Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)
Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)
Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.
Any restorative and replacement device that is used as a therapeutic aid in the treatment of periodontal disease. It is an adjunct to other forms of periodontal therapy and does not cure periodontal disease by itself. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)
A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.
A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.
A benign central bone tumor, usually of the jaws (especially the mandible), composed of fibrous connective tissue within which bone is formed.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
A mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion of the jaws with features of both a cyst and a solid neoplasm. It is characterized microscopically by an epithelial lining showing a palisaded layer of columnar basal cells, presence of ghost cell keratinization, dentinoid, and calcification. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
An immature epithelial tumor of the JAW originating from the epithelial rests of Malassez or from other epithelial remnants of the ENAMEL from the developmental period. It is a slowly growing tumor, usually benign, but displays a marked propensity for invasive growth.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

Treponema denticola outer membrane enhances the phagocytosis of collagen-coated beads by gingival fibroblasts. (1/958)

Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) degrade collagen fibrils in physiological processes by phagocytosis. Since Treponema denticola outer membrane (OM) extract perturbs actin filaments, important structures in phagocytosis, we determined whether the OM affects collagen phagocytosis in vitro by HGFs. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometric assessment of internalized collagen-coated fluorescent latex beads. Confluent HGFs pretreated with T. denticola ATCC 35405 OM exhibited an increase in the percentage of collagen phagocytic cells (phagocytosis index [PI]) and in the number of beads per phagocytosing cell (phagocytic capacity [PC]) compared with untreated controls. The enhancement was swift (within 15 min) and was still evident after 1 day. PI and PC of HGFs for bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated beads were also increased, indicating a global increase in phagocytic processes. These results contrasted those for control OM from Veillonella atypica ATCC 17744, which decreased phagocytosis. The T. denticola OM-induced increase in bead uptake was eliminated by heating the OM and by depolymerization of actin filaments by cytochalasin D treatment of HGFs. Fluid-phase accumulation of lucifer yellow was enhanced in a saturable, concentration-dependent, transient manner by the T. denticola OM. Our findings were not due to HGF detachment or cytotoxicity in response to the T. denticola OM treatment since the HGFs exhibited minimal detachment from the substratum; they did not take up propidium iodide; and there was no change in their size, granularity, or content of sub-G1 DNA. We conclude that a heat-sensitive component(s) in T. denticola OM extract stimulates collagen phagocytosis and other endocytic processes such as nonspecific phagocytosis and pinocytosis by HGFs.  (+info)

Lipoteichoic acid acts as an antagonist and an agonist of lipopolysaccharide on human gingival fibroblasts and monocytes in a CD14-dependent manner. (2/958)

CD14 has been implicated as a receptor of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and other bacterial components as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since the structures of LTAs from various gram-positive bacteria are heterogeneous, we analyzed the effects of LTAs on the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by high- and low-CD14-expressing (CD14(high) and CD14(low)) human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). While Bacillus subtilis LTA had an IL-8-inducing effect on CD14(high) HGF which was considerably weaker than that of LPS, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans LTAs had practically no effect on the cells. B. subtilis LTA had only a weak effect on CD14(low) HGF, as did LPS. S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs at a 1,000-fold excess each completely inhibited the IL-8-inducing activities of both LPS and a synthetic lipid A on CD14(high) HGF. The effect of LPS was also inhibited by the presence of an LPS antagonist, synthetic lipid A precursor IVA (LA-14-PP), with a 100-fold higher potency than S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs and by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody (MAb). S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs, LA-14-PP, and anti-CD14 MAb had no significant effect on phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated IL-8 secretion by HGF. These LTAs also inhibited the IL-8-inducing activity of B. subtilis LTA on CD14(high) HGF, as did LA-14-PP and anti-CD14 MAb. The antagonistic and agonistic functions of LTAs were also observed with human monocytes. Binding of fluorolabeled LPS to human monocytes was inhibited by S. sanguis LTA, although the inhibition was 100 times weaker than that of LPS itself, and anti-CD14 MAb inhibited fluorolabeled LPS and S. sanguis LTA binding. Binding of LTAs to CD14 was also observed with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that LTAs act as antagonists or agonists via a CD14-dependent mechanism, probably due to the heterogeneous structure of LTAs, and that an antagonistic LTA might be a useful agent for suppressing the periodontal disease caused by gram-negative bacteria.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of fibronectin-integrin interactions in human gingival fibroblasts by the RI protease of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. (3/958)

Cell surface integrins mediate interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix and are frequently exploited by a range of bacterial pathogens to facilitate adherence and/or invasion. In this study we examined the effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteases on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) integrins and their fibronectin matrix. Culture supernatant from the virulent strain W50 caused considerably greater loss of the beta1 integrin subunit from HGF in vitro than did that of the beige-pigmented strain W50/BE1. Prior treatment of the W50 culture supernatant with the protease inhibitor Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) blocked its effects on cultured cells, indicating that this process is proteolytically mediated. Purified arginine-specific proteases from P. gingivalis W50 were able to mimic the effects of the whole-culture supernatant on loss of beta1 integrin expression. However purified RI, an alpha/beta heterodimer in which the catalytic chain is associated with an adhesin chain, was 12 times more active than RIA, the catalytic monomer, in causing loss of the alpha5beta1 integrin (fibronectin receptor) from HGF. No effect was observed on the alphaVbeta3 integrin (vitronectin receptor). The sites of action of RI and RIA were investigated in cells exposed to proteases pretreated with TLCK to inactivate the catalytic component. Use of both monoclonal antibody 1A1, which recognizes only the adhesin chain of RI, and a rabbit antibody against P. gingivalis whole cells indicated localization of RI on the fibroblasts in a clear, linear pattern typical of that seen with fibronectin and alpha5beta1 integrin. Exact colocalization of RI with fibronectin and its alpha5beta1 receptor was confirmed by double labeling and multiple-exposure photomicroscopy. In contrast, RIA bound to fibroblasts in a weak, patchy manner, showing only fine linear or granular staining. It is concluded that the adhesin component of RI targets the P. gingivalis arginine-protease to sites of fibronectin deposition on HGF, contributing to the rapid loss of both fibronectin and its main alpha5beta1 integrin receptor. Given the importance of integrin-ligand interactions in fibroblast function, their targeted disruption by RI may represent a novel mechanism of damage in periodontal disease.  (+info)

