A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that are important plant pathogens.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
The motion of air currents.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
A family of mainly aromatic evergreen plants in the order Laurales. The laurel family includes 2,200 species in 45 genera and from these are derived medicinal extracts, essential oils, camphor and other products.
The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., is known for aromatic leaves used in SPICES having a similar flavor to LAURUS.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)
The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pectolinarin (a flavonoid glycoside).
A plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Most species are perennials, native primarily to tropical America. They have creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots, and leaves in clusters at the base of the plant or borne on branched stems. The fruit is a capsule containing many seeds, or a one-seeded winged structure.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
A plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
A genus of fungi in the family Ophiostomataceae, order OPHIOSTOMATALES. Several species are the source of Dutch elm disease, which is spread by the elm bark beetle.
A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.
This fungus, harbored in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, is in the form of a budding yeast in ... and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus". Mycotaxon. 111: 337-61. Raffaelea in Index Fungorum ... Harrington TC, Fraedrich SW, Aghayeva DN (2008). "Raffaelea lauricola, a new ambrosia beetle symbiont and pathogen on the ... Several species also resident in the beetle were described as new to science in 2010: R. ellipticospora, R. fusca, R. subalba, ...
... is a mycangial fungus, first isolated from female adults of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. ... "Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, ... Xyleborus glabratus". Mycotaxon. 111: 337-361. doi:10.5248/111.337. Dreaden, Tyler J., et al. "Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle ... "Quantification of propagules of the laurel wilt fungus and other mycangial fungi from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus ...
... and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus". Mycotaxon. 111 (1): 337-361. doi:10.5248/111.337. ... associated with the ambrosia beetle Anisandrus maiche". Botany. 95 (5): 503-512. doi:10.1139/cjb-2016-0297. hdl:1807/77270. ... All Ambrosiella species are obligate symbionts of ambrosia beetles. Several former species were moved to Raffaelea, ... "Three genera in the Ceratocystidaceae are the respective symbionts of three independent lineages of ambrosia beetles with large ...
... is a mycangial fungus, first isolated from female adults of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. ... "Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, ... and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus". Mycotaxon. 111 (1): 337-361. doi:10.5248/111.337. ... "Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea." Fungal biology 118.12 (2014): 970-978. Harrington, Thomas C., ...
Laurel wilt is a highly destructive disease initiated when the invasive flying redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) ... relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: ... Studies examining the insect's cold tolerance showed that X. glabratus may be able to move to colder northern areas where ... Sassafras is susceptible to laurel wilt and capable of supporting broods of X. glabratus. Underground transmission of the ...
Other foreign pests include the Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) threatens the local avocado industry and redbay ...
... is also used to manage redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) the vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt ... At the beginning of an attack, various chemicals produced by infested trees and by the beetles attract additional beetles of ... matrix has an important role in the control of bark beetles such as the mountain pine beetle and the Southern pine bark beetle ... Verbenone reduces landing of the redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of the laurel wilt pathogen, on live standing redbay trees. ...
Other foreign pests include the Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) threatens the local avocado industry and redbay ...
Ambrosia Beetle Forest pathology Laurel wilt disease Xyleborus glabratus Paap T, de Beer ZW, Migliorini D, Nel WJ, Wingfield MJ ... As many other ambrosia beetles, males are significantly smaller, with non-functional wings. Larvae are similar to all other ... As the rest of the ambrosia beetles, E. fornicatus larvae and adults feed on a symbiotic fungus carried in a specific structure ... An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea ...
... which is transmitted by the invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. The disease affects and kills members of the ... a new ambrosia beetle symbiont and pathogen on the Lauraceae. Mycotaxon. 104: 399 - 404. Redbay Ambrosia Beetle-Laurel Wilt ... The redbay ambrosia beetle was detected in Savannah, Georgia's Port Wentworth area in spring 2002; however, it is likely to ... UPDATE: Redbay Ambrosia Beetle - Laurel Wilt of Avocado[permanent dead link] Center for Invasive Species Research - Laurel Wilt ...
... the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) and kills the plant by plugging the water-conducting cells of the afflicted ...
... (the redbay ambrosia beetle) is a type of ambrosia beetle invasive in the United States. It has been ... The female redbay ambrosia beetle is a small (2.1 to 2.4 mm long), black or amber-brown, cigar-shaped beetle. The dorsal ... The redbay ambrosia beetle can spread in at least two ways: one is via the beetle's natural reproduction and migration. A ... The beetle's biology is poorly documented, but presumed to be similar to that of other ambrosia beetles, with larvae and adults ...
