Gingivectomy: Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gingival Hypertrophy: Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Gingival Hyperplasia: Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)IndiaGingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Piezosurgery: The use of HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVES, in the frequency range of 20-30 kHz, to cut through mineralized tissue.Subgingival Curettage: Removal of degenerated and necrotic epithelium and underlying connective tissue of a periodontal pocket in an effort to convert a chronic ulcerated wound to an acute surgical wound, thereby insuring wound healing and attachment or epithelial adhesion, and shrinkage of the marginal gingiva. The term is sometimes used in connection with smoothing of a root surface or ROOT PLANING. (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.ItalyHistory of NursingPlant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Costa RicaRobotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Denturists: Individuals who fabricate and fit DENTURES without the supervision of DENTISTS. (from Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 27th ed) They may or may not have formal education in health sciences, but are well versed in the art of constructing dentures.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Lab-On-A-Chip Devices: Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.

Infiltrated lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 causes more postoperative pain than lidocaine 2% after oral soft tissue surgery. (1/23)

A controlled, randomized, double-blind, within-patient, crossover study was made with 50 patients (28 women and 22 men) of mean age 47 years (range, 32-69 years) who were subjected to identical bilateral gingivectomies. On one occasion, lidocaine 2% was infiltrated as the local anesthetic. On the other occasion, lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 was given. Postoperative pain intensity was recorded by the patients on a 100-mm visual analogue scale every hour during an 11-hour observation period. The mean pain intensity was numerically higher after lidocaine 2% at 0 hours and 1 hour postoperatively. Then the mean pain intensity after lidocaine 2% was lower than that after lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 throughout the remaining observation period. The difference in pain intensity was statistically significant (P < .05) at 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 hours after surgery. Mean sum (SEM) pain intensity over the 11-hour observation period was lower (P = .03) after lidocaine 2%, 66.5 (13.4) mm than after lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000, 92.6 (15.4) mm. The study shows that high epinephrine concentration (1:80,000) increases the postoperative pain after dental soft tissue surgery with mild pain.  (+info)

A dose-response study of adrenaline combined with lignocaine 2%: effect on acute postoperative pain after oral soft tissue surgery. (2/23)

AIMS: The combination of lignocaine and adrenaline may cause more postoperative pain than other types of local anaesthetic agents with comparable clinical efficacy. This study investigates the dose-response effect of adrenaline added to lignocaine on postoperative pain, when used as local anaesthetic for oral soft tissue surgery. METHODS: A controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study included 195 patients (108 females/87 males) with mean age 49 years (range 26-75 years). The patients were allocated to one of three treatment groups receiving lignocaine 2% (n = 66), lignocaine 2% with adrenaline 1 : 160 000 (n = 63) or lignocaine 2% with adrenaline 1 : 80 000 (n = 66). RESULTS: Lignocaine 2% with adrenaline 1 : 80 000 gave significantly more pain intensity than lignocaine 2% or lignocaine 2% with adrenaline 1 : 160 000. The postoperative pain intensity courses after lignocaine 2% and lignocaine 2% with adrenaline 1 : 160 000 showed a similar pattern except for the time period just after completion of surgery when lignocaine 2% with adrenaline 1 : 80 000 caused less pain. CONCLUSIONS: High adrenaline concentrations (1 : 80 000) combined with lignocaine local anaesthetic solution offers no advantage with respect to pain alleviation during the immediate postoperative pain period. High exogenous adrenaline concentrations may play a significant role in enhancing acute postoperative intensity.  (+info)

Treatment and long-term follow-up of a patient with hereditary gingival fibromatosis: a case report. (3/23)

This report addresses the complex nature of oral diagnosis, treatment and long-term case management in the hereditary form of recurrent gingival fibromatosis. Case management is discussed in relation to a 13-year-old girl who presented with recurrent, progressive gingival enlargement requiring consecutive periodontal and orthodontic treatment. The initial course of treatment included 4-quadrant gingivectomy with reverse bevel incisions, followed by orthodontics. Microscopic examination of the gingivectomy specimens supported the clinical diagnosis. Three years later, recurrence of the condition was observed in all quadrants. To facilitate orthodontic tooth movement and to achieve optimal esthetics, another full-mouth gingivectomy was performed. There was no recurrence of the condition a year later. It is recommended that patients with this condition be monitored closely after gingivectomy, so that the treatment requirements of localized areas can be addressed as needed.  (+info)

Gingival prostheses--a review. (4/23)

Gingival replacement is often a component of comprehensive prosthodontics. Gingival prostheses may be fixed or removable and may be made from acrylics, composite resins, silicones or porcelain-based materials. Undercuts or dental attachments are used to secure removable prostheses, which are esthetically pleasing and easy to maintain. This paper describes several clinical situations in which gingival prostheses were used effectively.  (+info)

Idiopathic gingival hyperplasia and orthodontic treatment: a case report. (5/23)

