A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Bleeding within the SKULL induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the tissues of CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM; as well as into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the MENINGES.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with acute onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
A state of unconsciousness as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs in cases of extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA or extreme HYPOGLYCEMIA as a complication of INSULIN therapy.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Scotland is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom, located in the northern part of Great Britain. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
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Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work. (1/741)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and return to work. METHODS: Patients with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of 9-14 were included. Post-traumatic amnesia was assessed prospectively. Follow up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome was determined by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1 year after injury and compared with a more detailed outcome scale (DOS) comprising cognitive and neurobehavioural aspects. RESULTS: Sixty seven patients were included, mean age 33.2 (SD 14.7) years and mean PTA 7.8 (SD 7.3) days. One year after injury, 73% of patients had resumed previous work although most (84%) still reported complaints. The most frequent complaints were headache (32%), irritability (34%), forgetfulness and poor concentration (42%), and fatigue (45%). According to the GOS good recovery (82%) or moderate disability (18%) was seen. Application of the DOS showed more cognitive (40%) and behavioural problems (48%), interfering with return to work. Correlation between the GOS and DOS was high (r=0.87, p<0.01). Outcome correlated with duration of PTA (r=-0.46) but not significantly with GCS on admission (r=0.19). In multiple regression analysis, PTA and the number of complaints 3 months after injury explained 49% of variance on outcome as assessed with the GOS, and 60% with the DOS. CONCLUSIONS: In mild to moderate head injury outcome is determined by duration of PTA and not by GCS on admission. Most patients return to work despite having complaints. The application of a more detailed outcome scale will increase accuracy in predicting outcome in this category of patients with head injury.  (+info)

Significance of vomiting after head injury. (2/741)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the presence and severity of post-traumatic vomiting can predict the risk of a skull vault fracture in adults and children. METHODS: Data were analysed relating to a consecutive series of 5416 patients including children who presented to an emergency service in the United Kingdom during a 1 year study period with a principal diagnosis of head injury. Characteristics studied were age, sex, speed of impact, level of consciousness on arrival, incidence of skull fracture, and the presence and severity of post-traumatic vomiting. RESULTS: The overall incidence of post-traumatic vomiting was 7% in adults and 12% in children. In patients with a skull fracture the incidence of post-traumatic vomiting was 28% in adults and 33% in children. Post-traumatic vomiting was associated with a fourfold increase in the relative risk for a skull fracture. Nausea alone did not increase the risk of a skull fracture and multiple episodes of vomiting were no more significant than a single episode. In patients who were fully alert at presentation, post-traumatic vomiting was associated with a twofold increase in relative risk for a skull fracture. CONCLUSION: These results support the incorporation of enquiry about vomiting into the guidelines for skull radiography. One episode of vomiting seems to be as significant as multiple episodes.  (+info)

Evaluating methods for estimating premorbid intellectual ability in closed head injury. (3/741)

OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the utility of three measures of premorbid intellectual functioning in closed head injury, the National adult reading test (NART), the Cambridge contextual reading test (CCRT), and the spot the word test (STW). METHODS: In the first experiment, a group of 25 patients with closed head injury were compared with 50 healthy controls and 20 orthopaedic trauma controls. In the second experiment, the strength of correlation between the premorbid measures and current intellectual level were assessed in 114 healthy adults. RESULTS: The head injured group performed significantly more poorly than both control groups on measures of current intellectual ability. However, no significant differences emerged between the groups on any of the premorbid measures. In the large control sample, both the NART and the CCRT accounted for about 50% of the variance in current verbal intelligence. However, by contrast, the STW only accounted for 29% of the variability in verbal intelligence. Adding demographic variables to the prediction of current intellectual level increased the amount of variance explained to 60% for the NART, 62% for the CCRT, but only 41% for the STW. CONCLUSION: The results provide supportive evidence for the use of the CCRT and NART in estimating premorbid intellectual functioning in patients who have sustained closed head injuries, but suggest caution when employing the STW.  (+info)

Long term neurological outcome of herpes encephalitis. (4/741)

Twenty eight children with herpes simplex encephalitis were followed up for a mean of 5.5 years. Two children died and 26 survived, of whom 16 were left with no neurological sequelae and 10 had persistent neurological sequelae. Mean (SD) Glasgow coma score was significantly lower in the patients with neurological sequelae (7.7 (1.5)) and the patients who died (4.5 (0.7)), compared with the patients without neurological sequelae (11 (1.7)).  (+info)

Outcome after severe head injury treated by an integrated trauma system. (5/741)

OBJECTIVES: To describe outcome after treatment of severe head injury within an integrated trauma system. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients with severe head injury admitted to the Royal London Hospital by the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) between 1991 and 1994. Type of injury was defined on initial computed tomography of the head and outcomes assessed 12 months after injury using the Glasgow outcome score. RESULTS: 6.5% of HEMS patients had long term severe disability (severe disability or persistent vegetative state on the outcome score); 34.5% made a good recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The concern that a large number of severely disabled long term survivors might result as a consequence of this system of trauma management is not confirmed. The case mix of severity of extracranial injuries in these patients makes comparison with other published series difficult, but these data fit the hypothesis that pre-hospital correction of hypoxia and hypotension after head injury improves outcome.  (+info)

Early prediction of neurological outcome after falls in children: metabolic and clinical markers. (6/741)

Falls are the foremost reason for non-fatal injuries and are second only to motor vehicle accidents in causing accidental death. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and metabolic predictors of the outcome of head injury caused by falls from a height. Medical records of 61 children who had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit from 1990 to 1993 after falling from a height were reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes were categorised as good, moderate, severe, and poor. Glasgow coma scores, pupillary responses, brain oedema, and midline shift are significantly associated with poor outcome (p < 0.05). Metabolic markers associated with poor outcome included hyperglycaemia and hypokalaemia. Children with a poor outcome had, at admission, significantly higher glucose concentrations compared with children with good outcomes (mean SD): 20.0 (7.1) v 9.31 (4.0) mmol/l, p < 0.01), and lower potassium concentrations compared with children with good, moderate, and severe outcomes (mean (SD): 2.8 (0.4) v 3.7 (0.4) mmol/l, p < 0.001, 3.5 (0.3) mmol/l, p < 0.01, and 3.41 (0.3) mmol/l, p < 0.05, respectively). These findings allow for an early allocation of effort and resources to children injured from such falls.  (+info)

Attenuated stroke severity after prodromal TIA: a role for ischemic tolerance in the brain? (7/741)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic tolerance has been extensively studied in experimental models of heart and brain ischemia. While there is some clinical evidence of ischemic tolerance in the heart, it is not known whether the same is true for the human brain. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study in 148 stroke patients with and without antecedent TIA. RESULTS: Despite no significant differences in baseline characteristics, independence (Rankin scale score of 0 to 1) and favorable outcome (Glasgow Coma Scale score of 5) were significantly associated with prior TIA in univariate analysis. After correction for other cardiovascular risk factors, TIA before stroke also was an independent predictor of mild stroke (Canadian Neurological Scale score of > or= 6.5) in multivariate models (absolute difference 21.6%; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Assuming that a TIA represents an adequate stimulus to elicit ischemic tolerance, our results suggest that ischemic tolerance might occur in the human brain.  (+info)

The prognostic and pathophysiologic role of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in severe malaria. (8/741)

Pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines were measured on admission in 287 consecutive Vietnamese adults with severe falciparum malaria. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations and the IL-6: IL-10 ratio were significantly higher in patients who died than in survivors (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, hyperparasitemia, jaundice, and shock were all associated independently with raised IL-6, IL-10, and interferon-gamma, and acute renal failure specifically with raised TNF-alpha levels. Cerebral malaria patients, particularly those without other vital organ dysfunction, had significantly lower levels of these cytokines (P=.006), reflecting a more localized pathology. Serial IL-6 and IL-10 measurements made on 43 patients who died and matched survivors indicated a relative deficiency in IL-10 production as death approached. Elevated plasma cytokines in severe malaria are associated with systemic pathologic abnormalities, not cerebral involvement. Both the overall magnitude of the cytokine responses and the eventual imbalance between the pro- and antiinflammatory responses are important determinants of mortality.  (+info)

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be awakened, cannot respond to stimuli, and does not exhibit any sleep-wake cycles. It is typically caused by severe brain injury, illness, or toxic exposure that impairs the function of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.