The potential role of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in periodontal disease progression. (4/958)

Inflammation is regulated by the expression of mediators that cause a number of pleiotropic events culminating in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and release of biologic mediators by leukocytes. If the inflammation is transient in nature, it can protect the host by activating defense mechanisms and initiating wound repair. However, if the inflammation is inappropriate, it can lead to considerable tissue damage. My colleagues and I have investigated the role of chemokines, particularly monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, in various pathological processes and the role of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in experimental periodontitis. I will discuss first the studies on chemokines and then the use of IL-1 and TNF blockers in inhibiting inflammation and bone loss in the periodontium.  (+info)

Induction of prostaglandin release from macrophages by bacterial endotoxin. (5/958)

This review summarizes the role of the monocytic responses to lipopolysaccharide as it relates to periodontal disease severity. Data are presented which illustrate that the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secreted by systemic peripheral blood monocytes in culture, in the presence of bacterial endotoxins, are highly correlated with the levels observed in the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, the different periodontal diagnostic categories have varying levels of monocytic and crevicular fluid PGE2, in juxtaposition with clinical disease severity. These data are consistent with the concept that there is close synchrony between the systemic responsiveness of peripheral blood monocytes with regard to prostanoid synthesis and the local levels of mediator present within the gingival crevice.  (+info)

Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by the oral mucosa and salivary glands. (6/958)

beta-Defensins are cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that are produced by epithelia at mucosal surfaces. Two human beta-defensins, HBD-1 and HBD-2, were discovered in 1995 and 1997, respectively. However, little is known about the expression of HBD-1 or HBD-2 in tissues of the oral cavity and whether these proteins are secreted. In this study, we characterized the expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNAs within the major salivary glands, tongue, gingiva, and buccal mucosa and detected beta-defensin peptides in salivary secretions. Defensin mRNA expression was quantitated by RNase protection assays. HBD-1 mRNA expression was detected in the gingiva, parotid gland, buccal mucosa, and tongue. Expression of HBD-2 mRNA was detected only in the gingival mucosa and was most abundant in tissues with associated inflammation. To test whether beta-defensin expression was inducible, gingival keratinocyte cell cultures were treated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. HBD-2 expression increased approximately 16-fold with IL-1beta treatment and approximately 5-fold in the presence of LPS. Western immunoblotting, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry were used to identify the HBD-1 and HBD-2 peptides in human saliva. Human beta-defensins are expressed in oral tissues, and the proteins are secreted in saliva; HBD-1 expression was constitutive, while HBD-2 expression was induced by IL-1beta and LPS. Human beta-defensins may play an important role in the innate defenses against oral microorganisms.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of mRNA of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and induction of its cell surface expression in normal human gingival fibroblasts by Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma fermentans. (7/958)

Lipoproteins in the cell membranes of both Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma fermentans were demonstrated to trigger the transcription of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA in normal fibroblasts isolated from human gingival tissue and to induce its cell surface expression by a mechanism distinct from that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The lipid moiety of the lipoproteins was suggested to play a key role in the expression of the activity.  (+info)

Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria. (8/958)

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens. Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001). Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.  (+info)

Benign gingival neoplasms include:

1. Pyogenic granuloma: A type of benign tumor that is usually caused by bacterial infection and presents as a red, bleeding mass on the gum.
2. Peripheral ossifying fibroma: A slow-growing, non-cancerous tumor that forms in the gums and can cause tooth mobility or pain.
3. Fibroma: A benign tumor that is usually inherited and can occur anywhere in the body, including the gums.

Malignant gingival neoplasms include:

1. Squamous cell carcinoma: The most common type of oral cancer, which can arise from pre-existing conditions such as poorly fitting dentures, smoking, or alcohol consumption.
2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: A rare type of oral cancer that can grow slowly and invade surrounding tissues, often with a good prognosis if treated early.
3. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor (MNET): A rare, aggressive tumor that usually occurs in the gums of young adults and has a poor prognosis if not treated early.

Precancerous changes in the gingiva include:

1. Leukoplakia: A condition where thick, white patches form on the gums due to chronic irritation or exposure to tobacco or other carcinogens.
2. Erythroplakia: A precancerous condition characterized by red, flat patches on the gums that can progress to squamous cell carcinoma if left untreated.
3. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF): A chronic condition where the gums become thick and fibrous due to inflammation and scarring, which can increase the risk of developing oral cancer.

It is important to note that not all precancerous changes will progress to cancer, but if left untreated, they can increase the risk of developing oral cancer. Regular dental check-ups and early detection are key in preventing and treating oral cancer.

Gingivitis can be treated with good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, and by visiting a dentist for regular check-ups and professional cleanings. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of gum disease that can lead to permanent damage and tooth loss.

Some common symptoms of gingivitis include:

* Red and swollen gums
* Bleeding during brushing or flossing
* Bad breath
* Tenderness or pain in the gums
* A decrease in the amount of saliva

Treatment for gingivitis typically involves a combination of good oral hygiene practices and professional dental care. This may include:

* Regular brushing and flossing to remove plaque and bacteria from the teeth
* Professional cleanings ( scaling and root planing) to remove plaque and tartar from the teeth
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Changes to diet and lifestyle to reduce the risk of further irritation to the gums.

It's important to note that while gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease, it can still have serious consequences if left untreated. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing and treating gingivitis.

The condition is characterized by the excessive growth of gum tissue, which can lead to:

1. Redness and swelling of the gums
2. Bleeding while brushing or flossing
3. Bad breath (halitosis)
4. Pocket formation between the teeth and gums
5. Gum recession
6. Tooth loss

Gingival hyperplasia can be treated by addressing the underlying cause, improving oral hygiene, and undergoing scaling and root planing procedures to remove plaque and tartar. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove excess gum tissue and restore the natural contours of the mouth.

It is important for individuals to practice good oral hygiene, including brushing at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily, and receiving regular dental cleanings to prevent gingival hyperplasia and other gum diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the progression of the condition and restore the health of the teeth and gums.

Gingival recession is a condition where the gums (gingiva) pull back or recede from the teeth, exposing the roots and increasing the risk of decay and sensitivity. It can be caused by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, grinding or clenching teeth, gum disease, or a misaligned bite.

