenetic changes, and characteristics) as well as on the availability of growth factors, interaction with other tumor cells, and new surrounding ME [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2016). The main objective of the laboratory is to understand fundamental mechanisms of communication between tumor cells and stromal cells in the TME in order to identify targets for therapeutic intervention that can be tested in relevant pre-clinical models. (usc.edu)
  • 2. Contribution of exosomes and extracellular vesicles to the education of CAFs, MSCs and macrophages by tumor cells: Stromal cells in the TME are educated by tumor cells and polarized toward a pro-tumorigenic function (these cells from being foes learn to become friends of the tumor cells). (usc.edu)
  • Ongoing work is studying the mechanism involved in the capture of tumor-derived exosomes by MSCs and macrophages with a focus on galectin-3 binding protein and integrins in collaboration with Dr. Lyden at Cornell (NYU) and on identifying ways to inhibit the production of exosomes by tumor cells and its effect on tumor progression and metastasis in pre-clinical mouse models. (usc.edu)
  • 3. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in cancer progression: PAI-1 is a serine protease inhibitor which has been shown to have a paradoxically positive effect in cancer progression by promoting angiogenesis and protecting tumor cells from drug-induced apoptosis (Placencio et al. (usc.edu)
  • One potential pathway would involve post-mitotic astrocytic cells that have de-differentiated into immature tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such environmental cues may influence tumor cells, for instance mechanical properties of the secondary site where circulating mesenchymal tumor cells reside is an important factor in activating their metastatic growth as epithelial tumor [12C (biobeds.info)
  • Ectosomes are small heterogeneous membrane vesicles generated by budding from the plasma membrane in a variety of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. (paperity.org)
  • TME-mediated drug resistance is associated with tumor cells and their pericellular matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, a new concept has been proposed in which tumor cells resistance to antineoplastic agents may be due to both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resulting evidence points toward specific subsets of tissue-resident mesenchymal cells, mainly localized in a perivascular position, as the major source for collagen-producing cells after injury. (jci.org)
  • Within the human body, stem-cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state, but after tissue injury, the surrounding micro-environment actively signals to stem cells to promote either self-renewal or differentiation to form new tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decellularized tissue matrices and synthetic polymer niches are being used in the clinic, and they are also beginning to clarify fundamental aspects of how stem cells contribute to homeostasis and repair, for example, at sites of fibrosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for human testing of cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC) is a recent landmark for the field ( 3 ), two widely reported clinical cases highlight some of the technical opportunities and challenges with stem cells in soft tissue repair. (sciencemag.org)
  • While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Glioma xenografts using the same cells reveal tumor-derived vessel-like structures near necrotic areas, consistent with widespread tumor-derived endothelial expression in primary glioma tissue. (oncotarget.com)
  • The existence of both mouse and human neural stem cells has been demonstrated by multiple laboratories through growth in tissue culture systems and multi-lineage differentiation in fate mapping studies of cultured cells [ 22 - 27 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each HuCNS-SC bank is created from purified human neural stem cells from a single fetal brain tissue (16 to 20 weeks gestation) using an isolation protocol involving monoclonal antibodies to cell surface markers and high-speed cell sorting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The remarkable capacity of differentiating hPSCs to recapitulate cell and tissue genesis has provided a model system to study stages of human development that were not previously amenable to investigation and experimentation. (arvojournals.org)
  • This fleeting population of pluripotent stem cells is capable of producing every cell and tissue, each with its requisite specializations in composition, form, and function. (arvojournals.org)
  • Development of a Cytocompatible Scaffold from Pig Immature Testicular Tissue Allowing Human Sertoli Cell Attachment, Proliferation and Functionality. (abcam.com)
  • Recent emerging data show a crucial role of perivascular mesenchymal stem cells in tissue homeostasis and repair. (springeropen.com)
  • These stem cells often remain dormant until they are activated by the body's need to maintain tissues, or in response to disease or tissue injury. (springeropen.com)
