Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Myeloablative Agonists: Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Graft vs Leukemia Effect: Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease: Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Graft vs Tumor Effect: Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.DeoxycytidineNeutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.LeukopeniaOrganoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Thiotepa: A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLDrug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Unrelated Donors: Providers of tissues for transplant to non-related individuals.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Altretamine: A hexamethyl-2,4,6-triamine derivative of 1,3,5-triazine.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse: Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Cell SeparationImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Oxonic Acid: Antagonist of urate oxidase.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Induction Chemotherapy: Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Lymphoma, Follicular: Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
  • RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Combining chemotherapy with peripheral stem cell transplantation may allow the doctor to give higher doses of chemotherapy drugs and kill more tumor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The tumor cells accumulate in the lymphoid system, including lymph nodes and the spleen, with non-useful cells eventually rendering the system dysfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, the circulating tumor cells showed only subset expression of CD30 by flow cytometry (performed on peripheral blood). (deepdyve.com)
  • One genetic abnormality is the mutation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene often seen in clear-cell carcinomas. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Targeted therapies have been developed to interfere with intracellular signaling, tumor-cell proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The small-molecule tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors bind to receptor TKs (RTKs) located on cell-surface growth factor receptors (GFRs), thereby inhibiting tumor growth. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 4) It was observed that SPTCL's clinical course was very different depending on the T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype and immunophenotypic characteristics of the tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An interim analysis conducted by the independent Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) demonstrated that treatment with KEYTRUDA resulted in significantly longer OS than platinum-based chemotherapy (carboplatin plus paclitaxel or carboplatin plus pemetrexed) in patients with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) of ≥1 percent. (biospace.com)
  • With KEYNOTE-042, KEYTRUDA has now shown a significant survival benefit compared with chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsquamous or squamous NSCLC expressing PD-L1 at 1 percent or higher by tumor proportion score," said Dr. Roger M. Perlmutter, president, Merck Research Laboratories. (biospace.com)
  • This may include increased tumor kill in areas where standard-dose chemotherapy has less penetration (central nervous system). (nkch.org)
  • Intriguingly, EMT features are also associated with stem cells isolated from the normal mouse mammary gland and human breast reduction tissues as well as the highly aggressive metaplastic and claudin-low breast tumor subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, several lines of evidence have converged in recent years to support the notion that not all cancer cells within a given tumor are equal in terms of their tumor-initiating potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, late-breaking Phase 2 data for MK-6482 showed anti-tumor responses in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other tumors (Abstract #LBA26). (merck.com)
  • In this anti-PD-1/PD-L1 naïve study, vibostolimab in combination with KEYTRUDA had a manageable safety profile and demonstrated promising anti-tumor activity. (merck.com)
  • Cytokine produced by T cells that exhibits a variety of immunomodulating effects, including suppression of cell growth and enhancement of tumor cell killing. (themmrf.org)
  • The theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesized that only a small hierarchical organization of cells is assisting tumorigenesis and inheriting cellular heterogeneity throughout long-life primary tumor. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Reprogramming of CSCs using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) approach possibly benefits in identifying the CSCs-related oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and interactions between CSCs-related genes and the cancer microenvironment. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Mo Z, Du P, Wang G, Wang Y. The Multi-Purpose Tool of Tumor Immunotherapy: Gene-Engineered T Cells. (jcancer.org)
  • But, the multidimensional interaction of tumor, tumor associated antigen (TAA) and normal tissue exacerbates the uncontrolled outcome of T cells gene therapy. (jcancer.org)
  • As a multi-purpose tool of tumor immunotherapy, gene-engineered T cells (GE-T) have been given different functional weapons. (jcancer.org)
  • Moreover, more and more evidences indicated that the combination of the ACT and other therapies would further enhance the anti-tumor capacity of the GE-T. (jcancer.org)
  • Adoptive T cell therapy, Tumor immunotherapy, Gene-engineered T cell, Tumor associated antigen, Viral vectors and non-viral vectors. (jcancer.org)
  • CD19 is expressed on most B malignant cells malignancies, pro-B cells and mature B cells but not on other cell types, which restricts the "on target, off tumor" toxicity when efficient lymphodepletion chemotherapy is given [ 7 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Simultaneously, with the amazing achievements of immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical trials including lung cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, the trend of tumor immunotherapy is almost inevitable [ 9 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that women treated for ovarian cancer are at increased risk of a rapid and potentially fatal recurrence if their tumor cells have high levels of a binding protein that triggers abnormal growth and slows down cell death, both hallmarks of malignancy. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • These cells are responsible for tumor relapse, metastasis, and chemoresistance. (jci.org)
  • thus, CSCs are also known as tumor-initiating cells or tumor-propagating cells. (jci.org)
  • 5 Over the last several decades, the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors, T-cell depletion strategies, and immunomodulators has helped to prevent GVHD, but at a cost - with inhibition of the donor-specific immune response including the graft- versus -tumor/leukemia (GVL) effect. (haematologica.org)