Gingival recession can lead to tooth sensitivity and pain, and if left untreated, it can progress to more severe conditions such as periodontitis (gum infection) and tooth loss. Treatment options for gingival recession include deep cleaning, gum grafting, and changes to oral hygiene practices.

Gingival Recession Causes and Risk Factors:

Poor oral hygiene
Grinding or clenching teeth
Gum disease
Misaligned bite
Hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause)
Crooked teeth or teeth with large fillings
Teeth whitening products

Gingival Recession Symptoms:

Tooth sensitivity
Pain when eating or drinking hot or cold foods and beverages
Redness, swelling, or bleeding of the gums
Exposure of the roots of the teeth
Darkening of the teeth due to root exposure
Bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth
Gum recession can also lead to:

Periodontitis (gum infection)
Tooth loss
Bone loss around the teeth
Increased risk of heart disease and stroke

Prevention and Treatment of Gingival Recession:

Good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing once a day, and regular dental cleanings can help prevent gingival recession. Quitting smoking, reducing stress, and maintaining a healthy diet can also help prevent or slow the progression of the condition.

If you have gingival recession, your dentist may recommend:

Deep cleaning (scaling and root planing) to remove plaque and tartar from the teeth and beneath the gum line
Gum grafting to cover exposed roots and protect the teeth
Medications such as antibiotics or pain relievers to treat any infections or discomfort
Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, reducing stress, and improving your diet to help manage the condition.

If you suspect you have gingival recession, it is important to see a dentist for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. With proper care and management, it is possible to prevent or slow the progression of the condition and maintain good oral health.

Gingival Overgrowth can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, bleeding, and sensitivity in the gums. It can also lead to tooth loss if left untreated. Treatment for Gingival Overgrowth typically involves a combination of professional dental cleaning, antibiotics, and changes to the patient's oral hygiene routine. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the excess tissue.

Gingival Overgrowth can be prevented by maintaining good oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing regularly, and visiting a dentist for regular check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of Gingival Overgrowth can help to prevent more severe complications and improve the overall health of the teeth and gums.

Gingival fibromatosis is relatively rare and usually does not require treatment unless it becomes inflamed or infected. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgical removal of the growth, or other methods to reduce inflammation and improve oral hygiene.


* Gingival fibroma
* Pyogenic granuloma
* Peripheral giant cell granuloma
* Fibromatous hyperplasia of the gingiva

Note: The term "fibromatosis" refers to the excessive growth of fibrous tissue, which can occur in various parts of the body. In the context of oral health, it specifically refers to the growth of fibrous tissue on the gums.

Gingival Hypertrophy can be treated with good oral hygiene practices like brushing twice daily, flossing once a day, and regular dental cleanings. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the excess tissue and restore the natural gum line.

Gingival Hypertrophy can also be a symptom of an underlying condition, so it is important to consult with a dentist or healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The main causes of periodontitis are poor oral hygiene, smoking, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. The symptoms of periodontitis include:

* Redness and swelling of the gums
* Bad breath
* Bleeding while brushing or flossing
* Pocket formation between the teeth and gums
* Loose teeth or changes in the bite
* Changes in the color or shape of the gums

If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to serious complications such as:

* Tooth loss
* Bone loss around the teeth
* Infection of the dental implant or prosthetic tooth
* Spread of bacteria to other parts of the body, leading to systemic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.

Periodontitis can be treated by a dentist or periodontist with a combination of non-surgical and surgical procedures, including:

* Scaling and root planing (deep cleaning of the teeth and roots)
* Antibiotics to treat infection
* Bone grafting to restore lost bone tissue
* Gum grafting to cover exposed roots
* Dental implants or prosthetic teeth to replace missing teeth.

It is important to practice good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly, to prevent periodontitis. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the progression of the disease and save teeth from being lost.

The symptoms of an oral ulcer may include:

* Pain or discomfort when eating, speaking, or drinking
* Difficulty swallowing or eating
* Redness and swelling around the ulcer
* A burning sensation in the mouth
* Discharge of fluid from the ulcer

Oral ulcers can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Trauma to the mouth (e.g., biting the inside of the cheek)
* Infection with viruses or bacteria (e.g., herpes simplex virus, candida)
* Autoimmune disorders (e.g., lichen planus, lupus)
* Allergies to certain medications or foods
* Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals (e.g., vitamin B12 deficiency)

Treatment for an oral ulcer depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Pain relief medication (e.g., ibuprofen, acetaminophen)
* Antimicrobial medication to treat infection (e.g., antibiotics)
* Topical medications (e.g., anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents)
* Dietary changes to avoid irritating foods or substances
* Good oral hygiene practices

It is important to seek medical attention if an oral ulcer does not heal within 2 weeks, bleeds frequently, or is accompanied by high fever, swollen lymph nodes, or difficulty swallowing.

Here are some common causes of gingival hemorrhage:

1. Poor oral hygiene: When you don't brush and floss regularly, plaque and tartar can build up along the gum line, leading to inflammation and bleeding.
2. Gingivitis: This is an early stage of gum disease that can cause swollen, red gums that bleed easily.
3. Periodontitis: This is a more advanced stage of gum disease that can cause the gums to pull away from the teeth and create pockets where bacteria can grow, leading to bleeding.
4. Injury to the gums: If you accidentally bite your lip or tongue, or if you have a sharp object pierce your gum, it can cause bleeding.
5. Medications: Certain medications such as aspirin, warfarin, and prednisone can thin the blood and increase the risk of gingival hemorrhage.
6. Hormonal changes: Changes in hormone levels during pregnancy, menstruation, or menopause can increase the risk of gingival hemorrhage.
7. Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as vitamin C and K can impair the body's ability to clot blood and increase the risk of bleeding gums.
8. Systemic diseases: Certain systemic diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and liver disease can increase the risk of gingival hemorrhage.

If you experience gingival hemorrhage, your dentist may perform a thorough examination to determine the underlying cause. Treatment options will depend on the severity of the condition, but may include professional cleaning, antibiotics, or surgery. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene practices and visit your dentist regularly to prevent and manage gingival hemorrhage.