Forest pathology Ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Euwallacea fornicatus Laurel wilt disease Kirkendall, Lawrence; Biedermann ... The ambrosia beetles (such as Xyleborus) feed on fungal "gardens" cultivated on woody tissue within the tree. Ambrosia beetles ... Some bark beetles form a symbiotic relationship with certain Ophiostomatales fungi, and are named "ambrosia beetles". ... American and Mexican Bark and Ambrosia beetles Nordhaus, Hannah. Bark Beetle Outbreaks in Western North America: Causes and ...
Xyleborus glabratus, Euwallacea fornicatus). Beetle species that readily colonize lumber, such as sawlogs, green lumber, and ... These beetles are called mycophloeophages. Ambrosia beetles and ambrosia fungi are thus only one end of the spectrum of the ... The effects of the Redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease Ambrosia beetles on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site ... ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Asian (or granulate) ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus, black twig borer van de ...
Ips perturbatus galleries Treating pine logs for Ips sexdentatus Forest pathology Ambrosia Beetle Xyleborus glabratus ... If the sounds of related but different species of beetles, such as western pine beetles and southern pine beetles (which both ... They are known commonly as engraver beetles, ips engraver beetles, and pine engravers. Beetles of this genus are cylindrical in ... Ips Beetles. Colorado State University Extension. 2013. Ips spp. Bark and Wood Boring Beetles of the World. Bugwood Network. ...
... pear blight beetle) [28] Xyleborus glabratus (redbay ambrosia beetle) Xyleborus similis [29] Xylosandrus compactus (black twig ... Asian ambrosia beetle) [30] Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle) [31] Xylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle) [32 ... banded elm bark beetle) Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant) Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant) Sternochetus ... Asian lady beetle) Hypogeococcus pungens (cactus mealybug) Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale) Leptocybe invasa (Blue gum ...
With over 500 species, Xyleborus is by far the largest ambrosia beetle genus in the tribe Xyleborini. Xyleborus nowadays ... Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, 1877 Xyleborus horridus Eichhoff, 1869 Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff, 1868 Xyleborus intrusus ...
... pitted ambrosia beetle) Corthylus punctatus Eggers, 1943a c Corthylus punctifrons Wood, 2007 c Corthylus pusillus Eggers, 1943a ... 1972a c Corthylus glabratus Ferrari, 1867a c Corthylus gracilens Wood, 2007 c Corthylus gracilior Wood, 2007 c Corthylus ... This is a list of 194 species in Corthylus, a genus of typical bark beetles in the family Curculionidae. Corthylus abbreviatus ... Columbian timber beetle) Corthylus comatus Blandford, 1904 c Corthylus comitabilis Wood, 2007 c Corthylus comosus Wood, 1974c c ...
Asian ambrosia beetle) Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle) Bugula neritina (Brown bryozoan) Bugula neritina ( ... glabrata Solanum tampicense Solanum viarum Sporobolus jacquemontii Syngonium podophyllum Syzygium cumini Tectaria incisa ... Elm leaf beetle) Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle) Xyleborinus saxeseni (Fruit-tree pinhole borer) Xyleborinus saxesenii ( ... Small hive beetle) Aethina tumida Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) Aphis ...
ambrosia beetles) Ammiscus polygrophoides Anastrepha atrox Anastrepha barandianae Anastrepha bistrigata Anastrepha chiclayae ... "Toxicity of Some species of Annona Toward Artemia Salina Leach and Biomphalaria Glabrata Say". Natural Products in the New ... Pollination occurs via Dynastid scarab beetles, which appear to be basic generalists within the genus Annona. Those species of ... Gottsberger, Gerhard (28 April 1988). "Comments on flower evolution and beetle pollination in the genera Annona and Rollinia ( ...
Asian ambrosia beetle) Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle) Xylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle) Canoe plants ... Emerald ash borer from Asia European elm bark beetle Elm leaf beetle Japanese beetle Paropsisterna m-fuscum Xyleborus glabratus ... "Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)". www.cabi.org. "Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle)". www.cabi. ... Asian ambrosia beetle) Xylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle) Cornu aspersum (garden snail) Deroceras invadens (tramp slug) ...
