A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A group of flagellated, mostly symbiotic EUKARYOTES characterized by twofold symmetry associated with the presence of a pair of karyomastigont organellar systems. Two nuclei are attached by fibers to the flagella and there are no MITOCHONDRIA. Diplomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
A genus of RNA protozoan viruses of the family TOTIVIRIDAE. It infects many isolates of the flagellated protozoan human parasite G. lamblia, but does not seem to be associated with the virulence of the parasite. The type species is Giardia lamblia virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC 5.3.1.1.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
'Animal hospitals' are specialized medical facilities primarily dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and care of sick, injured, or adopted animals, providing advanced veterinary services, surgeries, and intensive care units, often staffed with trained veterinarians and support personnel.
The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.
A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.

Epidemic and endemic seroprevalence of antibodies to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in residents of three communities with different drinking water supplies. (1/376)

This study was carried out to compare cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis seroprevalence rates in residents of three communities. Community (Com 1) uses drinking water from deep wells, community 2 (Com 2) uses surface water from a protected watershed, and community 3 (Com 3) uses surface water frequently containing Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Unfiltered drinking water from each community was collected at the tap and tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts during the 12 months in which sera were collected for testing. No oocysts or cysts were detected in the water from the Com 1 deep wells; oocysts and cysts were detected intermittently in the drinking water from the other two communities. A waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in a municipality adjacent to Com 3 six months into this 12-month study. Sera from residents of each of the communities were collected proportionately by month and by population size. Coded sera were tested for IgG to Cryptosporidium using a previously developed Western blotting method. The presence or absence of bands at 15-17 kD and/or 27 kD was recorded for the 1,944 sera tested. Definite bands at 15-17 kD and/or 27 kD were detected in 981 (50.5%) of the sera. A total of 33.2% of sera from Com 1 (community using deep wells) were positive using the same criteria compared with 53.5% (Com 2) and 52.5% (Com 3) of sera from the two communities using surface drinking water. Both bands (15-17 kD plus 27 kD) were detected in 582 sera (29.9%) from the three communities: 14.1% of sera from Com 1 compared with 32.7% from Com 2 and 31.5% from Com 3. These findings are consistent with a lower risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium from drinking water obtained from deep well sources. However, analysis of results by calendar quarter showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the number of Com 3 positive sera (compared with Com 1) following the waterborne outbreak. Without this outbreak-related observation, a significant overall difference in seropositivity would not have been seen. We also observed that in sera from the community affected by the outbreak, the presence on immunoblots of both Cryptosporidium bands appeared to be the best indicator of recent infection. Seroprevalence rates using an ELISA to detect IgG to Giardia were estimated using the same sera. Overall 30.3% (590 of 1,944) of sera were positive by the ELISA. A total of 19.1% of sera from Com 1, 34.7% from Com 2 and 16.0% from Com 3 were seropositive. Rates for both Com 3 and Com 1 did not change significantly over time. In Com 2, rates decreased significantly (P < 0.001) during the last half of the study period (third and fourth calendar quarters). The reasons for the decrease in seroprevalence in Com 2 sera are presently not known. These studies show intriguing associations between seroprevalence, outbreak-related laboratory serologic data, and patterns of parasite contamination of drinking water. Further studies are required to validate the serologic approach to risk assessment of waterborne parasitic infections at a community level.  (+info)

Influence of refrigeration and formalin on the floatability of Giardia duodenalis cysts. (2/376)