Some common types of maxillary neoplasms include:

1. Osteosarcoma: a type of bone cancer that affects the maxilla.
2. Chondrosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises in the cartilage cells of the maxilla.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: a type of cancer that originates in the epithelial cells lining the maxilla.
4. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: a rare type of cancer that affects the salivary glands in the maxilla.
5. Pleomorphic adenoma: a benign tumor that arises in the salivary glands of the maxilla.
6. Pyogenic granuloma: a type of benign tumor that occurs in the blood vessels of the maxilla.
7. Hemangiopericytic fibroma: a rare type of benign tumor that affects the blood vessels of the maxilla.

Maxillary neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and difficulty opening the mouth or eye. They are typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as CT scans, MRI scans, and biopsies. Treatment options for maxillary neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

[Dorland's Medical Dictionary, 32nd edition]

Some common types of mandibular neoplasms include:

1. Ameloblastoma: A rare benign tumor that arises from the odontogenic epithel, which is the tissue responsible for the formation of teeth.
2. Odontogenic keratocyst: A benign tumor that originates in the mandible and can expand to involve the surrounding bone and soft tissues.
3. Myxoid chondromatosis: A rare benign tumor that consists of multiple cartilaginous nodules that are surrounded by a loose connective tissue stroma.
4. Chondroderivative osteoma: A rare benign bone tumor that arises from the mutation of cartilage cells during bone development.
5. Ossifying fibroma: A benign tumor that is made up of immature bone tissue and typically affects the jawbone.
6. Fibrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the connective tissue of the mandible, such as the periodontal ligament or the muscles of mastication.
7. Osteosarcoma: A malignant bone tumor that can arise in any bone of the body, including the mandible.

Symptoms of mandibular neoplasms can include pain, swelling, and difficulty opening the mouth or biting. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.

Causes and risk factors:

* Poor oral hygiene
* Smoking
* Genetics
* Hormonal changes
* Malnutrition
* Diabetes
* Obesity


* Gum redness, swelling, and bleeding
* Pockets between the teeth and gums
* Bad breath
* Loose teeth or teeth that have moved out of their sockets
* Changes in the shape of the gum line


* Physical examination of the teeth and gums
* X-rays or other imaging tests to assess bone loss and other changes
* Blood tests to check for underlying conditions such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease


* Professional scaling and root planing (a deep cleaning of the teeth)
* Antibiotics to control infection
* Surgery to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone
* Changes to oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing more frequently


* Good oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing regularly
* Regular dental check-ups and cleanings
* Avoiding smoking and other harmful habits
* Maintaining a healthy diet and getting enough exercise


* With proper treatment and good oral hygiene, the condition can be managed and teeth can be saved.
* Without treatment, the condition can progress and lead to tooth loss.


* Tooth loss
* Bone loss
* Infection of other parts of the body (sepsis)
* Heart disease
* Stroke

Note: This definition is a general overview of chronic periodontitis and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. If you suspect you have chronic periodontitis, it is important to consult with a dentist or other qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Sometimes called fibroma ossificans or ossifying fibroma.

1. Angular Cheilitis: This is a condition that causes redness, swelling, and cracking at the corners of the mouth. It is often caused by poor fitting dentures, mouth breathing, or a vitamin deficiency.
2. Cold Sores: These are small, painful blisters that appear on the lips and are caused by the herpes simplex virus.
3. Canker Sores: These are shallow sores that develop on the inner lips and are not contagious. They can be caused by stress, allergies, or a vitamin deficiency.
4. Chapped Lips: This is a common condition that can be caused by dry weather, over-licking, or using harsh lip products.
5. Lip Frenulum: This is a condition where the tissue under the upper lip is too short, causing the lip to pull back and create a gap between the front teeth.
6. Oral Lichen Planus: This is an autoimmune condition that can cause painless purple or red patches on the lips.
7. Mucous Cysts: These are small, fluid-filled bumps that can develop under the skin of the lower lip. They are usually harmless but can become inflamed or infected.
8. Pyogenic Granuloma: This is a type of growth that can occur on the lips and is caused by a bacterial infection. It can be treated with antibiotics.
9. Seborrheic Keratosis: This is a benign growth that can appear as a rough, scaly patch on the lips. It is usually harmless but can be removed for cosmetic reasons.
10. Oral Cancer: This is a serious condition that can affect any part of the mouth, including the lips. It is important to see a dentist or doctor if there are any unusual changes in the appearance of the lips or mouth.

There are several types of periodontal diseases, including:

1. Gingivitis: This is the mildest form of periodontal disease, characterized by redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums. It is reversible with proper treatment and good oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: This is a more severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by the destruction of the periodontal ligament and the jawbone. It can cause teeth to become loose or fall out.
3. Advanced periodontitis: This is the most severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by extensive bone loss and severe gum damage.
4. Periodontal abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the gum tissue as a result of the infection.
5. Peri-implantitis: This is a condition that affects the tissues surrounding dental implants, similar to periodontal disease.

The causes and risk factors for periodontal diseases include:

1. Poor oral hygiene
2. Smoking
3. Diabetes
4. Genetic predisposition
5. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause
6. Poor diet
7. Stress
8. Certain medications

The symptoms of periodontal diseases can include:

1. Redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums
2. Bad breath
3. Loose teeth or teeth that feel like they are shifting in their sockets
4. Pus between the teeth and gums
5. Changes in the way teeth fit together when biting down

Treatment for periodontal diseases typically involves a combination of professional cleaning, antibiotics, and changes to oral hygiene habits at home. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue and restore the health of the teeth and gums.

Preventing periodontal diseases includes:

1. Brushing teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste
2. Flossing once a day to remove plaque from between the teeth
3. Using an antibacterial mouthwash
4. Eating a balanced diet and avoiding sugary or acidic foods
5. Quitting smoking
6. Maintaining regular dental check-ups and cleanings.

Note: Odontogenic cysts are non-cancerous growths that originate in the tissues of the teeth and jaw. They can be benign or malignant, and their exact nature can only be determined through a biopsy.