  • In contrast to embryonic stem cells, the differentiation potential of ASCs is regarded as more restricted, usually to the cells of the tissue in which they reside. (springeropen.com)
  • This suggests that the differentiation of an ASC into a specialized cell might be dependent on the surrounding tissue. (springeropen.com)
  • however, in recent decades, this tissue has also been considered an abundant source of mesenchymal cells. (revespcardiol.org)
  • In the present article, white adipose tissue is described, the stem cells found in this tissue are characterized, and the use of these cells is discussed according to the preclinical and clinical trials performed so far. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Although tissue-engineered scaffolds have been considered as a carrier for stem cell therapy, they could not replicate tissue complexity, so stem cells may lose their regenerative potency [ 5 - 7 ]. (thno.org)
  • 3D cell printing enables a 3D complex living tissue to be built with precise spatial control for the placement of biomaterials, biomolecules, and cells [ 8 ]. (thno.org)
  • Bioinks refer to cell-encapsulating biomaterials (usually hydrogels) that allow the printed mass to be constructed into a 3D form, as well as provide a cell matrix to substitute or mimic native tissue [ 6 , 11 , 12 ]. (thno.org)
  • To date, complete organs or tissues that recapitulate tissue complexity, vascularization, and innervation have not been printed, but some of the features and functions of cell printed constructs have nearly reached the level of native tissue [ 13 ]. (thno.org)
  • In this review, we will discuss basic components as stem cells, signaling molecules and scaffolds and also methods used for dentin-pulp tissue engineering. (aimspress.com)
  • Tissue Cell 49: 552-564. (aimspress.com)
  • Furthermore, analysis of a tissue array consisting of 116 human glioma samples showed that Tie2 expression in the neoplastic glial cells was significantly associated with progression from a lower to higher grade. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This tissue cryopreservation method makes it possible to safely store dental tissues after tooth extraction for a long time, allowing them to be used as an autologous stem cell resource. (stemsave.com)
  • Numerous types of stem cells have been isolated from dental tissue, such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells isolated from human pulp of exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), and dental follicle cells (DFCs). (stemsave.com)
  • All these cells can regenerate the tissue of tooth. (stemsave.com)
  • Engineering complex 3-dimensional tissues presents great promises to improve treatment of tissue defects and to provide better understanding of emergent behavior of normal and pathologic cells. (mrs.org)
  • Hence, there is an immediate need for systems that can recapitulate and further manipulate the tissues of interest, in a high throughput and automated manner while maximizing the cell and tissue functionality. (mrs.org)
  • Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, these molecules will be used to purify these cells from adipose tissue. (rntc.org.br)
  • Development of Constructs for Tissue Engineering by Stem Cell Cultivation of Human from Adipose Tissue in Three-Dimensional Structure of Biomaterials. (rntc.org.br)
  • Contractile actomyosin cortex within cells and collective grip by sets of cells maintain tissue-wide stress and enable the epithelium to withstand lots along apical and basal surfaces. (biobeds.info)
  • Given the numerous post-translational modifications and the need for a tightly controlled manner of Wnt diffusion through the tissue, the secretion apparatus within the Wnt-producing cells is rather complex[ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These systems have aided examination of how glioma cells respond to a variety of natural, synthetic, and semi-synthetic biomaterials with varying substrate properties, biochemical factor presentations, and non-malignant parenchymal cell compositions in both 2D and 3D environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regrettably, serious preclinical concerns remain and differentiation, cell fusion, senescence and signalling crosstalk with growth factors and biomaterials are still challenges for this promising multidisciplinary therapeutic modality. (mdpi.com)
  • Tremendous efforts are placed into development of novel regenerative strategies, involving (stem) cells, soluble factors, biomaterials or combinations thereof, as a result of the growing need caused by continuous population aging. (rsc.org)
  • TAGs were highly enriched for the expression of glial cell proteins including GFAP and myelin basic protein (MBP), and immature markers such as Nestin and O4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3K3A-activated protein C stimulates postischemic neuronal repair by human neural stem cells in mice. (rochester.edu)
  • Emerging data suggest that exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication by transferring exosomal protein and RNA cargo between source and target cells in the brain. (jci.org)