  • 6 directly killing tumor cells through the Fas and perforin pathways, but also indirectly contributing to tumor lysis through the secretion of cytokines. (haematologica.org)
  • Moreover, as solid tumors have a propensity to particularly down-regulate MHC-I, NK cells provide a failsafe mechanism in these circumstances where cytotoxic T cells, which depend on MHC-I for tumor recognition and elimination, are debilitated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most NK cells in the peripheral blood and spleen are CD56 dim CD16 bright and are cytotoxic against a variety of tumor cells, whereas CD56 bright CD16 dim NK cells are immune regulatory in function and constitute the majority in secondary lymphoid tissues, producing abundant cytokines but exerting weak cytotoxicity compared to CD56 dim CD16 bright NK cells ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CSCs are present in the biological hierarchy of cancer and have the capacity of self-renewal, multi-lineage potency, and extensive proliferation, resulting in the presence of heterogeneous cells within a tumor. (springermedizin.de)
  • These findings add to the growing body of evidence showing the potential of this combination regimen across a number of tumor types and underscore the strategy behind our collaboration with Eisai. (biospace.com)
  • Consequently, a tandem approach was developed to separate myeloablation with maximal tumor cytoreduction achieved through high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous (auto)-SCT, and allo-SCT with a less myelosuppressive but highly immunosuppressive regimen to reduce treatment-related organ toxicities but allow sufficient engraftment and GvM effect. (haematologica.org)
  • SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B) encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. (diva-portal.org)
  • Copanlisib hydrochloride may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (cancer.gov)
  • Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. (cancer.gov)
  • Many scientists have studied stem cell and diabetes and hope can treat diabetes with stem cell therapy in the future. (amazonaws.com)
  • ENQUIRYIn order to confirm whether stem cell therapy is suitable for you and provide you better service, we need to know more details about your physical condition. (amazonaws.com)
  • Improvements can occur using stem cell therapy without the adverse side effects of traditional cancer treatments. (amazonaws.com)
  • For those who have tried traditional treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation, but are still experiencing cancer symptoms, or if those treatments are not an option, stem cell therapy is still available to you. (amazonaws.com)
  • With the advancement in Medical Researcher it is believed that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment methodology of human diseases. (amazonaws.com)
  • High-risk patients are typically those undergoing induction for acute myeloid leukemia or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and are generally treated as inpatients with intravenous antibiotic therapy. (ascopost.com)
  • Hepatitis B serologies should be obtained in all patients who will receive therapy with rituximab, given the risk of viral reactivation associated with chemoimmunotherapy. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The differentiation cannot only be done in vivo but also can be optimized in vitro prior to in vivo administration, potentiating the versatility of the MSCs and opening avenues for corrective therapy and cell delivery of genes. (hindawi.com)
  • KENILWORTH, N.J.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved KEYTRUDA, Merck's anti-PD-1 therapy, in combination with Inlyta (axitinib), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (businesswire.com)
  • This is the first indication for KEYTRUDA in advanced RCC, the most common type of kidney cancer, and the first anti-PD-1 therapy FDA-approved as part of a combination regimen that significantly improved OS, PFS, and ORR versus sunitinib in patients with advanced RCC. (businesswire.com)
  • One of these patients was treated with RTX at the same time as CHOP, while both used a maintenance therapy for about 1 year with RTX after transplantation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell therapy is defined as the administration of live cells to a patient with the aim of repairing or replacing damaged cells or tissues. (springer.com)
  • KENILWORTH, N.J.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-042 trial evaluating KEYTRUDA, Merck's anti-PD-1 therapy, as monotherapy for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, including nonsquamous or squamous histologies) met its primary endpoint of overall survival (OS). (biospace.com)
  • Cell therapy is a relatively new but rapidly growing area of research, and one where Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is taking a lead in initiating new clinical trials and developing innovative treatments for patients. (mskcc.org)
  • We are at a critical time when a number of cell therapies are starting to demonstrate some therapeutic benefits," says Isabelle Rivière , Director of Memorial Sloan Kettering's newly established Cell Therapy and Cell Engineering Facility (CTCEF). (mskcc.org)
  • The higher chemotherapy/radiation therapy dose that can be used because of hematopoietic stem cell support achieves a significantly higher cell kill of the disease. (nkch.org)
  • Because the outcomes using chemotherapy and HCT treatments have been changing over time, regular comparisons between these approaches should be performed to continually redefine optimal therapy for a given patient. (nkch.org)
  • Additional data from a separate cohort of the same Phase 1b trial evaluated vibostolimab as monotherapy (n=41) and in combination with KEYTRUDA (n=38) in patients with metastatic NSCLC whose disease progressed on prior anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy (Abstract #1400P). (merck.com)
  • 2) Adjuvant therapy also refers to a treatment that is given in addition to a standard treatment regimen to increase its effectiveness. (themmrf.org)
  • 9 While some diseases, such as hematologic neoplasms, cause neutropenia, it occurs most often as a result of the myelosuppression caused by antineoplastic chemotherapy, especially when such therapy is administered at doses designed to achieve maximum antitumor activity. (nih.gov)
  • A detailed summary of the published clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) and TCR-transduced T cells (TCR-T) was constructed to understand the development trend of adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). (jcancer.org)
  • The adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) is that T cells are genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) has obtained impressive results in treating multiple types of tumors, such as hematologic malignancies, sarcoma and melanoma, etc. (jcancer.org)
