Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Somatotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Lactotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Rats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Pituitary Gland, Intermediate: The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Hypothalamus, Middle: Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.Hypothalamus, Anterior: The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Corticotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Thyrotropin, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.Hypothalamus, Posterior: The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Salivary Gland DiseasesNerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelySexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Empty Sella Syndrome: A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Pituitary Irradiation: Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Submandibular Gland DiseasesOvary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
... which does not develop from the hypothalamus. The release of pituitary hormones by both the anterior and posterio The anterior ... and often considered part of the anterior pituitary), the intermediate lobe located between the anterior and posterior ... Usually there is one type of cell for each major hormone formed in anterior pituitary. With special stains attached to high- ... Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be ...
Head and neck anatomy
The pituitary gland has two lobes, the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior lobe secretes: growth hormone (GH), ... There is an intermediate lobe, in adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary, ... The hypothalamus connects directly to the pituitary gland, both through the circulatory system and by direct connection of ... Also, within the cranium, the pineal gland, which attaches to the thalamus, controls the body's 24-hour rhythms circadian ...
Regulation Glucocorticoids are under the regulatory influence of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoid ... The adrenal glands are directly below the diaphragm, and are attached to the crura of the diaphragm by the renal fascia. Each ... from the anterior pituitary. Cortisol is not evenly released during the day - its concentrations in the blood are highest in ... Usually a number of intermediate steps in which pregnenolone is modified several times are required to form the functional ...
Pituitary gland - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The pituitary is attached to the hypothalamus, which is also a gland. The pituitary controls a whole range of vital functions ... The gland releases several kinds of hormones. Anterior pituitaryEdit. The endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are ... Intermediate lobe. Here one hormone is produced: *Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): stimulates the production and release ... Adrenal gland - Corpus luteum - Hypothalamus - Ovaries - Pancreas - Parathyroid gland - Pineal gland - Pituitary gland - Testes ...
Glucocorticoids are under the regulatory influence of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoid synthesis ... The adrenal glands are directly below the diaphragm, and are attached to the crura of the diaphragm by the renal fascia. ... from the anterior pituitary. Cortisol is not evenly released during the day - its concentrations in the blood are highest in ... Adrenal cortex tissue is derived from the intermediate mesoderm. It first appears 33 days after fertilisation, shows steroid ...
... which communicates directly with the posterior pituitary gland. An increase in osmolality causes the gland to secrete ... Note 2: Each renal artery partitions into an anterior and posterior branch. The anterior branch further divides into the ... Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. ... The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called nephrogenesis, proceeds through a ...
Some of these glands are specialized as mammary glands, producing milk to feed the young. Mammals breathe with lungs and have a ... The ribs attach to the spine and there are no limbs or limb girdles. The main external features of the fish, the fins, are ... The mouth is found at the anterior end of the animal, and the anus at the base of the tail. The defining characteristic of ... Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle ...
Pituitary Gland Function, Location & Definition | Body Maps
... just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical ... The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, ... The pituitary is divided into three sections: the anterior, intermediate, and posterior lobes. The anterior lobe is mainly ... Pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to ...
Where Is the Pituitary Gland Located? | Reference.com
It is directly below the hypothalamus and is attached to the hypothalamus by nerve... ... The pituitary gland is a small structure that is located at the base of the posterior brain. ... The pituitary gland is divided into the anterior pituitary, the intermediate pituitary and the posterior pituitary. Each ... It is directly below the hypothalamus and is attached to the hypothalamus by nerve fibers. ...
The Pituitary Gland | Health Information | MedCentral Health System
The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary ... gland itself consists of three sections: the anterior lobe the intermediate lobe the posterior lobe ... ... gland of the endocrine system, because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no ... The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master ... The Pituitary Gland Anatomy of the pituitary gland: ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Cancer Types - The Pituitary Gland
The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary ... The anterior lobe. *The intermediate lobe. *The posterior lobe. Functions of the pituitary gland. Each lobe of the pituitary ... Cancer Types - The Pituitary Gland. Anatomy of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master" gland ... ADH (antidiuretic hormone is produced in the hypothalamus, stored in the pituitary gland, and increases absorption of water ...
Pituitary Gland - Natural Therapy Pages
The pituitary gland is an important part of the endocrine system, ultimately governing all of the hormones in the body. But ... The pituitary gland is made up of three lobes - the anterior lobe, the intermediate lobe, and the posterior lobe. Each lobe is ... It is found at the base of the brain just behind the nose and it is attached to the hypothalamus by nerve fibres. It is no ... What is the Pituitary Gland?. The pituitary gland is known as the master gland of the endocrine system as it controls all of ...
Pituitary diseases | Article about Pituitary diseases by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about Pituitary diseases. small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain brain, the ... It also serves as the... Explanation of Pituitary diseases ... The gland has three lobes: anterior (glandular), intermediate, ... pituitary gland. , body. the master endocrine gland, attached by a stalk to the base of the brain. Its two lobes (see ... The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain (the diencephalon) below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland, ...