  • In addition, Tβ4 is an ubiquitous naturally occurring molecule and is found at concentrations of 1 × 10−5 to 5.6 × 10−1 M in a variety of tissues and cell types, yet, no receptors for the protein have been identified . (antiagingpeptides.com.au)
  • The latter fragment is the critical first protein that combines with C6, C7, C8, and multiple C9 proteins to form the MAC, the terminal, pore-forming complement protein complex responsible for lysis of cells and pathogens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When bred to a strain expressing Cre recombinase under the control of a tetracycline-responsive promoter element and a strain expressing a tetracycline-controlled activator protein in lung epithelial cells (see Stock No. 006234 and 006235 respectively), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of lung development. (jax.org)
  • PKR (Protein Kinase-R) is a 68-kDa serine-threonine kinase that appears to play a primary role in mediating the antiviral activities of infected cells. (qiagen.com)
  • PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and. (qiagen.com)
  • for instance, inner cell mass cells of the early mouse blastocyst undergo MET as they localize the polarity protein, Nutlin 3a ic50 aPKC, upon reaching the fluid-filled surface of the blastocyst cavity . (biobeds.info)
  • Treatment with rhEPO increased proliferation of ECs and neuronal cells, revealed by costaining of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine with GLUT-1 or with the neuronal marker protein (NeuN) 7 to 21 days after stroke. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis performed to examine protein expression showed that CD133 was co-localized with the EGFR, suggesting a potential molecular mechanism by which nimotuzumab is able to target the CD133 radioresistant population in the U87MG cell line. (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • Jeyaprakash's team studies the molecular mechanisms of accurate cell division by characterising key regulators (multi-subunit protein complexes) of cell division, using an interdisciplinary approach combining structural, biochemical and cell biological methods. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • Both types of transducers act on Axin[ 13 , 14 ] - a key component of the β-catenin-destruction complex also including the protein APC and kinases GSK3β and casein kinase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a sensitized mutant screen, we identified miR394 as a mobile signal produced by the surface cell layer (the protoderm) that confers stem cell competence to the distal meristem by repressing the F box protein LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • Dickkopf-related protein 3 negatively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle cells. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Over the past decade, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for acute or chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy. (ecrjournal.com)
  • Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Human neural stem cell transplants have potential as therapeutic candidates to treat a vast number of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding cell differentiation and maturation not only is a core pursuit of developmental biologists, but also can provide critical insights into disease, thereby aiding the design of therapeutic strategies. (arvojournals.org)
  • With a constellation of stem cell sources available, researchers hope to utilize their potential for cellular repair as a therapeutic target for disease. (mdpi.com)
  • The immunological barriers, such as graft vs . host or required immunosuppression of the host, are of constant consideration in the therapeutic benefits and limitations of stem cell transplantation. (mdpi.com)
  • The modern DCT image is focusing more on processes and mechanisms related to cell development and response to environmental and therapeutic stressors in normal and transformed cell phenotypes. (intechopen.com)
  • Stem cells exert therapeutic effects against ischemic stroke via transplantation of exogenous stem cells or stimulation of endogenous stem cells within the neurogenic niches of subventricular zone and subgranular zone, or recruited from the bone marrow through peripheral circulation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Stem cell theranostics has received much attention for noninvasively monitoring and tracing transplanted therapeutic stem cells through imaging agents and imaging modalities. (thno.org)
  • His research focuses on the modulation of immune system for the treatment of immune-based diseases with particular focus on type 1 diabetes, transplantation, and development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases. (conferenceseries.com)
  • Ogino T, Sawada M, Takase H, Nakai C, Herranz-Pérez V, Cebrián-Silla A, Kaneko N, Manuel García-Verdugo J, Sawamoto K (2016) Characterization of multiciliated ependymal cells that emerge in the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish brain. (k-sawamoto.com)
