Gingival Recession: Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Gingivoplasty: Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc,, accessed 4/23/2009)Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Labial FrenumDentin SensitivityConnective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal: Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Periodontal Attachment Loss: Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.Periodontal Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Gingival DiseasesGingival Hyperplasia: Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Gingival NeoplasmsStrabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Gingival Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.Trochlear Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Gingival Hypertrophy: Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Gingivectomy: Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Periodontal Splints: Fixed or removable devices that join teeth together. They are used to repair teeth that are mobile as a result of PERIODONTITIS.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.

The oral effects of smokeless tobacco. (1/88)

Smokeless tobacco use has increased rapidly in North America. This form of tobacco use has many oral effects including leukoplakia, oral cancer, loss of periodontal support (recession), and staining of teeth and composite restorations. Systemic effects such as nicotine dependence, transient hypertension and cardiovascular disease may also result from smokeless tobacco use. This paper aims to guide dental practitioners in identifying oral lesions that occur due to the use of smokeless tobacco and also offer guidelines on how to counsel patients who express a desire to stop using smokeless tobacco products.  (+info)

Impact of tobacco use on periodontal status. (2/88)

This article reviews the effects of smoked and smokeless tobacco on periodontal status, including the impact of smoking on periodontal therapy and potential mechanisms for the adverse effects of tobacco on the periodontium. Approximately half of periodontitis cases have been attributed to either current or former smoking. Both cigar and cigarette smokers have significantly greater loss of bone height than nonsmokers, and there is a trend for pipe smokers to have more bone loss than nonsmokers. Unlike smokers, who experience widespread periodontal destruction, the most prevalent effects of smokeless tobacco are localized to the site of placement, in the form of gingival recession and white mucosal lesions. Smoking has an adverse effect on all forms of periodontal therapy, and up to 90 percent of refractory periodontitis patients are smokers. The pathogenesis of smoking-related periodontal destruction has been attributed to alterations in the microflora and/or host response. Some data indicates that smoking may increase levels of certain periodontal pathogens, but there is more evidence that smoking has a negative effect on host response, such as neutrophil function and antibody production. An encouraging finding is that periodontal disease progression slows in patients who quit smoking and that these individuals have a similar response to periodontal therapy as nonsmokers. The facts presented in this paper will assist dental health professionals in treatment-planning decisions and provide them with important information to share with patients who use tobacco products.  (+info)

The Orthoworld Specialist Practitioner Prize Cases 2000. (3/88)

This paper describes the orthodontic management of three diverse malocclusions that were awarded the Orthoworld Specialist Practitioner Prize (2000) and presented at the British Orthodontic Conference in Harrogate 2001.  (+info)

Gingival prostheses--a review. (4/88)

Gingival replacement is often a component of comprehensive prosthodontics. Gingival prostheses may be fixed or removable and may be made from acrylics, composite resins, silicones or porcelain-based materials. Undercuts or dental attachments are used to secure removable prostheses, which are esthetically pleasing and easy to maintain. This paper describes several clinical situations in which gingival prostheses were used effectively.  (+info)

A promising periodontal procedure for the treatment of adjacent gingival recession defects. (5/88)

Various clinical reports on the reconstruction of gingival recession defects have been published in the past decade. Several techniques have been used to achieve root coverage, including creation of free gingival grafts, laterally positioned flaps or semilunar coronally positioned flaps, as well as guided tissue regeneration and connective tissue grafting. This article focuses on the importance of connective tissue grafting, combined with a recent approach known as the tunnel procedure, in managing gingival recession defects with a single operation. This procedure originated in 1985 with an envelope design and a subepithelial connective tissue graft for single gingival recession defects and is used today for coverage of multiple adjacent gingival recession defects. Histological evaluation of such connective tissue grafts demonstrates periodontal regeneration in human subjects. Clinical trials have yielded good results, including early tissue healing because of increased blood supply, good esthetic results, excellent patient cooperation and avoidance of secondary periodontal plastic surgery. These benefits underline the appropriateness of this technique, which improves the success rate of connective tissue grafting and increases the amount of root coverage.  (+info)

Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity. (6/88)

These consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity were developed by a broadly constituted board of dentists and dental hygienists drawn from general dental practice, specialist practice, academia and research from across Canada, joined by 2 international dentists with subject matter expertise. The need for consensus recommendations was made evident by the lack of clear and robust evidence in the dental literature, as well as confusion about diagnosis and management demonstrated by an educational needs assessment survey. High prevalence of the condition, underdiagnosis and widespread availability of noninvasive, efficacious and inexpensive preventive treatment further underscored the need for direction. This paper outlines the key elements of the scientific basis for the causes, diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity; where such evidence is deficient, the document relies on the compound experience of the board. A simple algorithm was developed to guide clinicians through the diagnostic process and assist them in determining appropriate case management. Finally, the board makes a series of recommendations to raise awareness, to improve dental education, to develop symbols for charting, to develop an index for case assessment and for further research.  (+info)

Unique creeping attachment after autogenous gingival grafting: case report. (7/88)

This case report describes a unique creeping attachment that developed mesiobucally on a deep, wide recession (3 mm) and extended along the remaining buccal recession (2 mm) of a maxillary first molar with a full-crown gold restoration subsequent to autogenous gingival grafting. Complete coverage of the root by this degree of creeping attachment on a restored multirooted tooth has not previously been reported in the dental literature.  (+info)

Does labial movement of lower incisors influence the level of the gingival margin? A case-control study of adult orthodontic patients. (8/88)

It has been suggested that proclination of the lower incisors results in gingival recession. Proclination is, however, a valuable alternative to extraction especially when considering facial aesthetics in adult patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the extent of labial movement of the lower incisors and the prevalence and severity of gingival recession in orthodontically treated adult patients. A retrospective case-control study based on the analysis of study-casts and intra-oral slides of 300 adult patients was carried out. One hundred and fifty pairs matched by age and sex were selected using simple random sampling. Recordings of gingival recession were made using casts as well as intra-oral slides. Dental displacement was measured on casts comparing the measurements before and after treatment. The intra-oral slide recordings of gingival recession were more reliable than the cast recordings. Although the difference in prevalence of individuals with gingival recession among cases and controls was statistically significant (P < 0.001), no significant difference in the mean recession value could be found between cases and controls (P > 0.10). The mean value of the extent of recession of the four lower incisors amounted to 0.36 mm for treated subjects and 0.22 mm for the controls. This mean difference of 0.14 mm between members of a pair was not clinically relevant. Faced with the alternative between extraction and labial movement of lower incisors the present study indicates that the latter is a valuable alternative leading to no clinically relevant deterioration of the periodontium.  (+info)

  • Because the changes in the condition of the gums from one day to another are minimal, patients get used to the gums' appearance and tend not to notice the recession visually. (
  • Various classifications have been proposed to classify gingival recession, Miller's classification system being the one that is most widely followed. (
  • Gingival recession occurs when the location of the marginal gingivae is positioned apically to the cemento-enamel junction. (
  • Gum recession is a common problem in adults over the age of 40, but it may also occur starting from the age of a teenager, or around the age of 10. (
  • Gingival recession is a common condition in the adult population and is related to several undesirable conditions such as unaesthetic appearance, root caries, and hypersensitivity. (