Paraurethral gland | definition of paraurethral gland by Medical dictionary
What is paraurethral gland? Meaning of paraurethral gland medical term. What does paraurethral gland mean? ... Looking for online definition of paraurethral gland in the Medical Dictionary? paraurethral gland explanation free. ... Pituitary, anterior. Front portion of small gland below hypothalamus. Influences growth, sexual development, skin pigmentation ... pituitary gland. A small, gray, rounded gland that develops from ingrown oral epithelium (Rathke pouch) and is attached to the ...
gland | Taber's Medical Dictionary
gland answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... Pituitary, anterior. Front portion of small gland below hypothalamus. Influences growth, sexual development, skin pigmentation ... pituitary gland. A small, gray, rounded gland that develops from ingrown oral epithelium (Rathke pouch) and is attached to the ... It is often referred to as the master gland of the body.. Hormones are secreted from the following lobes: Intermediate lobe: In ...
Pituitary gland - Wikipedia
... which does not develop from the hypothalamus. The release of pituitary hormones by both the anterior and posterio The anterior ... and often considered part of the anterior pituitary), the intermediate lobe located between the anterior and posterior ... Usually there is one type of cell for each major hormone formed in anterior pituitary. With special stains attached to high- ... Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be ...
Hypophyse | Article about Hypophyse by The Free Dictionary
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain brain, the supervisory center of the nervous system in all ... The gland has three lobes: anterior (glandular), intermediate, and posterior (neural). The anterior and intermediate lobes ... pituitary gland. , body. the master endocrine gland, attached by a stalk to the base of the brain. Its two lobes (see ... The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain (the diencephalon) below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland, ...
Effects of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Agonists on Adenylate Cyclase Activity of Retinal Microvascular Pericytes in Culture - PDF
Hypothalamus. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Anterior pituitary gland. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyroid gland T4 ... Physiological Intermediate 1 Pharmacodynamics Delayed Drug Effects In reality all drug effects are delayed in relation to ... Smooth Cardiac Skeletal Location Around tubes Heart tissue attached to skeleton Moves stuff thru Heart beat pumps Moves body ... HYPERTHYROIDISM Hypothalamus Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Anterior pituitary gland Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ...
Where are male hormones produced? | Reference.com
Male and female hormones are produced in the pituitary gland. Although male and female hormones are produced in the same place ... A: The pituitary gland regulates and releases certain hormones in the body. The anterior lobe, intermediate lobe and the ... It is directly below the hypothalamus and is attached to the h... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Glands & Hormones ... What are some facts about the pituitary gland?. A: The pituitary gland, known as the "master gland" of the human body, is ...
Human Biology - WriteWork
The hypothalamus is sometimes referred to as the control centre as it controls pituitary func... ... are found within the brain and act together as a unit to regulate the activity of most of the other endocrine glands. ... the adenohypophysis or anterior lobe, the nerohypophysis or posterior lobe and an intermediate lobe, (Ross and Wilson.1999). ... The pituitary gland, or master gland, is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk and is positioned below it in the hypophyseal ...
Pituitary gland - Academic Kids
The anterior pituitary lobe receives releasing hormones from the hypothalamus via a portal vein system. The pituitary gland ... It is physically attached to the brain by the pituitary, or hypophyseal stalk connected with the median eminence. ... There is also an intermediate lobe in many animals. In adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and ... The pituitary gland is divided into two sections: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis ...
Global Library of Women's Medicine - Pituitary Tumors - DOI 10.3843/GLOWM.10299
These data indicate that MSH, like ACTH, is secreted primarily by the cells in the anterior pituitary, not by the intermediate ... PITUITARY ANATOMY. The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is a globular structure that measures approximately 10 × 15 × 5 mm and ... It lies within the cavity of the sella turcica and is attached to the base of the brain by a pituitary stalk. The pituitary is ... Many years ago, Page and Bergland demonstrated that the hypothalamus sends a rich blood supply into the pituitary. This tended ...
All about Health and Body - Page 2 - CSS Forums
It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its ... small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. ... Three such types of cells exist in the anterior pituitary gland ... It is structurally continuous with the hypothalamus of the brain, to which it remains attached by the hypophyseal, or pituitary ... The anterior lobe, or adenohypophysis, grows upward from the pharyngeal tissue at the roof of the mouth. An intermediate lobe ...
Head and neck anatomy - Wikipedia
The pituitary gland has two lobes, the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior lobe secretes: growth hormone (GH), ... There is an intermediate lobe, in adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary, ... The hypothalamus connects directly to the pituitary gland, both through the circulatory system and by direct connection of ... Also, within the cranium, the pineal gland, which attaches to the thalamus, controls the bodys 24-hour rhythms circadian ...
The Endocrine System - Term Paper
The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibres. The Pituitary ... gland itself consists of three sections: • the anterior lobe • the intermediate lobe • the posterior lobe The anterior lobe ... Below are the major endocrine glands in the endocrine system; Pituitary gland - The Pituitary gland is sometimes called the " ... Examples Salivary glands - Saliva Sweat glands - Perspiration Mammary glands - Milk ENDOCRINE GLANDS The gland known as ...
Pituitary Gland (part of the Endocrine System)
The pituitary gland, which has an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe, has been called the master gland of the human endocrine ... Some hormones secreted by the pituitary gland act directly on target cells in the body. ... That is because it directs the activities other endocrine glands by secreting hormones that act indirectly by stimulating the ... release of other hormones from endocrine glands elsewhere in the human body. ...
Pituitary gland | You and Your Hormones from the Society for Endocrinology
It is referred to as the bodys master gland because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands. ... The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing ... the anterior pituitary gland and the posterior pituitary gland. The gland is attached to a part of the brain (the hypothalamus ... Between the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary lies the intermediate pituitary gland. Cells here produce: ...