Giardia duodenalis cysts obtained from fresh fecal samples, fecal samples kept under refrigeration and fecal samples treated with formalin were studied as to their floatability on sucrose solutions with the following specific gravities: 1,040 kg/m3; 1,050 kg/m3; 1, 060 kg/m3; 1,070 kg/m3; 1,080 kg/m3; 1,090 kg/m3; 1,100 kgm3; 1,150 kg/m3; 1,200 kg/m3; and 1,250 kg/m3, contained within counting-chambers 0.17 mm high. Cysts that floated on and those settled down as sediments were counted, and had their percentages estimated. Sucrose solutions of 1,200 kg/m3 specific gravity (the average specific gravity of diluting liquids employed in floatation techniques) caused to float 77.7%, 78.4% and 6.6% of the G. duodenalis cysts obtained, respectively, from fresh fecal samples, fecal samples kept under refrigeration, and fecal samples treated with formalin. Cysts obtained both from fresh fecal samples and fecal samples kept under refrigeration presented similar results concerning floatability. It was observed, however, that the treatment of feces with formalin diminished the cysts floatability under the various specific gravities studied. This results should influence, the recommendations for transport and storage of fecal samples used for parasitological coproscopy.  (+info)

Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis. (3/376)

The long-standing controversy regarding whether Giardia intestinalis is a single species prevalent in both human and animal hosts or a species complex consisting of morphologically similar organisms that differ in host range and other biotypic characteristics is an issue with important medical, veterinary, and environmental management implications. In the past decade, highly distinct genotypes (some apparently confined to particular host groups) have been identified by genetic analysis of samples isolated from different host species. The aim of this study was to undertake a phylogenetic analysis of G. intestinalis that were representative of all known major genetic groups and compare them with other Giardia species, viz. G. ardeae, G. muris, and G. microti. Segments from four "housekeeping" genes (specifying glutamate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, elongation factor 1 alpha, and 18S ribosomal RNA) were examined by analysis of 0.48-0.69-kb nucleotide sequences determined from DNA amplified in polymerase chain reactions from each locus. In addition, isolates were compared by allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data obtained for 21 enzymes representing 23 gene loci. The results obtained from these independent techniques and different loci were essentially congruous. Analyses using G. ardeae and/or G. muris as outgroups supported the monophyly of G. intestinalis and also showed that this species includes genotypes that represent at least seven deeply rooted lineages, herein designated assemblages A-G. Inclusion of G. microti in the analysis of 18S rRNA sequence data demonstrated the monophyly of Giardia with the same median body morphology but did not support the monophyly of G. intestinalis, instead placing G. microti within G. intestinalis. The findings support the hypothesis that G. intestinalis is a species complex and suggest that G. microti is a member of this complex.  (+info)

Immune response to Giardia duodenalis. (4/376)

The intestinal protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a widespread opportunistic parasite of humans and animals. This parasite inhabits the upper part of the small intestine and has a direct life cycle. After ingestion of cysts, which are the infective stage, the trophozoites emerge from the cysts in the duodenum and attach to the small intestinal mucosa of the host. Since the migration of trophozoites from the lumen of the intestine into surrounding tissues is an unusual occurrence, the immune response to Giardia remains localized. The identification of antigens that play a role in acquired immunity has been difficult because of the occurrence of antigenic variation and because, Giardia being an ubiquitous organism, it is possible that the antigenic profiles of isolates from different geographic areas will vary. Innate-immunity mechanisms play a role in the control and/or severity of the infection. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses play a role in acquired immunity, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. A variety of serological assays have been used to detect circulating antibodies in serum. Because of the biological characteristics of the parasite and the lack of suitable antigens, the sensitivity of serological assays remains poor. On the other hand, detection of antigens in feces of infected patients has met with success. Commercial kits are available, and they are reported to be more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of giardiasis on a single specimen.  (+info)

Influence of bacteria from the duodenal microbiota of patients with symptomatic giardiasis on the pathogenicity of Giardia duodenalis in gnotoxenic mice. (5/376)

