Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.
Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.
Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Infections with bacteria of the family Desulfovibrionaceae.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
With the help of digestive enzymes from the penetration glands, they penetrate the intestinal mucosa to enter blood and ... Solium lodges in the host's upper intestine by using its crowned hooks and 4 suckers to enter the intestinal mucosa. Then, the ... These are the organs of adhesive attachment to the intestinal wall of the host. The rostellum is armed with two rows of ... In the secondary host, the eggs develop into oncospheres which bore through the intestinal wall and migrate to other parts of ...
... the submaxillary glands and the intestinal mucosa. GNMT is also expressed in various neurons presented in the cerebral cortex, ...
... intestinal mucosa, pancreatic ducts, parotid and submandibular glands, chondrocytes, and several brain nuclei, but not in ...
They get attached to the intestinal mucosa via the buccal capsule. Here they undergo two successive molts to become sexually ... At this stage, the larvae are present in the epidermis, hair follicles, and glands of the skin, sometimes extending to ... It is an intestinal parasite of domestic cats and dogs. Severe infection is often fatal to these pets, especially in puppies ... sebaceous glands where they form coils. Then they migrate to the heart and lung by moving along the blood circulation. In the ...
The enterocytes in the small intestinal mucosa contain digestive enzymes that digest specific foods while they are being ... an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in between villi in the intestinal ... Intestinal glands contain adult stem cells referred to as intestinal stem cells. These cells have been used in the field of ... and at the base of the gland, Paneth cells (secreting anti-microbial peptides) and stem cells. Intestinal glands are found in ...
Peristaltic movements encourage the passage of food substances through the intestinal tract. The mucosa of bronchi contains ... within the mucous membrane lining of the intestine and in tubelike depressions in that lining known as the Lieberkühn glands. ...
The intestinal epithelium is part of the intestinal mucosa layer. The epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells. The ... Villi and intestinal glands serve to increase the mucosal surface area tenfold. (Intestinal villus) Microvilli covering the ... Intestinal mucosal barrier Intestinal permeability Clevers H (2013). "The intestinal crypt, a prototype stem cell compartment ... Renewal relies on proliferative cells (stem cells) that reside at the crypt (base) of the intestinal glands (epithelial ...
The surface area of the human small intestinal mucosa, due to enlargement caused by folds, villi and microvilli, averages 30 ... The duodenum contains Brunner's glands, which produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. These secretions ... The inner wall, or mucosa, of the small intestine, is lined with simple columnar epithelial tissue. Structurally, the mucosa is ... "Intestinal immune cells play an unexpected role in immune surveillance of the bloodstream". Massachusetts General Hospital. 13 ...
Cholinergic synapses and vasoactive intestinal peptide synapses are found in the connective tissue of the mucosa. Noradrenergic ... prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands, which form the bulk of semen. The procedure of deferentectomy, also known as a ... Below this are a number of small glands secreting components of the seminal fluid. The final portion of the duct also receives ... Vasectomy Intra vas device Excretory duct of seminal gland Vas deferens in the reproductive system of gastropods Dr C Sharath ...
In the case of intestinal MALT, M cells are also present, which sample antigen from the lumen and deliver it to the lymphoid ... salivary glands, eye, and skin. MALT is populated by lymphocytes such as T cells and B cells, as well as plasma cells and ... The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), also called mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, is a diffuse system of small ... D-MALT (diffuse mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue); MALT that is not organized as a separately macroscopically anatomically ...
Barrett's esophagus involves change in the mucosa of the esophagus into a tissue that includes glands (intestinal metaplasia), ... The mucosa is washed and the dye is applied to tissue while the endoscope is retracted by 20 to 30 centimetres. That area of ... Before staining, the mucosa may need to be treated with an agent to remove excess mucus to enhance staining. N-acetylcysteine ... One or two minutes after staining with the dye, the mucosa typically is washed with water to remove excess amounts of the dye, ...
In order to increase the surface area for absorption, the intestinal mucosa is made up of finger-like projections (villi), ... New epithelial cells derived from stem cells are constantly produced on the bottom of the intestinal glands, regenerating the ... This contains conventional intestinal epithelial cells and a small number of specialized epithelial cells called microfold ... A high level of secretory IgA results from the interaction of B cells and intestinal antigen presenting dendritic cell (DC) in ...
With their hooks, they attach to the intestinal wall and penetrate the intestinal mucosa into the blood vessels. The larvae can ... and vitelline gland. In the gravid proglottid, the uterus contains up to 15 side branches filled with eggs. Cattle acquire the ... It is an intestinal parasite in humans causing taeniasis (a type of helminthiasis) and cysticercosis in cattle. Cattle are the ... Intestinal obstruction in humans can be alleviated by surgery. The tapeworm can also expel antigens that can cause an allergic ...
Vitamins Vitamin A is required in kitten diets because cats cannot convert carotenes to retinol in the intestinal mucosa ... Biotin is another AAFCO recommended vitamin to support thyroid and adrenal glands and the reproductive and nervous systems. ... These include immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G which cross the intestinal barrier of the neonate. The immunoglobulins and ... Effects of the soluble fibre pectin on intestinal cell proliferation, fecal short chain fatty acid production and microbial ...
... intestinal mucosa MeSH A03.556.124.369.290 - enterocytes MeSH A03.556.124.369.320 - goblet cells MeSH A03.556.124.369.700 - ... salivary glands, minor MeSH A03.556.500.760.687 - sublingual gland MeSH A03.556.500.760.812 - submandibular gland MeSH A03.556. ... salivary glands MeSH A03.556.500.760.464 - parotid gland MeSH A03.556.500.760.640 - salivary ducts MeSH A03.556.500.760.650 - ... brunner glands MeSH A03.556.124.684.249 - ileum MeSH A03.556.124.684.249.400 - ileocecal valve MeSH A03.556.124.684.249.612 - ...
Numerous intestinal glands as pocket-like invaginations are present in the underlying tissue. In the large intestines, villi ... The muscularis mucosae, a thin layer of smooth muscle. The epithelium, the most exposed part of the mucosa, is a glandular ... Mucosa Submucosa Muscular layer Serosa or adventitia The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It ... Brunner's glands are found in the duodenum but not in other parts of the small intestine. In the colon, epithelium is simple ...
The digestion products are then absorbed through the intestinal mucosa into the blood. The intestine ends via the large ... Many seabirds have glands near the eyes that allow them to drink seawater. Excess salt is eliminated from the nostrils. Many ... The partially digested and pulverized gizzard contents are passed into the intestine, where pancreatic and intestinal enzymes ... intestine in the vent or cloaca which serves as the common exit for renal and intestinal excrements as well as for the laying ...
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves (all supplying the mucosa) will run through here. In the intestinal wall, tiny ... In the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory tract the submucosa contains the submucosal glands that secrete mucus. ... Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is submucosal tissue in the small intestines of vertebrates. SIS is harvested (typically from ... It is the layer of dense irregular connective tissue that supports the mucosa (mucous membrane) and joins it to the muscular ...
Gastric mucosa cells change to resemble intestinal mucosa and may even assume absorptive characteristics. Intestinal metaplasia ... Mucous gland metaplasia, the reversible replacement of differentiated cells, occurs in the setting of severe damage of the ... With complete metaplasia, gastric mucosa is completely transformed into small-bowel mucosa, both histologically and ... Intestinal metaplasia typically begins in response to chronic mucosal injury in the antrum and may extend to the body. ...
The digestion products are then absorbed through the intestinal mucosa into the blood. The intestine ends via the large ... Many seabirds have glands near the eyes that allow them to drink seawater. Excess salt is eliminated from the nostrils. Many ... ISBN 0-7167-2009-4. Moran, Edwin (2016). "Gastric digestion of protein through pancreozyme action optimizes intestinal forms ... where pancreatic and intestinal enzymes complete the digestion of the digestible food. ...