  • Hirota Y, Sawada M, Huang SH, Ogino T, Ohata S, Kubo A and Sawamoto K (2016) Roles of Wnt signaling in the neurogenic niche of the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone. (k-sawamoto.com)
  • Furthermore, lactoferrin can regulate the function of innate and adaptive immune cells and exhibits immuno-modulating properties. (stanford.edu)
  • They can increase concentration of intracellular calcium ions and regulate the cytoskeleton and ultimately - cell polarity and motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After traversing BBB, these cells have to survive by producing various cytokines, chemokines, and mediators to modify their new TME. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include differentiation into targeting cells, immunomodulation with various immune cells, the paracrine effect on secreting cytokines, and homing and engraftment into injured sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some studies it was demonstrated that ADSC could release multiple angiogenic growth factors and cytokines/chemokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Downstream of these cytokines is the activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 in NB cells. (usc.edu)
  • Chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) attract immune cells, although their original evolutionary role may relate more closely with embryonic development. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and its related cytokines have been important influence factors in the pathology of psoriasis. (madridge.org)
  • Also obviously decreased each score of PASI, and reduced the thickness of epidermis, ameliorated the infiltration of CD3+, CD11c+ cells in skin lesions, decreased the percentage of CD11c+ cells in spleen, suppressed the expression of TLR8 and MYD88, reduced the transcription of IL-23, IL-12p40 mRNA and the secretion of related cytokines. (madridge.org)
  • For instance, cells in this category may initially express glial markers like GFAP and stem cell markers such as nestin and Sox2, but eventually, they lose these characteristics and begin expressing markers specific to granule cells such as NeuroD and Prox1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predominance of immature Sox2-positive cells was verified in the first window and a prevalence of GFAP-positive cells in the second one. (ommegaonline.org)
  • In the non-pathological state, the roles of glial cells in the CNS overlap with functions of fibroblasts in other organs, such as secretion of ECM components, provision of structural support and homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also outline findings supporting changing roles for HA as cells become committed to distinct lineages in the brain and spinal cord. (bioscience.org)
  • however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). (jcancer.org)
  • In this lecture, I will focus on several new roles of SphKs and Spns2 in regulation of immune cell trafficking, cancer progression, and pulmonary metastasis. (sphingolipidclub.com)
  • Through horizontal transfer of a variety of biologically active molecules (including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) between donor and recipient cells, tumor-derived ectosomes may play functional roles in oncogenic transformation, tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis promotion, escape from immune surveillance, and drug resistance, thereby facilitating disease progression. (paperity.org)
  • Typically, Id proteins are highly expressed during embryogenesis and expressed at lower levels in mature tissues, with the exception of some stem cells and many cancers (reviewed in Lasorella et al. (springer.com)
  • 2014 ). Id proteins were described initially as inhibitors of differentiation and more recently as regulators of cell cycle progression, senescence, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. (springer.com)
  • Receptor tyrosine kinases are cell surface proteins that receive signals from extracellular growth factors, which ultimately control biological responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved adaptor and scaffolding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells. (qiagen.com)
  • The Actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. (qiagen.com)
  • Ceramide generated in late endosomal compartments is recognized as a potent regulator of cell signaling, but its molecular interactions with late endosomal transmembrane proteins have not been studied in depth. (sphingolipidclub.com)
  • . Spatial patterns of junctional compliance, e.g. the "deformability" of cell-cell or cell-ECM attachments, localize assembly and activity of polarity proteins (e.g. (biobeds.info)
  • A variety of cell types, including cancer cells, are known to release extracellular vesicles (EVs)-small, membrane-enclosed particles which can mediate the transfer of different signaling factors, structural proteins, nucleic acids or lipids . (paperity.org)
  • livingâ?T microvascular stamp can be fabricated which releases multiple angiogenic factors and subsequently creates neovessels with the same pattern as that engraved in the stamp. (mrs.org)