Pituitary Adenomas (Tumors) Description and Treatment Options
Pituitary adenomas are the fourth most common intracranial tumor. Learn how neurosurgeons can help diagnose and treat this ... pituitary accounts for about 80 percent of the pituitary gland size and is composed of the anterior lobe and the intermediate ... The pituitary is a small gland attached to the base of the brain (behind the nose) in an area called the pituitary fossa or ... a region of the brain that is connected to the pituitary gland and controls its function. The hypothalamus and pituitary ...
The Neuropeptides - Basic Neurochemistry - NCBI Bookshelf
... the hypothalamic releasing factors are peptides released into a special portal blood system that bathes the anterior pituitary ... The source of the vasopressin is the magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus, which send axons to the neurohypophysis, which ... controlling the secretion of pituitary hormones. In this system, ... by the nerve endings in the neural lobe of the pituitary. ... Intermediate pituitary melanotropes go one step further and α-N-acetylate this molecule to produce α-melanocyte-stimulating ...
Functional Endocrinology: Understanding Hormones From the Pituitary to the Receptor Sites • Chiropractic Scientists • 915-850...
They are made in the pituitary gland that controls the the activity of the other endocrine glands in the body. ... Anterior Lobe. The anterior pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica and is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain ... since it controls the activity of the other endocrine glands and it consists of 3 parts known as the anterior, intermediate and ... When an endocrine gland synthesizes a hormone, it is released into circulation and bound to as a protein. Hormones attach ...
Patient semester 1 - Revision Cards in University Pharmacy
Hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary gland by releasing the gonadotropin releasing hormone. ... Intermediate acting: Isophane i.e. neutral protamine hagedorn. onset is withing 4 hours. duration is 12-18 hours. e.g. humulin ... HbA1c: shows the amount of glucose attached to haemoglobin in RBC. requires a blood test. carried out every 3-6 months. good ... Hypothalamus. *Hypothalamus: means below the thalamus and above the brain stem. *Hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are the ...
survivethejourney - mobile site web portal for iphone, blackberry, android, webOs, Palm, Windows Mobile - Wap
The pituitary gland is a bean-shaped (think lima bean) organ that is at the base of the brain. The gland anterior lobe, the ... The pituitary is attached to the hypothalumus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The ... That brings us to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a region of the brain above the pituitary. It contains several types of ... The intermediate lobe is rudimentary in human beings but produces several hormones whose physiologic significance is only now ...
Reproductive System + Pregnancy Flashcards by sara sunflower | Brainscape
It is released from the hypothalamus in response to environmental cues. Target cells are the anterior pituitary gland ... Attached to uterine wall. Site of exchange of gas, nutrients waste between fetal and maternal capillary bed. ... It stimulates secretion of luteinizing hormone from anterior pituitary gland. Causes negative feedback on follicle-stimulating ... Mammary gland growth, atrophy of penis, pendulous prepuce, attraction of other males,squatting to urinate ...
ENDOCRINE GLANDS | BIOZOOM
The pituitary is divided into 3 parts viz., anterior, intermediate and posterior. The anterior and middle parts of pituitary ... 2. PITUITARY GLAND The pituitary is a small pea-shaped gland situated below the hypothalamus [ventral wall of diencephalon]. It ... The location, structure and functions of the endocrine glands are 1.PINEAL BODY. It is attached to the dorsal wall of ... the pituitary gland was considered to be the "master or chief gland of endocrine system". It is now known that the pituitary ...
The Central Nervous System
The hypothalamus is inferior and anterior to the thalamus, culminating in a sharp angle to which the pituitary gland is ... It is visible on the anterior surface of the brain stem as the thick bundle of white matter attached to the cerebellum. The ... Axons from the peripheral sensory organs, or intermediate nuclei, synapse in the thalamus, and thalamic neurons project ... Hypothalamus. Inferior and slightly anterior to the thalamus is the hypothalamus, the other major region of the diencephalon. ...
Endocrine Glands & Hormones Learning Objectives: To understand what the reproductive endocrine glands and hormones are. To...
The information is proessed, amplified, transduced to a humoral signal and transmitted to the anterior pituitary gland where it ... Visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory) is fed into the centralnervous system and converges on the Hypothalamus. ... These, in turn, act on a host of target tissues including the brain and pituitary gland. This form a vastly complex network of ... The gland is attached to the hypothalumus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary ...