The area of the large intestinal mucosa of an adult human is about 2 m2 (22 sq ft). The gut is an endoderm-derived structure. ... The duodenum contains Brunner's glands which produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. These secretions, ... and immune elements elaborated by the intestinal mucosa. Microorganisms also are kept at bay by an extensive immune system ... Mucosa Submucosa Muscular layer Adventitia or serosa The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. The ...
Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. ... Once released in the intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase present in the intestinal mucosa activates trypsinogen by cleaving ... The main glands are all exocrine glands, secreting via ducts. All of these glands terminate in the mouth. The largest of these ... Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in ...
It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas, but it is also found widely in other cells ... It was also found not to be unique to intestinal mucosa and is present widely in many other cells and organisms. The term ... Emil L Smith; Max Bergmann (1944). "The peptidases of intestinal mucosa" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 153: 627-651. ... Erepsin is a mixture of enzymes contained in a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices that digest peptones into amino ...
It contains glands with star-shaped lumina. There are crypts that are elongated but straight, narrow and hyperchromatic at the ... All crypts reach to the muscularis mucosae. The basement membrane is frequently thickened. Elongated, fat crypts and little to ... Therefore, they may not be obvious without comparing to adjacent normal intestinal wall. They are filled with goblet cells, ... Other features causing a suspicion for sessile serrated adenoma are: Dilation of crypts Branching of crypts Horizontal glands ...
The gastric mucosa that lines the inner wall of the stomach has a set of microscopic features called gastric glands which, ... The mucus-secreting cells of the stomach can be distinguished histologically from the intestinal goblet cells, another type of ... Foveolar cells line the surface of the stomach, the gastric pits, and the top part of gastric glands: the neck. They constitute ... The openings of these glands into the stomach are called gastric pits which foveolar cells line in order to provide a ...
Within the oral mucosa, and also on the tongue, palates, and floor of the mouth, are the minor salivary glands; their ... Once released in the intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase present in the intestinal mucosa activates trypsinogen by cleaving ... The main glands are all exocrine glands, secreting via ducts. All of these glands terminate in the mouth. The largest of these ... Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. There ...
... reflecting its role in pulling intestinal mucosa into the body when it feeds. Esophageal and anal rings of A. caninum are the ... Alternatively, A. caninum larvae evading exit from the circulation at the lungs may instead be carried to the mammary glands ... which then feeds on mucosa and blood of the small intestinal wall. The trigger of feeding is understood to be a receptor- ... This damage to the mucosa compromises the body's defences and can result in secondary infections by microbes. A group of ...
The free metacercariae penetrate the intestinal mucosa and enter the bile ducts. Migration into the bile ducts takes 1-2 days. ... Other highly branched organs called vitellaria (or vitelline glands) are distributed on either side of the body. The eggs are ... The ciliated miracidium can move about, penetrating the intestine, and enters the haemocoel and digestive gland. Here, it ...
ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރުގެ އެތެރޭގެ ތެތް ދުލިފަށް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Intestinal mucosa) އުފެދިފައިވަނީ ކަލަމްނަރ އެޕިތީލިއަލް ސެލް(އިނގިރޭސި ... ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރުގެ ފުރަތަމަ ބައި ޑުއަޑީނަމް ގެ ތެރޭގައި ބްރަނާރސް ގްލޭންޑް (އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Brunner's gland)އޭ ކިޔޭ ދަވަ ބޭރުކުރާ ... އިންޓެސްޓިނަލް ލައިޕޭސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Intestinal lipase): މިއީ އަނގަ، މައިދާ އަދި ޗިސްމޭ ފަދަ ގުނަވަން ތަކުން ދޫކުރާ ... ނަމަވެސް ބްރަނާރސް ގްލޭންޑް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Brunner's gland ތަކުން ބޭރުކުރާ ދަވަތައް ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރުގެ ފުރަތަމަ ޑުއަޑީނަމްގެ ...
... it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of ... Dopamine is synthesized in a restricted set of cell types, mainly neurons and cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands. The ... after it enters the small intestine is not clearly established-the possibilities include protecting the intestinal mucosa from ... Dopamine is the primary neuroendocrine inhibitor of the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. Dopamine ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Duodenum. *Suspensory muscle ...
regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of phagocytosis. • negative regulation ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha increases collagen accuulation and proliferation in intestinal myofibrobasts via TNF Receptor ... "Tumour necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) activity in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel ... epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic ...
Similarly, sweat glands in treated skin (such as the armpit) tend to stop working, and the naturally moist vaginal mucosa is ... Intestinal discomfort. The lower bowel may be treated directly with radiation (treatment of rectal or anal cancer) or be ... The salivary glands and tear glands have a radiation tolerance of about 30 Gy in 2 Gy fractions, a dose which is exceeded by ... Depending on the area being treated, this may include the skin, oral mucosa, pharyngeal, bowel mucosa and ureter. The rates of ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Dozdehgirêk. *Suspensory muscle ...
"T" denotes the degree of invasion of the intestinal wall, "N" the degree of lymphatic node involvement, and "M" the degree of ... The cancerous cells are at the top center-left of the image, in glands (circular/ovoid structures) and eosinophilic (bright ... Tis: Tumor confined to mucosa; cancer-in-situ Stage I T1 N0 M0 T1: Tumor invades submucosa ...
... with mucus-secreting esophageal glands being found in the submucosa, and esophageal cardiac glands, similar to cardiac glands ... The pink color of the esophageal mucosa contrasts to the deeper red of the gastric mucosa,[5][13] and the mucosal transition ... The mucosa is a stratified squamous epithelium of around three layers of squamous cells, which contrasts to the single layer of ... The other main type is an adenocarcinoma that occurs in the glands or columnar tissue of the esophagus. This is most common in ...
It is also expressed without CysLTR1 throughout the heart, including Purkinje cells, adrenal gland, and brain as well as some ... 2003). "Expression and localization of the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor in human nasal mucosa". Clin. Exp. Allergy. 32 (7 ...
Long-term use of PPIs is strongly associated with the development of benign polyps from fundic glands (which is distinct from ... Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headaches, and increased intestinal gas.[1] Serious side effects may include ... Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton, or H+) pump within the gastric mucosa, omeprazole inhibits the ... fundic gland polyposis); these polyps do not cause cancer and resolve when PPIs are discontinued. No association is seen ...
... s or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa ...
Muscularis mucosa, Peyer's patches, Intestinal villus, Intestinal gland) ... Muscularis mucosa, Gastric rugae, Gastric pits, Gastric gland/Cardiac glands/Fundic glands/Pyloric glands) ... UES · LES · Esophageal glands. Serosa / Adventitia · Muscular layer · Submucosa · Mucosa (Muscularis mucosa) ... Serosa · Subserosa · Muscular layer · Circular folds · Submucosa · Mucosa ( ...
K11) Diseases of en:salivary glands *(K11.0) en:Atrophy of [[:en:[salivary gland]] ... K13) Other diseases of en:lip and en:oral mucosa *(K13.0) Diseases of en:lips *en:Cheilitis ... K56) Paralytic ileus and intestinal obstruction without hernia *(K56.0) Paralytic ileus ... K11.8) Other diseases of en:salivary glands *en:Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of en:salivary gland ...
The jejunum contains very few Brunner's glands (found in the duodenum) or Peyer's patches (found in the ileum). However, there ... The interior surface of the jejunum-which is exposed to ingested food-is covered in finger-like projections of mucosa, called ... CRANE, RK (Oct 1960). "Intestinal absorption of sugars". Physiological Reviews. 40 (4): 789-825. doi:10.1152/physrev.1960.40. ... While the length of the entire intestinal tract contains lymphoid tissue, only the ileum has abundant Peyer's patches, which ...