Malacothrix glabrata) snake's head (Malacothrix coulteri) Sonoran brickellbush (Brickellia simplex) Sonoran bursage (Ambrosia ... beetle spurge (Euphorbia eriantha) blackseed spurge (Euphorbia bilobata) branched noseburn (Tragia ramosa) buckeye-leafed ... Alvordia congesta Amauria brandegeeana Amauria rotundifolia Ambrosia bryantii Ambrosia camphorata Ambrosia carduacea Ambrosia ... Ambrosia ilicifolia) hollyleaf bursage (Ambrosia eriocentra) Hopi tea greenthread (Thelesperma megapotamicum) Irish lace ( ...
Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. Typically, ambrosia ... Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in 2002 and is one of the 10 ambrosia beetle species in the U.S. (Haack 2003, 2006). The ... The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into the ... Most native ambrosia beetles attack only dead and dying trees. However, Xleborus glabratus initiates attacks on healthy redbay ...
Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae). Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus ... Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae). In: Roy Van Driesche and Richard Reardon (eds ... The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrl, Fraedrich & ... 0 Book %T Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae) %J In: Roy Van Driesche and Richard ...
Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae). The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus ... The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. We ... glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrl, Fraedrich & Aghgayeva are exotic species, recently ... compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, ...
Rearing redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), on semi-artifical media. Semi- ... Exotic bark and ambrosia beetles in the USA: potential and current invaders. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: ... Fine mesh screen was used to create a physical barrier to prevent redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff ( ... The non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has recently ...
Xyleborus glabratus (the redbay ambrosia beetle) is a type of ambrosia beetle invasive in the United States. It has been ... The female redbay ambrosia beetle is a small (2.1 to 2.4 mm long), black or amber-brown, cigar-shaped beetle. The dorsal ... The redbay ambrosia beetle can spread in at least two ways: one is via the beetles natural reproduction and migration. A ... The beetles biology is poorly documented, but presumed to be similar to that of other ambrosia beetles, with larvae and adults ...
and Other Lauraceae to Attack by Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) J. E. Peña ...
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), tunnels into the wood of trees and ... The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has become a serious ... Rearing redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), on semi-artificial media ... Comparative analysis of terpenoid emissions from Florida host trees of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus ( ...
2017). For more on ambrosia beetles, see Pinaceae and Vega and Hofstetter (2015). ... its insect vector is the introduced scolytid ambrosia weevil Xyleborus glabratus (Fraedrich et al. 2008; Hulcr & Stelinski 2016 ... Bacterial/Fungal Associations. Raffaelea lauricola, an ophiostomatalean ambrosia fungus, causes laurel wilt, a serious disease ...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a wood-boring pest that ... Rearing Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), on Semi-Artificial Media ... KEYWORDS: Persea americana, avocado, Redbay ambrosia beetle, rearing, laurel wilt, aguacate, gorgojo de ambrosia del laurel ... Alabama to test the influence of chemical and visual cues on the capture of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: ...
Potential invasion of exotic ambrosia beetles Xyleborus glabratus and Euwallacea sp. in Mexico: A major threat for native and ...
This fungus, harbored in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, is in the form of a budding yeast in ... and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus". Mycotaxon. 111: 337-61. Raffaelea in Index Fungorum ... Harrington TC, Fraedrich SW, Aghayeva DN (2008). "Raffaelea lauricola, a new ambrosia beetle symbiont and pathogen on the ... Several species also resident in the beetle were described as new to science in 2010: R. ellipticospora, R. fusca, R. subalba, ...
Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is a nonnative pest-disease complex first reported in the southeastern United States in 2002. ... a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff). Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in a ... In many ways, X. glabratus is different from many ambrosia beetles in that it tends to attack healthy trees and is not strongly ... the primary host volatile attractant of the redbay ambrosia beetle [88]. Consistent with this finding, redbay ambrosia beetles ...
Laurel wilt and the Asian ambrosia beetle. Raffaelea lauricola vectored by Xyleborus glabratus ... About laurel wilt and the Asian ambrosia beetle. The Asian ambrosia beetle carries the fungus that causes laurel wilt in its ... Identifying Asian ambrosia beetle. You are unlikely to see the beetle itself because they spend most of their lives in their ... What to do if you find laurel wilt or the Asian ambrosia beetle. If you think youve found the beetle, or your avocado tree has ...
Click here for ambrosia fungi pictures! You can also find pictures of alba fungi, americanus fungi, americanum fungi, americana ... More about Avocado , Beetle , Red ambrosia beetles , fungus Raffaelea lauricola Coast live oak Large California Oak Ambrosia ... Raffaelea lauricola staining a redbay tree: quick death delivered by Xyleborus glabratus . Extreme sexual dimorphism in Diuncus ... typical sign of ambrosia beetles at work. Xylosandrus crassiusculus , a dominant ambrosia beetle in the south-east US. A parade ...