Recent studies have shown that the intestinal microbiota is essential for the pathogenicity but not for the multiplication of Giardia duodenalis in the intestinal lumen. The microbial components responsible for this phenomenon are not known. Twenty-eight facultative and three strictly anaerobic micro-organisms were isolated from the dominant duodenal microbiota of five patients with symptomatic giardiasis. The bacterial combinations from each patient were associated with groups (GN) of germ-free mice. Five days after the association, when their faecal populations ranged from 10(7) to 10(9) cfu/g, all groups were inoculated intragastrically with 10(5) viable trophozoites of G. duodenalis strain BT6. Two groups of germ-free (GF) and conventional (CV1) mice were also infected. Gnotobiotic animals were killed 10 days after infection and GF and CV1 animals were killed 10, 20 and 30 days after infection. More marked pathological alterations were detected in CV1 mice when compared with GF animals. Gnotobiotic animals showed intermediate pathological alterations between CV1 and GF mice. The CV1 and GF groups became infected by day 3 and faecal cyst levels were similar in both groups throughout the experiment. Total and G. duodenalis-specific IgA levels in the intestinal fluid and G. duodenalis-specific IgM and IgG levels in the serum increased during the infection and were higher in CV1 animals at all times tested when compared with GF mice. The present results confirm the stimulatory activity of the intestinal microbiota on the pathogenicity of G. duodenalis, and some combinations of microbial components of the dominant duodenal ecosystem from patients with symptomatic giardiasis can partially develop this function. However, none of these combinations was able to stimulate the protozoan pathogenicity in the same manner as the entire intestinal microbiota.  (+info)

Effect of sample holding time on recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from water samples. (6/376)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods for analysis of water for Cryptosporidium and Giardia stipulate maximum sample holding times which are not always practical to comply with. A spiking experiment indicated that holding times of up to 2 weeks had no significant effect on recovery of these parasites from 10-liter samples of raw water in plastic carboys.  (+info)

Stage-specific expression and targeting of cyst wall protein-green fluorescent protein chimeras in Giardia. (7/376)

In preparation for being shed into the environment as infectious cysts, trophozoites of Giardia spp. synthesize and deposit large amounts of extracellular matrix into a resistant extracellular cyst wall. Functional aspects of this developmentally regulated process were investigated by expressing a series of chimeric cyst wall protein 1 (CWP1)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter proteins. It was demonstrated that a short 110 bp 5' flanking region of the CWP1 gene harbors all necessary cis-DNA elements for strictly encystation-specific expression of a reporter during in vitro encystation, whereas sequences in the 3' flanking region are involved in modulation of steady-state levels of its mRNA during encystation. Encysting Giardia expressing CWP1-GFP chimeras showed formation and maturation of labeled dense granule-like vesicles and subsequent incorporation of GFP-tagged protein into the cyst wall, dependent on which domains of CWP1 were included. The N-terminal domain of CWP1 was required for targeting GFP to regulated compartments of the secretory apparatus, whereas a central domain containing leucine-rich repeats mediated association of the chimera with the extracellular cyst wall. We show that analysis of protein transport using GFP-tagged molecules is feasible in an anaerobic organism and provides a useful tool for investigating the organization of primitive eukaryotic vesicular transport.  (+info)

Core histones of the amitochondriate protist, Giardia lamblia. (8/376)

Genes coding for the core histones H2a, H2b, H3, and H4 of Giardia lamblia were sequenced. A conserved organism- and gene-specific element, GRGCGCAGATTTVGG, was found upstream of the coding region in all core histone genes. The derived amino acid sequences of all four histones were similar to their homologs in other eukaryotes, although they were among the most divergent members of this protein family. Comparative protein structure modeling combined with energy evaluation of the resulting models indicated that the G. lamblia core histones individually and together can assume the same three-dimensional structures that were established by X-ray crystallography for Xenopus laevis histones and the nucleosome core particle. Since G. lamblia represents one of the earliest-diverging eukaryotes in many different molecular trees, the structure of its histones is potentially of relevance to understanding histone evolution. The G. lamblia proteins do not represent an intermediate stage between archaeal and eukaryotic histones.  (+info)

Giardia is a genus of microscopic parasitic flagellates that cause giardiasis, a type of diarrheal disease. The most common species to infect humans is Giardia intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia or Giardia duodenalis). These microscopic parasites are found worldwide, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water.