1. Tooth decay (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes tooth enamel to break down, leading to holes in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease: An infection of the gums and bone that support the teeth, caused by bacteria.
3. Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums, usually caused by poor oral hygiene or smoking.
4. Oral thrush: A fungal infection of the mouth, typically affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: Viral infections that cause sores on the lips, tongue, or gums.
6. Cold sores: Caused by the herpes simplex virus, these are small, painful blisters that appear on the lips, nose, or mouth.
7. Canker sores: Small, shallow ulcers that develop on the inside of the mouth, tongue, lips, or gums.
8. Leukoplakia: A condition where thick, white patches form on the insides of the mouth, usually due to excessive tobacco use or other irritants.
9. Oral cancer: Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, or throat.
10. Dry mouth (xerostomia): A condition where the mouth does not produce enough saliva, which can increase the risk of tooth decay and other problems.

These are just a few examples of mouth diseases. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to help prevent these conditions and ensure early detection and treatment if they do occur.

It is common for people with poor oral hygiene habits, smokers or those with systemic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease to experience periodontal attachment loss. It can also be a consequence of aging, as the supporting bone and gum tissue around the teeth can degenerate over time.

There are several risk factors for periodontal attachment loss, including:

* Poor oral hygiene habits
* Smoking
* Systemic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease
* Genetic predisposition
* Poor diet
* Inadequate salivary flow
* Malocclusion (bad bite)

There are several treatment options available for periodontal attachment loss, including:

* Scaling and root planing (a deep cleaning of the teeth and beneath the gum line)
* Guided tissue regeneration (a surgical procedure to promote new bone growth)
* Bone grafting (a surgical procedure to repair or replace damaged bone)
* Dental implants (artificial tooth roots that are placed in the jawbone to support a dental crown or bridge)

It is important to note that periodontal attachment loss can be prevented with proper oral hygiene habits, regular dental check-ups and prompt treatment of any oral health issues.

There are several types of pigmentation disorders, including:

1. Vitiligo: A condition in which white patches develop on the skin due to the loss of melanin-producing cells.
2. Albinism: A rare genetic condition that results in a complete or partial absence of melanin production.
3. Melasma: A hormonal disorder that causes brown or gray patches to appear on the face, often in pregnant women or those taking hormone replacement therapy.
4. Post-inflammatory hypopigmentation (PIH): A condition where inflammation causes a loss of melanin-producing cells, leading to lighter skin tone.
5. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition that can cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), where dark spots remain after acne has healed.
6. Nevus of Ota: A benign growth that can cause depigmentation and appear as a light or dark spot on the skin.
7. Cafe-au-Lait spots: Flat, light brown patches that can occur anywhere on the body and are often associated with other conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1.
8. Mongolian spots: Bluish-gray patches that occur in people with darker skin tones and fade with age.
9. Poikiloderma of Civatte: A condition that causes red, thin, and wrinkled skin, often with a pigmentary mottling appearance.
10. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis: A rare condition that causes reddish-brown spots on the skin, often associated with other conditions such as lupus or vasculitis.

Pigmentation disorders can be difficult to treat and may require a combination of topical and systemic therapies, including medications, laser therapy, and chemical peels. It's essential to consult with a dermatologist for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Types of mouth neoplasms include:

1. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC): This is the most common type of mouth cancer, accounting for about 90% of all cases. It usually occurs on the tongue, lips, or floor of the mouth.
2. Verrucous carcinoma: This type of cancer is slow-growing and typically affects the gums or the outer surface of the tongue.
3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This type of cancer is rare and usually affects the salivary glands. It can infiltrate surrounding tissues and cause significant destruction of nearby structures.
4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This type of cancer is relatively rare and occurs most commonly on the tongue or the floor of the mouth. It can be benign or malignant, and its behavior varies depending on the type.
5. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) in the mouth. It typically occurs in the tongue or the lips.

Symptoms of mouth neoplasms can include:

* A sore or ulcer that does not heal
* A lump or mass in the mouth
* Bleeding or pain in the mouth
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Numbness or tingling in the mouth

Diagnosis of mouth neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as X-rays or CT scans), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the cancer, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes in patients with mouth neoplasms.

The exact cause of aggressive periodontitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to factors such as genetics, smoking, and poor oral hygiene. Treatment options include antibiotics, surgical therapy, and lifestyle changes such as improved oral hygiene and quitting smoking.

A more detailed definition of aggressive periodontitis is: "An acute or chronic form of periodontitis that is characterized by rapid attachment loss, bone destruction, exuberant inflammation, and pain, and often affects young adults who are otherwise healthy. The condition can lead to tooth loss if left untreated."

The exact cause of ameloblastoma is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of the odontogenic epithel. The tumor typically affects individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, with a slight male predilection.

There are several types of ameloblastoma, including:

1. Solitary (unilateral) ameloblastoma: This is the most common type, accounting for approximately 75% of all cases. It is a single tumor that arises in one location in the jawbone.
2. Multicentric ameloblastoma: This type accounts for approximately 20% of all cases and involves multiple tumors that arise in different locations in the jawbone.
3. Mixed (bilateral) ameloblastoma: This is a rare type that affects both sides of the jawbone.

Ameloblastoma is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and observation. The choice of treatment depends on the size, location, and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for ameloblastoma is generally good, with a high cure rate when treated appropriately. However, local recurrence can occur in some cases, and there is a small risk of malignant transformation. Follow-up care is essential to monitor for any signs of recurrence or complications.

In summary, ameloblastoma is a rare benign tumor that affects the jawbone and originates from the odontogenic epithel. It can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and difficulty opening the mouth. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and observation, and follow-up care is essential to monitor for any signs of recurrence or complications.

Plaque is a key risk factor for dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease, which can lead to tooth loss if left untreated. In addition, research suggests that there may be a link between oral bacteria and certain systemic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes. Therefore, maintaining good oral hygiene practices, such as regular brushing and flossing, is essential to prevent the accumulation of plaque and promote overall health.

SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.

SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.