In a coma, the person may appear to be asleep, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate or respond to stimuli. Comas can last for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks or even months, and some people may emerge from a coma with varying degrees of brain function and disability.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tools and assessments to evaluate the level of consciousness and brain function in individuals who are in a coma, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. Treatment for coma typically involves supportive care to maintain vital functions, manage any underlying medical conditions, and prevent further complications.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is a widely used clinical measurement for assessing the outcome and recovery of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or other neurological disorders. It was first introduced in 1975 by Graham Jennett and colleagues at the University of Glasgow.

The GOS classifies the overall functional ability and independence of a patient into one of the following five hierarchical categories:

1. **Death:** The patient has died due to the injury or its complications.
2. **Vegetative State (VS):** The patient is unaware of their surroundings, shows no meaningful response to stimuli, and has minimal or absent brainstem reflexes. They may have sleep-wake cycles but lack higher cognitive functions.
3. **Severe Disability (SD):** The patient demonstrates considerable disability in their daily life, requiring assistance with personal care and activities. They might have cognitive impairments, communication difficulties, or physical disabilities that limit their independence.
4. **Moderate Disability (MD):** The patient has some disability but can live independently, manage their own affairs, and return to work in a sheltered environment. They may exhibit minor neurological or psychological deficits.
5. **Good Recovery (GR):** The patient has resumed normal life with minimal or no residual neurological or psychological deficits. They might have some minor problems with memory, concentration, or organizational skills but can perform their daily activities without assistance.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) is an updated and more detailed version of the GOS, which further breaks down the original five categories into eight subcategories for a more nuanced assessment of patient outcomes.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

"Trauma severity indices" refer to various scoring systems used by healthcare professionals to evaluate the severity of injuries in trauma patients. These tools help standardize the assessment and communication of injury severity among different members of the healthcare team, allowing for more effective and consistent treatment planning, resource allocation, and prognosis estimation.

There are several commonly used trauma severity indices, including:

1. Injury Severity Score (ISS): ISS is an anatomical scoring system that evaluates the severity of injuries based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The body is divided into six regions, and the square of the highest AIS score in each region is summed to calculate the ISS. Scores range from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries.
2. New Injury Severity Score (NISS): NISS is a modification of the ISS that focuses on the three most severely injured body regions, regardless of their anatomical location. The three highest AIS scores are squared and summed to calculate the NISS. This scoring system tends to correlate better with mortality than the ISS in some studies.
3. Revised Trauma Score (RTS): RTS is a physiological scoring system that evaluates the patient's respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological status upon arrival at the hospital. It uses variables such as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate to calculate a score between 0 and 7.84, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.
4. Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS): TRISS is a combined anatomical and physiological scoring system that estimates the probability of survival based on ISS or NISS, RTS, age, and mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating). It uses logistic regression equations to calculate the predicted probability of survival.
5. Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS): PTS is a physiological scoring system specifically designed for children under 14 years old. It evaluates six variables, including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, capillary refill time, GCS, and temperature to calculate a score between -6 and +12, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.

These scoring systems help healthcare professionals assess the severity of trauma, predict outcomes, allocate resources, and compare patient populations in research settings. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized care for each patient.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

A closed head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when there is no penetration or breakage of the skull. The brain is encased in the skull and protected by cerebrospinal fluid, but when the head experiences a sudden impact or jolt, the brain can move back and forth within the skull, causing it to bruise, tear blood vessels, or even cause nerve damage. This type of injury can result from various incidents such as car accidents, sports injuries, falls, or any other event that causes the head to suddenly stop or change direction quickly.

Closed head injuries can range from mild (concussion) to severe (diffuse axonal injury, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma), and symptoms may not always be immediately apparent. They can include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness, seizures, or even coma. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a closed head injury, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the outcome.

Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage (TIH) is a type of bleeding that occurs within the skull or inside the brain parenchyma as a result of traumatic injury. It can be further classified based on the location and type of bleeding, which includes:

1. Epidural hematoma (EDH): Bleeding between the dura mater and the inner table of the skull, usually caused by arterial bleeding from the middle meningeal artery after a temporal bone fracture.
2. Subdural hematoma (SDH): Bleeding in the potential space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, often due to venous sinus or bridging vein injury. SDHs can be acute, subacute, or chronic based on their age and clinical presentation.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): Bleeding into the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SAH is commonly caused by trauma but can also be secondary to aneurysmal rupture or arteriovenous malformations.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH): Bleeding directly into the brain parenchyma, which can result from contusions, lacerations, or shearing forces during traumatic events.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding into the cerebral ventricles, often as a complication of IPH, SAH, or EDH. IVH can lead to obstructive hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure (ICP).

TIHs are medical emergencies requiring prompt diagnosis and management to prevent secondary brain injury and reduce morbidity and mortality. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for the detection and characterization of TIHs, while neurosurgical intervention may be necessary in specific cases.

Consciousness disorders, also known as altered consciousness, refer to conditions that affect a person's awareness or perception of their surroundings, themselves, or their current state. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, illness, or the use of certain medications.

There are several types of consciousness disorders, including:

1. Coma: A state of deep unconsciousness in which a person is unable to respond to stimuli or communicate.
2. Vegetative State: A condition in which a person may have sleep-wake cycles and some automatic responses, but lacks awareness or the ability to interact with their environment.
3. Minimally Conscious State: A condition in which a person has some degree of awareness and may be able to respond to stimuli, but is unable to communicate or consistently interact with their environment.
4. Delirium: A state of confusion and altered consciousness that can occur suddenly and fluctuate over time. It is often caused by an underlying medical condition or the use of certain medications.
5. Locked-in Syndrome: A rare condition in which a person is fully conscious but unable to move or communicate due to complete paralysis of all voluntary muscles except for those that control eye movement.

Treatment for consciousness disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or surgery. In some cases, recovery may be possible with appropriate treatment and rehabilitation. However, in other cases, the disorder may be permanent or result in long-term disability.

A Trauma Center is a hospital that has specialized resources and capabilities to provide comprehensive care for severely injured patients. It is a designated facility that has met strict criteria established by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and/or state or regional trauma systems. These criteria include having a dedicated trauma team, available 24/7, with specially trained healthcare professionals who can promptly assess, resuscitate, operate, and provide critical care to patients suffering from traumatic injuries.