Intestinal stem cells[edit]. Intestinal stem cells divide continuously throughout life and use a complex genetic program to ... Single such cells can give rise to both the luminal and myoepithelial cell types of the gland, and have been shown to have the ... June 2005). "Multipotent stem cells from adult olfactory mucosa". Developmental Dynamics. 233 (2): 496-515. doi:10.1002/dvdy. ... Intestinal stem cells are probably the source of most cancers of the small intestine and colon.[22] ...
Gastro-intestinal: While cases of colitis have been reported, corticosteroids are often prescribed when the colitis, although ... Nussey, Stephen; Whitehead, Saffron (2001-01-01). The adrenal gland. BIOS Scientific Publishers.. ... For nasal mucosa, sinuses, bronchii, and lungs.[34] This group includes: *Flunisolide[35] ...
... which communicates directly with the posterior pituitary gland. An increase in osmolality causes the gland to secrete ... Calcitriol, the activated form of vitamin D, promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and the renal reabsorption of phosphate ... On top of each kidney is an adrenal gland. The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the 11th and 12th ribs. ... Each kidney, with its adrenal gland is surrounded by two layers of fat: the perirenal fat present between renal fascia and ...
glands. *mucosa. *Sustentacular cell. *Tufted cell. Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Dozdehgirêk. *Suspensory muscle ... Parotid gland/Parotid duct · Submandibular gland/Submandibular duct · Sublingual gland/Major sublingual duct ...
Endoscopic image of Barrett's esophagus, which is the area of red mucosa projecting like a tongue. Biopsies showed intestinal ... goblet cells occurring in the transitional epithelium of normal esophageal submucosal gland ducts, "pseudogoblet cells" in ... Intestinal metaplasia[edit]. The presence of goblet cells, called intestinal metaplasia, is necessary to make a diagnosis of ... "Columnar Mucosa and Intestinal Metaplasia of the Esophagus: Fifty Years of Controversy". Annals of Surgery. 231 (3): 303-21. ...
... pancreatic juice and intestinal juice. The intestinal walls are lined with villi, and their epithelial cells is covered with ... The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is a location where the oral mucosa is very thin, and underlain by a ... Gastrin - is in the stomach and stimulates the gastric glands to secrete pepsinogen (an inactive form of the enzyme pepsin) and ... The intestinal phase has two parts, the excitatory and the inhibitory. Partially digested food fills the duodenum. This ...
Salivary glands produce haptocorrin, which binds vitamin B12, creating a "vitamin B12-Haptocorrin complex". This complex is ... Cheilosis (stomatitis): Inflammation of the edges of the lips and the oral mucosa. Tabes dorsalis ("subacute combined ... there is a certain threshold for intestinal absorption hence, low or non-existent chance of intoxication, as opposed to fat- ... Genetically Heterogeneous Selective Intestinal Malabsorption of Vitamin B12: Founder Effects, Consanguinity, and High Clinical ...
Some of these glands are specialized as mammary glands, producing milk to feed the young. Mammals breathe with lungs and have a ... in the small intestine there are microvilli on the epithelial lining and in the large intestine there are intestinal villi. ... Gastric mucosa at low magnification (H&E stain). Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by ... The only cutaneous gland is the single uropygial gland near the base of the tail. This produces an oily secretion that ...
Mucus glands are exocrine glands, so they pass their mucus to the surface along ducts. ... Second, HCl in the lumen doesn't digest the mucosa because goblet cells in the mucosa secrete large quantities of protective ... Mucus is not digested in the intestinal tract. ... and sexual organs have mucus glands which pass the mucus to the ...
Variable; classical mildly fibrotic polyp with disorganized mucosa and splaying of muscularis mucosae; also inflammatory, ... Cystically dilated glands with expanded lamina propria Not inherently, may develop dysplasia ... Raised mucosa/submucosa with inflammation If dysplasia develops Inflammatory bowel disease, ulcers, infections, mucosal ... They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender. ...
Each vessel gives off some small inferior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland, the ureter, and the surrounding cellular ...
They are fewer in number than the other gastric glands and are more shallowly positioned in the mucosa. There are two kinds - ... Cardiac gland region.[61]. Red. Fundic gland region.[61]. Blue. Pyloric gland region.[61]. Dark blue. Duodenum. ... an anterior portion lined by fundic glands and a posterior portion lined with pyloric glands. Cardiac glands are unique to ... Within the body and fundus of the stomach lie the fundic glands. In general, these glands are lined by column-shaped cells that ...
... is a tumor confined to the appendiceal mucosa with absolutely no evidence of invasion beyond the muscularis mucosae. The term ... For example, neoplasms characterized by high-grade features, invasive glands and or signet ring cells, are termed ... it is important to obtain an accurate diagnosis so that appropriate treatment may be obtained from a Gastro intestinal cancer ...
Wound healing is impaired and hormone production from both pituitary and adrenal glands is increased. This strain is used to ... abnormal intestinal mucosa morphology*thick mucus gel covers the epithelium of the colon ... endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype. *abnormal gland physiology(MGI Ref ID J:7702) ... abnormal intestinal epithelium morphology*reduced levels of occludin in intestinal sections. (MGI Ref ID J:124815)*zonula ...
intestinal mucosa;. & lymphatic vessels and lymph glands;. & urogenital system: kidneys, bladder, uterus, ovaries, parameters, ... Functions of lymph and lymph glands (lymphoma, lymphadenitis);. Chronic disease. The highest form of cyclical development ... testes, epididymis, prostate gland;. & Lungs and respiratory tract;. & skin and mucous membranes;. & bones, tendons, joints;. ...
2) Glands from gut wall itself (Brunners in duodenum). 3) Intestinal mucosa ... IMPORTANT: The mucosa of the esophagus is covered by a thick layer of _________ epithelium ... esophageal cells take on morphology and phenotype of intestinal cells (as evidenced by the presence of Goblet cells which are ... 1) Glands associated with the tract (salivary, pancreas, liver). ...
If such secretions spill onto intestinal mucosa, the mucosa ulcerates and often bleeds. Thus a peptic ulcer can develop at a ... it may contain cells derived from the stomach glands that secrete acid and pepsin. ... Intestinal obstruction. The most serious problems in small intestine motor disturbances arise from an intestinal obstruction ... Atrophy of the mucosa confined to the body and fundic regions of the stomach is seen in pernicious anemia and is due to the ...
2003) Effects of nonpathogenic bacteria on cytokine secretion by human intestinal mucosa. Am J Gastroenterol 98, 865-870. ... 1999) The B-cell system of human mucosae and exocrine glands. Immunol Rev 171, 45-87. ... 2004) Effects of probiotic on intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol 10, 1521-1525. ... 389Edwards, CA & Parrett, AM (2002) Intestinal flora during the first months of life: new perspectives. Br J Nutr 88, Suppl. 1 ...
To assess the corticosterone synthesis in the intestinal mucosa or adrenal glands, mice were injected with saline or 100 μg ... 2 A) must be expressed within the intestinal mucosa. Thus, the steroidogenic enzyme expression in adrenal glands, small and ... Corticosterone synthesis by the intestinal mucosa. (A) Small intestinal tissue from control mice (unstim.) or anti-CD3-injected ... Several mechanisms that regulate intestinal immune responses have been described. The intestinal mucosa contains high levels of ...
MM, muscularis mucosae; IG, intestinal glands; ME, muscularis externa. * [0014] [0014]FIG. 3. Stresscopin 1 and stresscopin 2 ... 2e, left panel). In contrast, specific staining for stresscopin 2 was detected in the muscularis mucosae of the small intestine ... f, Stresscopin 2 expression in mouse intestinal sections using anti-stresscopin 2 antibody C2221 (left panel). A negative ...
Ethanol metabolism; AODE (alcohol and other drug effects); mouth; esophagus; stomach; intestine; gastric mucosa; intestinal ... neoplastic saliva excreted by the salivary glands initiates ... mucosa; gastric lesion; gastric acid; gastrointestinal function ...
Intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa*Passive congestion of stomach. ICD-9-CM Volume 2 Index entries containing back- ... Hemorrhagic mucosa of duodenum. *Hemorrhagic mucosa of stomach. *Hyperplasia of Brunner glands of duodenum ...
Mucosa Intestinal Protein Extract. Pancreas Protein Extract. Ren Protein Extract. Testes Protein Extract. Thymus Protein ... Gland Suprarenal Protein Extract. Gland Thyreoidea Protein Extract. Hepar Protein Extract. Lien Protein Extract. Liothyronine ...
Cancer cells mimic the glands normally found in the intestinal mucosa. The glands are irregular and ill formed, in contrast ... Intestinal cancer in a beluga from the St Lawrence Estuary. Examined on May 23, 1993. The larger intestinal segment on the ... distorted the intestinal architecture and obstructed the intestinal lumen. Food cannot pass and as a result, accumulates in the ... Microscopic view of intestinal cancer in an adult beluga whale. The paler area delineated by the two arrows is a nest of tumor ...
Heparin sodium derived from porcine intestinal mucosa for anticoagulant therapy in prophylaxis and treatment of venous ... Extract from porcine thyroid glands for treating hypothyroidism.. *Extract from porcine pancreas glands for treating pancreatic ...
... flattening of the mucosa, atrophy of intestinal glands and/or acute catarrhal typhlitis in the caecum; and mucosa covered by ... caecal mucosal flattening associated with atrophy of the intestinal glands. No other treatment-related non-neoplastic lesions ... Phaeochromocytoma of the adrenal gland was seen in 1/52 high-dose males and 1/51 high-dose females, and in 1/52 females at 75 ... distended and mucosa oedematous. Microscopically, these lesions comprised: serious atrophy of fat pads in the abdominal cavity ...
Figure 5: (H&E, 20x) Duodenal mass biopsy showing tumor cells in an infiltrative pattern interspersed within intestinal mucosa ... The cells are hyperchromatic and pleomorphic and show abortive gland formation (arrow) consistent with poorly differentiated ...
sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver and pancreas. • Adsorptive (intestinal mucosa). • Transport ( ...
Molecular alterations in gastric cancer and the surrounding intestinal metaplastic mucosa : an analysis of isolated glands ( ... Downregulation of CPI-17 contributes to dysfunctional motility in chronic intestinal inflammation model mice and ulcerative ... SUCCESSFUL ENDOSCOPIC REMOVAL OF A DUODENAL ADENOMA OCCURRING IN BRUNNERS GLAND HYPERPLASIA (2004) ...
In CC intestinal mucosa, prostate and renal cortex, located CC predominantly adjacent to adherens junctions. Cytoplasmic with ... Associates with the plasma membrane in CC intestinal epithelia and lactating mammary gland. Translocated to CC the nucleus in a ... gland, and in much smaller quantities in other tissues. Not CC detected in duodenum and prostate. Highly expressed in Schwann ... CC granular staining in proximal tubular cells of the kidney and CC salivary gland ducts. Recruits to the membrane of CC ...
... gastric and intestinal mucosa were thus interposed to restore normal continuity of intestinal tissue types. Prominent in this ... 3 A and B and 5). The glands also expressed TFF2, which is characteristic of the deeper glandular elements of the gastric ... The intercalated small intestinal-type mucosa at the edge of the lesion, however, stains positive for Cdx2 (arrowhead). (Bar = ... Interestingly, the intercalated small intestinal mucosa at the edge of the lesions stains positively for Cdx2 (Fig. 8); its ...
Subsquamous Intestinal Metaplasia (SSIM) which has also been variably described as buried Barretts glands or buried glands or ... BE glands (red arrows) are clearly observed (EP: epithelium; MM: muscularis mucosae in photos A-C). ... OCT has been used to image small intestinal mucosa and demonstrated 100% agreement with histology in a blinded study for ... OCT image showing dense large glands within the specimen. Lamina propria and muscularis mucosae (MM) layers are not clearly ...
However, Treg-Th17-skewed CD4+ T cells have also been reported to have proinflammatory roles in intestinal mucosa (57). Thus, ... T cell compartment in the mammary gland was similarly reduced. Compared to nulliparous mammary glands, lactating glands had ... Mammary gland involution as an immunotherapeutic target for postpartum breast cancer. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 19: 213- ... Mammary gland involution as a multi-step process. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 12: 25-35. ...
simple tubular glands that increase intestinal surface area. -formed by ivaginations of mucosa between adjacent intestinal ... if it goes all the way down to the muscularis mucosa, its a gland ... its when neutrophils get into the crypts of lieberkuhn and destroy the intestinal glands ... includes the mucosa and submucosa. -begin in duodenum and disappear mid ileum ...
Make research projects and school reports about gland easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... as in the sebaceous glands of the skin and the digestive glands of the intestinal mucosa. A simple exocrine gland may consist ... See adrenal glands; alimentary system; breasts; hormones; pancreas; parathyroid glands; pituitary gland; sweating; thyroid. ... others vary in size and complexity from the small salivary glands to the mammary glands (breasts). Endocrine glands by contrast ...
Lacrimal gland Ca: (tear glands) (acinar part). 12.. Mouth mucosa Ca: submucosal buccal (deep intestinal epithelium layer) ...
... the normal cellular architecture of the mices intestinal villi looked abnormal, and the mucosa showed goblet cell hyperplasia ... The histology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, adrenal gland, bone marrow and stomach appeared normal. The T cell ... At the higher inhibitor doses tested, the mice lost weight and died, probably due to the intestinal side effects, Parker said. ... but the B cell and intestinal effects were unexpected, Parker added. ...
... such as spasms and intestinal paralysis. This phrase is used to describe a variety of disorders in which the gut has lost its ... The phrase intestinal motility disorders applies to abnormal intestinal contractions, ... Demonstration of: Salivary gland function and tumors; presence and site of acute gastrointestinal bleeding; transit through the ... Detection of: Ectopic functioning gastric mucosa; congenital/acquired perforation of the pleuroperitoneal diaphragm ...
2) oxyntic gland destruction, (3) atrophy of oxyntic mucosa with pyloric and/or intestinal metaplasia, (4) enterochromaffin- ... Pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs). Pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs) are one type of neoplasm that can arise in the setting of AMAG, ... As oxyntic mucosa pseudopolyps seem histologically as relatively unremarkable oxyntic mucosa, diagnosing them requires ... However, patients with AMAG do form oxyntic gland pseudopolyps; there were 20 oxyntic gland pseudopolyps in our patients with ...
A) Videoendoscope image shows islands of healthy squamous mucosa intermixed within regions of specialized intestinal metaplasia ... and glands within the epithelium (red arrowheads). (D) Histopathologic image of the biopsy taken from the involved mucosa shows ... an irregular surface and intraepithelial glands satisfying the OFDI diagnostic criterion of SIM. The 6 cm longitudinal segment ...
The intestinal mucosa contains a large number of small digestive glands that secrete intestinal juice. The surface of ... Enzymes and intestinal contents are studied by means of intubation. Specimens of the mucosa can be obtained by biopsy and ... For example, the intestinal mucosa of a nursing infant contains lactase, which is necessary for breaking down milk sugar. ... The structure of the intestinal walls varies from section to section. For example, the presence of microscopic digestive glands ...
The overlying mucosa was hyperplastic. In close proximity to this heterotopic mucosa, extensive pyloric gland and intestinal ... In the first case, the asymptomatic presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa, together with pyloric gland and intestinal ... consisted of heterotopic gastric mucosa with glands of body and fundus type. In the remaining mucosa, chronic cholecystitis was ... Heterotopic gastric mucosa together with intestinal metaplasia and moderate dysplasia in the gall bladder: report of two ...