HypophysisSecreteStalkAdenohypophysisPancreasHormoneInfundibulumProlactinNeuronsProducesACTHCortisolRegulatesLateralHypophysealOxytocinBlood vesselsBelow the hypothalamusOptic chiasmSuprarenal glandStimulateMaster glandConsistsTestesNerveNeuralKidneysBase of the hypothalamusAxonsSellaCarrying the secretionStored in the posteriorSecretion of pituitary hormonesAdrenal cortexLobes of the pituitaryFunction of the pituitaryConnective tissueHormones From the PituitaryTissuesGonadsCause the pituitaryHypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalAnatomyMedianPars intermedia and pars distalisOrgansRelease of hormonesPineal gland
- Play media In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- The pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in the small, bony cavity ( sella turcica ) at the base of the brain . (academickids.com)
- The pituitary gland, or hypophysis , is a globular structure that measures approximately 10 × 15 × 5 mm and weighs approximately 0.5 g. (glowm.com)
- An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. (wikipedia.org)
- In vertebrate anatomy , the pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- The pituitary gland (also known as the ' hypophysis ') is one of the glands of the endocrine system , which consists of several glands whose function is to produce and release ('secret') chemical 'messengers' called hormones . (ivyroses.com)
- The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is found at the base of the brain below the hypothalamus and the two structures are connected via the infundibulum, or pituitary stalk, which carries both axons and blood vessels. (slideplayer.com)
- Such hormones are produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary (hypophysis), parathyroid, pancreas, and the enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. (meduweb.com)
- The hypophysis (pituitary endocrine gland) is a reddish-gray, somewhat oval mass. (tdmuv.com)
- The hypophysis consists of anterior (adenohypophysis) part and posterior (neuorohypophysis) part. (tdmuv.com)
- The pituitary gland (or hypophysis ) is an important part of the endocrine system . (wikipedia.org)
- The tissues in the anterior lobe consist of extensive vascular areas interspersed among glandular cells that secrete at least six different hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Its chief function is to stimulate the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete adrenocortical steroids, chief among them cortisone. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The cells of ductless glands secrete specific molecules into the adjacent interstitial space (paracrine glands) or into the blood stream (endocrine glands), while the cells of ducted glands (exocrine glands) secrete into a cylindrical sac (tubular glands) or into a flask-shaped sac (alveolar glands). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The cells of ductless glands secrete specific molecules into the adjacent interstitial space (paracrine glands) or into the bloodstream (endocrine glands). (tabers.com)
- The cells of ducted glands (exocrine glands) secrete into a cylindrical sac (tubular glands) or into a flask-shaped sac (alveolar glands). (tabers.com)
- The anterior pituitary contains several different types of cells that synthesize and secrete hormones. (wikipedia.org)
- Thyrotropic cells are located in the midportion of the anterior pituitary and secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or thyrotropin. (glowm.com)
- The (exocrine) glands secrete saliva for proper mixing of food and provides enzymes to start chemical digestion. (wikipedia.org)
- This system is made up of glands that secrete hormones into the lymph system, also known as the bloodstream. (termpaperwarehouse.com)
- Glands such as the thyroid and adrenal secrete hormones that affect human behavior. (termpaperwarehouse.com)
- thyroid stimulating hormone, which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones. (yourhormones.info)
- Some pituitary tumors secrete too much GH which causes gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults. (gmbhnews.com)
- The releasing factors stimulate the pituitary to secrete its hormones. (biozoomer.com)
- It stimulates the cortex of adrenal gland to secrete gluco, mineral and sex corticoids. (biozoomer.com)
- It stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine. (biozoomer.com)
- In female human being prolactin stimulates the mammary glands to secrete milk after the birth of the child. (biozoomer.com)
- A rise of calcium concentration induces the thyroid gland to secrete calcitonin, which lowers the calcium concentration by increasing bone deposition and reducing the calcium uptake in the intestine and the kidneys. (charleszaremba.com)
- It consists of different endocrine glands that secrete different hormones. (weebly.com)
- These glands secrete a variety of hormones, which travel to specific target organs via the bloodstream. (kenhub.com)
- Polypeptide secreted by anterior pituitary that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. (onlineherbalist.com.au)
- of the brain, to which it remains attached by the hypophyseal, or pituitary, stalk. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum). (wikipedia.org)
- The pituitary gland, or master gland, is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk and is positioned below it in the hypophyseal fossa of the sphenoid bone. (writework.com)
- It is physically attached to the brain by the pituitary , or hypophyseal stalk connected with the median eminence . (academickids.com)
- It lies within the cavity of the sella turcica and is attached to the base of the brain by a pituitary stalk. (glowm.com)
- The pars tuberalis, a thin layer of cells that overlies the anterior surface of the pituitary stalk, also develops from Rathke' pouch. (glowm.com)
- The remainder of this neuroectodermal derivative gives rise to the infundibulum, or pituitary stalk, and the median eminence. (glowm.com)
- The pituitary gland hangs from the base of the brain and is attached to the hypothalamus (part of the brain) by a short stalk-like structure called the infundibulum and also known as the infundibular stem and the pituitary stalk , which consists of many nerve fibres (axons). (ivyroses.com)
- These neurons produce the hormones vasopressin and oxytocin which are transported down the pituitary stalk into the posterior pituitary. (aans.org)
- It is attached to the dorsal wall of diencephalon by pineal stalk. (biozoomer.com)
- 6 The median eminence The median eminence comprises the base of the hypothalamus and is continuous with the pituitary stalk. (slideplayer.com)
- It is functionally linked to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibulum ). (wikipedia.org)
- The hypothalamus releases factors down the pituitary stalk to the pituitary gland where they cause the release of pituitary hormones . (wikipedia.org)
- The anterior lobe, or adenohypophysis, grows upward from the pharyngeal tissue at the roof of the mouth. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the six hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis, (anterior pituitary lobe), stimulate or inhibit secretion by other target endocrine glands while others have a direct effect on specific tissues. (writework.com)