Giardia exists in two forms: the trophozoite, which is the actively feeding form that multiplies in the small intestine, and the cyst, which is the infective stage that is passed in feces and can survive outside the body for long periods under appropriate conditions. Infection occurs when a person ingests contaminated water or food, or comes into direct contact with an infected person's feces.

Once inside the body, the cysts transform into trophozoites, which attach to the lining of the small intestine and disrupt the normal function of the digestive system, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, dehydration, and weight loss. In some cases, giardiasis can cause long-term health problems, particularly in children, including malnutrition and developmental delays.

Preventing the spread of Giardia involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet or changing diapers, avoiding contaminated water sources, and practicing safe food handling and preparation. In cases where infection occurs, medication is usually effective in treating the illness.

"Giardia lamblia," also known as "Giardia duodenalis" or "Giardia intestinalis," is a species of microscopic parasitic protozoan that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine of various vertebrates, including humans. It is the most common cause of human giardiasis, a diarrheal disease. The trophozoite (feeding form) of Giardia lamblia has a distinctive tear-drop shape and possesses flagella for locomotion. It attaches to the intestinal epithelium, disrupting the normal function of the small intestine and leading to various gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and dehydration. Giardia lamblia is typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water.

Giardiasis is a digestive infection caused by the microscopic parasite Giardia intestinalis, also known as Giardia lamblia or Giardia duodenalis. The parasite is found worldwide, especially in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water.

The infection typically occurs after ingesting contaminated water, food, or surfaces that have been exposed to fecal matter containing the cyst form of the parasite. Once inside the body, the cysts transform into trophozoites, which attach to the lining of the small intestine and cause symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, dehydration, and greasy stools that may float due to excess fat.

In some cases, giardiasis can lead to lactose intolerance and malabsorption of nutrients, resulting in weight loss and vitamin deficiencies. The infection is usually diagnosed through a stool sample test and treated with antibiotics such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated water and food, and washing hands regularly.

Cryptosporidium is a genus of protozoan parasites that can cause the diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. These microscopic pathogens infect the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the small intestine, leading to symptoms such as watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

Cryptosporidium parasites have a complex life cycle, including several developmental stages within host cells. They are protected by an outer shell called oocyst, which allows them to survive outside the host's body for extended periods, making them resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants commonly used in water treatment.

Transmission of Cryptosporidium occurs through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated water or food, or direct contact with infected individuals or animals. People at higher risk for severe illness include young children, elderly people, pregnant women, and those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer treatment, or organ transplantation.

Preventive measures include proper hand hygiene, avoiding consumption of untreated water or raw fruits and vegetables likely to be contaminated, and practicing safe sex. For immunocompromised individuals, antiparasitic medications such as nitazoxanide may help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

Trophozoites are the feeding and motile stage in the life cycle of certain protozoa, including those that cause diseases such as amebiasis and malaria. They are typically larger than the cyst stage of these organisms and have a more irregular shape. Trophozoites move by means of pseudopods (false feet) and engulf food particles through a process called phagocytosis. In the case of pathogenic protozoa, this feeding stage is often when they cause damage to host tissues.

In the case of amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, trophozoites can invade the intestinal wall and cause ulcers, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. In malaria, caused by Plasmodium species, trophozoites infect red blood cells and multiply within them, eventually causing their rupture and release of more parasites into the bloodstream, which can lead to severe complications like cerebral malaria or organ failure.

It's important to note that not all protozoa have a trophozoite stage in their life cycle, and some may refer to this feeding stage with different terminology depending on the specific species.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease caused by microscopic parasites called Cryptosporidium. The parasites are found in the feces of infected animals and humans. People can become infected with Cryptosporidium by ingesting contaminated water or food, or by coming into contact with infected persons or animals.

