Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.FructosephosphatesHexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Protein Refolding: Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mannoheptulose: A 7-carbon keto sugar having the mannose configuration.Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Ninhydrin: 2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.GlucosephosphatesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Phosphofructokinase-2: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.AlloxanEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Physiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.TriglyceridesFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
... activity can be amplified or reduced in minutes by actions of the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). The ... Human glucokinase is coded for by the GCK gene on chromosome 7. This single autosomal gene has 10 exons. Genes for glucokinase ... Glucokinase likely serves as a glucose signal here as well. Glucokinase has also been found in cells of the anterior pituitary ... Most of the glucokinase in a mammal is found in the liver, and glucokinase provides approximately 95% of the hexokinase ...
The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in ... December 2006). "An allosteric activator of glucokinase impairs the interaction of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory ... The glucokinase of "knockout mice" who lack GKRP is entirely found in the cytoplasm. They do not respond rapidly to glucose, ... GKRP was originally discovered in rat liver. GKRP was found to serve a similar function in livers of mice and humans as well as ...
The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in ... December 2006). "An allosteric activator of glucokinase impairs the interaction of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory ... The glucokinase of "knockout mice" who lack GKRP is entirely found in the cytoplasm. They do not respond rapidly to glucose, ... GKRP was originally discovered in rat liver. GKRP was found to serve a similar function in livers of mice and humans as well as ...
Homo sapiens glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulatory protein (GCKR) gene, complete... Homo sapiens glucokinase (hexokinase 4) ... A case-control study and meta-analysis confirm glucokinase regulatory gene rs780094 is a risk factor for gestational diabetes ... A case-control study and meta-analysis confirm glucokinase regulatory gene rs780094 is a risk factor for gestational diabetes ... Homo sapiens glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulatory protein (GCKR) gene, complete cds. GenBank: AY320034.1 ...
... liver-specific glucokinase activators and disruptors of the GKRP-glucokinase complex [59, 60]) could theoretically lead to an ... The third robust NAFLD susceptibility gene, GCKR (encoding liver-specific glucokinase regulatory protein [GKRP]), is involved ... Simons N, Dekker JM, van Greevenbroek MM et al (2016) A common gene variant in glucokinase regulatory protein interacts with ... Brouwers MC, Jacobs C, Bast A, Stehouwer CD, Schaper NC (2015) Modulation of glucokinase regulatory protein: a double-edged ...
... glucokinase; GKB, GK content of the β-cell; GK-L, liver isoform of GK; GKRP, GK regulatory protein; GSIR, glucose-stimulated ... BASIC ENZYMOLOGY OF GLUCOKINASE AND GLUCOKINASE DISEASE. GK, one of the four members of the hexokinase family of enzymes (1,2,4 ... Agius L, Peak M, Van Schaftingen E: The regulatory protein of glucokinase binds to the hepatocyte matrix but unlike glucokinase ... Evidence that glucokinase regulatory protein is expressed and interacts with glucokinase in rat brain. J Neurochem80 :45 -53, ...
Promoted by the presence of glucose and fructose-1-phosphate stimulates glucokinase to convert glucose into glucose-6- ... Hexokinase is sensitive to feedback inhibition (causes reduced glucose uptake) whereas glucokinase is not ... What is the location of the glucokinase enzyme controlled by? Glucokinase regulator protein (GKRP) ...
The hepatic glucokinase activity is regulated by the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). When fasted, glucokinase and GKRP ... and no glucokinase gene expression [35]. No regulation of glucokinase by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). Although the ... and no glucokinase gene expression [35]. No regulation of glucokinase by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). Although the ... Lack of Glucokinase Activity and Possible Compensation Mechanisms. In most species, glucokinase (or hexokinase IV) is ...
Hepatic glucose phosphorylation by GK (glucokinase) is regulated by GKRP (GK regulatory protein). GKRP forms a cytosolic ... A and B) Relative change in TF for 0.3 μM GKRP in the presence of increasing amounts of F6P and F1P for GKRP-WT (A) and GKRP- ... TF spectra for 0.3 μM GKRP in the presence or absence of 8 M urea at 20°C for GKRP-WT (A) and for GKRP-P446L (B). The ... The high average quantum yield of GKRP TF allowed for accurate measurements at 0.3 μM GKRP-WT and GKRP-P446L. The two proteins ...
glucokinase regulatory protein. Synonyms: GKRP. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID associations are ... OMIM: GLUCOKINASE REGULATORY PROTEIN; GCKR, 613463*Gene Ontology: Gckr *Mouse Phenome DB: Gckr *UCSC: Chr.5:31,297,581- ...
Glucokinase activity can be amplified or reduced in minutes by actions of the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). The ... Human glucokinase is coded for by the GCK gene on chromosome 7. This single autosomal gene has 10 exons. Genes for glucokinase ... Glucokinase likely serves as a glucose signal here as well. Glucokinase has also been found in cells of the anterior pituitary ... Most of the glucokinase in a mammal is found in the liver, and glucokinase provides approximately 95% of the hexokinase ...