Trauma centers are categorized into levels (I-V), based on the resources and capabilities they offer. Level I trauma centers have the highest level of resources and are capable of providing comprehensive care for all types of traumatic injuries, including conducting research and offering education in trauma care. In contrast, lower-level trauma centers may not have the same extent of resources but still provide essential trauma care services to their communities.

The primary goal of a trauma center is to ensure that severely injured patients receive prompt, high-quality care to minimize the risk of complications, reduce long-term disability, and improve overall outcomes.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury that occurs when there is extensive damage to the nerve fibers (axons) in the brain. It is often caused by rapid acceleration or deceleration forces, such as those experienced during motor vehicle accidents or falls. In DAI, the axons are stretched and damaged, leading to disruption of communication between different parts of the brain. This can result in a wide range of symptoms, including cognitive impairment, loss of consciousness, and motor dysfunction. DAI is often difficult to diagnose and can have long-term consequences, making it an important area of study in traumatic brain injury research.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

A decompressive craniectomy is a neurosurgical procedure in which a portion of the skull is removed to allow the swollen brain to expand and reduce intracranial pressure. This surgical intervention is typically performed as a last resort in cases where other treatments for increased intracranial pressure, such as hyperosmolar therapy or drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, have been unsuccessful.

During the procedure, the surgeon creates an opening in the skull (craniectomy) and removes a piece of bone (bone flap). This exposes the brain and creates additional space for it to expand without being compressed by the rigid skull. The dura mater, the outermost protective layer surrounding the brain, may also be opened to provide further room for brain swelling.

Once the swelling has subsided, a second procedure known as cranioplasty is performed to replace the removed bone flap or use an artificial implant to restore the skull's integrity and protect the underlying brain tissue. The timing of cranioplasty can vary depending on individual patient factors and clinical conditions.

Decompressive craniectomy is most commonly used in the management of traumatic brain injuries, stroke-induced malignant cerebral edema, and intracranial hypertension due to various causes, such as infection or inflammation. While this procedure can be lifesaving in some cases, it may also lead to complications like seizures, hydrocephalus, or neurological deficits. Therefore, the decision to perform a decompressive craniectomy should be made carefully and on an individual basis, considering both the potential benefits and risks.

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is a standardized system used by healthcare professionals to classify the severity of traumatic injuries. The scale assigns a score from 1 to 6 to each injury, with 1 indicating minor injuries and 6 indicating maximal severity or currently untreatable injuries.

The AIS scores are based on anatomical location, type of injury, and physiological response to the injury. For example, a simple fracture may be assigned an AIS score of 2, while a life-threatening head injury may be assigned a score of 5 or 6.

The AIS is used in conjunction with other scoring systems, such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), to assess the overall severity of injuries sustained in a traumatic event. These scores can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, triage, and resource allocation.

An epidural cranial hematoma is a specific type of hematoma, which is defined as an abnormal accumulation of blood in a restricted space, occurring between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull in the cranial region. This condition is often caused by trauma or head injury, which results in the rupture of blood vessels, allowing blood to collect in the epidural space. The accumulation of blood can compress the brain tissue and cause various neurological symptoms, potentially leading to serious complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Unconsciousness is a state of complete awareness where a person is not responsive to stimuli and cannot be awakened. It is often caused by severe trauma, illness, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. In medical terms, it is defined as a lack of response to verbal commands, pain, or other stimuli, indicating that the person's brain is not functioning at a level necessary to maintain wakefulness and awareness.

Unconsciousness can be described as having different levels, ranging from drowsiness to deep coma. The causes of unconsciousness can vary widely, including head injury, seizure, stroke, infection, drug overdose, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. Depending on the cause and severity, unconsciousness may last for a few seconds or continue for an extended period, requiring medical intervention and treatment.

Multiple trauma, also known as polytrauma, is a medical term used to describe severe injuries to the body that are sustained in more than one place or region. It often involves damage to multiple organ systems and can be caused by various incidents such as traffic accidents, falls from significant heights, high-energy collisions, or violent acts.

The injuries sustained in multiple trauma may include fractures, head injuries, internal bleeding, chest and abdominal injuries, and soft tissue injuries. These injuries can lead to a complex medical situation requiring immediate and ongoing care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, critical care specialists, nurses, rehabilitation therapists, and mental health providers.

Multiple trauma is a serious condition that can result in long-term disability or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and is typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It's the measurement of the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and brain tissue within the confined space of the skull.

Normal ICP ranges from 5 to 15 mmHg in adults when lying down. Intracranial pressure may increase due to various reasons such as bleeding in the brain, swelling of the brain, increased production or decreased absorption of CSF, and brain tumors. Elevated ICP is a serious medical emergency that can lead to brain damage or even death if not promptly treated. Symptoms of high ICP may include severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, and visual changes.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A basal ganglia hemorrhage is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which is defined as bleeding within the skull or brain. Specifically, a basal ganglia hemorrhage involves bleeding into the basal ganglia, which are clusters of neurons located deep within the forebrain and are involved in regulating movement, cognition, and emotion.

Basal ganglia hemorrhages can result from various factors, including hypertension (high blood pressure), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, illicit drug use (such as cocaine or amphetamines), and head trauma. Symptoms of a basal ganglia hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache, altered consciousness, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and visual disturbances.

Diagnosis of a basal ganglia hemorrhage typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment may include supportive care, medications to control symptoms, and surgical intervention in some cases. The prognosis for individuals with a basal ganglia hemorrhage varies depending on the severity of the bleed, the presence of underlying medical conditions, and the timeliness and effectiveness of treatment.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

Intracranial hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure within the skull (intracranial space) that contains the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood. Normally, the pressure inside the skull is carefully regulated to maintain a balance between the formation and absorption of CSF. However, when the production of CSF exceeds its absorption or when there is an obstruction in the flow of CSF, the pressure inside the skull can rise, leading to intracranial hypertension.

The symptoms of intracranial hypertension may include severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances such as blurred vision or double vision, and papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). In some cases, intracranial hypertension can lead to serious complications such as vision loss, brain herniation, and even death if left untreated.

Intracranial hypertension can be idiopathic, meaning that there is no identifiable cause, or secondary to other underlying medical conditions such as brain tumors, meningitis, hydrocephalus, or certain medications. The diagnosis of intracranial hypertension typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and lumbar puncture to measure the pressure inside the skull and assess the CSF composition. Treatment options may include medications to reduce CSF production, surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, or shunting procedures to drain excess CSF from the intracranial space.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

A traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a type of brain injury that results from a trauma or external force to the head, which causes bleeding in the brain. This condition is also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or epidural or subdural hematoma, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding.

The trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the accumulation of blood in the skull and increased pressure on the brain. This can result in various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, vomiting, weakness or numbness in the limbs, loss of consciousness, and even death if not treated promptly.

Traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. Treatment options may include surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, medication to control seizures and reduce swelling, and rehabilitation to help with recovery. The prognosis for traumatic cerebral hemorrhage depends on various factors such as the severity of the injury, location of the bleeding, age and overall health of the patient, and timeliness of treatment.