... fibers that extend towards the crest of the gingiva fibers that extend laterally to the outer surface of the gingiva and fibers ... They hold the marginal gingiva against the tooth They provide the marginal gingiva with enough rigidity to withstand the forces ... circular group - these fibers are unique in that they exist entirely within the gingiva and do not contact the tooth ... Itoiz ME, Carranza FA (2002). "The Gingiva". In Newman MG, Takei HH, Carranza FA (eds.). Carranza's Clinical Periodontology ( ...
Gingiva • Gingival and periodontal pockets • Gingival cyst of the adult • Gingival cyst of the newborn • Gingival enlargement ...
The gingiva often possess a textured surface that is referred to as being stippled (engraved points). Stippling only presents ... Stippling used to be thought to indicate health, but it has since been shown that smooth gingiva is not an indication of ... Lindhe's Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry (4th ed.). ISBN 978-1-4051-0236-0. v t e (Gingiva, All stub articles, ... Itoiz ME, Carranza FA (2002). "The Gingiva". In Newman MG, Takei HH, Carranza FA (eds.). Carranza's Clinical Periodontology ( ...
3. Gingiva biotype; thick and thin tissues often respond differently to inflammation and trauma, thin gingiva is more liable to ... 4. Patient's age; the gingiva recede with aging which can cause an open gingival embrasure. 5. Periodontal disease and loss of ...
In the epithelium of the mouth, the attached gingiva exhibit rete pegs, while the sulcular and junctional epithelia do not. ... Itoiz, ME; Carranza, FA: The Gingiva. In Newman, MG; Takei, HH; Carranza, FA; editors: Carranza's Clinical Periodontology, 9th ...
Itoiz, ME; Carranza, FA: The Gingiva. In Newman, MG; Takei, HH; Carranza, FA; editors: Carranza's Clinical Periodontology, 9th ...
If the gingiva is fragile. If the location of the base of the pocket is apical to the mucogingival junction. This would cause ... This method provides permanent results, while simple gum contouring may result in relapse or regrowth of the gingiva. Our smile ... Can correct uneven gingival zeniths (the most apical portion of the free gingiva). Can lengthen clinical crown height (which is ... The morphological characteristics of the dentition and gingiva influence a patient's smile greatly. This should be used in ...
The periodontium consists of four tissues: gingiva, or gum tissue, cementum, or outer layer of the roots of teeth, alveolar ... Crich A (June 1932). "Blastomycosis of the Gingiva and Jaw". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 26 (6): 662-5. PMC 402380. ... periodontal lesions Mucogingival deformities and conditions Gingival Phenotype Gingival/Soft Tissue Recession Lack of Gingiva ...
A lateral pedicle graft, or pedicle graft, takes tissue from the area immediately adjacent to the damaged gingiva. This is not ... In health, the soft tissue immediately around the teeth is keratinized and is referred to as keratinized tissue or gingiva. ... Koller A, Sapra A (2022). "Anatomy, Head and Neck, Oral Gingiva". StatPearls. PMID 32809497. Jati AS, Furquim LZ, Consolaro A ( ...
Gold, Steven I.; Vilardi, Mario A. (1994). "Pulsed laser beam effects on gingiva". Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 21 (6): ...
As a result, this provides a suitable environment for the healing of the gingiva and the physiological contour of the gingiva ... Gingivectomy is a dental procedure in which a dentist or oral surgeon cuts away part of the gums in the mouth (the gingiva). It ... A high smile line displays the entire crown of the tooth and an abundant amount of gingiva. Thus, this procedure can be viewed ... Padbury A, Eber R, Wang HL (May 2003). "Interactions between the gingiva and the margin of restorations". Journal of Clinical ...
2017). "Human gingiva transcriptome during wound healing". J Clin Periodontol. 44 (4): 394-402. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12669. PMID ...
It is most often seen in the lower labial gingiva of tobacco users. Most easily it is found in Caucasians, due to their lack of ... Hanioka T, Tanaka K, Ojima M, Yuuki K: Association of melanin pigmentation in the gingiva of children with parents who smoke. ... Dose-Response relationship between tobacco consumption and melanin pigmentation in the attached gingiva. Arch Environ Health ... Occurrence and localization in the attached gingiva. Arch Dermatol 1977; 113:1533-1538. ...
Within a week, the gingiva returns to normal and is fully healed in next few weeks minus the pigmentation. In conclusion, ... Melanotic macules can be found on the buccal mucosa, lip, palate, alveolar ridge and gingiva. Melanotic macules are benign ... Immediately after, slight erythema of the gingiva becomes apparent. Superficial necrosis is observed over the next few days and ... Smoker's Melanosis, benign melanocytic pigmentation of the oral mucosa, most commonly seen in the lower labial gingiva and ...
They may remain completely underneath the gingiva. A good rule that holds true in most cases is: The further forward or rostral ...
The frequency of oral hemorrhage by location in people with deficiency of F VIII and F IX is: gingiva, 64%; dental pulp, 13%; ... The location of oral bleeds was as follows: labial frenum, 60%; tongue, 23%; buccal mucosa, 17% and gingiva and palate, 0.5%. ...
Lesions are located on the buccal mucosa (inside of the cheeks) or on the gingiva (gums). The condition resembles oral lichen ... Cheilitis, glossitis, gingivitis syndrome; atypical gingivostomatitis, plasma-cell gingivitis, plasmacytosis of gingiva". Oral ...
Following laser depigmentation, the gingiva heals by secondary intention. This results in a lighter and more uniform color of ...
Nonetheless, the procedure is associated with risk of hemorrhage in the highly inflamed and vascularized gingiva. As such, CO2 ... Bharti, Vipin; Bansal, Chhaya (2013). "Drug-induced gingival overgrowth: The nemesis of gingiva unravelled". Journal of Indian ... Inflammation from bacterial overgrowth in the gingiva and cyclosporin's main metabolite, hydroxyciclosporin, stimulate ... tending to occur more frequently in the papillae of the anterior Gingivae in younger age groups. The main classes of drugs that ...
A gingival abscess involves only the gingiva near the marginal gingiva or the interdental papilla. A periodontal abscess ... The early lesion can occupy up to 15% of the connective tissue of the marginal gingiva and up to 60-70% of collagen may be ... Non-plaque-induced gingival disease is an inflammation of the gingiva that does not result from dental plaque, but from other ... Attström R, Graf-de Beer M, Schroeder HE (July 1975). "Clinical and histologic characteristics of normal gingiva in dogs". ...