The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, including watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, the infection can be severe and even life-threatening.

Cryptosporidiosis is typically treated with increased fluid intake to prevent dehydration, and in some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or changing diapers, can help prevent the spread of Cryptosporidium.

Cryptosporidium parvum is a species of protozoan parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. It is found worldwide and is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food. The parasite infects the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to symptoms such as watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and fever. It is particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The parasite is highly resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants, making it difficult to eradicate from water supplies.

An oocyst is a thick-walled, environmentally resistant spore-like structure produced by some protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora, during their life cycle. These oocysts can survive for long periods in the environment and can infect a host when ingested, leading to infection and disease. The term "oocyst" is specific to certain groups of protozoan parasites and should not be confused with other types of spores produced by fungi or bacteria.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

Diplomonadida is a group of mostly free-living, parasitic flagellated protozoans that are characterized by having two nuclei in their trophozoites (the feeding and dividing stage of the cell): a larger macronucleus that controls vegetative functions and a smaller micronucleus that is involved in reproduction. The most well-known member of this group is Giardia lamblia, a common cause of waterborne diarrheal disease in humans. Other members of Diplomonadida are found in various aquatic environments and are important components of microbial food webs.

Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia duodenalis or Giardiasis, is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the human small intestine. It is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food, and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and dehydration. Giardia is not a virus, but rather a single-celled organism. The term "Giardiavirus" is likely a misnomer and does not have a recognized medical definition.

A protozoan genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls and have diverse morphology and nutrition modes. The genome of a protozoan includes all the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other cellular processes.

The size and complexity of protozoan genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some protozoa have small genomes with only a few thousand genes, while others have larger genomes with tens of thousands of genes or more. The genome sequencing of various protozoan species has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, biology, and potential as model organisms for studying eukaryotic cellular processes.

It is worth noting that the study of protozoan genomics is still an active area of research, and new discoveries are continually being made about the genetic diversity and complexity of these fascinating microorganisms.

'Entamoeba' is a genus of protozoan parasites that are commonly found in the intestinal tract of humans and other primates. The most well-known species is 'Entamoeba histolytica,' which can cause a serious infection known as amoebiasis. This parasite is typically transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, and it can invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs in the body, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. Other species of Entamoeba are generally considered non-pathogenic, meaning that they do not cause disease in healthy individuals.

Medical definitions for "spores" and "protozoan" are as follows:

1. Spores: These are typically single-celled reproductive units that are resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. They are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. In the context of infectious diseases, spores are particularly relevant in relation to certain types of bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) and Bacillus anthracis (causes anthrax). These bacterial spores can survive for long periods in harsh environments and can cause illness if they germinate and multiply in a host.
2. Protozoan: This term refers to a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, which are typically classified as animals rather than plants or fungi. Some protozoa can exist as free-living organisms, while others are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle. Protozoa can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.), giardiasis (caused by Giardia lamblia), and amoebic dysentery (caused by Entamoeba histolytica).

Therefore, there isn't a specific medical definition for "spores, protozoan" as spores are produced by various organisms, including bacteria and fungi, while protozoa are single-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic. However, some protozoa do produce spores as part of their life cycle in certain species.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

Triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) is a crucial enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which is a metabolic process that converts glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy currency for the cell. TPI specifically catalyzes the reversible interconversion of the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). This interconversion is a vital step in maintaining the balance of metabolites in the glycolytic pathway.

The reaction catalyzed by TPI is as follows:

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate ↔ Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

Deficiency or mutations in the gene encoding triose-phosphate isomerase can lead to a severe autosomal recessive disorder known as Triose Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency (TID). This condition is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, neuromuscular symptoms, and shortened lifespan.