A subdural hematoma is a type of brain injury in which blood accumulates between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges, the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord) and the brain. In the case of an acute subdural hematoma, the bleeding occurs suddenly and rapidly as a result of trauma, such as a severe head injury from a fall, motor vehicle accident, or assault. The accumulation of blood puts pressure on the brain, which can lead to serious complications, including brain damage or death, if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Acute subdural hematomas are considered medical emergencies and require immediate neurosurgical intervention.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

"APACHE" stands for "Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation." It is a system used to assess the severity of illness in critically ill patients and predict their risk of mortality. The APACHE score is calculated based on various physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, and laboratory values, as well as age and chronic health conditions.

There are different versions of the APACHE system, including APACHE II, III, and IV, each with its own set of variables and scoring system. The most commonly used version is APACHE II, which includes 12 physiological variables measured during the first 24 hours of ICU admission, as well as age and chronic health points.

The APACHE score is widely used in research and clinical settings to compare the severity of illness and outcomes between different patient populations, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, and make informed decisions about resource allocation and triage.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

A diabetic coma is a serious and life-threatening condition that occurs when an individual with diabetes experiences severely high or low blood sugar levels, leading to unconsciousness. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention.

In the case of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), the body produces excess amounts of urine to try to eliminate the glucose, leading to dehydration and a lack of essential nutrients in the body. This can result in a buildup of toxic byproducts called ketones, which can cause a condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA can lead to a diabetic coma if left untreated.

On the other hand, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) can also cause a diabetic coma. This occurs when the brain is not receiving enough glucose to function properly, leading to confusion, seizures, and eventually unconsciousness.

If you suspect someone is experiencing a diabetic coma, it is important to seek emergency medical attention immediately. While waiting for help to arrive, try to administer glucose or sugar to the individual if they are conscious and able to swallow. If they are unconscious, do not give them anything to eat or drink, as this could cause choking or further complications.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a system that provides immediate and urgent medical care, transportation, and treatment to patients who are experiencing an acute illness or injury that poses an immediate threat to their health, safety, or life. EMS is typically composed of trained professionals, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders, who work together to assess a patient's condition, administer appropriate medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital or other medical facility for further treatment.

The goal of EMS is to quickly and effectively stabilize patients in emergency situations, prevent further injury or illness, and ensure that they receive timely and appropriate medical care. This may involve providing basic life support (BLS) measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), controlling bleeding, and managing airway obstructions, as well as more advanced interventions such as administering medications, establishing intravenous lines, and performing emergency procedures like intubation or defibrillation.

EMS systems are typically organized and managed at the local or regional level, with coordination and oversight provided by public health agencies, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. EMS providers may work for private companies, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and they may be dispatched to emergencies via 911 or other emergency response systems.

In summary, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a critical component of the healthcare system that provides urgent medical care and transportation to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries. EMS professionals work together to quickly assess, stabilize, and transport patients to appropriate medical facilities for further treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Intensive care is a specialized level of medical care that is provided to critically ill patients. It's usually given in a dedicated unit of a hospital called the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU). The goal of intensive care is to closely monitor and manage life-threatening conditions, stabilize vital functions, and support organs until they recover or the patient can be moved to a less acute level of care.

Intensive care involves advanced medical equipment and technologies, such as ventilators to assist with breathing, dialysis machines for kidney support, intravenous lines for medication administration, and continuous monitoring devices for heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other vital signs.

The ICU team typically includes intensive care specialists (intensivists), critical care nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive, round-the-clock care for critically ill patients.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

A brain concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is typically caused by a blow to the head or a violent shaking of the head and body. A concussion can also occur from a fall or accident that causes the head to suddenly jerk forward or backward.

The impact or forceful movement causes the brain to move back and forth inside the skull, which can result in stretching and damaging of brain cells, as well as disrupting the normal functioning of the brain. Concussions can range from mild to severe and may cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
* Temporary loss of consciousness
* Confusion or fogginess
* Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
* Dizziness or "seeing stars"
* Ringing in the ears
* Nausea or vomiting
* Slurred speech
* Fatigue

In some cases, concussions may also cause more serious symptoms, such as seizures, difficulty walking, loss of balance, and changes in behavior or mood. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has a brain concussion. A healthcare professional can evaluate the severity of the injury and provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care.

An Insulin Coma is not a formal medical term, but it has been used in the past to describe a deliberate medical procedure known as Insulin Shock Therapy. This was a treatment for mental illness that involved administering large doses of insulin to induce hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), which could lead to a coma.

The idea behind this therapy, which was popular in the mid-20th century, was that the induced coma and subsequent recovery could have therapeutic effects on the brain and help alleviate symptoms of mental illnesses like schizophrenia. However, this treatment fell out of favor due to its significant risks and the development of more effective and safer treatments.

It's important to note that in current medical practice, inducing a coma with insulin is not a standard or recommended procedure due to the potential for severe harm, including brain damage and death.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of stroke caused by bleeding within the brain or its surrounding tissues. It's a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. The bleeding can occur in various locations:

1. Epidural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater (the outermost protective covering of the brain) and the skull. This is often caused by trauma, such as a head injury.
2. Subdural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain's surface, which can also be caused by trauma.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding in the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounds the brain. This type of ICH is commonly caused by the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: Bleeding within the brain tissue itself, which can be caused by hypertension (high blood pressure), amyloid angiopathy, or trauma.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage: Bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, which contains CSF and communicates with the subarachnoid space. This type of ICH is often seen in premature infants but can also be caused by head trauma or aneurysm rupture in adults.

Symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage may include sudden severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, confusion, seizures, weakness, numbness, or paralysis on one side of the body, vision changes, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further brain damage and potential long-term disabilities or death.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) is a specialized hospital unit that provides intensive care to critically ill or injured infants, children, and adolescents. The PICU is equipped with advanced medical technology and staffed by healthcare professionals trained in pediatrics, including pediatric intensivists, pediatric nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists as needed.

The primary goal of the PICU is to closely monitor and manage the most critical patients, providing around-the-clock care and interventions to support organ function, treat life-threatening conditions, and prevent complications. The PICU team works together to provide family-centered care, keeping parents informed about their child's condition and involving them in decision-making processes.

Common reasons for admission to the PICU include respiratory failure, shock, sepsis, severe trauma, congenital heart disease, neurological emergencies, and post-operative monitoring after complex surgeries. The length of stay in the PICU can vary widely depending on the severity of the child's illness or injury and their response to treatment.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and potentially causing damage to the brain tissues. This excessive buildup of CSF can result from either overproduction or impaired absorption of the fluid, which typically causes the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain to expand and put pressure on surrounding brain structures.

The condition can be congenital, present at birth due to genetic factors or abnormalities during fetal development, or acquired later in life as a result of injuries, infections, tumors, or other disorders affecting the brain's ability to regulate CSF flow and absorption. Symptoms may vary depending on age, severity, and duration but often include headaches, vomiting, balance problems, vision issues, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for hydrocephalus typically involves surgically implanting a shunt system that diverts the excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed, such as the abdominal cavity. In some cases, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) might be an alternative treatment option, creating a new pathway for CSF flow within the brain. Regular follow-ups with neurosurgeons and other healthcare professionals are essential to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkey" is not a medical term. It is a common name for the country located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, as well as a type of large bird native to North America that is often eaten as a holiday meal. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

A post-head injury coma is a state of deep unconsciousness that occurs following a traumatic brain injury to the head. This condition is characterized by a complete loss of awareness and inability to respond to external stimuli or communicate. The individual is unable to move or speak, and there is no sleep-wake cycle.