The clinical importance of the mucogingival junction is in measuring the width of attached gingiva. Attached gingiva is ... The palatal gingiva of the maxilla is continuous with the tissue of the palate, which is bound down to the palatal bones. ... Without attached gingiva, the freely moveable alveolar mucosa, being more fragile, would suffer injury during eating and ... Thus, if the entire height of the keratinized gingiva, from the free gingival margin to the mucogingival junction is 8 mm, and ...
Padbury A, Eber R, Wang HL (May 2003). "Interactions between the gingiva and the margin of restorations". Journal of Clinical ... The flap, incorporating the buccal/ lingual gingiva and alveolar mucosa, then has to be elevated beyond the mucogingival line ... chronic pain chronic inflammation of the gingiva unpredictable loss of alveolar bone In addition to crown lengthening to ...
... desquamative gingivitis extends beyond the marginal gingiva, involving the full width of the gingiva and sometimes the alveolar ... Plasma cell gingivitis is another form of gingivitis which affects both the attached and free gingiva. Caused by various ... Desquamative gingivitis involves lesions of the free and attached gingiva. Unlike plaque-induced inflammation of the gums ( ...
The gingiva ("gums") is the mucosal tissue that overlays the jaws. There are three different types of epithelium associated ... It consists of the cementum, periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, and gingiva. Of these, cementum is the only one that is a ... Long term use of chlorhexidine, a mouthwash, may encourage extrinsic stain formation near the gingiva on teeth. This is usually ... The sulcular epithelium is nonkeratinized stratified squamous tissue on the gingiva which touches but is not attached to the ...
The most common oral locations are on the gingiva of the mandible, tongue, and palate. It is a localized reactive proliferation ... The most predominant location is the mandibular gingiva (Houston, 1982; Bakos, 1992). Histologically, the GCF is distinctive, ...
It appears only on the gingiva or on an edentulous alveolar ridge. It is more often found in the mandible rather than the ... Because of its overwhelming incidence on the gingiva, the condition is associated with two other diseases, pyogenic granuloma ... These three diseases are associated because they appear frequently on gingiva. Due to its similar microscopic appearance, ...
Halhoul N, Colvin JR (February 1975). "The ultrastructure of bacterial plaque attached to the gingiva of man". Archives of Oral ...
The gingivae are categorised into three anatomical groups: the free, attached and the interdental gingiva. Each of the gingival ... The attached gingiva lies between the free gingival line or groove and the mucogingival junction. The attached gingiva ... Normal gingiva may range in color from light coral pink to heavily pigmented. The soft tissues and connective fibres that cover ... Healthy gingiva can be described as stippled, pale or coral pink in Caucasian people, with various degrees of pigmentation in ...
"Traditional Tattooing of the Gingiva: Successful Treatment with the Argon Laser". Archives of Dermatology. 126 (4): 547-8. doi: ...
The use of the brush should be confined to the crown to avoid injury to the gingiva and cementum. Currently, the most commonly ... Particular care should be taken to avoid injury to the gingiva. The area should be cleaned with warm water to remove all ...
Quantitative Parameters of Interdental Gingiva in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with IFN-γ Gene Polymorphism Nadia Sheibak 1 ... Quantitative Parameters of Interdental Gingiva in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with IFN-γ Gene Polymorphism Nadia Sheibak et ... Quantitative analysis of interdental Gingiva in patients with chronic periodontitis and transforming growth factor-β1 29C/T ... The study samples were interdental gingiva biopsies from 60 individuals including 38 patients and 22 healthy subjects. After ...
... Connecting the Dots: Oral Infection to Rheumatoid Arthritis Posted on March 7th, 2023. by Lawrence Tabak, D.D.S., Ph.D ... Tags: ACE2, coronavirus, COVID-19, COVID-19 transmission, dry mouth, gingiva, mouth, novel coronavirus, oral health, pandemic, ... Tags: ACPA, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, bacteria, blood, chronic inflammation, citrulline, gingiva, joint, joint ...
Clinical Presentation: A Pregnant Woman With Bleeding Gingiva A 21-year-old pregnant woman presented to the dental office with ... swollen, erythematous gingiva that bleed spontaneously. Her gingival tissue was uncomfortable, and she had noticed bleeding ...
Gingiva. WU 241. Periodontal diseases (General and not elsewhere classified). WU 246. Tooth diseases (General or not elsewhere ...
Lips, gingiva, buccal mucosa, tongue, pharynx. Targetlike cutaneous lesions. Diffuse mucous membrane involvement ...
Gums (gingiva). *Roof of the mouth (palate). Most oral cancers are a type called squamous cell carcinoma. These cancers tend to ...
SANTANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi et al. Porcine collagen matrix in root coverage and increase of keratinized gingiva width: a ... Objective: to assess the efficacy of porcine collagen matrix (CM) in root coverage (RC) and increase of keratinized gingiva ...
Lips, gingiva, buccal mucosa, tongue, pharynx. Targetlike cutaneous lesions. Diffuse mucous membrane involvement ...
Gingiva. 9 × 105 ± 1 × 105. Upper labial. 6 × 106 ± 1 × 106. ...
Lead lines on gingiva. 107. 5. Basophilic stippling. 117. 6. Microcytic hypochromic anemia associated with lead poisoning. 118 ...
Expression of periodontitis susceptibility genes in human gingiva using single-cell RNA sequencing.. Caetano, Ana J; DAgostino ...
ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 595 Lichen Planus--Gingiva 1 - Yes 1 Blank 20748 596 Lichen Planus--Tongue ... Gingiva 1 - Yes 17 Blank 20732 592 Leukoplakia--Tongue 1 - Yes 2 Blank 20747 593 Lichen Planus--Lips 1 - Yes 0 Blank 20749 594 ... Gingiva 1 - Yes 3 Blank 20746 584 Fissuring--Tongue 1 - Yes 366 Blank 20383 585 Pigmented Lesion--Lips 1 - Yes 29 Blank 20720 ... Gingiva 1 - Yes 58 Blank 20691 588 Pigmented Lesion--Tongue 1 - Yes 13 Blank 20736 589 Leukoplakia--Lips 1 - Yes 25 Blank 20724 ...
The response of human gingiva to restorative materials. J Prosthet Dent 29:73-804564802. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar ...
Categories: Gingiva Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 5 images ...
9. Myoepithelioma of the gingiva. Report of a case.. Piattelli A; Fioroni M; Rubini C. J Periodontol; 1999 Jun; 70(6):683-7. ...
Development of innovative digital impressions that penetrate gingiva non-invasively without fluid effects ...