'Entamoeba histolytica' is a species of microscopic, single-celled protozoan parasites that can cause a range of human health problems, primarily in the form of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. The medical definition of 'Entamoeba histolytica' is as follows:

Entamoeba histolytica: A species of pathogenic protozoan parasites belonging to the family Entamoebidae, order Amoebida, and phylum Sarcomastigophora. These microorganisms are typically found in the form of cysts or trophozoites and can infect humans through the ingestion of contaminated food, water, or feces.

Once inside the human body, 'Entamoeba histolytica' parasites can colonize the large intestine, where they may cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery, depending on the individual's immune response and the location of the infection. In some cases, these parasites can also invade other organs, such as the liver, lungs, or brain, leading to more serious health complications.

The life cycle of 'Entamoeba histolytica' involves two main stages: the cyst stage and the trophozoite stage. The cysts are the infective form, which can be transmitted from person to person through fecal-oral contact or by ingesting contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, these cysts excyst in the small intestine, releasing the motile and feeding trophozoites.

The trophozoites then migrate to the large intestine, where they can multiply by binary fission and cause tissue damage through their ability to phagocytize host cells and release cytotoxic substances. Some of these trophozoites may transform back into cysts, which are excreted in feces and can then infect other individuals.

Diagnosis of 'Entamoeba histolytica' infection typically involves the examination of stool samples for the presence of cysts or trophozoites, as well as serological tests to detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can kill the trophozoites and help to control the infection. However, it is important to note that these drugs do not affect the cysts, so proper sanitation and hygiene measures are crucial to prevent the spread of the parasite.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Gerbillinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes gerbils, jirds, and sand rats. These small mammals are primarily found in arid regions of Africa and Asia. They are characterized by their long hind legs, which they use for hopping, and their long, thin tails. Some species have adapted to desert environments by developing specialized kidneys that allow them to survive on minimal water intake.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a species of protozoan parasite that causes the sexually transmitted infection known as trichomoniasis. It primarily infects the urogenital tract, with women being more frequently affected than men. The parasite exists as a motile, pear-shaped trophozoite, measuring about 10-20 micrometers in size.

T. vaginalis infection can lead to various symptoms, including vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, itching, and irritation in women, while men may experience urethral discharge or discomfort during urination. However, up to 50% of infected individuals might not develop any noticeable symptoms, making the infection challenging to recognize and treat without medical testing.

Diagnosis typically involves microscopic examination of vaginal secretions or urine samples, although nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming more common due to their higher sensitivity and specificity. Treatment usually consists of oral metronidazole or tinidazole, which are antibiotics that target the parasite's ability to reproduce. It is essential to treat both partners simultaneously to prevent reinfection and ensure successful eradication of the parasite.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An animal hospital is a healthcare facility primarily focused on providing medical and surgical services to animals, including pets and other domestic creatures. These establishments are staffed with veterinarians and support personnel who diagnose, treat, and manage various health conditions affecting animals. They may offer emergency care, dental services, diagnostic imaging, laboratory testing, intensive care, and rehabilitation therapy. Some animal hospitals specialize in treating specific species or types of animals, such as exotic pets or large animals like horses.

Orobanchaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the broomrape family. These are parasitic or hemiparasitic plants, which means they derive some or all of their nutrients from other plants by attaching to their roots and tapping into their vascular systems.

The family includes both holoparasites, which are completely dependent on their host plants for nutrients, and facultative parasites, which can grow independently but benefit from parasitism.

Notable genera in this family include Striga (witchweeds), Orobanche (broomrapes), and Pedicularis (louseworts). Some members of this family can cause significant damage to agricultural crops, making them important subjects of study in the field of plant pathology.

I'm not aware of a medical term called "blotting, Southwestern." The term "blotting" in the context of laboratory science refers to a technique used to transfer or visualize molecules from one surface to another, typically using a liquid or gel. "Southwestern" is a geographical term that can refer to a region in the southwestern United States. It's possible that you may be referring to a specific medical or scientific technique that combines blotting and Southwestern, but I was unable to find any relevant information on this topic.