  • b) high-generation xenografts (fifth passage) had pronounced cellularity, were angiogenic with glomerulus-like microvascular proliferations that contained host nestin-positive cells. (calcipotriol.net)
  • The cellular origin of the matrix-producing cells is therefore a central issue. (jci.org)
  • It was also shown that the two SC compartments acted in accord to maintain a constant cell population and a steady cellular turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the last decade, great advances have been made in epidermal stem cell studies at the cellular and molecular level. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, we highlight emerging molecular, cellular and physical strategies to improve drug delivery across the BBB and BTB and discuss their impact on improving conventional as well as emerging treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and engineered T cells. (nature.com)
  • The evidence of cellular change of mouse stem cells in response to a rat scaffold is a promising step toward establishment of a xenogenic scaffold source for engineered kidneys. (ufl.edu)
  • His research focuses on micro- and nanoscale three-dimensional polymer film forming and functionalization technologies and their biomedical applications, with a particular focus on engineering of complex artificial cellular microenvironments and niches using the aforementioned technologies. (rsc.org)
  • Cancer and noncancerous cells, immune cells, blood and lymphatic vessels, and niche cells belong to the cellular component of TME. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When psychosine was supplied to proliferating cells, cells underwent special type of mitosis, endomitosis, which sustains cellular content duplication without segregation, resulted in the giant and multiploid cell formation. (sphingolipidclub.com)
  • A number of cellular processes are known to be responsive to mechanical cues including stem cell fate decisions [8, and durotaxis in migratory cells . (biobeds.info)
  • Cellular tension transmitted through the adherens junction can provide polarization cues to the rest of the cell cortex and enhance the mechanical stability of apical membranes. (biobeds.info)
  • Cytokeratin is an epithelial cell marker and Pax-2 is necessary for kidney development. (ufl.edu)
  • We describe general concepts such as the primary TME, exosomes, EMT and mesenchymal-to-epithelial type transition (MET), CTC, and TME in BM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Method for the Isolation and Culture of Adult Rat Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells to Study Retinal Diseases. (abcam.com)
  • This book is the first to summarize the current knowledge of the cell biology of lens epithelial cells in relation to and in the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). (stanford.edu)
  • Opacification of the posterior capsule appears to be linked to lens epithelial cells that are left behind in the eye during cataract removal. (stanford.edu)
  • The first section of the text explains the molecular mechanism and biology of lens epithelial cells that lead to the incidence of PCO. (stanford.edu)
  • The mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) can be an intrinsically mechanical process describing a multi-step progression where autonomous mesenchymal cells gradually become tightly linked, polarized epithelial cells. (biobeds.info)
  • Tead4 Models of junction formation in stable epithelial cell lines and of junction re-establishment in cultured epithelial cells have been essential Nutlin 3a ic50 to identifying mechanisms that control junction formation and maturation, which offers partial insight into the steps of MET. (biobeds.info)
  • In brief, currently available details of epithelialization (e.g., formation and establishment of adherens and tight junctions) are mostly explored using calcium switch protocols on cultured epithelial cells. (biobeds.info)
  • Uterine epithelial cells continued to proliferate past day 4 of pregnancy, accompanied by elevated Fgf2 and Fgf9 expression, whereas uterine stroma failed to undergo decidualization, as evidenced by lack of Bmp2 induction. (scicrunch.org)
  • Although controversies and unknown issues remain, epidermal stem cells possess an immune-privileged property in transplantation together with easy accessibility, which is favorable for future clinical application. (mdpi.com)
  • In this brief review, we provide ongoing data on agreement and controversy arising from clinical trials and touch upon the future directions of cell therapy for heart disease. (ecrjournal.com)
  • However, a number of limitations hamper the clinical applicability of stem cells derived from either adults or developing embryos. (hindawi.com)
  • This review focuses on recent pre-clinical data supporting MSC use in regenerating β-cell mass and also in treating several T1DM-associated complications. (omicsonline.org)