The duration of a post-head injury coma can vary widely, from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity of the brain injury. Factors that influence the prognosis include the cause and location of the injury, the patient's age and overall health status, and the promptness and effectiveness of medical treatment.

Post-head injury coma is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate evaluation and management by a team of healthcare professionals, including neurosurgeons, neurologists, critical care specialists, and rehabilitation therapists. The goal of treatment is to minimize secondary brain damage, prevent complications, and promote recovery.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

An accidental fall is an unplanned, unexpected event in which a person suddenly and involuntarily comes to rest on the ground or other lower level, excluding intentional changes in position (e.g., jumping to catch a ball) and landings that are part of a planned activity (e.g., diving into a pool). Accidental falls can occur for various reasons, such as environmental hazards, muscle weakness, balance problems, visual impairment, or certain medical conditions. They are a significant health concern, particularly among older adults, as they can lead to serious injuries, loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection that causes the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed. It's caused by various types of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

The infection can develop quickly, over a few hours or days, and is considered a medical emergency. Symptoms may include sudden high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In some cases, a rash may also be present.

Bacterial meningitis can lead to serious complications such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, and even death if not treated promptly with appropriate antibiotics and supportive care. It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you suspect bacterial meningitis. Vaccines are available to prevent certain types of bacterial meningitis.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