  • These results have greatly stimulated the enthusiasm for the exploration of adoptive cell therapy in tumors. (jcancer.org)
  • He is currently the PI of multiple gene therapy studies being conducted at LPCH, He specializes in translational research, clinical trial design and stem cell manipulations. (stanford.edu)
  • The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Following up with stem cell therapy and exome therapy immediately in the first 36 to 48 hours after stroke symptoms surface has proven to be crucial to long-term recovery and regaining mobility again. (euvolution.com)
  • Cell therapy also calms post-stroke inflammation in the body, and reduces risk of serious infections. (euvolution.com)
  • Stem cell and exosome therapy promotes healing from within to naturally stimulate hair follicles, which encourages new hair growth. (euvolution.com)
  • Regenerative medicine now offers treatment for MS with stem cell therapy, which is an exciting and rapidly developing field of therapy. (euvolution.com)
  • We discuss the contributions of each cell type to graft- versus -leukemia effects, as well as the current research directions in the field as related to adoptive cell therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • For clinical applications, pluripotent cells, including both embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, have been proposed for cell replacement therapy for a number of human diseases and disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, spinal cord injury and diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies are currently underway to determine the differences between GRO beta and G-CSF mobilized stem cells, the intracellular and extracellular events initiated by GRO beta -CXCR2 interaction that leads to migration of stem cells and how this is regulated, and how combination therapy with other cytokines, chemokines and their receptors can define new paradigms for stem cell transplantation. (iu.edu)
  • Gene-editing approaches have the potential to be game changing and really revolutionize the therapy," says Lloyd Klickstein of health care company Novartis, which is among the firms and universities exploring new sickle-cell treatments. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Although chemotherapy, including molecular targeting therapy, is a treatment option for patients with advanced liver cancer, its therapeutic effects are limited, resulting in poor overall survival. (springermedizin.de)
  • Presently the inclusion of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy (rituximab) along with chemotherapy, as well as in maintenance, has significantly improved the outcome for patients with FL. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This is the third Breakthrough Therapy designation for the KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA combination and is based on updated interim results from the Phase 1b trial KEYNOTE-524/Study 116. (businesswire.com)
  • The first two Breakthrough Therapy designations for the combination were in advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma and advanced and/or metastatic non-microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H)/proficient mismatch repair (pMMR) endometrial carcinoma, received in January 2018 and July 2018, respectively. (businesswire.com)
  • With this Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA, we look forward to working with Eisai to potentially build upon our existing indications for this difficult-to-treat cancer, so that we can help patients through a combination approach. (businesswire.com)
  • We are excited that the FDA has recognized the potential of KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA in combination in advanced unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma not amenable to locoregional treatment with this Breakthrough Therapy designation," said Dr. Takashi Owa, Vice President, Chief Medicine Creation and Chief Discovery Officer, Oncology Business Group at Eisai. (businesswire.com)
  • We routinely give patients prophylactic antivirals, antifungals, and antibiotics before they become neutropenic,' Gladstone continued, because febrile neutropenia is the most significant adverse effect encountered with HDC therapy. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Thus, these results indicate that JCTH-4 in combination with TAM could be used as a safe and very potent anti-cancer therapy against breast cancer and neuroblastoma cells. (jove.com)
  • We designed an experimental protocol of ischemia/reperfusion in order to allow the observation of cellular connections and even subcellular mechanisms during ischemia/reperfusion injury and after stem cell transplantation and to evaluate the efficacy of cell therapy. (jove.com)
  • Drugs used in leukaemia therapy to prevent cell division by disrupting the structure of DNA. (leukaemia.org.au)
  • The approval was based on pooled data from KEYNOTE-158 (cohort G) and KEYNOTE-028 (cohort C1), two multicenter, multi-cohort, non-randomized, open-label trials evaluating KEYTRUDA in patients with SCLC who had disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy and at least one other prior line of therapy. (digitalmedianet.com)
  • To find the in-vitro sensitivity data and clinical response in order to determine the changes required in empiric antibiotic therapy for management of febrile neutropenia in paediatric patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (internetpdfarticles.com)
  • Out of 28, 26 (92%) responded to Imipenem/Amikacin as second line therapy while those who received any other second line combination, only 11 out of 22 (50%) showed response. (internetpdfarticles.com)
  • Empirical treatment, i.e. broad-spectrum antimicrobial received peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for various therapy without waiting for microbiological and/or clinical malignant and non-malignant disorders, institutional antibiotic documentation of an infection, is justified in patients with fever policy was revised according to in-vitro sensitivity data and and neutropenia (febrile neutropenia, FN). (internetpdfarticles.com)
  • When chemotherapy is initiated, the nucleoside analogue fludarabine is the most commonly used first-line therapy in CLL. (medscape.com)
  • cell function is of great significance in managing patients with type 1 diabetes. (amazonaws.com)
  • V. Determine whether the sequencing of this chemotherapy regimen is appropriate and optimal in these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Given that the gastrointestional tract is frequently involved by disease, patients may present at the time of screening colonoscopy with diffuse, small polyps (lymphomatoid polyposis) in the bowel. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Staging is used but is not very informative, since the malignant B-cells can travel freely though the lymphatic system and therefore most patients are at stage III or IV at diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This understanding is crucial given the dismal outcomes of patients with relapsed or refractory lymphomas. (springer.com)