  • A phase I trial for a rare myelin disorder and phase I/II trial for spinal cord injury are providing intriguing data relevant to the biological properties of neural stem cells, and the early clinical outcomes compel further development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this overview, the preclinical data are summarized and rationale provided for advancing these cells into clinical trials involving the brain, spinal cord, and eye. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The translation of HuCNS-SC to clinical testing has been facilitated by prospective identification, reproducible expansion into cell banks, and stability upon cryopreservation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review will discuss the current knowledge of stem cell research in neurological disease, mainly stroke, with a focus on the benefits, limitations, and clinical potential. (mdpi.com)
  • These results have encouraged the clinical use of these stem cells, possibly prematurely. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Stem cells within teeth originating from the embryonic neural crest have attracted increasing attention in clinical and scientific research because they are easy to obtain and have superb stemness. (stemsave.com)
  • Stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia: from basic science to clinical applications. (academicjournals.org)
  • Rejection of islets mediated by T cells is a major limitation of clinical islet transplantation, which is presently controlled by standard immunosuppression. (conferenceseries.com)
  • Our research approach combines cell and molecular biology with pre-clinical animal models in mice. (usc.edu)
  • His research has been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, Science, Cell, Endocrinology, Molecular Endocrinology, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Journal of of Clinical Investigation, Annals of Internal Medicine and The New England Journal of Medicine. (ucla.edu)
  • Moreover, the use of a heterogeneous population of mesenchymal cells increases the risk of unwanted differentiation and proposals with clinical results inefficient and difficult to reproduce. (rntc.org.br)
  • Results from both preclinical and clinical studies have immensely supported the judicious use of stem cells as therapy. (springermedizin.de)
  • Although new compounds and combinations of drugs with higher potency in killing cancer cells have been developed, the nearly inevitable development of drug resistance has limited the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of antineoplastic treatment [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are highly proliferative and capable of differentiating into cells of all adult tissues, they pose a significant risk of tumour formation [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, limitations to farming cells and tissues in an artificial culture environment, as well as the length of time required for most cells to mature, are some of the many issues to consider before using hPSCs to study or treat a particular disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • The process by which tissues and whole organisms develop from a single fertilized cell, or zygote, has intrigued biologists for centuries. (arvojournals.org)
  • Tie2 is tyrosine phosphorylated in normal adult endothelium tissues and expressed in the endothelium of neovessels of regenerating organs and several types of tumor, including leukemia, breast, gastric, and thyroid cancers [ 10 - 15 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • These features make these cells the main focus of study and development of future cell therapy protocols, particularly those applied to musculoskeletal tissues. (rntc.org.br)
  • The aim is the repair and functional restoration of tissues or organs by means of 3D scaffolds, cells and signals. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a neoplasm generated through the malignant transformation of epidermal melanocytes, the cells which normally reside in the basal layer of the epidermis and produce the skin pigment melanin ( Figure 1A - C ). Noncutaneous melanomas can also develop at other sites populated by melanocytes such as choroidal layer of the eye, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary mucosal surfaces, or the meninges. (intechopen.com)
  • Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant type of primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. (jove.com)
  • A proangiogenic signaling axis in myeloid cells promotes malignant progression of glioma. (abcam.com)
  • Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant and frequently occurring type of primary astrocytomas. (ejmr.org)
  • In another study, upon exposure to cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, there was enhanced recovery of cortical injury following stroke secondary to endogenous stem cell activity and migration [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Although restorative studies derive from the transplantation Zarnestra of exogenous, genetically-modified NSC lines, you can envision that revitalizing endogenous stem cells may serve as a way of antitumor therapy. (calcipotriol.net)