... at 40 , The new approach to Glasgow Coma Scale assessment (YouTube video on the Glasgow Coma Scale) A ... "Glasgow Coma Scale: Do it this way" (PDF). Institute of Neurological Sciences NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. "Glasgow Coma ... The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a clinical scale used to reliably measure a person's level of consciousness after a brain ... The Glasgow Coma Scale was initially adopted by nursing staff in the Glasgow neurosurgical unit. Especially following a 1975 ...
"Modified Glasgow Coma Scale for Infants and Children". Retrieved 2008-05-03. "Modified Glasgow Coma Scale for Infants and ... The Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (British English) or the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score (American English) or simply PGCS is ... As many of the assessments for an adult patient would not be appropriate for infants, the Glasgow Coma Scale was modified ... the equivalent of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) used to assess the level of consciousness of child patients. ...
"The Glasgow structured approach to assessment of the Glasgow Coma Scale". www.glasgowcomascale.org. Retrieved 2019-03-06. "Coma ... More elaborate scales, such as the Glasgow Coma Scale, quantify an individual's reactions such as eye opening, movement and ... when coma was caused by cardiac arrest Scores between 3 and 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale Many types of problems can cause a coma ... and assess the severity of the coma with the Glasgow Coma Scale Take blood work to see if drugs were involved or if it was a ...
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used scoring system used to assess the level of severity of a brain injury. This ... Based on the Glasgow Coma Scale severity is classified as follows, severe brain injuries score 3-8, moderate brain injuries ... "What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale?". Retrieved 2016-11-15. Watanabe, Thomas; Marino, Michael (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment ... "Glasgow Coma Scale: Technique and Interpretation". www.clinicsinsurgery.com. Archived from the original on 2020-01-16. ...
The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a clinical scale utilized to measure the severity of the concussion. The normal GCS can be used ... "What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale?". BrainLine. 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2021-04-11. Graham R, Rivara FP, Ford MA, Spicer CM, Youth ... August 2016). "Performance of the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale Score in the Evaluation of Children With Blunt Head Trauma". ... Symptom scales can be varied among various age groups, and it can be provided to help health care providers to assess. ...
... including the first aid based AVPU scale and the more medically based Glasgow Coma Scale. The objective of pain stimulus is to ... Green, Steven (2011). "Cheerio, Laddie! Bidding Farewell to the Glasgow Coma Scale" (PDF). Ann Emerg Med. 58 (5): 427-430. doi: ... Waterhouse, Catheryne (2008). "An audit of nurses' conduct and recording of observations using the Glasgow Coma Scale". British ... Middleton, Paul (2012). "Practical use of the Glasgow Coma Scale: a comprehensive narrative review of GCS methodology". ...
Glasgow Coma Scale Triage Williams B (ed)., ed. (2017). National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2 - Standardising the assessment of ... However, the scale is calibrated to different populations and sometimes expanded to include additional parameters, specific to ...
... the Glasgow Coma Scale is more appropriate. When compared to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) the AVPU classification of alertness ... The AVPU scale has four possible outcomes for recording (as opposed to the 13 possible outcomes on the Glasgow Coma Scale). The ... The AVPU scale can also be compared to the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (PGCS). The PGCS corresponds with the AVPU ... comparison of two simple assessment scales with the Glasgow Coma scale". Anaesthesia. 59 (1): 34-7. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used scoring system used to assess the level of severity of a brain injury. This ... The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a tool for measuring the degree of unconsciousness and is thus a useful tool for determining ... The Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale is used in young children. The widely used PECARN Pediatric Head Injury/Trauma Algorithm helps ... Based on the Glasgow Coma Scale severity is classified as follows, severe brain injuries score 3-8, moderate brain injuries ...
The Blantyre coma scale is a modification of the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale, designed to assess malarial coma in children. It ... The score assigned by the Blantyre coma scale is a number from 0 to 5. The score is determined by adding the results from three ... "Blantyre Coma Scale for Young Children". Article on Dr Taylor and the Blantyre Malaria Project v t e (Articles needing ... additional references from August 2022, All articles needing additional references, Medical scales, Malaria, Coma, Medical ...
A coma scale is a system to assess the severity of coma. There are several such systems: The Glasgow Coma Scale is neurological ... The Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (also known as Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score or simply PGCS) is the equivalent of the Glasgow ... The Blantyre Coma Scale is a modification of the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale, designed to assess malarial coma in children. It ... original scale) or 15 (the more widely used modified or revised scale). GCS was initially used to assess level of consciousness ...
There are several grading scales available for SAH. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is ubiquitously used for assessing ... Blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and Glasgow Coma Scale are monitored frequently. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, ... More than 90 percent of people with traumatic subarachnoid bleeding and a Glasgow Coma Score over 12 have a good outcome. There ... classification uses Glasgow coma score and focal neurological deficit to gauge severity of symptoms. A comprehensive ...
The Glasgow Coma Scale may be used to quantify altered consciousness. Gut - absent bowel sounds, ileus "CG34 Hypertension - ...
In 1974, professors Graham Teasdale and Bryan Jennett developed the Glasgow Coma Scale. In more recent times, the university ... There is a newspaper, the Glasgow University Guardian; Glasgow University Magazine; Glasgow University Student Television; and ... "Friends of Glasgow University Library". Friends of Glasgow University Library. "Old College, High Street, Glasgow". Canmore. " ... "University of Glasgow - Explore - UofG Gàidhlig". www.gla.ac.uk. Retrieved 9 November 2020. "University of Glasgow Story, The ...
In 1974, Teasdale co-created the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) with Bryan Jennett. The GCS is a method of assessing a patient's ... is an English neurosurgeon and the co-developer of the neurologic assessment tool known as the Glasgow Coma Scale. He is an ... Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, Academics of the University of Glasgow, Knights Bachelor, ... "Sir Graham Teasdale". University of Glasgow. Retrieved 26 March 2015. Daroff, Robert B; Fenichel, Gerald M; Jankovic, Joseph; ...
Supportive measures include observation of vital signs, especially Glasgow Coma Scale and airway patency. IV access with fluid ... Cases of severe overdose have been reported and symptoms displayed might include prolonged deep coma or deep cyclic coma, apnea ... Benzodiazepine-overdose-related coma may be characterised by an alpha pattern with the central somatosensory conduction time ( ... Severe symptoms include coma and respiratory depression. Supportive care is the mainstay of treatment of benzodiazepine ...
The album's second single, "Glasgow Coma Scale Blues", was released on 20 August 2015. Both of which were produced by Gosling. ... The Libertines Share New Song "Glasgow Coma Scale Blues"' ', Pitchfork Media, 20 August 2015. Last accessed 20 August 2015. " ...
The album's second single, "Glasgow Coma Scale Blues", was released on 20 August 2015. The success of the album produced ... The Libertines Share New Song "Glasgow Coma Scale Blues", Pitchfork Media, 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015. "The ...
The Glasgow Coma Scale classifies the severity of brain injury, with a score of 15 as normal and progressively lower scores ... The most helpful predictors of the treatment outcome is the glasgow coma scale (GCS). This is a standardized pupil response ... If the coma is long, the probability of dying or permanent neurological damage is very possible. Rules exist within each sport ... In small cases, cerebral contusions can lead to death (about 15 per 100,000 people). If a cerebral contusion leads to a coma, ...
For example, the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale is a modification of the Glasgow Coma Scale that is useful in patients who have ... Examples include the Injury Severity Score and a modified version of the Glasgow Coma Scale. More complex classification ... Teasdale G, Jennett B (1974). "Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale". The Lancet. 2 (7872): 81-4. ... trauma score despite the fact that some research has shown there is no benefit between it and the revised trauma scale. The ...
Coma is the inability to make any purposeful response. Scales such as the Glasgow coma scale have been designed to measure the ... The Grady Coma Scale classes people on a scale of I to V along a scale of confusion, stupor, deep stupor, abnormal posturing, ... The most commonly used tool for measuring LOC objectively is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). It has come into almost universal ... The ACDU scale, like AVPU, is easier to use than the GCS and produces similarly accurate results. Using ACDU, a patient is ...
Ballard Maturational Assessment Bishop score Glasgow Coma Scale Midwifery Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale "The Apgar Score". www. ... Medical scales, Medical assessment and evaluation instruments, Medical mnemonics). ...
Glasgow Coma Scale (also named GCS) is designed to provide the status for the central nervous system. It is often used as part ... FOUR score - 17-point scale for the assessment of level of consciousness. Aims to have higher sensitivity and specificity then ...
Glasgow Coma Scale Level of consciousness Wijdicks EF, Bamlet WR, Maramattom BV, Manno EM, McClelland RL (2005). "Validation of ... The main clinical grading scale in use for patients with impaired level of consciousness has historically been the Glasgow Coma ... Khanal K, Bhandari SS, Shrestha N, Acharya SP, Marhatta MN (2016). "Comparison of outcome predictions by the Glasgow coma scale ... Overall, FOUR score has better biostatistical properties than Glasgow Coma Scale in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy ...
The degree of consciousness is measured by standardized behavior observation scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale. Most ... with a score of 3 to 8 indicating coma, and 15 indicating full consciousness. The Glasgow Coma Scale has three subscales, ... The outcome may be summarized using the Glasgow Coma Scale, which yields a number in the range 3-15, ... Turing-scale robotics is an empirical branch of research on embodied cognition and situated cognition. In 2014, Victor Argonov ...
It is widely used clinically and is often paired with the Glasgow Coma Scale in health care facilities. Rancho Los Amigos ... The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), a.k.a. the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LOCF) or Rancho Scale, ... Medical scales, Coma, Medical assessment and evaluation instruments). ... Reliability and validity of the Disability Rating Scale and the Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale in monitoring recovery ...