Abnormality of the gingiva Acne Hoarse voice Papule Pustule Scarring Subcutaneous nodule Thick lower lip vermilion Thickened ...
... consequences on inflammation in the gingiva. o Quantitative studies focused on protein modifications that will enhance our ...
Lack of attached gingiva and thin and fragile gums lead to gingival recession. Connective tissue abnormalities of pEDS ... Generalized lack of attached gingiva. Absence or reduced amount of attached gingiva causing oral tissue fragility, first ... Generalized lack of attached gingiva (Figure 1) (Complete lack of attached gingiva is considered pathognomonic for pEDS [ ... Lack of attached gingiva in combination with family history of a first-degree relative would be suggestive of a diagnosis of ...
The mean increase in the amount of attached gingiva was 0.85 mm (95% CI 0.48, 1.21) for GINTUIT and 2.43 mm (95% CI 2.06, 2.79 ... For inclusion, subjects had an insufficient zone of attached gingiva (≤ mm) that required soft tissue grafting. At six months, ... The study was designed to rule out a greater than 1 mm decrease in the change in attached gingiva for GINTUIT relative to ... to evaluate the safety and efficacy of GINTUIT in establishing a zone of attached gingiva. Study Two was a multicenter study (n ...
... gingiva). Too much of this tissue can impair teeth from emerging through the gums, which can cause difficulties in speech and ...
Almost half of US adults age 35 to 44 have gingivitis, a reversible inflammation of the gingiva. Approximately one- fourth has ...
Baab and Oberg reported irreversible micro-vascular changes in the gingiva in dogs [8]. Dietrich et al. in a recent German ...
Theres a little collar formed by the gingiva, and from the base of that comes this ultra-filtrate of serum. Additionally, if ...
  • In case of contraction of the gums that leave the root exposed, a gingiva graft can be done. (
  • A gingiva implant (also known as a gum implant or periodontal plastic surgery) is a collective name for periodontal surgery that aims to cover an exposed tooth root surface with inoculated oral tissue. (
  • The aim of this research was to determine the color stability of 3 gingival shades of dental restorative materials, Amaris Gingiva , Beautiful II Gingiva , and PermaFlo Pink, compared to a tooth -colored nanohybrid composite, Filtek Z250. (
  • Gingiva aesthetics vaccination is a common periodontal procedure. (
  • There are clusters of sebaceous glands in the gingiva. (
  • The clusters of sebaceous glands in the gingiva are adjacent to a dilated duct. (
  • Ectopic sebaceous glands of the molar gingiva were very rare in both sexes. (
  • To address this, we generated and analyzed two single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of the human minor salivary glands and gingiva (9 samples, 13,824 cells), identifying 50 cell clusters. (
  • Using integrated cell normalization and annotation, we classified 34 unique cell subpopulations between glands and gingiva. (
  • Gingiva Aesthetics To achieve an aesthetic and harmonious smile, the teeth and gingivas around them must match. (
  • Here the elongate root is covered with a small piece of the patient's gum, sewn to the gingiva portion that covers the adjacent teeth. (
  • Objective: to assess the efficacy of porcine collagen matrix (CM) in root coverage (RC) and increase of keratinized gingiva width (KGW) around teeth and implants. (
  • How provide options prevent parietal buy oral and maxillofacial diseases an illustrated guide to diagnosis and management of diseases of the oral mucosa gingivae teeth salivary in levels with Saturated Growth model? (
  • Figure Legend: Figure 1 Oral mucosa, Gingiva - Ectopic tissue, Sebaceous gland in male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (
  • This finding should be diagnosed as "Oral mucosa, gingiva - ectopic tissue, sebaceous gland. (
  • factors: The buy oral and maxillofacial diseases an illustrated guide to diagnosis and management of diseases of the oral mucosa gingivae of elements C3a, C4a, C5a, and C5a medication performed in the pathophysiology during ability result. (
  • This issue is resolved through a gingiva aesthetics implant. (
  • To do this we will make a gingiva aesthetics implant. (
  • Free Gum Implant This procedure is often used for gingiva tissue density. (
  • A high smile line and clefting of the gingiva present an aesthetic challenge. (
  • Sometimes the gingiva piece is taken from the palate or other parts of the mouth, removing it completely and using it to cover the root. (
  • This part of the gum used to cover the root is taken from the adjacent gingiva, without removing it completely, pulling it to one side to cover the exposed root. (
  • Gingiva implants consist of removing the gingivas from one part of the mouth and implanting them in another. (
  • For all of the tested restorative materials, immersion in a solution of curry produced the greatest increase in mean E* values (P Gingiva specimens, 27-fold for Beautiful II Gingiva , 34-fold for PermaFlo Pink, and 2-fold for Filtek Z250. (
  • There were smaller, but still significant, increases in E* for Amaris Gingiva , Beautiful II Gingiva , and PermaFlo Pink when immersed in coffee (P (
  • Pink esthetics: How to create natural-looking gingiva with laboratory composite? (
  • In view of the many dental restorations requiring additional areas with gingiva, pink esthetics - e.g. the lifelike design of the gingiva - is becoming increasingly important. (
  • In one NTP study examining 734 male and 722 female F344 rats, Fordyce's granules were very common in the midsagittal gingiva of the upper incisor in males and increased in incidence with age (34.2%, 50%, and 56.3% in 26-week, 65-week, and 2-year studies, respectively). (
  • Color stability of gingiva-colored restorative materials: an in vitro study. (
  • This will help you in the challenge of producing natural-looking gingiva with the laboratory composite SR Nexco . (
  • Expression of periodontitis susceptibility genes in human gingiva using single-cell RNA sequencing. (
  • Lack of attached gingiva and thin and fragile gums lead to gingival recession. (
  • This disorder is characterized by a slowly progressive overgrowth of the tissue of the gums (gingiva). (
  • A 21-year-old pregnant woman presented to the dental office with swollen, erythematous gingiva that bleed spontaneously. (
  • Figure Legend: Figure 1 Oral mucosa, Gingiva - Ectopic tissue, Sebaceous gland in male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (
  • This finding should be diagnosed as "Oral mucosa, gingiva - ectopic tissue, sebaceous gland. (
  • Objective: to assess the efficacy of porcine collagen matrix (CM) in root coverage (RC) and increase of keratinized gingiva width (KGW) around teeth and implants. (