  • Referral to a hospital with expertise in treating such aggressive lymphomas should be considered, given the rarity and unique management of these patients. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • 2 It was FDA-approved in July 2009 in combination with IFN-A for patients with metastatic RCC. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Patients with PTCL seem to be endogenously immunosuppressed, even before the initiation of chemotherapy, and some patients can present with varicella zoster or opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jirovecii. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • To further confuse matters, clonal T cell populations (as well as clonal B cell populations) are sometimes present in the lymph nodes or the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatologic or infectious conditions. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Otherwise healthy patients over the age of 60 can also sometimes have benign clonal T cell populations in the peripheral blood, which can lead to a misdiagnosis of PTCL. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • This systematic review aimed to compile and compare clinical studies using these [fungal] beta glucans as adjuvants on patients undergoing cancer treatment. (betaglucan.org)
  • A donor transplantation may be recommended for younger patients if a donor can be identified. (leukemiabmtprogram.com)
  • In combination with dexamethasone, more than 50% of patients respond. (leukemiabmtprogram.com)
  • This represents a new treatment option for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, who will now have access to KEYTRUDA as part of a first-line combination regimen," said Dr. Scot Ebbinghaus, vice president, clinical research, Merck Research Laboratories. (businesswire.com)
  • Today's approval reflects Merck's commitment to patients with cancer and further supports the use of KEYTRUDA to help improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (businesswire.com)
  • Given the aggressive nature of the disease, many patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma need additional treatment options that can help improve survival outcomes," said Dr. Brian Rini, medical oncologist at Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center and professor of medicine at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University. (businesswire.com)
  • Pembrolizumab in combination with axitinib offers an important new therapeutic option for physicians to consider when approaching initial treatment for patients newly diagnosed with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (businesswire.com)
  • NMSCs developed in these patients were found to be more aggressive and at risk of recurrence after Mohs microsurgery with respect to the general population, due to the impairment of the immune system during the hematologic disease and chemotherapy [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At present, patients prefer a drug treatment for BCC like imiquimod as this ensures a wider action on the field of cancerization through to the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and stimulation of T helper 1 (Th 1 ) antitumoral cellular immune response [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KEYNOTE-042 is an international, randomized, open-label Phase 3 study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02220894) investigating KEYTRUDA monotherapy compared to standard of care platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic PD-L1 positive (TPS ≥1%) NSCLC. (biospace.com)
  • 4 , 5 ] For this reason, when treatment is indicated, systemic treatment must be considered for all patients with symptomatic plasma cell neoplasms. (cigna.com)
  • Intensively treat malignant cells in patients with cancer. (nkch.org)
  • Many patients have elevated serum beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) at diagnosis. (bloodhelpers.com)
  • Various blood cell chromosomal abnormalities have been observed in WM patients. (bloodhelpers.com)
  • Given the heterogeneity in behavior of the disease, a number of prognostic factors have been developed to help risk-stratify patients. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • In Part B of the first-in-human, open-label, Phase 1 trial ( NCT02964013 ) all patients received vibostolimab (200 or 210 mg) in combination with KEYTRUDA (200 mg) on Day 1 of each three-week cycle for up to 35 cycles. (merck.com)
  • Across all patients enrolled, treatment with vibostolimab in combination with KEYTRUDA demonstrated an ORR of 29% (95% CI, 16-46) and median PFS was 5.4 months (95% CI, 2.1-8.2). (merck.com)
  • In the study, patients received vibostolimab monotherapy (200 or 210 mg) or vibostolimab (200 or 210 mg) in combination with KEYTRUDA (200 mg) on Day 1 of each three-week cycle for up to 35 cycles. (merck.com)
  • Survival time for patients with sickle cell anemia after the diagnosis of sickle renal failure, despite dialysis, was 4 years, and the median age at the time of death was 27 years. (symptoma.com)
  • Abstract Patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) can experience recurrent vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs), which are associated with severe pain . (symptoma.com)
  • The CAR-T immunotherapy has induced high remission rates of patients with refractory CD19 + B-cell hematologic malignancies. (jcancer.org)
  • Identification of appropriate marrow donors (within or outside of the family) and the increasing use of autologous stem cells with or without purging have made this treatment approach available to more and more patients. (stanford.edu)
  • Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue to improve performance and sensation. (euvolution.com)
  • Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to reduce inflammation, promote natural healing and regenerate healthy tissue surrounding the joint for relief. (euvolution.com)
  • 1 However, infection, 2 graft- versus -host disease (GVHD), 3 and relapse 4 are still the most challenging sequelae to address to improve the outcomes of all patients after allogeneic transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • As NK cells in cancer patients are highly dysfunctional and reduced in number, adoptive transfer of large numbers of cytolytic NK cells and their potential to induce relevant antitumor responses are widely explored in cancer immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • With this ability, they have been used to replace defective cells/tissues in patients who have certain diseases or defects. (slideshare.net)
  • When diagnosed at an early stage, patients generally undergo surgical resection or liver transplantation according to their hepatic reserve. (springermedizin.de)