- The production of GH by the adenohypophysis is dependent on the hypothalamus and whether it synthesises growth hormone releasing hormone, (GHRH) or growth hormone release inhibiting hormone, (GHRIH). (writework.com)
- Structurally, the pituitary is composed primarily of an anterior (adenohypophysis) lobe and posterior (neurohypophysis) lobe, which represent the embryonic consolidation of two ectodermal primordia. (glowm.com)
- 2). Adenohypophysis ( anterior lobe). (charleszaremba.com)
- The pars anterior and the pars intermedia are together called adenohypophysis. (weebly.com)
- Adenohypophysis has three portions: anterior (or pars distalis ), pars intermedia and pars tuberalis . (tdmuv.com)
- Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) - major portion of gland (about 75% of total pituitary gland). (uab.edu)
- Embryologically, the major divisions of the pituitary gland are the adenohypophysis (the glandular epithelial part of the pituitary gland) and the neurohypophysis (the neural portion of the pituitary gland). (uab.edu)
- These are made up of proteins or peptides e.g. hormones of hypothalamus, pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas and relaxin of ovary. (biozoomer.com)
- Peripheral endocrine glands (thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, gonads) form early in the second month from epithelial/mesenchye interactions and differentiate into the third month. (edu.au)
- This term conveys the distance of the site of secretion from the site of action that characterized the systems, such as the pancreas, the thyroid, and the reproductive glands that were studied in the early days of endocrinology. (scribd.com)
- The root of the transverse mesocolon and the splenic flexure are situated anterior to the left kidney, stomach, spleen, and pancreas. (lecturio.com)
- The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control pigmentation - like skin color - through the production of melanin. (healthline.com)
- What Hormone Does the Thymus Gland Produce? (reference.com)
- The growth hormone growth hormone or somatotropin , glycoprotein hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland that is necessary for normal skeletal growth in humans (see protein). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone , polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
- TSH), hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Usually there is one type of cell for each major hormone formed in anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
- With special stains attached to high-affinity antibodies that bind with distinctive hormone, at least 5 types of cells can be differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
- When the hypothalamus detects a change of hormone level in the blood it produces a hormone, which in turn stimulates the anterior pituitary lobe to release more of its own chemical messenger. (writework.com)
- Not infrequently, patients with acromegaly and a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor exhibit excess production of prolactin. (glowm.com)
- They move through blood vessels to the anterior lobe, where each releasing factor is responsible for the release of a specific pituitary hormone. (com.pk)
- Oversecretion of the pituitary hormone human growth hormone can cause gigantism if it occurs before growth of the long bones is complete, or acromegaly if it begins during adulthood. (com.pk)
- Cortisol regulates carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and its secretion is controlled by the output of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. (com.pk)
- It is referred to as the body's 'master gland' because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands. (yourhormones.info)
- Each of these hormones is made by a separate type of cell within the pituitary gland, except for follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone , which are made together by the same cell. (yourhormones.info)
- This means that the symptoms experienced when the pituitary gland stops working correctly can be different, depending on which hormone is affected. (yourhormones.info)
- Conditions that cause the pituitary gland to produce too much of one or more hormone(s). (yourhormones.info)
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - ACTH triggers the adrenal glands to release hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone . (aans.org)
- In neuroendocrinology, an endocrine gland can't make a hormone without activation from a pituitary-stimulating hormone. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The pituitary-stimulating hormone helps regulate hormones by secreting them to the endocrine glands. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- This hormone is involved by coordinating the signal regulation of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the thyroid. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- This is a protein hormone in the anterior lobe. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The three glycoprotein hormones from the anterior pituitary, thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ), luteinizing hormone ( LH ) and follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH ), share a common α subunit but have distinct β subunits, and only the αβ dimer is biologically active. (nih.gov)
- As a review, growth hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. (gmbhnews.com)
- Not all patients suspected of having GHD,however, require a GH stimulation test for diagnosis.Patients with three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies and an IGF-I level below the reference range have a 97% chance of being GHD, and therefore do not need a GH stimulation test. (gmbhnews.com)
- The growth hormone is probably the only anterior pituitary hormone which does not stimulate any other endocrine gland. (biozoomer.com)
- For example, insufficient maternal dietary iodine impacts on fetal thyroid gland thyroid hormone production, which in turn can lead to abnormal neural development. (edu.au)
- Although classification of cells as acidophils or basophils is useful in some situations, specific identification of anterior pituitary cells requires immunostaining for the hormone in question. (meduweb.com)
- Long day-induced PT TSH acts on ependymal cells in the mediobasal hypothalamus to induce the expression of type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) and reduce type 3 deiodinase (Dio3) that are thyroid hormone-activating and hormone-inactivating enzymes, respectively. (jove.com)
- Previously, we demonstrated a pronounced inhibitory effect of vasopressin (VP), released from SCN terminals in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, on the release of the adrenal hormone corticosterone. (jneurosci.org)
- In rats, the major adrenal steroid that is secreted is corticosterone, and this secretion is directly stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion from corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. (jneurosci.org)
- Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH): Stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary gland to produce and release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). (weebly.com)