Eucalyptol is an attractant of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus.. Host range expansion and increasing damage ...
... and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Mycotaxon 111: 337-361. ... While in most ambrosia beetles the gallery is excavated solely by the mother beetle, in Xyleborus affinis the daughter females ... Mycangia (fungus pockets) of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus affinis in a cross-section of the beetle head. ... the beetle is able to acquire other fungal symbionts from other ambrosia beetles. An example is the recent acquisition of ...
... which has an Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), as a vector. In May 2002, X. ... which has an Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), as a vector. In May 2002, X. ... Ambrosia Beetle/Fungal Symbiont Workshop.. Interpretive Summary: Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant ... Compared to X. glabratus, fewer propagules of R. lauricola have been detected in other beetle species (100s or 10s vs 1,000s). ...
... a fungal symbiont of the red bay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff. The red bay ambrosia beetle was first detected ... A fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle causes a lethal wilt in redbay and other Lauraceae in the southeastern United ... The Ambrosia symbiosis: from evolutionary ecology to practical management. Annual Review of Entomology 62: 285-303. ... plan for laurel wilt on redbay and other forest species caused by Raffaelea lauricola and disseminated by Xyleborus glabratus. ...
Comparative analysis of terpenoid emissions from Florida host trees of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus ( ... Method for collection of live redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) ... glabratus, but that several other sesquiterpenes may also be involved in host location, including a-humulene, cadinene, p- ...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a severe pest of North ... The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest ... The Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Prefers Lauraceae in Its Native Range: Records from the Chinese National ... Results from environmentally conditioned beetles suggest that X. glabratus has a high degree of thermal plasticity. Based on ...
... vectored by the nonnative redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). Research include genetic identification of laurel wilt ... Habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for the exotic ambrosia beetle, Cnestus mutilatus (Curculionidae: ... Assessing the Role of a Little-known Wood-boring Beetle in Sugarberry Decline Ongoing research seeks to explain an ongoing, ... Laurel Wilt Disease Transmitted by Non-native Beetle Found in Arkansas. Laurel wilt has spread rapidly across the southeastern ...
The fungus is spread by redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), an insect from Asia. Our studies have focused on the ... Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB) and laurel wilt. Laurel wilt (Raffaelea lauricola) has killed millions of redbay (Persea borbonia ... Exploration in China resulted in two candidates, a flea beetle and a lace bug. Tests in China showed the flea beetle was host ... and beetles. Some are better pollinators (for example, bees) than others (beetles) but most pollinators have not been studied ...
Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae), checklists, images, photgraphs, line drawings, ... Cnemonyx glabratus (Schedl) Cnemonyx errans (Blandford) Cnemonyx maculicornis (Blandford) Cnemonyx panamensis (Blandford) ...
Studies of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in their native ranges help predict invasion impact ... glabratus is reliably collected in the field by searching for lauraceous hosts that are not in decay but are injured or have ... Given the potential impact of the beetle-fungus complex on the avocado industry of Florida and California, USA, and its ... Evaluation of litchi chinensis for host status to Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and ...
The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel ... Another eight ambrosia beetle species from genus: Xuleborus, Xyleborinus and Xylosandrus species have been identified as ... Monitoring and attract and kill systems to control ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease in avocado and other ... Project Title:Monitoring and attract and kill systems to control ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease in avocado ...
Laurel wilt, caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola and transmitted by the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus ... the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). There are many gaps in our current state of knowledge about the ...
The pathogen is transported by a recently introduced ambrosia beetle from Asia, Xyleborus glabratus, which first was detected ... The beetle s hind end drops off very abruptly to a blunt point. Ambrosia beetles do not feed on the wood of their tree hosts, ... The rate of spread of the beetle is estimated at about 20 miles per year. The ambrosia beetle and fungus complex has been found ... Like many ambrosia beetles, it is tiny, about 2 mm long. It is shiny black, and almost smooth on top. ...
"Utility of essential oils for development of host-based lures for Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), ... AbstractRedbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is native to Southeast Asia, but subsequent to introduction in Georgia in ... AbstractRedbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is native to Southeast Asia, but subsequent to introduction in Georgia in ... Effective lures for detection and control of X. glabratus are critical to slow the spread of laurel wilt. No pheromones are ...