  • Starting on day 10, we give all patients granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to decrease the time to absolute neutropenia. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • This study was designed to determine the functional capacity of the immune system in adult patients with AML who have completed chemotherapy and are potential candidates for immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used the response to seasonal influenza vaccination as a surrogate for the robustness of the immune system in 10 AML patients in a complete remission post-chemotherapy and performed genetic, phenotypic, and functional characterization of adaptive immune cell subsets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only 2 patients generated protective titers in response to vaccination, and a majority of patients had abnormal frequencies of transitional and memory B-cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B-cell receptor sequencing showed a B-cell repertoire with little evidence of somatic hypermutation in most patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effector T-cells had increased PD-1 expression in AML patients least removed from chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The observed B-cell abnormalities may explain the poor response to vaccination often seen in AML patients after chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though immunotherapeutic strategies to maintain remission after patients receive intensive chemotherapy are logical and being tested in clinical trials [ 6 ], there is an incomplete description of the state of the adaptive immune system in AML patients who have completed chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet, the functional capacity of the immune system in AML patients after the completion of intensive chemotherapy is largely unknown, and this has important implications for the success of any subsequent immunotherapy intended to prevent relapse, especially cancer vaccination and immune checkpoint blockade meant to augment endogenous cellular-mediated anti-leukemic responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KEYTRUDA is already an established treatment option for non-small cell lung cancer, and today's approval in small cell lung cancer demonstrates our commitment to bringing forward new treatment options for patients with advanced, difficult-to-treat cancers," said Dr. Jonathan Cheng, vice president, oncology clinical research, Merck Research Laboratories. (digitalmedianet.com)
  • The approval of KEYTRUDA in small cell lung cancer provides an additional treatment option for patients based on the clinical response rates from KEYNOTE-158 and KEYNOTE-028. (digitalmedianet.com)
  • 4 Although in general allo-SCT is not routinely conducted in patients with MM, over the last decades the number of transplantations has increased. (haematologica.org)
  • Note: mast cell (MC)-induced hyperpermeability in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and villlus epithelium (VE) of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). (betaglucan.org)
  • We have shown that supplementation with a mixture of beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes reduces bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain, improving the overall clinical condition of IBD-IBS patients. (betaglucan.org)
  • negative antibiotic coverage in FN patients can result in high Congenital disorders like beta-thalassaemia major and mortality. (internetpdfarticles.com)
  • Antibiotic sensitivity in febrile neutropenia in paediatric patients undergoing stem cell transplantation May 2004. (internetpdfarticles.com)
  • Patients with CLL have a higher-than-normal white blood cell count, which is determined by complete blood count (CBC). (medscape.com)
  • Patients with early-stage CLL are not treated with chemotherapy until they become symptomatic or display evidence of rapid progression of disease. (medscape.com)
  • Public cord blood banks store umbilical cord blood to provide HLA-matched cells for patients. (docplayer.net)
  • Patients typically present with a progressive syndrome including various combinations of cognitive impairment, movement disorders, ataxia and upper motor neuron signs. (bmj.com)
  • The use of embryonic and adult-derived stem cells for cardiac repair is an active area of research. (amazonaws.com)
  • His additional current leadership positions include being the Chief of the Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Program Director of the Adult & Pediatric BMT Program, Director of the Childhood and Adolescent Cancer and Blood Disease Center, Medical and Scientific Director of the GMP Cellular and Tissue Engineering Laboratory at Westchester Medical Center (WMC), Medical Director of the WMC Hematotherapy Program and Co-Chair of the WMC Cancer Committee. (springer.com)
  • In the adult, the bones of the hands, feet, legs and arms do not contain marrow in which blood cells are made. (iwmf.com)
  • Breast tumors may originate from the transformation of normal adult tissue stem cells or from more differentiated progenitors that have acquired self-renewal capabilities (left panel). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 103 ) identified adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV). (asm.org)
  • In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. (slideshare.net)
  • Presented here are some of the basic research investigations that are being guided by adult and embryonic stem cell discoveries. (nih.gov)
  • Sickle cell disease (sickle cell anemia, drepanocytosis ) is an autosomal recessive blood disorder , characterized by sickle-shaped erythrocytes. (symptoma.com)
  • Chronic anemia is present in all individuals with sickle cell disease . (symptoma.com)
  • How is sickle cell disease diagnosed? (symptoma.com)
  • People who have sickle cell disease may also have trouble coping with pain and fatigue , as well as with frequent medical visits and hospitalizations. (symptoma.com)
  • Both her parents unknowingly passed her a copy of the genetic mutation for sickle-cell disease, a debilitating and sometimes fatal blood disorder. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thalassemia major and sickle cell disease are the two most widely disseminated hereditary hemoglobinopathies in the world. (haematologica.org)
  • Thalassemia major (TM) originated in Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and Asian regions, and sickle cell disease (SCD) originated from throughout central Africa. (haematologica.org)
  • This orchestration of host response can be applied to a variety of clinical scenarios not only through cell-cell interactions but also through production of bioactive secreted factors. (hindawi.com)
  • This review will give insight into the research and clinical trials that are being done to determine the efficiency of stem cells in a host of different environments, as well as new avenues for patient care. (hindawi.com)
  • Merck has an extensive clinical development program in lung cancer and is advancing multiple registration-enabling studies with KEYTRUDA in combination with other treatments and as monotherapy. (biospace.com)
  • Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical course, and risk factors associated with the onset of chronic renal failure in sickle cell anemia and sickle C disease. (symptoma.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis: is it a clinical reality? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, enhancing the yield and purity of hematopoietic stem cells during isolation along with the utility of appropriate conditioning agents has provided a clearer foundation for clinical translation studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T cells and natural killer cells are both thought to be important in the graft- versus -leukemia effect, and both cell types are amenable to ex vivo manipulation and clinical manufacture, making them versatile immunotherapeutics. (haematologica.org)
  • 9 From a therapeutic perspective, both cell types are amenable to ex vivo manipulation and clinical manufacture, thus making them versatile immunotherapeutics. (haematologica.org)
  • Early studies from autologous NK cells have failed to demonstrate significant clinical benefit. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review aims to summarize the latest developments in the clinical translation of adoptive transfer of NK cells in the oncology field. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are pleased to share the activity observed in clinical studies of the LENVIMA plus KEYTRUDA combination, as well as rationale for the combination in advanced endometrial carcinoma through translational research. (biospace.com)
  • Stem cell transplantation protocols are finding their way into clinical practice 1,2,3 . (jove.com)
  • We look forward to continuing to advance important clinical research in small cell lung cancer. (digitalmedianet.com)
  • Small cell lung cancer, which accounts for 10 to 15% of all lung cancers, is often diagnosed at an advanced stage where the prognosis is very poor and there have historically been limited treatment options," said Dr. Patrick Ott, MD, PhD, clinical director, Center for Immuno-Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. (digitalmedianet.com)
  • In the era before the introduction of immunomodulatory drugs (IMID) and proteasome inhibitors (PI), several clinical trials were performed to analyze the combination of auto-and subsequent reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allo-SCT in the first-line treatment. (haematologica.org)
  • 8 Winkelmann et al also defined pre-Sèzary syndrome as the clinical findings of SS with circulating Sèzary cells of less than 1,000 cells/mm. 9 Defining how best to quantitate SS cells and to define the number required for a diagnosis of SS has been the subject of controversy over the past 15 years. (ispub.com)
  • In people who suffer from type 1 diabetes, the cells of the pancreas that normally produce insulin are destroyed by the patient's own immune system. (amazonaws.com)
  • Preclinical studies demonstrated that ruxolitinib suppresses several aspects of the immune response, including reducing T-cell proliferation and inhibiting cytokine production. (hoparx.org)
  • Furthermore, the immune system, both adaptive and innate, encompassing mesenchymal-derived cells, has been shown to take part to the leukemic niche. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of the trials pointed that concomitant administration of B-glucan with chemo or radiotherapy reduced the immune depression caused by such treatments and/or accelerated the recovery of white blood cells counts. (betaglucan.org)
  • It uses high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes radiation to "turn off" a patient's immune system so that the donor cells are not rejected. (lls.org)
  • Normally, as part of the immune system, plasma cells produce antibodies that help fight against disease and keep us healthy. (canada.com)
  • This causes an impaired immune system and a decrease in the number of red blood cells. (canada.com)
  • Rearrangement of Antigen Receptor Genes Is Defective in Mice with Severe Combined Immune Deficiency", Cell 46:963-972 (1986). (patentgenius.com)
  • These include the red blood cells that carry oxygen, the white blood cells that develop into immune system cells, and platelets, which cause blood to clot. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Normal plasma cells are a part of the immune system that produces antibodies to help fight against infections and keep us healthy. (shoppersdrugmart.ca)
  • Type of passive immunotherapy (treatment that is prepared outside the body) that involves the transfer of immune cells to a patient. (themmrf.org)
  • Like shoppers in search of the perfect pair of jeans, the body's special immune system cells apparently have assistants that help them rapidly "try on" different pieces of a microbe to find one piece that's shaped just right to fit their cellular skins, Johns Hopkins scientists report. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Sildenafil and other "impotence drugs" that boost the production of a gassy chemical messenger to dilate blood vessels and produce an erection now also show promise in unmasking cancer cells so that the immune system can recognize and attack them, say scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • meaning, that for people with lupus, their immune system attacks their healthy cells and tissues and not just foreign bodies/invaders (NIH, 2014). (livehopelupus.org)
  • T cells (right) and NK cells (left) are among the principal cellular effectors of the adaptive and innate immune responses, respectively. (haematologica.org)
  • T cells, along with B cells, comprise the major cellular components of the adaptive immune system ( Figure 1 ). (haematologica.org)
  • Following recognition, T cells either directly lyse their targets by secreting powerful perforins and granzymes, or orchestrate a more potent immune response by secreting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (haematologica.org)
  • Plasma cells are an important part of the immune system. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are critical immune effector cells in the fight against cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Certainly in the prevention of metastases through the elimination of circulating cancer stem cells with a high metastatic potential, NK cells are recognized as main immune effector cells ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the more perplexing questions in biomedical research is-why does the body's protective shield against infections, the immune system, attack its own vital cells, organs, and tissues? (nih.gov)
  • When some of the body's cellular proteins are recognized as "foreign" by immune cells called T lymphocytes, a destructive cascade of inflammation is set in place. (nih.gov)
  • Research on stem cells is now providing new approaches to strategically remove the misguided immune cells and restore normal immune cells to the body. (nih.gov)
  • To succeed, an immune system must distinguish the many cellular components of its own body (self) from the cells or components of invading organisms (nonself). (nih.gov)
  • However, if the immune system fails to recognize self cells or components and mistakenly attacks them, the result is known as an autoimmune disease. (nih.gov)