The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP; gene symbol GCKR) P446L variant, associated with inverse modulation of glucose- and ... but not between P446L-GKRP and GCK. Rat WT-GKRP and P446L-GKRP behaved quite differently: both variants responded to high ... Shiota C, Coffey J, Grimsby J, Grippo JF, Magnuson MA (1999) Nuclear import of hepatic glucokinase depends upon glucokinase ... Farrelly D, Brown KS, Tieman A et al (1999) Mice mutant for glucokinase regulatory protein exhibit decreased liver glucokinase ...
Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (Xenopus tropicalis) * NPC transports GCK1:GKRP from cytosol to ...
1A). RO-28-1675 also reversed the inhibitory action of the human glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) (14) (Fig. 1A). ... Allosteric Activators of Glucokinase: Potential Role in Diabetes Therapy Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Allosteric Activators of Glucokinase: Potential Role in Diabetes Therapy. By Joseph Grimsby, Ramakanth Sarabu, Wendy L. Corbett ... Allosteric Activators of Glucokinase: Potential Role in Diabetes Therapy. By Joseph Grimsby, Ramakanth Sarabu, Wendy L. Corbett ...
Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (Homo sapiens) * NPC transports GCK1:GKRP from cytosol to ...
Y -> A. Increased glucokinase activity based on measure of catalytic efficiency. Increased affinity for glucose. No effect on ... Loss of inhibition by GKRP. No effect on affinity for ATP.. Helix. 205 - 214. ... M -> V. Increased glucokinase activity based on measure of catalytic efficiency. Increased affinity for glucose.. ... I -> F. Increased glucokinase activity based on measure of catalytic efficiency. Increased affinity for glucose.. ...
Glucokinase regulatory protein. Aliases:. GKRP. RefSeq:. NC_000071.6 NT_039305.8. Ensembl:. ENSMUSG00000059434 ...
... organism-specific biosystemGlucokinase (GCK1) is negatively regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), which ... Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Regulation of ...
Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (Homo sapiens) * NPC transports GCK1:GKRP from cytosol to ... Defective NPC does not transport GCK1:GKRP from cytosol to nucleoplasm (Homo sapiens) * Defective NPC [nuclear envelope] (Homo ...
Recombinant Protein and Glucokinase regulatory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Also known as Glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) (Glucokinase regulator).. GCKR: a key regulator of glucokinase in the liver ... Glucokinase regulatory protein. Glucokinase regulatory protein ELISA Kit. Glucokinase regulatory protein Recombinant. ... Inhibits glucokinase (GCK) by forming an inactive complex with this enzyme. The affinity of GCKR for GCK is modulated by ...
Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (Rattus norvegicus) * NPC transports GCK1:GKRP from cytosol to ...
... which is inactive when associated with Glucokinase Regulatory Protein (GKRP) in the nucleus. The interaction of GK with GKRP is ... Molecular basis for the role of glucokinase regulatory protein as the allosteric switch for glucokinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... This may facilitate the binding of GK to GKRP and its accumulation in inactive form. This may account for decreased GK activity ... The key enzyme in the regulation of this process is glucokinase. This enzyme is induced by insulin. Therefore we next assayed ...
It is bound there to a glucokinase regulatory protein called GKRP. Release and translocation back to the cytosol is stimulated ... Hepatic glucose release and glucokinase.. While glucokinase has a high Km (low affinity) for its substrate, it reacts strongly ... This appears to be also the case for glucokinase-containing cells in the hypothalamus. The couple GLUT2-glucokinase in these ... Why is fructose such a strong signal for release of glucokinase. Remember, glucokinase is not interested in reacting with ...
Here we show that treatment of rat hepatocytes with 25 mM glucose caused decreased binding of glucokinase to GKRP, ... Glucokinase activity is a major determinant of hepatic glucose metabolism and blood glucose homeostasis. Liver glucokinase ... Keywords: Glucokinase; Glucokinase regulatory protein; 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase/fructose 2,6 bisphosphatase-2; Hepatocyte; ... uptake of glucokinase into the nucleus and increased interaction with GKRP. Two novel glucagon receptor antagonists attenuated ...
Y -> A. Increased glucokinase activity based on measure of catalytic efficiency. Increased affinity for glucose. No effect on ... Loss of inhibition by GKRP. No effect on affinity for ATP.. Beta strand. 220 - 237. ... I -> F. Increased glucokinase activity based on measure of catalytic efficiency. Increased affinity for glucose.. ... Human glucokinase gene: isolation, characterization, and identification of two missense mutations linked to early-onset non- ...
Various groups have also demonstrated that glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) binds to GK in the hepatocyte nucleus and ... Glucokinase (GK), the major glucose phosphorylating enzyme in the liver and the pancreatic β-cells, plays an important role in ...
... activity is regulated by reversible binding to specific inhibitor protein glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP (zeige GCKR ... Data suggest that hepatic glucokinase (zeige GCK Antikörper) ... changes in glucokinase (zeige GCK Antikörper) expression and ...
  • Some researchers have finding small amounts of GKRP, or at least RNA coding for it, in small amounts in certain rat lung cells, in pancreatic islet cells, and in periventricular neurons of the hypothalamus in rats, but physiological function and significance in these organs are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hepatocytes of various mammals, GKRP has always been found in molar excess of the amount of GK, but the GKRP:GK ratio varies according to diet, insulin sufficiency, and other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the GKRP gene (GCKR) in humans have been sought as possible causes of monogenic diabetes (MODY), but no examples have yet been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
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