- Lutenising Hormone Releasing Hormone (LH-RH)- stimulates pituitary to release lutenising hormone (LH). (weebly.com)
- Prolactin Release- Inhibiting Hormone (PR-IH): Inhibits the secretion of prolactin from pituitary. (weebly.com)
- In humans, the major sites of steroid hormone production are the adrenal gland and the gonads. (clinlabint.com)
- A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that acts primarily on the adrenal cortex, stimulating its growth and its secretion of corticosteroids. (rfcom.ca)
- Abarelix directly and competitively binds to and blocks the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). (cancer.gov)
- Cortisol - A steroid hormone, more specifically a glucocorticoid, which is produced by the adrenal glands. (beingfertileprogram.com)
- BPA deleterious effects are more critical during perinatal exposure, causing dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in pups and adults, with a precocious maturation of the axis through a damage of GnRH pulsatility, gonadotropin signaling and sex steroid hormone production. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we investigated the expression of the kisspeptin system and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse regulators in the hypothalamus as well as factors related to luteinizing hormone secretion in the pituitary of polycystic ovary syndrome rat models induced by testosterone or estradiol. (bvsalud.org)
- In additional to suppressing the degenerative properties of myostatin, follistatin also suppresses the pituitary gland synthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). (steroid-powders.com)
- One transgenic model (a-GSU-CRF-BP) was created using CRF-BP cDNA linked to the pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit (a-GSU) promoter to specifically enhance anterior pituitary expression (Burrows et al, 1998). (doctorabel.us)
- Condition marked by weakness, low blood pressure, and dark pigmentation due to inadequate hormone secretion by adrenal glands. (onlineherbalist.com.au)
- Hormone secreted by the adrenal gland, which produces the "fight-or-flight" response. (onlineherbalist.com.au)
- aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, which causes the retention of sodium and the secretion of potassium. (onlineherbalist.com.au)
- A hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the adrenal cortex to release several hormones including cortisol. (panditnext.com)
- Stress initiates hypothalamic release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary and thereby increased glucocorticoid production by the adrenal cortex. (deepdyve.com)
- The magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei located in the hypothalamus that project axons down the infundibulum to terminals in the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
- It is attached to the end of the infundibulum, and is situated in the fossa hypophyseos of the sphenoidal bone, where it is retained by a circular fold of dura mater, the diaphragma sellae. (tdmuv.com)
- For example, the pituitary gland produces prolactin , which acts on the breasts to induce milk production. (yourhormones.info)
- These data indicate that the decrease in prolactin production occurs via activation of the nitrergic system and is an early effect of methylmercury in cells of pituitary origin. (bvsalud.org)
- However, it does contain the nerve endings of brain cells ( neurons ) that arise from the hypothalamus. (aans.org)
- The source of the vasopressin is the magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus, which send axons to the neurohypophysis, which is the site of release into the blood, in classic neurosecretory fashion. (nih.gov)
- Axons and terminals of other neurons with cell bodies lying outside the hypothalamus and axons passing through from extrahypothalamic neurons. (slideplayer.com)
- Both parvocellular and magnocellular AVT-containing neurons are present in multiple populations located mainly in the basal forebrain from the accumbens-amygdala area to the preoptic area and hypothalamus, from which originate widespread fiber connections spanning the brain with a particularly heavy innervation of areas associated with social behavior and decision-making. (frontiersin.org)
- It produces its own hormones and stores other types of hormones that control other gland systems throughout the body. (reference.com)
- Each section of the pituitary produces its own specific hormones. (reference.com)
- Each lobe of the pituitary gland produces certain hormones. (medcentral.org)
- The pituitary gland produces FSH and LH, which kick-starts the production of the sex hormones. (reference.com)
- The pituitary gland is called the 'master gland' as the hormones it produces control so many different processes in the body. (yourhormones.info)
- The pituitary gland is an important gland in the body and the hormones it produces carry out varied tasks and regulate the function of many other organs. (yourhormones.info)
- The anterior pituitary gland produces 6 hormones that circulate to their respective targets in the body. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- During childhood-causes Gigantism - produces healthy giant size persons called pituitary giants. (weebly.com)
- Mixed Endocrine Glands have an endocrine portion that produces hormones and an exocrine portion that produces non-endocrine products that pass out of the gland via a duct system. (uab.edu)
- Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla . (wikipedia.org)
- The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands ) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol . (wikipedia.org)
- There are also reports of low normal or subnormal plasma-cortisol levels in heroin users and disturbances in the daytime cortisol secretion from the adrenal gland in methadone-maintained patients. (doctorabel.us)
- The pituitary gland regulates and releases certain hormones in the body. (reference.com)
- However, the pituitary gland itself also has a 'master', which is the hypothalamus , the region of the brain that regulates the interaction of the endocrine system and the nervous system. (ivyroses.com)
- Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland at night decodes night length and regulates seasonal physiology and behavior. (jove.com)
- In scientific terms, it is known as the master gland because it regulates and controls the rate at which the other glands release their hormones and the timing of the release. (creativeenergyhealing.com)
- These cells are located in the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. (glowm.com)
- GH is secreted by the somatotroph cells located primarily in the lateral wings of the anterior lobe. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The superior brachium from the superior colliculus attaches to the lateral geniculate bodies. (tdmuv.com)
- It allows blood to drain from the lateral aspects of anterior cerebral hemispheres to the confluence of sinuses. (aoscan.com)
- It drains blood from lateral and anterior parts of the cerebrum into the confluence of sinuses. (aoscan.com)