  • When a healthy individual is infected, the body responds by activating a variety of immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • This complex, formed by a foreign protein and an MHC protein, then binds to a T cell receptor on the surface of another type of immune cell, the CD4 helper T cell. (nih.gov)
  • This complex enables these T cells to focus the immune response to a specific invading organism. (nih.gov)
  • The antigen-specific CD4 helper T cells divide and multiply while secreting substances called cytokines, which cause inflammation and help activate other immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • It is the memory cells that cause us to become "immune" from later reinfections with the same organism. (nih.gov)
  • How Do the Immune Cells of the Body Know What to Attack and What Not To? (nih.gov)
  • Raa J, "Immune modulation b non-digestible and non-absorbable beta-1,3/1,6-glucan," Micro Edo in Heal & Disease, Vol 26:1, Issue s3, DOI: 103402/mehd.v25.27824, May 29 2015. (betaglucan.org)
  • Create a population of immune-tolerized babies by in utero vaccination to a optimized universal stem cell line. (docplayer.net)
  • The gammadelta references the T-cell receptor subunits that are expressed on the T-cell surface. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (RET). (uspharmacist.com)
  • Editing aimed to disrupt expression of the human immunodeficiency virus co-receptor gene CCR5 , with the goal of yielding cells resistant to viral entry, prior to re-infusion into the patient. (springer.com)
  • There was no epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification detected in the renal cell carcinoma samples studied, indicating the increased epidermal growth factor gene expression observed in renal cell carcinoma does not occur through gene amplification. (statescale.ga)
  • The NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D (CD314) recognizes MHC class-I-chain related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB) and ULBPs ( 1 - 6 ), while DNAM-1 binds to CD112 (Nectin-2) and CD155 (poliovirus receptor) ( 5 ) on stressed, infected, and cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • We reasoned that the potential for OPN to affect stem cell function in the niche was great given its abundance in the proper geographic location, its receptor expression on stem cells, and the evidence for it affecting processes in other cells that might be relevant for stem cell physiology. (rupress.org)
  • KEYTRUDA is a foundational treatment for NSCLC and has consistently demonstrated a survival benefit as monotherapy, or in combination with chemotherapy, in the treatment of metastatic lung cancer. (biospace.com)
  • Aberrant activation of a latent embryonic program - known as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) - can endow cancer cells with the migratory and invasive capabilities associated with metastatic competence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins produced by certain white blood cells in response to a foreign substance (antigen). (iwmf.com)
  • On Day 0 the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matched or mismatched Hematopoietic Stem Cells from either the related or unrelated donor will be infused. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each B-cell carries a specific antibody that recognizes a specific foreign substance called an antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When a B-cell encounters its antigen, it begins to divide rapidly to form mature plasma cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The malignant cells will typically express B cell-associated antigens (CD19, CD23, and dim CD20), low-level surface immunoglobulin (Ig) (K or L), and the T cell-associated antigen, CD5. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Conversely, frequencies of T-cell populations were similar to those seen in healthy controls, and cytotoxic T-cells demonstrated antigen-specific activity after vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Initially, invading bacteria or viruses are engulfed by an antigen presenting cell (APC), and their component proteins (antigens) are cut into pieces and displayed on the cell's surface. (nih.gov)
  • The helper T cells can also activate antigen-specific B cells to produce antibodies, which can neutralize and help eliminate bacteria and viruses from the body. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the antigen-specific T and B cells that are activated to rid the body of infectious organisms become long-lived "memory" cells. (nih.gov)
  • and activating killer cell-immunoglobulin like receptors (KIRs) contribute to NK cell activation, triggering the release of cytotoxic granules and proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNγ) from NK cells to lyse cancer cells ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Polamine contents of human breast cancer cells treated with the cytotoxic agents chlorpheniramine and dehydrodidemnin B," Cancer Letters, vol. 113, Nos. (patentgenius.com)
  • Our results suggest that while some aspects of cellular immunity recover quickly, humoral immunity is incompletely reconstituted in the year following intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy for AML. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The particular cytokines secreted by the CD4 helper T cells act on cells known as the CD8 "cytotoxic" T cells (because they can kill the cells that are infected by the invading organism and have the CD8 protein on their surface). (nih.gov)
  • The blastoid variant contains lager malignant cells, resembling lymphoblasts, and the pleomorphic variant is typified by small to intermediate cells with admixed large, atypical cells. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • In these cases, the malignant cells may harbor chromosomal abnormalities seen in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), such as deletion 13q and deletion 17p, in addition to the typical t(11;14) found in MCL. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Future studies will concentrate on control and prevention of graft-versus-host disease, ablation of malignant cells, and gene-transfer utilizing marrow stem cells as the vector. (stanford.edu)
  • Three primary signaling pathways associated with RTKs are currently identified in cancer cells. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Bendamustine damages the DNA in cancer cells and cause them to die. (iwmf.com)
  • These cells are the specific targets of imiquimod to promote skin cancer cells apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lung cancer, which forms in the tissues of the lungs, usually within cells lining the air passages, is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. (biospace.com)
  • The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell and small cell. (biospace.com)
  • When people think of treatments for cancer they likely think first of drugs, both traditional chemotherapy and, more recently, targeted drugs. (mskcc.org)