Supercooling in the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The wood, which continues to be used in furniture, was ... glabratus moves outside the range of redbay and swampbay, LWD has caused extensive sassafras mortality (Fraedrich et al.. ... First records of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Alabama and in Harrison County, Mississippi ...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring ... Curculionidae; Litchi chinensis; Persea americana; Persea borbonia; Xyleborus glabratus; ambrosia beetles; attractants; ... The first records of the lady beetles Brachiacantha quadripunctata quadripunctata (Melsheimer) and B. quadripunctata flavifrons ... glabratus, we discovered that a diverse array .... DOI:. 10.1653/024.094.0201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1653/024.094.0201 ...
  • inbook{hanula2014redbay, title={Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae)}, author={Hanula, J.L. and Mayfield, Albert E. III. (usda.gov)
  • 0 Book %T Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae) %J In: Roy Van Driesche and Richard Reardon (eds. (usda.gov)
  • TY - CHAP TI - Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (xyleborus glabratus eichoff) (coleoptera: curculionidae) AU - Hanula, J.L. AU - Mayfield, Albert E. III. (usda.gov)
  • Although invasion of exotic ambrosia beetles (fungus feeders) and bark beetles (phloem feeders) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is considered a major threat to forest health worldwide, no studies have quantitatively investigated the anthropogenic and environmental factors shaping the biogeographical patterns of invasion by these insects across large spatial. (usda.gov)
  • In the CentralAmerican region, the aggressive, sibling bark beetles Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano & Sullivan (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonize pines concurrently, and in nature they avoid heterospecific pairing, although it can be produced in. (usda.gov)
  • The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has become a serious pest of trees of the family Lauraceae in the United States. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), tunnels into the wood of trees and shrubs in the family Lauraceae (Fraedrich et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Laurel wilt is caused by the ascomycete Raffaelea lauricola (Ophiostomatales), which has an Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), as a vector. (usda.gov)
  • Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae ) are serious pest group to forest and fruit trees in many countries across the world. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • Biocontrol of almond bark beetle (Scolytus amygdali Geurin Meneville, Coleoptera: Scolytidae) using Beauveria bassiana (Bals. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • 2008). Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the subtribe Xyleborina, within the subfamily Scolytinae. (usda.gov)
  • The beetle transmits the causal pathogen of laurel wilt disease among plants in the Laurel family (Lauraceae), which is caused by one of its fungal symbionts, Raffaelea lauricola (Mayfield and Thomas 2006, Fraedrich et al. (ufl.edu)
  • 2009). The X. glabratus and R. lauricola complex is considered a 'very high risk' invasive disease pest complex having potential equal to that of Dutch elm disease or chestnut blight (Global Invasive Species Database 2010). (ufl.edu)
  • The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, and its associated fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrl, Fraedrich & Aghgayeva are exotic species, recently invasive to the United States. (usda.gov)
  • Compared to X. glabratus, fewer propagules of R. lauricola have been detected in other beetle species (100s or 10s vs 1,000s). (usda.gov)
  • Current research focuses on early detection methods for laurel wilt disease of laureceae caused by the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola , vectored by the nonnative redbay ambrosia beetle ( Xyleborus glabratus ). (fed.us)
  • The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Persea americana. (sbir.gov)
  • Laurel wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola, a mycangial symbiont of an ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. (usda.gov)
  • The beetle has a symbiotic relationship with a pathogenic fungus ( Raffaelea lauricola ) whose spores it transports in special pockets in its mandibles. (orchidswamp.org)
  • Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. (ufl.edu)
  • Among those exhibiting a significant threat to forests are the bark and ambrosia beetles and their associated fungi. (usda.gov)
  • Raffaelea is a genus of ambrosia fungi in the family Ophiostomataceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, Xyleborus affinis may become a more serious pest where pathogenic ambrosia fungi are a concern. (ufl.edu)
  • Current research projects involve investigating biocontrol strategies using entomopathogenic fungi alone or in combination with other predators or parasites for managing invasive insect pests which include the following: red bay ambrosia beetle ( Xyleborus glabratus ), Sri Lanka beetle ( Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus ), and yellowmargined leaf beetle ( Microtheca ochroloma ). (ufl.edu)