  • With newer advances in techniques for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) [ 11 ] and ablation (radiofrequency and cryotherapy), assessing the depth of invasion of mucosal cancers is vital, with a pivotal role for OCT. Indeed, studies have shown superiority of resolution for OCT compared to EUS specifically for visualization of the mucosa and submucosa [ 12 ]. (
  • What is the border between mucosa and submucosa? (
  • Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed a body type gastric mucosa in the submucosa, adjacent to which were extensive pyloric gland and intestinal metaplasia with mild to moderate dysplasia. (
  • To increase the efficiency of nutrient absorption, the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine have several unique features including circular folds, villi, and microvilli. (
  • bronchial g's seromucous glands in the mucosa and submucosa of the bronchial walls. (
  • From the lumen outward are the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and the thin outer serosa. (
  • With the increase in feed restriction, there was a decrease in duodenal mucosa thickness, intestinal glands, liver glycogen storage and the occurrence of inflammation in the submucosa and intestinal mucosa. (
  • The small intestine wall has four layers: the outermost serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and innermost mucosa. (
  • This allows visualization of histologic morphology in real time, especially the epithelial structures such as villi, crypts, and squamous and intestinal epithelium. (
  • What's more, the normal cellular architecture of the mice's intestinal villi looked abnormal, and the mucosa showed goblet cell hyperplasia. (
  • In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in between villi in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (or colon). (
  • The glands and intestinal villi are covered by epithelium, which contains multiple types of cells: enterocytes (absorbing water and electrolytes), goblet cells (secreting mucus), enteroendocrine cells (secreting hormones), cup cells, tuft cells, and at the base of the gland, Paneth cells (secreting anti-microbial peptides) and stem cells. (
  • Note the numerous, robust mucosal projections known as villi, as well as the associated intestinal glands, or crypts of Lieberkühn, all in a healthy state. (
  • In BB, the villi heights of intestinal mucosa were higher than that of MVF, except in ileum at days 20 and 56 post-hatch. (
  • The intestinal villi are part of the mucosa. (
  • and small projections called intestinal villi. (
  • Histological examination revealed that the nodule was within the lamina propria and consisted of heterotopic gastric mucosa, with both body type and pyloric type gastric glands. (
  • This is in contrast to the gastric glands of the stomach where chief cells secrete pepsinogen. (
  • Gastric atrophy with little evidence of inflammation but with thinning of the mucosa, loss of gastric glands and intestinal metaplasia which may be premalignant. (
  • Notes: Clinical case studies show Moluo Pill's potential benefits to repairing gastric mucosa, activating gastric glands, healing epithelial hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia, preventing stomach cancer in long-term administration. (
  • Within the gastric glands, parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid. (
  • The mammary gland is not classically considered a mucosal organ, although it exhibits some features common to mucosal tissues. (
  • Nonetheless, immunological hallmarks predictive of mucosal function have not been demonstrated in the mammary gland, including immune tolerance to foreign Ags under homeostasis. (
  • This inquiry is important, as mucosal immunity in the mammary gland may assure infant and women's health during lactation. (
  • We find a baseline mucosal program of RORγT + CD4 + T cells that is elevated within lactating and involuting mammary glands and is extended during involution to include tolerogenic dendritic cell phenotypes, barrier-supportive antimicrobials, and immunosuppressive Foxp3 + CD4 + T cells. (
  • Overall, these data elucidate strong mucosal immune programs within lactating and involuting mammary glands. (
  • Our findings support the classification of the mammary gland as a temporal mucosal organ and open new avenues for exploration into breast pathologic conditions, including compromised lactation and breast cancer. (
  • Although not classically considered mucosal, the mammary gland has a mucin-containing barrier to the external environment and is at increased risk of infection during nursing. (
  • Because of these potential mucosal attributes, we elected to systematically study the murine mammary gland using a mucosal immunology framework. (
  • Now Ganong's Physiology (1) lists 25 human gastrointestinal digestive enzymes from salivary glands, lingual glands, stomach, exocrine pancreas, intestinal mucosa, and the cytoplasm of mucosal cells. (
  • Mucosal IgA is the most abundantly produced Ig upon colonization of the intestinal tract with commensal organisms in the majority of mammals. (
  • On the other hand, studies done on the effects of stress on the mucosal immunesystem have focused almost exclusively in relation to inflammatory diseases of the intestineand the secretion of IgA in saliva.The abundant information available confirms that psychological stress plays a fundamentalrole in the physiopathology and clinical symptoms of intestinal inflammatory diseases inhumans [9, 10]. (
  • We reveal a local intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL)-GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling network that controls mucosal immune responses. (
  • Plasma levels of some gut hormones, including the glucagon-like peptides, also increase rapidly in the presence of intestinal injury or mucosal inflammation ( 2 ). (
  • Based on the characteristics of dexmedetomidine, we hypothesized that dexmedetomidine could attenuate intestinal mucosal injury and mortality in rats after intestinal I/R. (
  • Disorganised glands with luminal necrosis and moderate to severe degree of cytological atypia and apical mitosis are present in the lamina propria and also between muscularis mucosal fibres. (
  • The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIgR) is a protein involved in the transport of immunoglobulin A (IgA) across mucosal membranes, from the basolateral aspect of epithelial cells to the luminal surface.24,25 PIgR is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and is downregulated in adenocarcinomas of the colon.26 PIgR is not present in normal gastric mucosa. (
  • DNA methylation studies in these diseases have utilised intestinal mucosal tissue or blood which can be difficult to collect, particularly for large-scale research studies. (
  • Human G protein-coupled receptor GPR-9-6/CC chemokine receptor 9 is selectively expressed on intestinal homing T lymphocytes, mucosal lymphocytes, and thymocytes and is required for thymus-expressed chemokine-mediated chemotaxis. (
  • Most exocrine glands, e.g., the salivary and lacrimal glands, release their secretions through ducts. (
  • Intestinal juice (also called succus entericus) refers to the clear to pale yellow watery secretions from the glands lining the small intestine walls. (
  • 21 , 22 ) proposed that the secretions contained in secretory blebs produced from the penetration glands of activated oncospheres may be a source of host-protective antigens. (
  • It is, therefore, remarkable that despite the prima facie inauspicious mixture of harmful secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. (
  • Food cannot pass and as a result, accumulates in the intestinal segment that is closest to the stomach (on the right). (
  • We have now examined colonic lesions from 98 Cdx2 +/− mice and report that the lesions are composed of heterotopic stomach and small intestinal mucosa. (
  • We present the current status of OCT and its practical applications in imaging normal and abnormal mucosa in the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and biliary and pancreatic ducts. (
  • In AMAG, the parietal cell mass of the body of the stomach is chronically inflamed, resulting in destruction and loss of oxyntic mucosa cells (especially parietal cells) and damage to the overlying foveolar epithelial cells . (
  • In completely established autoimmune gastritis, the histologic features used include an atrophic gastritis pattern limited to the body of the stomach with replacement of oxyntic glands with pyloric and/or intestinal metaplasia. (
  • numerous, tubular glands in the mucosa of the stomach that contain the cells which produce acid and pepsin. (
  • cardiac g's mucus-secreting glands of the cardiac part (cardia) of the stomach. (
  • gastric g's the secreting glands of the stomach, including the fundic, cardiac, and pyloric glands. (
  • citation needed] Intestinal juice also contains hormones, digestive enzymes, mucus, substances to neutralize hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach. (
  • Processes in the development of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach were investigated from the morphological and histochemical approaches using light and electron microscopic techniques. (
  • Despite a high association with intestinal-type stomach cancer (differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach), the role of intestinal metaplasia is unclear in stomach carcinogenesis. (
  • 1 2 Intestinal metaplasia in the stomach is one of the commonest types found in humans. (
  • It was expressed in more than one half the adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, ovary, uterus, stomach, colorectum, and gallbladder, but not in hepatocellular carcinomas, renal cell carcinomas, and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland. (