Clinicians use scoring systems such as the Glasgow Coma Scale to assess the level of arousal in patients. High arousal states ... Furthermore, reflexes such as the oculovestibular reflex take place at even more rapid time-scales. It is quite plausible that ... 2007) depends on the simultaneous development of appropriate behavioral assays and model organisms amenable to large-scale ... from a total absence in coma, persistent vegetative state and general anesthesia, to a fluctuating and limited form of ...
Age, pupil abnormalities, and Glasgow Coma Scale score on arrival to the emergency department also influence the prognosis. In ... If the volume of the epidural hematoma is less than 30 mL, the clot diameter less than 15 mm, a Glasgow Coma Score above 8, and ... people with epidural hematoma and a Glasgow Coma Score of 15 (the highest score, indicating the best prognosis) usually have a ...
... including Glasgow coma scale. Controlling external bleeding through application of direct pressure, elevation, hemostatic ...
In a January 19 report, the paramedic rated her as 11 out of 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale. Santa Clara County criminalist Craig ...
Glasgow Coma Scale at 40 , The new approach to Glasgow Coma Scale assessment (YouTube video on the Glasgow Coma Scale) A ... "Glasgow Coma Scale: Do it this way" (PDF). Institute of Neurological Sciences NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. "Glasgow Coma ... The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a clinical scale used to reliably measure a persons level of consciousness after a brain ... The Glasgow Coma Scale was initially adopted by nursing staff in the Glasgow neurosurgical unit. Especially following a 1975 ...
Glasgow coma scale. Scientists issue a call to action for TBI patients to benefit from latest neuroscience findings. May 15, ... Glasgow coma scale, traumatic-brain-injuries. Primary Sidebar. Top Articles on Brain Health and Neuroplasticity. *Can you grow ...
... the most widely known and used tool is the Glasgow Coma Scale. The GCS sees a patient assessed and scored in three areas of ... the most widely known and used tool is the Glasgow Coma Scale. ...
The 15-point Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to determine level of consciousness, including patients with suspected concussive ... Glasgow Coma Scale Used In Evaluating Level of Consciousness, Not Concussion Severity. ... Home » Health & Safety Channel » Glasgow Coma Scale Used In Evaluating Level of Consciousness, Not Concussion Severity ... the Glasgow Coma Scale should not be used to assess the significance of a concussion, writes William P. Meehan, III, MD, ...
Whats the Glasgow Coma Scale?. The most common way to describe a persons level of consciousness is… ...
ICD-10 code R40.2411 for Glasgow coma scale score 13-15, in the field [EMT or ambulance] is a medical classification as listed ... ICD-10-CM Code for Glasgow coma scale score 13-15, in the field [EMT or ambulance] R40.2411 ICD-10 code R40.2411 for Glasgow ... Glasgow coma scale score 13-15, in the field [EMT or ambulance] R40.2 ... Excludes1: neonatal coma (P91.5). somnolence, stupor and coma in diabetes (E08-E13). somnolence, stupor and coma in hepatic ...
Glasgow Coma Scale. IA. intra-arterial. IQR. interquartile range. mRS. modified Rankin Scale. SCA. superior cerebellar artery. ... Glasgow Coma Scale Does Not Predict Outcome Post-Intra-Arterial Treatment for Basilar Artery Thrombosis. R.V. Chandra, C.P. Law ... Initial Glasgow Coma Scale score predicts outcome following thrombolysis for posterior circulation stroke. Arch Neurol 2005;62: ... Glasgow Coma Scale Does Not Predict Outcome Post-Intra-Arterial Treatment for Basilar Artery Thrombosis ...
... and Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score with need for transfusion or surgical interventions and survival to discharge in ... The Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) is a veterinary illness severity score modified from the human Glasgow coma scale. This ... The prognostic value of the modified Glasgow coma scale in head trauma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2001;15(6):581-584. doi: ... The prognostic value of the modified Glasgow coma scale in head trauma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2001;15(6):581-584. doi: ...
The prehospital simplified motor score is as accurate as the prehospital Glasgow coma scale: analysis of a statewide trauma ... The prehospital simplified motor score is as accurate as the prehospital Glasgow coma scale: analysis of a statewide trauma ... which is easier to calculate than the 15-point Glasgow coma scale (GCS). Using a state trauma registry, the accuracy of the ...
assessment at admission, Glasgow Coma Scale, prehospital assessment, pupillary reactivity, traumatic brain injuries ... Glasgow coma scale motor score and pupillary reaction to predict six-month mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury: ... The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and pupillary reactivity are well-known prognostic factors in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The ... Majdan, M, Steyerberg, E.W, Nieboer, D, Mauritz, W, Rusnák, M, & Lingsma, H.F. (2015). Glasgow coma scale motor score and ...
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of consciousness after a person has suffered from a brain injury. It ... The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of consciousness after a person has suffered from a brain injury. It ... What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?. Posted on December 17, 2018 *Wrongful Death ...
What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?. On Behalf of Andrews & Sanders Law Offices , Mar 10, 2020 , Personal Injury , ... Fortunately, a clinical observation test known as the Glasgow Coma Scale can offer an idea of how extensive ones TBI might be ...
Early cerebral infarction, Glasgow coma scale, Magnetic resonance imaging, Traumatic brain injury ...
Glasgow Coma Scale. The most common classification system for TBI severity is based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ... Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS): A 3- to 15-point scale used to assess a patients level of consciousness and neurologic functioning [ ... What is the role of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in the classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity? ... The predictive value of field versus arrival Glasgow Coma Scale score and TRISS calculations in moderate-to-severe traumatic ...
Educational content on VJNeurology is intended for healthcare professionals only. By visiting this website and accessing this information you confirm that you are a healthcare professional. ...
Glasgow Coma Scale + Support. 19 Januar 2024 @ 19:30 - 23:30. 16€ - 19€ ...
HealthBridge/Glasgow Coma Scale. https://healthbridgecc.com/resource-center/glasgow-coma-scale/ ... The Glasgow Coma Scale provides a practical method for assessment of impairment in levels of consciousness. ... Diagnostic rating scales and assessments are helpful tools in providing validated measures of symptom severity of a traumatic ... Because accurate diagnosis is critically important, rating scales are often utilized in developing an individualized care plan ...
Glasgow Coma Scale. A critical factor in early treatment decisions and in long-term outcome after penetrating head injuries is ... Virtually all individuals with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 or less meet these criteria. [15, 16, 6, 6] ... Although many methods of defining level of consciousness exist, the most widely used measure is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ( ... The patient presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 4 and died. View Media Gallery ...
Glasgow Coma Scale. The most common classification system for TBI severity is based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ... Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS): A 3- to 15-point scale used to assess a patients level of consciousness and neurologic functioning [ ... What is the role of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in the classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity? ... The predictive value of field versus arrival Glasgow Coma Scale score and TRISS calculations in moderate-to-severe traumatic ...
2023 Australian Paramedical College. All rights reserved.. * APC provides education and training pathways to become a registered Ambulance Paramedic by way of a university degree. We recommend checking with your chosen university before making a decision to enrol ...
Understanding the Glasgow Coma Scale. On Behalf of Barber Law , Dec 3, 2019 , personal injury , 0 comments ... This is due to a clinical observation test known as the Glasgow Coma Scale. Information shared by the Centers for Disease ...
What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale? from Shea & Shea. The San Jose, Califormia areas preeminent accident and injury attorneys. ... Instead, there is a modified version of the scale known as the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale that is particularly tailored for ... The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which was first published in 1974, is a commonly used method to assess the level of consciousness ... Despite its name, the GCS is a test that focuses on symptoms and may be used to not only rate the severity of a coma, but ...
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and functional magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (fMRI-DTI) were used to measure the ... Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and functional magnetic resonance - diffusion tensor imaging (fMRI-DTI) were used to measure the ... The current clinical assessment scales for early disturbance of consciousness include Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (Mehta and ... Glasgow coma scale (GCS). GCS is a behavioral assessment method for assessing the degree of consciousness of patients (Eapen et ...
A study of the relationship between the Glasgow Coma Scale and the Functional Independence Measure of adult individuals with ... Wiedenhoeft, Jacalyn Joan, "A study of the relationship between the Glasgow Coma Scale and the Functional Independence Measure ...
‍⚕️ Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Guide: Learn about the GCS, its assessment techniques, and real-life examples to improve patient ... Glasgow Coma Score. An alternative name for the Glasgow Coma Scale.. The paramedic reported the patients Glasgow Coma Score as ... Coma Scale. A shortened reference to the Glasgow Coma Scale.. The physician requested the patients latest Coma Scale score ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a valuable tool for assessing and monitoring a patients level of consciousness in various clinical ...
... the Glasgow coma scale rates a persons level of consciousness after a head injury. The test involves assessing three types of ... What is the Glasgow coma scale?. On Behalf of Richin & Gaines, P.A. , Oct 29, 2021 , Motor Vehicle Accidents , ... As explained by BrainLine.org, the Glasgow coma scale rates a persons level of consciousness after a head injury. The test ...
Learn about Glasgow Coma Scale coding in ICD-10-CM and the guidelines medical coders need to know regarding traumatic brain ... R40.243, Glasgow coma scale score 3-8. *R40.244, Other coma, without documented Glasgow coma scale score, or with partial score ... What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a scoring system used by medical practitioners to describe the ... Glasgow Coma Scale Scoring. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the Glasgow Coma Scale ...