- This is a thin, triangular, vertical double membrane separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain. (aoscan.com)
- Each cranial nerve is also given a Figure 23.4 Frontal Section of the Brain Figure 23.4 Frontal Section of the Brain Corpus callosum Fornix Gray matter Hypothalamus Insula Lateral ventricle Longitudinal cerebral fissure Pituitary gland Thalamus Third . (guwsmedical.info)
- and oxytocin, which aids in the release of milk from mammary glands and causes uterine contractions. (com.pk)
- releases oxytocin and ADH made by the hypothalamus. (charleszaremba.com)
- For example, uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which, in turn, increases uterine contractions. (wikipedia.org)
- 5) Oxytocin (i) It aids in the contraction of the female uterine muscles during pregnancy (ii) It affects mammary gland after birth by causing milk let-down or milk production (iii) It promotes the transport of spermatozoa in the female genital tract. (fabioclass.com)
- Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamic capillaries leading to infundibular blood vessels, which in turn lead to a second capillary bed in the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
- The anterior pituitary gland is connected to the brain by short blood vessels. (yourhormones.info)
- The anterior (front) lobe and the posterior (back) lobes are attached to the hypothalamus through a cable made of blood vessels and axon (neural connectors) that allow for direct communication. (creativeenergyhealing.com)
Below the hypothalamus3
- The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. (healthline.com)
- It is directly below the hypothalamus and is attached to the hypothalamus by nerve fibers. (reference.com)
- The pituitary is a small pea-shaped gland situated below the hypothalamus [ventral wall of diencephalon]. (biozoomer.com)
- The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master" gland of the endocrine system, because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. (medcentral.org)
- The pituitary gland is known as the master gland of the endocrine system as it controls all of the other endocrine glands, stimulating them to produce their own hormones. (naturaltherapypages.co.nz)
- It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system endocrine system , body control system composed of a group of glands that maintain a stable internal environment by producing chemical regulatory substances called hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
- For a while, this led scientists to call it the master gland , but now we know that it is in fact regulated by releasing hormones from the hypothalamus . (academickids.com)
- The pituitary gland has been called the ' master gland ' of the human endocrine system because it secrets some hormones that control other endocrine glands by stimulating them to release specific hormones. (ivyroses.com)
- The pituitary is often called the "master gland" because it controls the secretion of most of the hormones in the body. (aans.org)
- The pituitary gland is known as the "master gland" since it controls the activity of the other endocrine glands and it consists of 3 parts known as the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The term "master gland" is frequently applied to the pituitary gland because its hormonal secretions control essential body functions such as body growth, sexual development and maturation and reproduction and regulate the activities of the adrenals and thyroids. (uab.edu)
- The hypothalamus consists of nervous tissue lying inferior to the two lobes of the thalamus. (slideplayer.com)
- In most endocrine glands the parenchyma consists of epithelial cells, most commonly arranged as cords, which comprise the major portion of the gland. (uab.edu)
- The stroma or connective tissue element of the gland consists of a few collagenous fibers with associated fibroblasts and reticular fibers and is generally sparse with respect to the parenchyma. (uab.edu)
- The pituitary gland consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
- Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. (statemaster.com)
- The discovery of significant concentrations of lycopene in specific tissues in the body, i.e., plasma, testes, adrenal glands, liver and kidney, suggests that lycopene may play a role in these tissues. (doctorabel.us)
- The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. (medcentral.org)
- It is found at the base of the brain just behind the nose and it is attached to the hypothalamus by nerve fibres. (naturaltherapypages.co.nz)
- It is structurally continuous with the hypothalamus hypothalamus , an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The release of each of the hormones from the anterior lobe is controlled by a specific substance secreted by nerve cells in the hypothalamus. (com.pk)
- The melanotrophs are richly supplied by nerve fibers that originate from the hypothalamus. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- Probably the first neuropeptide to be identified was vasopressin, a nine-amino-acid peptide secreted by the nerve endings in the neural lobe of the pituitary. (nih.gov)
- The anatomy of the submandibular salivary gland including its blood & nerve supply. (spotidoc.com)
- The cranial nerves are given a number which indicates the order in which they arise from the brain (cranial nerve I is anterior most and cranial nerve XII is posterior most). (guwsmedical.info)
- In all animals, the fleshy, glandular anterior pituitary is distinct from the neural composition of the posterior pituitary, which is an extension of the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
- The neural structures of the median eminence contains a capillary plexus connected with the hypothalamo-pituitary portal system. (slideplayer.com)
- 9 The anterior pituitary is derived from oral epithelium from the roof of the mouth cavity, which migrates upwards towards the neural tube It sits in the sella turcica which is a depression of the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull and lies behind the sphenoid sinus. (slideplayer.com)
- The pituitary gland has three well-defined regions: pars distalis (anterior lobe), pars intermedia (intermediate lobe), pars nervosa (neural lobe or neurohypophysis). (meduweb.com)
- The pituitary gland is of dual origin, being derived partly from Rathke's pouch, (the embryonic invagination of ectoderm of the oral cavity) and partly from an invagination (diverticulum) of the diencephalon brain wall (neural ectoderm). (uab.edu)
- failure of the anterior end of the neural tube to close, prevents the brain from developing. (studystack.com)
- Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control: growth, blood pressure, management of energy, all functions of the sex organs, thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth, nursing, water/salt concentration at the kidneys, temperature regulation and pain relief. (wikipedia.org)
- The adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys. (writework.com)
- The adrenal glands lie above the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
- The adrenal glands are located on both sides of the body in the retroperitoneum , above and slightly medial to the kidneys . (wikipedia.org)