  • From this perspective, entomopathogenic fungi may be highly suitable biological control agents for pests living inside of trees, such as bark and ambrosia beetles. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • The entomopathogenic fungi not only cause mortality of the beetles but also they may decrease the beetle population significantly through horizontal and vertical transportation in the galleries. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • Besides entomopathogenic fungi have repellent effects on bark and ambrosia beetles. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • Furthermore, entomopathogen fungi on bark and ambrosia beetles are observed very often in natural field conditions. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • In this review, the potential value of entomopathogenic fungi in the biological control of bark and ambrosia beetles has been discussed. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • Ambrosia fungi: a taxonomic revision and nutritional studies of some species. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp. (ufl.edu)
  • The beetle's biology is poorly documented, but presumed to be similar to that of other ambrosia beetles, with larvae and adults feeding on the symbiotic fungus it carries with it, and not the wood of the host tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fungus, harbored in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, is in the form of a budding yeast in the mycangium and a filamentous fungus in galleries of the beetle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Asian ambrosia beetle carries the fungus that causes laurel wilt in its mouth parts. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • The beetle feeds on the fungus. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • It's most likely the fungus would enter New Zealand with the Asian ambrosia beetle. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • ambrosia fungus introduced by the female. (picsearch.com)
  • Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus affinis bores tunnels (called galleries) into the xylem of weakened, cut or injured trees where a symbiotic fungus is farmed for food. (ufl.edu)
  • Given the potential impact of the beetle-fungus complex on the avocado industry of Florida and California, USA, and its potential threat to other lauraceous plants throughout North, Central, and South America (Gramling et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because redbay is an endangered plant in Maryland and this pathogenic fungus and its vector beetle are red alert species for us, the Maryland Invasive Species Council has chosen them as the December Invader of the Month. (mdinvasivesp.org)
  • Ambrosia beetles do not feed on the wood of their tree hosts, but on colonies of fungus introduced into galleries in the wood. (mdinvasivesp.org)
  • The wilt fungus associated with redbay ambrosia beetle spreads through the vascular tissue of the tree from the shot hole bored by the beetle, staining the tree s tissue and causing the plant s leaves to wilt and turn reddish or purplish. (mdinvasivesp.org)
  • The ambrosia beetle and fungus complex has been found as far north as Charleston, South Carolina, which means that under natural conditions, it would reach Maryland in two decades. (mdinvasivesp.org)
  • Based on the experience of our neighbors in the southeastern U.S. the redbay ambrosia beetle and its associated fungus threaten an entire plant family within Maryland forests. (mdinvasivesp.org)
  • Originally, it was thought that the ambrosia beetle was the only beetle spreading the laurel wilt disease, but recently several other beetles have been identified in the spread of this fungus. (richardlyonsnursery.com)
  • Insect-fungus relationships in the bark and ambrosia beetles. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • Dorsal view of an adult female redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff. (ufl.edu)
  • The female redbay ambrosia beetle is a small (2.1 to 2.4 mm long), black or amber-brown, cigar-shaped beetle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in 2002 and is one of the 10 ambrosia beetle species in the U.S. (Haack 2003, 2006). (ufl.edu)
  • Xyleborus glabratus is native to India, Japan, Myanmar and Taiwan (Rabaglia 2008). (ufl.edu)
  • Dorsal view of an adult male redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff. (ufl.edu)
  • Eggs of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, inside gallery which an adult female constructed. (ufl.edu)
  • The larva of Xyleborus glabratus is similar to other scolytid beetles. (ufl.edu)
  • Larvae of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, inside galleries which adult females constructed. (ufl.edu)
  • Two newly emerged (exoskeleton still darkening) adult redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, near a white pupa (bottom right) from which the adult has not yet emerged. (ufl.edu)
  • 2008). Xyleborus glabratus is a member of the. (usda.gov)
  • Xyleborus glabratus (the redbay ambrosia beetle) is a type of ambrosia beetle invasive in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential invasion of exotic ambrosia beetles Xyleborus glabratus and Euwallacea sp. (medindia.net)
  • Fraedrich and Aghayeva) and the primary vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle ( Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is a nonnative pest-disease complex first reported in the southeastern United States in 2002. (mdpi.com)