  • These blood vessels provide oxygen and nutrients to the cancer cells. (canada.com)
  • In the present review, we consider the current evidence connecting EMT and stem cell attributes and discuss the ramifications of these newly recognized links for our understanding of the emergence of distinct breast cancer subtypes and breast cancer progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review will be focusing on BMP-2 signaling in modulating normal cells, human diseases, and cancer progression and suppression. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Scientists from Johns Hopkins and from the University of Milan have effectively proven that they can inhibit lethal human brain cancers in mice using a protein that selectively induces positive changes in the activity of cells that behave like cancer stem cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The ability of NK cells to discriminate between a cancer cell and a healthy cell is regulated by a balance between its activating and inhibitory receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vitro activity of aplidine, a new marine-derived anti-cancer compound, on freshly explanted clonogenic human tumour cells and haematopoietic-precursor cells," British Journal of Cancer, vol. 78, No. 6, 739-744, 1998. (patentgenius.com)
  • Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 1983. (patentgenius.com)
  • LENVIMA and KEYTRUDA are not approved for use in combination in any cancer types today. (biospace.com)
  • The KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA combination is not approved in any cancer types today. (businesswire.com)
  • We have reported selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by the natural compound pancratistatin (PST). (jove.com)
  • Recently, a novel PST analogue, a C-1 acetoxymethyl derivative of 7-deoxypancratistatin (JCTH-4), was produced by de novo synthesis and it exhibits comparable selective apoptosis inducing activity in several cancer cell lines. (jove.com)
  • In this study, the efficacy of JCTH-4 alone and in combination with TAM to induce cell death in human breast cancer (MCF7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was evaluated. (jove.com)
  • We have demonstrated these compounds to induce apoptosis/autophagy by mitochondrial targeting in these cancer cells. (jove.com)
  • Anti-cancer drugs that interact with genetic material (DNA) in such a way as to prevent division of the cells. (leukaemia.org.au)
  • A group of anti-cancer drugs that prevent cells growing and dividing by blocking the chemical reactions required in the cell to produce DNA. (leukaemia.org.au)
  • Memorial Sloan Kettering's efforts to develop cell-based treatments have been largely initiated by Michel Sadelain , who directs the Gene Transfer and Gene Expression Laboratory and the Center for Cell Engineering (CCE). (mskcc.org)
  • At the same time, with the application of gene editing techniques, more endogenous receptors are disrupted while more exogenous receptors are expressed on T cells. (jcancer.org)
  • By rearranging gene segments during T-cell development, a large number of T cells with different T-cell receptors (TCR) are made that can potentially recognize an unlimited number of peptides in the context of MHC molecules. (haematologica.org)
  • While gene regulatory networks that enhance our knowledge of pluripotency will help our understanding of stem cell biology, there are additional implications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, beta-catenin can partner with Lef-1/Tcf high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factors to control gene expression. (jove.com)
  • With a double dose of the mutant gene, Ceniya's body produces a defective kind of hemoglobin-the molecule in red blood cells that takes oxygen from the lungs and releases it into tissues throughout the body. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Although individuals who carry a single sickle-cell gene actually can acquire malaria, they are less likely to die from the parasitic infection than those who do not have the mutation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • OPN (also known as early T cell activation gene-1, or eta-1 ), is a secreted, highly acidic glycoprotein with pleiotropic effects ( 5 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • 8 Given the role of cytokines in the activation and proliferation of T cells, inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway has been heavily investigated as a potential treatment option for acute GVHD. (hoparx.org)
  • Survivin modulates genes with divergent functions and regulates proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells through Evi-1. (iu.edu)
  • In addition to being produced by cells of osteoblastic lineage, OPN has been shown to play important roles in chemotaxis, adhesion, and proliferation, all of which allow it to mediate inflammation and immunity to infectious diseases ( 16 - 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • In general, HCT typically offers benefit only to children at high risk of relapse with standard chemotherapy approaches. (nkch.org)
  • MCL cells may also be resistant to drug-induced apoptosis, making them harder to cure with chemotherapy or radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAM alone induced autophagy, but insignificant cell death whereas JCTH-4 alone caused significant induction of apoptosis with some induction of autophagy. (jove.com)
  • We monitored time-dependent morphological changes in MCF7 cells undergoing TAM-induced autophagy, JCTH-4-induced apoptosis and autophagy, and accelerated cell death with combinatorial treatment using time-lapse microscopy. (jove.com)
  • The OPN-null microenvironment was sufficient to increase the number of stem cells associated with increased stromal Jagged1 and Angiopoietin-1 expression and reduced primitive hematopoietic cell apoptosis. (rupress.org)
  • Often caused by low-grade plasma cell dyscrasias, the immunoglobulin light chains deposit as fibrils in multiple tissues, including the heart in about half of the cases [1, (oatext.com)
  • Alkylating agents cause side effects because they also interfere with cell division in certain healthy tissues where cell division is frequent, such as the gastrointestinal tract. (lls.org)
  • Only cells from an earlier stage of the embryo, known as the morula, are totipotent, able to become all tissues in the body and the extraembryonic placenta. (slideshare.net)
  • The flawed hemoglobin molecules can deform the normally round blood cells into a crescent, or sickle, shape, leading the cells to clump together and hinder oxygen's passage into tissues. (scientificamerican.com)
  • HSTCL is usually comprised of a clonal expansion of a T-cell subset called gammadelta T-cells. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The presence of a clonal T cell population does not always establish a diagnosis of PTCL, as clonal T cell populations can be found in infectious or rheumatologic conditions. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)