Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Diplomonadida: A group of flagellated, mostly symbiotic EUKARYOTES characterized by twofold symmetry associated with the presence of a pair of karyomastigont organellar systems. Two nuclei are attached by fibers to the flagella and there are no MITOCHONDRIA. Diplomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.Giardiavirus: A genus of RNA protozoan viruses of the family TOTIVIRIDAE. It infects many isolates of the flagellated protozoan human parasite G. lamblia, but does not seem to be associated with the virulence of the parasite. The type species is Giardia lamblia virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Entamoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Triose-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC 5.3.1.1.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Physarum polycephalum: A protozoan, previously also considered a fungus. Characteristics include sporangia that are stalked and multilobed. It is widely used in biomedical research.Blotting, Southwestern: A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.