  • Sialosyl-Tn antigen expression also was observed in intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and in transitional mucosa adjacent to the colorectal carcinoma, which are considered to be cancer-related lesions. (
  • PIgR is uniformly expressed in intestinal metaplasia and in a subgroup of adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus, GE junction, and stomach. (
  • 27 Expression of PIgR also has been documented in IM of the gastric mucosa and stomach carcinomas, with progressive loss in advanced stages.28 The expression patterns of PIgR in adenocarcinomas of the GE junction and esophagus have not been reported. (
  • The homeobox gene Cdx2 , a homologue of the Drosophila gene caudal , has been implicated in the control of cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelium. (
  • Recently, we showed that mice in which one allele of the Cdx2 gene had been inactivated by homologous recombination developed multiple intestinal polyp-like lesions that did not express Cdx2 and that contained areas of squamous metaplasia in the form of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium, similar to that occurring in the mouse esophagus and forestomach. (
  • 7-17 Pseudopyloric or pyloric gland metaplastic epithelium in the gall bladder is most common, being found in 66-84% of cholecystectomy specimens, 11 while intestinal metaplastic epithelium has been reported in 12-52% of gall bladders and is frequently associated with pyloric metaplasia. (
  • In close proximity to this heterotopic mucosa, extensive pyloric gland and intestinal metaplasia (fig 1 A, B) together with mild to focally moderate dysplastic changes in the metaplastic epithelium were observed (fig 2 A-C). In the remaining mucosa, typical features of chronic cholecystitis were obvious. (
  • The mucosa layer is a layer of columnar epithelium , and is responsible for most nutrient absorption. (
  • The enterocytes in the small intestinal mucosa contain digestive enzymes that digest specific foods while they are being absorbed through the epithelium. (
  • M cells in the intestinal epithelium overlying Peyer patches allow transport of antigens to the lymphoid tissue beneath it. (
  • This IgA is actively transported through the intestinal epithelium into the gut as secretory IgA (sIgA). (
  • To characterize the molecular processes underlying the transformation of normal colonic epithelium, we compared the transcriptomes of 32 prospectively collected adenomas with those of normal mucosa from the same individuals. (
  • They are lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium and contain smooth muscle fibers, mucous glands and/or cartilage in the cyst wall. (
  • Stereological studies on the small intestinal epithelium of the rat. (
  • The epithelium and underlying connective tissue,the lamina propria, form the mucosa of the digestive tract. (
  • The 'glands' are irregular and ill formed, in contrast with normal intestinal crypts. (
  • Intestinal glands are found in the epithelia of the small intestine, namely the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and in the large intestine (colon), where they are sometimes called colonic crypts. (
  • citation needed] The intestinal glands in the colon are often referred to as colonic crypts. (
  • In normal mucosa, KIAA1199 expression was confined to cells in the lower portion of intestinal crypts, where Wnt signaling is physiologically active, but it was markedly increased in all adenomas, where it was expressed in most of the epithelial cells, and in colon cancer cell lines, it was markedly reduced by inactivation of the β-catenin/T-cell factor(s) transcription complex, the pivotal mediator of Wnt signaling. (
  • In both the pyloric and the fundic gland mucosae, the average numbers of type C metaplasia (intestinal crypts with Paneth cells) and total numbers of metaplastic foci in rats of group 3 were much higher than those in group 4 (P less than 0.05). (
  • In situ hybridization analysis revealed that these enzymes are confined to the crypt region of the intestinal epithelial layer. (
  • The intestinal mucosa contains the largest number of immune cells in our body, mainly to protect the enormous epithelial surface that is responsible for the absorption of nutrients and separates outside from inside. (
  • The intestinal mucosa contains high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines TGFβ and IL-10 produced by the regulatory T cell subsets, DCs, and even epithelial cells ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • This photomicrograph depicts the cytoarchitecture exhibited by a normal section of intestinal epithelial mucosa. (
  • We show by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of biopsies from GC patients ( n = 41) that the nonneoplastic mucosa expressed caveolin-1 in foveolar epithelial cells and adjacent connective tissue. (
  • reported that the activation of α 2 adrenoreceptor increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, 13 which indicates that α 2 adrenoreceptor agonist might be able to accelerate the wound healing process in the intestine. (
  • Because PIgR is associated with the intestinal epithelial cell defense functions, PIgR may be differentially expressed in upper GI tumors in a manner related to the intestinal phenotype and may correlate with the presence of IM in the background mucosa. (
  • called also duodenal glands . (
  • duodenal g's Brunner's glands . (
  • Gastrin cell (G cell) population in gastroduodenal mucosa was studied quantitatively by immunoflorescence in 10 patients with gastric ulcer and 12 patients with duodenal ulcer. (
  • This difference was chiefly brought about by less frequent incidence of intestinal metaplasia of the antral mucosa in the duodenal ulcer group. (
  • Our recent studies show that restraintstress reduces IgA levels in mouse intestine as well as the intraepithelial lymphocytepopulation in mouse duodenal mucosa [13, 14].The immune system of the mucosa can be divided into inductor and effector sites. (
  • eccrine gland one of the ordinary or simple sweat glands , which are of the merocrine type. (
  • The same effect occurs in salivary glands, sweat glands, cells of the intestinal mucosa, and in exchanges between intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF). (
  • The efferent ducts of two large digestive glands, the liver and pancreas, empty into the initial division of the small intestine (called the duodenum in terrestrial vertebrates). (
  • In affected rabbits, diffuse thickening of the mucosa of the jejunum, ileum and duodenum, and swollen mesenteric lymph nodes has been reported. (
  • Some glands have dual functions, e.g., the liver, pancreas, ovary, and testis produce both a secretion that is emitted through a duct and a hormone that is taken up by the blood. (
  • they include the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands, the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, the gonads and the pineal body. (
  • Secretory processes in the salivary glands and pancreas are likewise influenced by tachykinins. (
  • The liver, pancreas and intestinal segments of the two breeds showed increased in relative weight at the 10 days post-hatch and after that the relationship were reversed. (
  • One pathway for B cells to become IgA plasma cells is by induction of germinal center (GC) reactions in the Peyer's patches (PP) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) that are present along the small intestinal tract. (
  • Exocrine glands secrete their substances onto an external or internal body surface. (
  • A simple exocrine gland may consist only of a tube lined with secretory cells. (
  • Among the substances produced by exocrine glands in humans are sweat, lubricants like mucus and tears, and digestive juices. (
  • There are specialized exocrine glands in the animal world that produce such substances as the shells of bird eggs, spiderwebs, and the cocoons of the silkworm larvae. (
  • Exocrine glands incorporate a duct, or a system of ducts like tributaries leading to a river, which open onto an external or internal body surface. (
  • Glands are divided into two main groups, endocrine and exocrine. (
  • Gastric biopsies (2 pieces) Multiples pieces of non-specialised gastric mucosa showing mild chronic inflammation in the lamina propria. (
  • The lamina propria (LP) 3 of the intestinal tract of most mammalian species contains the largest number of plasma cells in the whole body. (
  • In addition, all intestinal lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes express GPR-9-6. (
  • 4. G. Schuermann , M. Betzler, R. Decker, P. Möller, A. von Herbay, K. Koretz: „T cell and OKM1 positive monocyte populations in the intestinal lamina propria mucosae and in the peripheral venous blood in Crohn's disease. (
  • Not surprisingly, patients with AMAG do not develop fundic gland polyps, which are otherwise the most common type of gastric polyp as fundic gland polyps typically arise in intact oxyntic mucosa, which is absent in patients with AMAG. (
  • 3 Macroscopically, intestinal metaplastic lesions most commonly arise at the antrum, which is normally covered by pyloric glands, and the intermediate zone, which is normally covered by a mixture of fundic and pyloric glands, and the lesion expands with age. (
  • Biopsy from fundic mucosa showed moderately active chronic gastritis with absence of intestinal metaplasia or H. pylori infection or malignancy in the samples examined. (
  • The intestinal mucosa contains a large number of small digestive glands that secrete intestinal juice. (
  • Intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice, mucus,and hormones. (
  • Wound healing is impaired and hormone production from both pituitary and adrenal glands is increased. (
  • In addition to obesity, mutant mice exhibit hyperphagia, a diabetes-like syndrome of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, subfertility, impaired wound healing, and an increase in hormone production from both pituitary and adrenal glands. (
  • Adrenal glands synthesize and release GCs in enormous quantities, i.e., upon induction by the pituitary gland-released hormone ATCH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). (
  • The endocrine glands, e.g., the thyroid, adrenals, and pituitary, produce hormones that are secreted directly into the bloodstream (see endocrine system ). (
  • Our previous view of the HPA stress axis as an elegant but simple negative feedback loop, orchestrating adaptation to stressors among the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands, needs to be updated. (
  • The endocrine glands, e.g., the thyroid, adrenals, and pituitary, produce hormones that are secreted directly into the bloodstream (see endocrine system endocrine system , body control system composed of a group of glands that maintain a stable internal environment by producing chemical regulatory substances called hormones. (
  • A common range of peptides links the pituitary gland and the placenta and 4 groups of peptides, found in anuran cutaneous glands, are related to the brain and intestinal peptides of mammals. (
  • Intestinal glands of the small intestine contain a base of replicating stem cells, Paneth cells of the innate immune system, and goblet cells, which produce mucus. (
  • DHFZT ameliorated the pulmonary and intestinal edema and injury induced by SAP via the upregulation of different AQPs in lung and intestine, and suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 expression and enhanced IL-10 expression. (
  • After the larvae arrive, they penetrate the intestinal wall where they mature into adults and then return to the intestine to attach to the intestinal mucosa. (
  • Arrested larvae can later become reactivated and migrate either to the small intestine or to the mammary glands. (
  • Although efficient intestinal immune responses protect the host from invading pathogens, the inappropriate activation of intestinal T cells may also result in chronic inflammatory reactions and tissue destruction, e.g., as observed in inflammatory bowel disease (for review see reference 1 ). (
  • This chronic damage results in abnormal re-epithelization manifesting in intestinal and pyloric metaplasia . (
  • The remaining gall bladder mucosa demonstrated changes of chronic cholecystitis. (
  • In the remaining mucosa, chronic cholecystitis was evident. (
  • GC is assumed to originate from a sequence of molecular and genetic events that accumulate on transition from chronic or atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer ( 2 ). (
  • Chronic infection of the gastric mucosa with H. pylori is a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of GC in humans ( 3 , 14 ). (
  • The gastric mucosa showed mild chronic gastritis with presence of H. pylori without intestinal metaplasia. (
  • These processes can be divided into acute intestinal obstructions and chronic, partial intestinal obstructions. (
  • if it extends through the intrinsic layer of muscle of the mucosa into the tissues below, it is known as an ulcer. (
  • In normal adult placental mammals, functional GCC has been identified only on intestinal mucosa cells, but not in normal extraintestinal tissues ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • Selective expression of GCC in normal intestinal mucosa and colorectal tumor cells might be exploited to develop diagnostic tests to detect tumor cells in normal tissues and blood for staging and surveillance of this disease. (
  • Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a well-documented high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, which is most abundantly expressed in liver and the steroidogenic tissues, including the ovaries, testes and adrenal glands ( 3 ). (
  • These T RM cells have the ability to remain for long periods of time in peripheral tissues (e.g., intestinal and vaginal mucosa, skin, brain, and salivary glands) after pathogenic clearance. (
  • This effect of the drug was adenoma specific, because no histological alterations were observed in the non-neoplastic gastric or intestinal tissues in the TFF1 −/− or wild-type mice receiving the drug treatment. (
  • The intestinal tract can be repopulated by dormant larvae from the tissues that periodically become activated and resume development. (
  • Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAG) is associated with metaplastic changes and neoplasms, including pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs). (
  • It is associated with metaplastic changes and neoplasms, including pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs). (
  • Methods -The clonality of 86 single intestinal metaplastic glands isolated by EDTA treatment from gastrectomy specimens from patients with cancer were investigated. (
  • Results -Forty one (48%) intestinal metaplastic glands were heterotypic (mixed cells of different allelic methylation) and 45 (52%) were homotypic (cell population of the same allelic methylation), while almost all the single pyloric glands were homotypic. (
  • Eleven of 13 intestinal metaplastic mucosae that were 6 mm in diameter contained glands that had originated from different cells. (
  • 2 The intestinal metaplastic gland is reported to initially arise from the proliferating zone at the neck of a normal gland. (
  • Intestinal-type gastric cancer has been reported to be surrounded by an intestinal metaplastic area, which may have one of three explanations. (
  • Intestinal metaplastic tissue can be classifed histologically into two types: complete (type I) and incomplete (types IIa and IIb). (
  • 13 Type IIb intestinal metaplastic tissue secretes sulphomucins, and is particularly known to accompany the intestinal type of gastric cancer. (
  • The adrenal glands are the major source of GCs and release these hormones in response to psychological and immunological stress. (
  • GCs are synthesized from cholesterol via an enzymatic cascade (see Fig. 2 A), primarily in the cortex of the adrenal glands. (
  • Microscopic Description:Section shows fragments of large intestinal mucosa containing part of an ulcerating neoplasm with villous architecture in places lined by cells displaying nuclear crowding, stratification and hyperchromasia, variably conspicious nucleoli and frequent mitosis. (
  • used to mark territory either directly by the familiar fawning head rub, or indirectly by rubbing the secretion of the gland onto the fur during grooming. (
  • Classification of glands according to mode of secretion. (
  • In the intestinal mucosa, tachykinins cause net secretion of fluid and electrolytes, and it appears as if SP and NKA play a messenger role in intramural secretory reflex pathways. (
  • To counteract the hostile microenvironment, the GI epithelia react by speeding cell exfoliation (the GI mucosa has a turnover time of two to three days), by increasing peristalsis, by eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial compounds, such as defensin-5 and lysozyme. (
  • gland A group of cells with a communal secretory function. (
  • The nodular enlargements which can be felt under the skin in association with an infection (such as those in the neck with a sore throat) are commonly called swollen 'lymph glands', but they are not secretory and are more correctly called lymph nodes . (
  • The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. (
  • In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. (
  • 20 ) identified secretory blebs arising from oncospheres of Hymenolepis nana in vivo while they were penetrating the intestinal mucosa, indicating that the blebs are not simply in vitro artifacts. (
  • These contradictions make it difficult to reach anyconclusion about the effects of stress on the humoral immune response of the mucosas,which is represented by secretory IgA (sIgA) levels. (
  • That's because the thyroid gland in women is twice as large as in men -- so under normal circumstances, women need more iodine. (
  • Two thirds of the body's iodine is found in the thyroid gland. (
  • To reactivate the thyroid gland, tyrosine, iodine, zinc, copper and selenium are needed so make sure that foods containing these nutrients are included in your diet. (
  • The parathyroid glands are named for their proximity to the thyroid but serve a completely different role than the thyroid gland. (
  • The essential element iodine is present in every organ and tissue of the human body, not just the thyroid gland (1) . (
  • These competing substances are called goitrogens, because they sometimes cause goiter by creating a relative iodide deficiency in the thyroid gland. (
  • These substances interfere also with iodide transport and utilization in several organs beside the thyroid gland and a better term would be iodide transport inhibitors and iodide utilization inhibitors instead of goitrogens depending on whether the inhibition is at the cell membrane transport system or at intracellular sites of iodide oxidation and utilization. (
  • 3. T. Mattfeldt, G. Schuermann , G. Feichter: "Stereology and flow-cytometry of well-differentiated follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland. (
  • Note the several simple tubular intestinal glands at the tips of the folds. (
  • The lymph nodes are sometimes called lymph glands but are not glands in the usual sense. (