  • Eucalyptol is an attractant of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pathogen is transported by a recently introduced ambrosia beetle from Asia, Xyleborus glabratus , which first was detected in the U.S. in 2002 near Port Wentworth, Georgia. (mdinvasivesp.org)
  • Epsky, Nancy D. 2018-05-08 00:00:00 AbstractRedbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is native to Southeast Asia, but subsequent to introduction in Georgia in 2002, it has become a serious invasive pest in the USA, now established in nine southeastern states. (deepdyve.com)
  • Avocados have been hit hard by laurel wilt, a disease spread by Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle. (richardlyonsnursery.com)
  • The disease is vectored by a tiny bark-boring beetle, the redbay ambrosia ( Xyleborus glabratus ) which arrived on wooden pallets from Asia in Georgia in 2002.Here in the Fakahatchee you've probably increasingly noticed sprays of rust-colored dry leaves poking through the canopies of many of our hardwood hammocks. (orchidswamp.org)
  • The disease is vectored by the tiny bark-boring, redbay ambrosia beetle ( Xyleborus glabratus ), which arrived from Asia on wooden pallets in Georgia in 2002. (orchidswamp.org)
  • It is very similar in appearance to other ambrosia beetles (both native and exotic) already found in the U.S. The combination of its blackish coloration, nearly glabrous upper surface, V-shaped and pointed abdominal tip, and abrupt apical declivity distinguishes this species from other ambrosia beetles occurring in Florida (Mayfield and Thomas 2006). (ufl.edu)
  • Several species also resident in the beetle were described as new to science in 2010: R. ellipticospora, R. fusca, R. subalba, and R. subfusca. (wikipedia.org)
  • This yellowish to reddish-brown species is similar in appearance to other ambrosia beetles in the genus Xyleborus . (ufl.edu)
  • However, the rarity of X. glabratus in laurel wilt-affected avocado (no or very few individuals of this species are recovered from this host) and what appear to be sufficient levels of inoculum in several of the other species to cause disease raised the possibility that X. glabratus is not the only vector of this pathogen. (usda.gov)
  • But that's only a small fraction of the pollinating insects which includes many species of bees, butterflies, flies, and beetles. (usda.gov)
  • Another eight ambrosia beetle species from genus: Xuleborus, Xyleborinus and Xylosandrus species have been identified as potential vectors of the disease. (sbir.gov)
  • In this horde of invaders are numerous species of bark beetles belonging to the weevil subfamily Scolytidae. (orchidswamp.org)
  • Most ambrosia beetle species only attack dead and dying trees and can actually be considered beneficial to forest ecosystems as they speed the recycling of nutrients. (orchidswamp.org)
  • Fusarium dieback, the fungal disease associated with these beetles, has killed some host plant species in Israel and the USA. (bioone.org)
  • Because they spend the most of their life inside the trees and only adults leave the trees for certain time of periods, the trees are infested by more than one species very often and adult emergence prevails a long time, chemical control of the beetles is very difficult and more than one application is needed. (dergipark.gov.tr)
  • With over 500 species , Xyleborus is by far the largest ambrosia beetle genus in the tribe Xyleborini . (weevil.info)
  • 2017. Evaluation of repellents for the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratu s, vector of the laurel wilt pathogen. (ufl.edu)
  • WANTED Asian Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus An insect pest of fruits, nuts and woody. (picsearch.com)
  • In May 2002, X. glabratus was reported for the first time in the Western Hemisphere in Port Wentworth, GA. Laurel wilt is now widely spread in the SE USA due to its mobile insect vector, the movement of infested wood, and the presence of native and non-native plants that are susceptible to the disease and on which the vector reproduces. (usda.gov)
  • X. glabratus and laurel wilt disease have since spread through much of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains, ranging from eastern Texas and Arkansas to North Carolina, and in 2019 they were found in Kentucky and Tennessee. (wikipedia.org)
  • The significance of these detections became apparent when the beetle was linked to and identified as the vector of laurel wilt, a fungal disease that had been killing large numbers of redbay trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monitoring and attract and kill systems to control ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease in avocado and other Lauraceae. (sbir.gov)
  • Project Title:Monitoring and attract and kill systems to control ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease in avocado and other Lauraceae.Technical AbstractProduction of avocado in Florida is valued at $30 million a year, accounting for twelve percent of the national production. (sbir.gov)
  • Semiochemical-based monitoring systems are standard tools for the measurement of progress and success of eradication efforts targeting other exotic pests of national importance.Anticipated Results/Potential Commercial Applications of ResearchThe long-term goals of this research project are the development of an effective monitoring system (trap and lure) and Killing Station for ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease. (sbir.gov)
  • Effective lures for detection and control of X. glabratus are critical to slow the spread of laurel wilt. (deepdyve.com)