If you meant something different or need more information about laboratory techniques for transferring or visualizing molecules, please let me know!

'Ciona intestinalis' is a species of tunicate, also known as sea squirts. They are marine invertebrate animals that are characterized by their sac-like bodies and filter-feeding habits. Tunicates are members of the phylum Chordata, which includes all animals with dorsal, hollow nerve cords – a category that also contains vertebrates (animals with backbones).

'Ciona intestinalis' is often used as a model organism in biological research due to its simple anatomy and relatively small genome. It has been studied in various fields such as developmental biology, evolution, and biomedical research. The species is native to the waters of the North Atlantic Ocean but has been introduced to many other regions around the world.

... beltrani Giardia botauri Giardia bovis Giardia bradypi Giardia canis Giardia caprae Giardia cati Giardia caviae Giardia ... Giardia dasi Giardia equii Giardia floridae Giardia hegneri Giardia herodiadis Giardia hyderabadensis Giardia irarae Giardia ... Giardia sanguinis Giardia serpentis Giardia simoni Giardia sturnellae Giardia suricatae Giardia tucani Giardia varani Giardia ... marginalis Giardia melospizae Giardia nycticori Giardia ondatrae Giardia otomyis Giardia pitymysi Giardia pseudoardeae Giardia ...
... , also known as Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia, is a flagellated parasitic microorganism of the ... Giardia Information United States Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet on Giardia in water Giardia article at MicrobeWiki ... Giardia lamblia image library Archived 25 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine GiardiaDB: The Giardia lamblia genome sequencing ... "Giardia , Parasites , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2017. Heyworth, Martin F. (2016). "Giardia duodenalis genetic ...
... is believed to be the sister taxon of the Giardia intestinalis group. Helmy, Yosra A.; Spierling, Nastasja G.; ... "The Sequence of Giardia Small Subunit rRNA Shows That Voles and Muskrats Are Parasitized by a Unique Species Giardia microti". ... Giardia microti is a species of Diplomonad parasitic protozoan. Its hosts mainly consist of rodents in the family Cricetidae, ... Giardia microti has been recorded as a parasite of the following animals: Lates calcarifer (Giant seaperch) Microtus arvalus ( ...
"Illness and Symptoms , Giardia , Parasites , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2 March 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2022. Lam JR, Schneider JL ...
"Giardia , Parasites , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-06-24. Retrieved 2020-08-03. "Cystic fibrosis - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic ...
Parasites, particularly protozoa e.g., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis spp., Cyclospora ... testing for ova and parasites was only needed in people who are at high risk though they recommend routine testing for giardia ...
In children, chronic Giardia infection can cause stunting (stunted growth) and lowered intelligence, Infection with Giardia is ... until the 1970s when it was fully accepted that infection with Giardia was a treatable cause of chronic diarrhea: Giardia ... Giardiasis is a disease caused by infection with the protozoan Giardia lamblia. Infection with Giardia can produce diarrhea, ... Giardia was thought in the 1950s to cause occasional problems of diarrhea in children but its appearance was so common and, in ...
Pathogens less often isolated from those affected include Neisseria meningitidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Giardia lamblia. ... Giardia lamblia. Lymphocytic infiltration of tissues, which can cause enlargement of lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), of the ...
Graczyk, T.K.; Bosco-Nizeyi, J.; Ssebide, B.; Thompson, A.; Read, C.; Cranfield, M.R. (2002). "Anthropozoonotic Giardia ... Studies have found that waterborne, gastrointestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium sp., Microsporidia sp., and Giardia sp. ... as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis for local community and free-ranging gorillas". Parasitology ...
and Giardia sp. Infections in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. ...
Brugerolleia*, Giardia, Octomitus. Retortamonadida Grassé 1952 (P). Chilomastix, Retortamonas. Caviomonadidae Cavalier-Smith ...