  • The larger intestinal segment on the right is abnormally dilated because a malignant tumor (the irregularly sized masses in the center) distorted the intestinal architecture and obstructed the intestinal lumen. (
  • These glandular structures are not present where they normally should be, near the intestinal lumen. (
  • The basal (further from the intestinal lumen) portion of the crypt contains multipotent stem cells. (
  • Absorption is the process by which the end products of digestion pass through the intestinal mucosa into blood or lymph. (
  • Intestinal absorption and lymphatic drainage decrease if intraluminal pressure exceeds capillary and venous pressure in the bowel wall. (
  • Biopsies from terminal illeum (3 pieces) Section show ileal mucosa without villous atrophy. (
  • Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIgR) expression has been found in gastric mucosa and gastric cancers, but it is not known whether PIgR expression is related to background intestinal metaplasia nor the patterns of PIgR expression in tumors arising in the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal (GE) junction. (
  • These groups are (1) gastric adenocarcinomas, (2) adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and GE junction with background intestinal metaplasia, and (3) adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and GE junction without background intestinal metaplasia. (
  • Expression of PIgR and CDX2 in nonneoplastic mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, and adenocarcinomas was examined by immunohistochemistry in 42 cases: 14 gastric and 28 from the distal esophagus and GE junction, including 13 with esophageal or GE junction intestinal metaplasia. (
  • Indeed, PCR of GCC detected tumor cells in blood from some patients with Dukes B colorectal cancer and all patients examined with Dukes C and D colorectal cancer, but not in that from normal subjects or patients with Dukes A colon carcinoma or other nonmalignant intestinal pathologies. (
  • Our transcriptomic profiles of normal colonic mucosa and colorectal adenomas shed new light on the early stages of colorectal tumorigenesis and identified KIAA1199 as a novel target of the Wnt signaling pathway and a putative marker of colorectal adenomatous transformation. (
  • 3 Once cells of the intestinal type arise, they replace normal glandular cell types throughout the gland. (
  • This allows us to reveal different spatial structures of pixel labels (e.g., locations between adjacent glands, or far from glands), and to identify correctly neighbouring glandular structures as separate instances. (
  • Endocrine glands by contrast are ductless, and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. (
  • Gastric gland endocrine cells secrete the hormone gastrin. (
  • Colonic biopsies (together with terminal illeum) Section show multiple pieces of colonic mucosa. (
  • Kuwahara K, Yoshimura Y, Isobe N (2017) Effect of steroid hormones on the innate immune response induced by Staphylococcus aureus in the goat mammary gland. (
  • Research in the last two decades shows that important bidirectional signaling between the HPA axis and intestinal mucosa modulates brain function and neurochemistry, including effects on glucocorticoid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). (
  • The mucosa is the innermost tissue layer of the small intestines and is a mucous membrane that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. (
  • However, some open directly onto a body surface, as in the sebaceous glands of the skin and the digestive glands of the intestinal mucosa. (
  • We also find Ag-independent accumulation of memory RORγT + Foxp3 + CD4 + T cells specifically within the involution mammary gland consistent with an active immune process. (
  • We focused on two developmental states that impact infant and mother health: lactation and weaning-induced mammary gland involution. (
  • Recently, a second mechanism for cellular transport of iodine has been reported by several investigators in the thyroid, mammary gland and renal cortex, namely a chloride/iodide transporter identified as pendrin (8 -13) . (
  • The other organs either give no intoxication at all when fed, or in certain instances the thyroid, adrenal, and salivary gland (mouse) give intoxications of a different character which affect intact mice and splenectomized animals equally. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinicopathological presentation of heterotopic gastric mucosa, pyloric gland type, and intestinal metaplasia with dysplastic changes in the gall bladder. (
  • In the first case, the asymptomatic presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa, together with pyloric gland and intestinal metaplasia followed by dysplasia, occurred at the same time as colon adenocarcinoma. (
  • glossopalatine g's mucous glands at the posterior end of the smaller sublingual glands. (
  • In the absence of intestinal GCs in vivo , activation by anti-CD3 injection resulted in reduced CD69 expression and interferon-γ production by intestinal T cells, whereas activation by viral infection led to increased T cell activation. (
  • Thus, a tight regulation of intestinal immune cells and their activation is crucial to maintain tissue homeostasis and ensure protective host defense. (
  • In addition, the presence of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells has been reported in the intestinal mucosa, which can inhibit the induction of experimental colitis by mechanisms yet to be defined ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Within this paler area, gland-like structures (white spaces) are lined by cancer cells. (
  • Cancer cells mimic the glands normally found in the intestinal mucosa. (
  • The term "pyloric metaplasia" can be used, although some observers prefer the term "pseudopyloric" as the glands do not secrete gastrin as normal pyloric glands do and lack G cells on immunolabeling. (
  • Bartholin g's two small mucus-secreting glands, one on each side in the lower pole of the labium majus and connected to the surface by a duct lined with transitional cells, which opens just external to the hymenal ring. (
  • Many genes have been shown to be important for the differentiation of intestinal stem cells. (
  • In the four tissue sections shown here, many of the intestinal glands have cells with a mitochondrial DNA mutation in the CCOI gene and appear mostly white, with their main color being the blue-gray staining of the nuclei. (
  • Atrophic gastritis with the development of deeper inflammation, loss of parietal and chief cells and occasionally intestinal metaplasia. (
  • Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) has been detected only in intestinal mucosa and colon carcinoma cells of placental mammals. (
  • The columnar cells at the area of the incomplete metaplasia had both the properities of the intestinal and the gastric foveolar epithelia. (
  • The incomplete metaplasia as well as the complete metaplasia arose from the generative cells at the isthmus of the gland. (
  • The estimated total number of G cells showed a significant negative correlation not only with the age of the patients but with the degree of intestinal metaplasia of the antral mucosa in both the groups. (
  • The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. (
  • Analysis of the repertoire of used H chain Ig (V H ) genes by H-CDR3 spectrotyping, cloning, and sequencing of V H genes from murine intestinal IgA-producing plasma cells reveals a very restricted usage of V H genes and multiple clonally related sequences. (
  • 8 ) showed that even in mice lacking T cells, some IgA can be specifically induced by introducing new microorganisms into the intestinal tract. (
  • Arginine also represents an important energy substrate for the cells of the intestinal mucosa and supports the maintenance of an optimal barrier function. (
  • Arginine is able to stimulate the thymus gland and to increase the organism´s resistance by increasing the activity and amount of immune cells. (
  • GC cells of only 3 of 41 (7%) patients expressed caveolin-1 and were all of the intestinal type. (
  • 3. 3AbstractThe few reports that analyze the effects of stress on the immune cells of the intestinalmucosa or the functions of these cells tend to focus on S-IgA levels in saliva, and thesestudies have shown contradictory results. (
  • After birth, the cells that line the mucosa of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are increasingly threatened by adverse micro-environmental conditions, such as digestive juices of different pH, a wide variety of active enzymes, and enormous amounts of bacteria. (
  • The parathyroid glands are quite easily recognizable from the thyroid as they have densely packed cells, in contrast with the follicular structure of the thyroid. (
  • Professional histamine-producing cells such as mast cells, basophils, enterochromaffin-like cells of the gastric mucosa, and histaminergic neurons synthesize this mediator, collect it in special granules inside the cells and release it in large amounts after specific stimulation. (
  • The digestive glands in some of these groups (arthropods, mollusks) are connected with the gut. (
  • Digestive glands secrete digestive juices which help in digestion of food. (
  • To date, in three other cases, ectopic gastric mucosa presented as an intraluminal polypoid lesion. (
  • Conclusion -Intestinal metaplasia in general is not a lesion that arises or proceeds monoclonally. (
  • 5 6 (1) The intestinal metaplasia is a direct precancerous lesion. (
  • 3) The intestinal metaplasia is just a paraneoplastic lesion resulting from the same mutagenic stimuli that gave rise to the cancer. (
  • The overlying mucosa was hyperplastic. (