There are many reasons for gingival hyperplasia. Mostly, proper oral hygiene is sufficient to achieve normal healthy gingiva. In some situations, however, gingival hyperplasia is drug-induced or can be a manifestation of a genetic disorder. In the latter, it may exist as an isolated abnormality or as part of a syndrome. If orthodontic treatment is needed in patients with gingival hyperplasia, both orthodontic and periodontal aspects need to be considered. Extreme hereditary gingival fibromatosis was periodontally treated, by removal of all gingival excess using flaps and gingivectomies. After a follow-up period, the orthodontic treatment started with fixed appliances. Monthly periodontal check-ups (scaling and polishing) were scheduled to control the gingival inflammation. After the orthodontic treatment, permanent retention was applied, once more followed by a complete gingivectomy in both maxilla and mandible. One of the most important keys to successful treatment of hyperplasia patients is the cooperation between the periodontist and the orthodontist.  (+info)

Removal of hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity. A retrospective study of 128 cases. (6/23)

AIMS: Based on our accumulated experience, the present study evaluates and discusses the indications, advantages and inconveniences of oral cavity epulis resection using the carbon dioxide laser (CO2) versus the Erbium:YAG laser (Er:YAG), diode laser and surgical scalpel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study has been made of 120 patients involving the removal of 128 epulis lesions with the CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser, diode laser and surgical scalpel. Postoperative controls were carried out after 7, 15 and 30 days to evaluate healing and wound evolution, and after 3, 6 and 12 months to assess possible relapse. RESULTS: Two groups were defined, based on the clinical and etiopathogenic characteristics of the excised lesions: gingival hyperplastic lesions (77 cases) and fibromatous hyperplasia (51 cases). The lower jaw was the most frequent location of gingival hyperplasia (51.9%). Fibrous hyperplasia was the most common histological diagnosis (49 cases; 63.6%). Percentage relapse following removal was 9.1%, of which 5 cases corresponded to fibrous hyperplasia. Only one malignancy was identified, corresponding to infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma. On the other hand, of the 51 treated cases of fibromatous hyperplasia, 58.8% were located in the upper jaw. These were histologically confirmed to be fibrous hyperplasia, with relapse in 19.6% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although the different surgical techniques used for removal of epulis of the oral cavity are appropriate, we consider the CO2 laser to be the treatment of choice, since it offers a number of both intra- and postoperative advantages. On the other hand, all oral lesions require histological study to establish a firm diagnosis.  (+info)

Analysis of proliferative activity in oral gingival epithelium in immunosuppressive medication induced gingival overgrowth. (7/23)

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a frequent adverse effect associated principally with administration of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A and also certain antiepileptic and antihypertensive drugs. It is characterized by a marked increase in the thickness of the epithelial layer and accumulation of excessive amounts of connective tissue. The mechanism by which the drugs cause gingival overgrowth is not yet understood. The purpose of this study was to compare proliferative activity of normal human gingiva and in cyclosporine A-induced gingival overgrowth. METHODS: Gingival samples were collected from 12 generally healthy individuals and 22 Cyclosporin A-medicated renal transplant recipients. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gingival samples using an immunoperoxidase technique and a monoclonal antibody for this antigen. RESULTS: There were differences between the Cyclosporin A group and control group in regard to proliferating cell nuclear antigen and epithelial thickness. In addition, the degree of stromal inflammation was higher in the Cyclosporin A group when compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the increased epithelial thickness observed in Cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth is associated with increased proliferative activity in keratinocytes.  (+info)

Anesthetic management of a patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome undergoing oral surgery. (8/23)

This case involves a possible complication of excessive bleeding or rupture of hemangiomas. Problems and anesthetic management of the patient are discussed. A 35-year-old man with Sturge-Weber syndrome was to undergo teeth extraction and gingivectomy. Hemangiomas covered his face and the inside of the oral cavity. We used intravenous conscious sedation with propofol and N2O-O2 to reduce the patient's emotional stress. It was previously determined that stress caused marked expansion of this patient's hemangiomas. Periodontal ligament injection was chosen as the local anesthesia technique. Teeth were extracted without excessive bleeding or rupture of hemangiomas, but the planned gingivectomies were cancelled. Deep sedation requiring airway manipulation should be avoided because there are possible difficulties in airway maintenance. Because this was an outpatient procedure, propofol was selected as the sedative agent primarily because of its rapid onset and equally rapid recovery. Periodontal ligament injection with 2% lidocaine containing 1: 80,000 epinephrine was chosen for local anesthesia. Gingivectomy was cancelled because hemostasis was challenging. As part of preoperative preparation, equipment for prompt intubation was available in case of rupture of the hemangiomas. The typically seen elevation of blood pressure was suppressed under propofol sedation so that expansion of the hemangiomas and significant intraoperative bleeding was prevented. Periodontal ligament injection as a local anesthetic also prevented bleeding from the injection site.  (+info)

  • Dr. Sutter uses the LightScalpel laser to uncover the tooth fracture that extended below the gum line, expose sound tooth structure and allow a crown to be placed (gingivectomy and troughing). (
  • If earlier procedures like scaling and root planing cannot restore the gum tissue to a healthy, firm state and pocket depth is still sufficient to warrant treatment, a gingivectomy is indicated. (
  • Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy. (
  • Gingivectomy may also be done in order to achieve a more aesthetic appearance and/or functional contour. (
  • Gingivectomy pode ser executado por escalpelos, por eléctrodos, por raios laser ou por produtos químicos. (
  • Following gingivectomy periodontal packs were used in the control groups and three materials including curcuma longa - ghee with two different ratios [material A and material B] and hyaluronic acid [material C] were used in the test groups Histological changes were evaluated 4 and 7 days after gingivectomy in order to assess the healing process. (