  • The larvae of the beetle are similar in appearance to others of the group, developing as a white and legless "worm" with an amber-colored head capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the 'ambrosia' upon which both the adults and larvae feed. (orchidswamp.org)
  • In the U.S., X. glabratus was first detected in a survey trap near Port Wentworth, Georgia in 2002 (Rabaglia 2008). (ufl.edu)
  • The beetle was first detected in the United States in 2002, in Port Wentworth, Georgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Florida, Xleborus glabratus was first detected in 2005 at the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve in northern Duval County (Mayfield and Thomas 2006). (ufl.edu)
  • When it initially attacks, the redbay ambrosia beetle bores through the tree's trunk without ingesting the wood tissue, leaving behind telltale frass in the form of a sawdust straw on the outer bark. (orchidswamp.org)
  • Currently, the redbay ambrosia beetle is an economically important pest in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina. (ufl.edu)
  • glabratus moves outside the range of redbay and swampbay, LWD has caused extensive sassafras mortality (Fraedrich et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2018. Trail chemicals of the convergens ladybird beetle, Hippodamia convergens , reduce feeding and oviposition by Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on citrus plants. (ufl.edu)
  • 2018. Ladybird beetle trails reduce host acceptance by Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). (ufl.edu)
  • Native to India, Japan, Myanmar and Taiwan, the redbay ambrosia beetle is thought to have arrived in the U.S. in wood packing material like pallets and crates. (mdinvasivesp.org)
  • The adult Xleborus glabratus is a small, elongate, cylindrical beetle about 2 mm in length. (ufl.edu)
  • The granulate ambrosia beetles, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), attack the trunk. (picsearch.com)
  • A granulated ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus) in its fungal garden tunnel. (picsearch.com)
  • Xylosandrus crassiusculus , a dominant ambrosia beetle in the south-east US. (picsearch.com)
  • Large California Oak Ambrosia Beetle, Monarthrum scutellare (LeConte) (= Pterocyclon ) AMBROSIA. (picsearch.com)
  • In a long-term study in commercial forests, mass trapping of several western ambrosia beetles (T lineatum, Gnathotrichus sulcatus [LeConte], and Gnathotrichus retusus [LeConte]) yielded a benefit/cost estimate of five-to-one with associated savings of over US$500,000 (Lindgren & Fraser 1994). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Typically, ambrosia beetles are considered beneficial because they accelerate the decay of dead trees, which is important for nutrient cycling in healthy forests. (ufl.edu)
  • To prevent threats to public and private forests from bark beetles, my research interests include exploring biological control option in protecting pines from colonization and damage by bark beetles and other native insects through a better understanding of the ecology, biology, and available management options. (fed.us)
  • Most Xyleborus beetles have an elongated, cylindrical body and are yellow, red or light brown in color. (ufl.edu)
  • Although it is among the most widespread and common ambrosia beetles in forested areas around the world, it is often under-reported because it is only weakly attracted to ethanol, the most commonly used lure for ambrosia beetle monitoring (Steininger et al. (ufl.edu)
  • The beetles mostly live in avocado trees, but can live in several other laurel trees, including bay trees. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • Effective IPM tactics should be aimed at the control and management of all vectors of the disease.RAB and other ambrosia beetles are currently controlled with insecticidal sprays of diseased avocado trees or their removal. (sbir.gov)
  • The dorsal surface is mostly hairless and shiny when compared to other ambrosia beetles. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the beetle tunnels into a tree, it infects the tree with it. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • You are unlikely to see the beetle itself because they spend most of their lives in their tunnels. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • The beetle was introduced into Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and the Pacific Islands including Hawaii (Wood 1982, Rabaglia et al. (ufl.edu)
  • 3. Exploring biological control options for managing bark beetles. (fed.us)
  • Sawdust stacks on a dead tree - typical sign of ambrosia beetles at work. (picsearch.com)
  • The characteristic sawdust toothpicks at the entry point of an ambrosia beetle. (orchidswamp.org)
  • 2008). In Asia, the beetle has been reported to survive in temperatures ranging from -26 to 15°C. The flight activity is greatest late afternoon or early evening and the beetles usually fly at or below 15 ft (G. Brar unpublished results). (ufl.edu)
  • The redbay ambrosia beetle is believed to originate from Asia or southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proceedings from the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Associated Microorganisms. (usda.gov)
  • A second way is through the sale and transport of beetle-infested wood, a result of redbay's use as firewood and for outdoor grilling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beetle is most likely to get here in wood packaging or wood products. (mpi.govt.nz)