- The adrenal glands are surrounded by a fatty capsule and lie within the renal fascia , which also surrounds the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
- A weak septum (wall) of connective tissue separates the glands from the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
- Physiologically, the kidneys have moving flexibility of about 3-4 cm, depending on the posture of the body and the movement of the diaphragm during breathing, because the kidneys are not firmly attached to the back of the abdominal wall. (lecturio.com)
- The kidneys, the adrenal glands, and the ureters are retroperitoneal organs. (lecturio.com)
Base of the hypothalamus1
- The pituitary gland, in humans, is a pea-sized gland that sits in a protective bony enclosure called the sella turcica. (wikipedia.org)
- Located at the base of the skull , the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica . (academickids.com)
- The pituitary gland hangs in two parts called 'lobes' that rest in and are protected by the pituitary fossa* , which is also called the sella turicica , and is a deep saddle-shaped depression in the superior (i.e. upper) surface of the sphenoid bone immediately below the pituitary gland. (ivyroses.com)
- The pituitary is a small gland attached to the base of the brain (behind the nose) in an area called the pituitary fossa or sella turcica . (aans.org)
- The anterior pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica and is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. (chiropracticscientist.com)
Carrying the secretion1
- Other secretory mechanisms include holocrine (in which the gland cell membrane disintegrates to release its secretion), apocrine (in which the ends of the gland cells pinch off, carrying the secretion), and direct active transport of particular molecules across the gland cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
Stored in the posterior1
Secretion of pituitary hormones2
- Unfortunately, because this classification is based on conventional staining techniques, it is limited and cannot account for the secretion of pituitary hormones encountered in various physiologic and pathologic conditions. (glowm.com)
- In contrast to vasopressin and CCK, the hypothalamic releasing factors are peptides released into a special portal blood system that bathes the anterior pituitary, controlling the secretion of pituitary hormones. (nih.gov)
Lobes of the pituitary1
- However, whereas in some animals the three lobes of the pituitary are distinct, in humans the intermediate lobe is only a few cells thick and is often considered part of the anterior pituitary lobe - it is useful to include this information if mentioning the intermediate pituitary in descriptions for introductory anatomy courses . (ivyroses.com)
Function of the pituitary2
- The entire gland is enclosed in a tough connective tissue capsule from which trabeculae extend into the cortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
- end hair' piece of connective tissue that attaches the spinal cord to the coccyx. (studystack.com)
- Cells in this layer form oval groups, separated by thin strands of connective tissue from the fibrous capsule of the gland and carry wide capillaries . (wikipedia.org)
Hormones From the Pituitary1
- These, in turn, act on a host of target tissues including the brain and pituitary gland. (slideplayer.com)
- The endocrine glands produce hormones, which are distributed by the vascular system to the many body tissues, subsequently these organs are richly vascularized. (edu.au)
- It has also been shown that regeneration of flatworm anterior body fragments are stimulated by RFa ( 13 ), further supporting a role for RFa in development of tissues in lower metazoans. (frontiersin.org)
- Serous membranes are epithelial cells attached tosmall amounts of areola connective tissues. (martin-plowman.com)
- The information is proessed, amplified, transduced to a humoral signal and transmitted to the anterior pituitary gland where it is further amplified and transmitted via the gonadotrophic hormones to gonads. (slideplayer.com)
- The anterior lobe is in charge of regulating the activity of the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and the gonads. (creativeenergyhealing.com)
Cause the pituitary1
- Birth in many animal species and in humans is associated with activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in the fetus and the increased influence of glucocorticoids on trophoblast cells of the placenta and fetal membranes. (bioone.org)
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one pathway that is activated in response to stress. (deepdyve.com)
Pars intermedia and pars distalis1
- It senses the body's needs and sends signals to different organs and glands throughout the body to regulate their function and maintain an appropriate environment. (yourhormones.info)
- The pituitary constantly monitors bodily functions and sends signals to remote organs and glands to monitor their function and maintain the appropriate environment. (aans.org)
- The pituitary gland performs its key functions by releasing several signaling hormones that consequently control the activities of other organs. (aans.org)
- They are secreted through the endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to different organs in the body to function properly. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The main control center for the organs in the endocrine system is the hypothalamus in the brain . (kenhub.com)
- They are secreted by ductless glands in the body and transferred through the blood to the target organs on which they exert their effects. (fabioclass.com)
- Brain Blood Flow- Brain is a huge amount of the mass of body (in relation to many other body organs) (makes up about 2% of total body weight) (makes up about 20% of blood supply to brain) brain is a huge consumer- 20% of oxygen/glucose (energy) -Arteries- oxygenated blood- red -Internal carotid artery- large supply of blood to brain (anterior portion of brain) -Vertebral arteries- supply posterior portion of brain. (scribd.com)
Release of hormones1
- Till recently, it was beleived that the pineal gland found in man was a vestigeal organ. (biozoomer.com)
- In mammals, light information received by the eyes is transmitted to the pineal gland via the circadian pacemaker, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (jove.com)
- Although the amplitude of clock gene (Per1, Cry1) expression was greatly attenuated in the SCN, the expression profile of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, a rate-limiting melatonin synthesis enzyme, was unaffected in the pineal gland, and robust photoperiodic responses of the Tshb, Dio2, and Dio3 genes were observed. (jove.com)
- Until the pineal gland tells the body to act, it doesn't act. (creativeenergyhealing.com)
- The last gland to be discovered by modern science and the least understood, the pineal gland is in charge of your body's natural sleep/wake cycle. (creativeenergyhealing.com)
- It is the job of the pineal gland to take the information collected from the eyes and pass it on so that the other systems can interpret and make sense of what to do about it. (creativeenergyhealing.com)