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to determining a patients level of consciousness following a traumatic brain injury in ... Understanding the glasgow coma scale and what it means ... Understanding the glasgow coma scale and what it means. The ... CALCULATING A VICTIMS GLASGOW COMA SCORE. The GCS analyzes the patients based on three different bodily responses: eye ppening ... Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to determining a patients level of consciousness following a traumatic brain injury in order ...
ACCURACY OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE (GCS) COMPONENTS AS PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY OF MODERATE AND SEVERE HEAD INJURY CLIENTS * Riki ... ACCURACY OF GLASGOW COMA SCALE (GCS) COMPONENTS AS PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY OF MODERATE AND SEVERE HEAD INJURY CLIENTS. UNEJ e- ...
Breaking down the Glasgow Coma Scale. On Behalf of Fedele & Honschke Attorneys at Law, LLC , Sep 20, 2018 , Brain Injury ... This test is known as the Glasgow Coma Scale. Per the CDC, ones GCS score is determined by measuring their response in the ...
  • Despite its name, the GCS is a test that focuses on symptoms and may be used to not only rate the severity of a coma, but traumatic brain injuries in general. (shea-shea.com)
  • Instead, there is a modified version of the scale known as the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale that is particularly tailored for its use on children. (shea-shea.com)
  • It is called the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (PGCS). (medicalcodingbuff.com)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale is reported as the combined score (which ranges from 3 to 15) and the score of each test (E for eye, V for Verbal, and M for Motor). (wikipedia.org)
  • The results are reported as the Glasgow Coma Score (the total points from the three tests) and the individual components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives The simplified motor score (SMS) is a three-point measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity, which is easier to calculate than the 15-point Glasgow coma scale (GCS). (bmj.com)
  • It functions much like the scale for adults, but relies on facial reactions and cries instead of language for the verbal response score. (shea-shea.com)
  • The paramedic reported the patient's Glasgow Coma Score as 10 upon arrival to the emergency department. (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • The physician requested the patient's latest Coma Scale score from the nurse. (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale assesses three components of a patient's neurological function: eye-opening response (E), verbal response (V), and motor response (M). Each component is scored individually, and the sum of the scores determines the patient's overall GCS score, ranging from 3 (completely unresponsive) to 15 (fully awake and oriented). (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • Differential effects of the Glasgow Coma Scale Score and its Components: An analysis of 54,069 patients with traumatic brain injury. (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • The total Glasgow Coma Score has values between 3, indicating deep unconsciousness, and 15, indicating full consciousness. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
  • Each of the three use a scale to find a score ranging from 3 to 15. (themvp.com)
  • Serum concentrations of S100A1B and S100B were examined in a prospective cohort study of patients with MTBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or 15. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal S100 serum concentrations and symptoms or signs of cognitive impairment were not significantly associated in patients with MTBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or 15. (nih.gov)
  • Dysfunction Score (MODS), and Glasgow Coma Scale. (cdc.gov)
  • Following a bicycling accident, he sustained intracerebral hemorrhage with an initial Glasgow Coma Scale of score 12. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of vasoactive drugs, the Glasgow Coma Scale score and the diagnoses of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic stroke were associated with the evolution to the condition. (bvsalud.org)
  • Children below the age of two struggle with the tests necessary for assessment of the Glasgow Coma Scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different assessment tools for neurological function, however, the most widely known and used tool is the Glasgow Coma Scale. (ausmed.com.au)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale provides a practical method for assessment of impairment in levels of consciousness. (healthbridgecc.com)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized neurological assessment tool used to evaluate a patient's level of consciousness by assessing their eye, verbal, and motor responses. (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a reproducible tool used to measure the depth and duration of the consciousness level of comatose patients, especially in emergency departments by healthcare professionals for neurological assessment. (rjhs.pk)
  • The use of a validated and well-known instrument to evaluate neurological functioning, such as the Glasgow Coma Scale, provides a reliable assessment of CNS impairment and its progression over time. (mhaus.org)
  • Of 13 scales that had been published by 1974, all involved linear scales that defined levels of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which was first published in 1974, is a commonly used method to assess the level of consciousness of patients suffering from an acute brain injury. (shea-shea.com)
  • Holdgate A, Ching N, Angonese L. Variability in agreement between physicians and nurses when measuring the Glasgow Coma Scale in the emergency department limits its clinical usefulness. (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • It is important for members of rehabilitation teams, specifically physical therapists (PTs) and nurses, to have knowledge of the GCS and the necessary skills to apply the scale and interpret the results. (rjhs.pk)
  • Fortunately, a clinical observation test known as the Glasgow Coma Scale can offer an idea of how extensive one's TBI might be (and, by extension, what their long-term prognosis may be). (dougandrews.com)
  • Diagnostic rating scales and assessments are helpful tools in providing validated measures of symptom severity of a traumatic injury or long-term illness. (healthbridgecc.com)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to determining a patient's level of consciousness following a traumatic brain injury in order to assess the level of severity of the injury. (themvp.com)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) defines the severity of a TBI within 48 hours of injury. (medscape.com)
  • The severity of deficit in cognitive functioning can be defined by the Ranchos Los Amigos Scale. (medscape.com)
  • Coma scale codes (R40.2-) are located in Chapter 18 of the ICD-10-CM coding manual under Symptoms and signs involving cognition, perception, emotional state and behavior (R40-R46). (medicalcodingbuff.com)
  • A number of assessments for head injury ("coma scales") were developed, though none were widely adopted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the physiologic variables, the Motor Component of the Glasgow Coma Scale had the strongest association with severe injury, followed by systolic blood pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Autonomic nervous system (ANS) measurements, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and functional magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (fMRI-DTI) were used to measure the peripheral nervous system indicators and brain networks, and to evaluate patients' behavior levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • These three behaviours make up the three elements of the scale: eye, verbal, and motor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale is used for people above the age of two and is composed of three tests: eye, verbal, and motor responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original scale involved three exam components (eye movement, motor control, and verbal control). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale is a valuable tool for assessing and monitoring a patient's level of consciousness in various clinical settings. (supportgroupsfornurses.org)
  • Patients with scores of 3 to 8 are usually considered to be in a coma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with trau-mat-ic brain injuries are not ben-e-fit-ing from recent advances in cog-ni-tive neu-ro-science research - and they should be, sci-en-tists report in a spe-cial issue of Cur-rent Opin-ion in Behav-ioral Sci-ences. (sharpbrains.com)
  • Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique, multicentrique portant sur des patients de moins de 5ans pris en charge pour une affection neurochirurgicale de Janvier 2019 à Décembre 2021 à Libreville. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a clinical scale used to reliably measure a person's level of consciousness after a brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, levels of consciousness in these scales were often poorly defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of consciousness after a person has suffered from a brain injury. (callahan-law.com)
  • As explained by BrainLine.org, the Glasgow coma scale rates a person's level of consciousness after a head injury. (richinandgaines.com)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a scoring system used by medical practitioners to describe the level of consciousness in a person following a traumatic brain injury . (medicalcodingbuff.com)
  • The study was primarily designed to assess the change in the level of neurological impairment in subjects suffering from the symptoms of EHS, from baseline to 90 minutes post-randomization, using the Glasgow Coma Scale ("GCS"), a validated and widely used tool among clinicians. (mhaus.org)
  • This is due to a clinical observation test known as the Glasgow Coma Scale. (davidbarberlaw.com)
  • The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and pupillary reactivity are well-known prognostic factors in traumatic brain injury (TBI). (eur.nl)
  • Consequently, the Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale was developed for assessing younger children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial vital signs: Glasgow coma scale */ @64 IMMEDR 2. (cdc.gov)
  • Outcomes were mortality and functional status at discharge and 6 months, evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). (thejns.org)
  • Glasgow Coma Scale Coding in ICD-10-CM begins once the medically trained staff has documented the scores. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
  • When a patient is in a coma, trained medical staff should use the GCS and document the scores. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
  • The median Hunt and Hess, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and modified Fisher scale (mFS) scores were 3 (IQR 2-4), 3 (IQR 3-4), and 3 (IQR 1-4), respectively. (thejns.org)
  • Third, the scale needed to provide important information for managing a patient with a head injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on their experiences, they aimed to make a scale satisfying several criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because accurate diagnosis is critically important, rating scales are often utilized in developing an individualized care plan and assisting families with realistic recovery timelines. (healthbridgecc.com)
  • Pain scale */ @68 SEEN72 2. (cdc.gov)
  • It is based on a 15-point scale and is used by trained staff at the site of an injury, such as that of a vehicle crash or contact sports injury. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
  • Second, it needed to be reliable, so that doctors could be confident in the results of the scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, different scales used overlapping and obscure terms that made communication difficult. (wikipedia.org)