"Giardia, Epidemiology & Risk Factors". Center For Disease Control. 13 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. ...
New Zealand has giardia outbreaks, but no beavers, whereas Norway has plenty of beavers, but had no giardia outbreaks until ... Recent concerns point to domestic animals as a significant vector of giardia, with young calves in dairy herds testing as high ... Following findings that the parasite Giardia lamblia, which causes giardiasis, was putatively carried by beavers, the term " ... sources of Giardia cysts and evidence pertaining to their implication in human infection". In Wallis, P. M. & Hammond, B. R. ( ...
Adam, Rodney D. (2001). "Biology of Giardia lamblia". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 14 (3): 447-475. doi:10.1128/CMR.14.3.447- ... parasites from the genus Giardia colonize intestines of several vertebrate species. One of the shared features of these ...
Other possible infections include hepatitis A, B and C; intestinal parasite infections like Giardia; and bacterial infections ...
It is related to Giardia. H. columbae and H. meleagridis live in the intestines of birds. H. muris and H. pitheci live in the ... Moon T, Wilkinson JM, Cavanagh HM (November 2006). "Antiparasitic activity of two Lavandula essential oils against Giardia ...
Giardia cysts were found in fecal samples from two people after the trip, but they were asymptomatic. A third person was ... Giardia lamblia cysts usually do not tolerate freezing although some cysts can survive a single freeze-thaw cycle. Cysts can ... Studies of trips that are much longer than the average incubation period, e.g. a week for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are less ... The infectious dose of giardia, however, is very low, with about 2% chance of infection from a single cyst. Also, very few ...
Other examples include the intestinal parasites in the genus Giardia, which have two nuclei per cell. Ciliates have two kinds ... Adam RD (December 1991). "The biology of Giardia spp". Review. Microbiological Reviews. 55 (4): 706-32. doi:10.1128/MMBR.55.4. ...
"The effect of UV light on the inactivation of Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts as determined by animal infectivity assay ... This method may not be adequate in killing Giardia cysts in cold water. An advantage of using iodine crystals is that only a ... Studies have shown that UV doses at the levels provided by common portable UV units are effective at killing Giardia and that ... Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp., both of which cause diarrhea (see giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis) are common ...
Vilem Dusan Lambl @ Who Named It Lipoldová, Marie (2014). "Giardia and Vilém Dušan Lambl". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8 ... In 1915 the species was renamed to Giardia lamblia by American zoologist Charles Wardell Stiles (1867-1941) in honor of Lambl ...
Giardia, GI parasites, etc.). No laboratory standards have been agreed upon, so recommendations vary for size of sample to be ...
Her research considered epidemiological studies of Giardia spp. After completing her doctorate, Prystajecky joined the British ... Prystajecky, Natalie Anne (2010). Molecular epidemiology of Giardia spp. in different hosts and watersheds. Vancouver: ...
Diplomonads, like Giardia, have two nuclei. Ciliates have cells that contain two nuclei: a macronucleus and a micronucleus. The ...
It contains a variety of free-living and symbiotic protists, and includes some important parasites of humans such as Giardia ... Giardia sp. (Metamonada: Fornicata: Diplomonadida) Hampl V, Hug L, Leigh JW, Dacks JB, Lang BF, Simpson AG, Roger AJ (March ...
Iodamoeba buetschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix sp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba histolytica have been ... Ash, A.; Lymbery, A.; Lemon, J.; Vitali, S.; Thompson, R. C. A. (2010-12-15). "Molecular epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in ... Giardia was introduced to beavers through runoff of human sewage upstream of a beaver colony. Seals: In 1999, wild seals were ...
"Giardia intestinalis (ID 26) - Genome - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-31. "Giardia intestinalis (ID 26) - ...
Giardia lamblia was discovered by Leeuwenhoeck in the 1600s< but was not found to be pathogenic until the 1970s, when an EPA- ... Giardia lamblia cysts given in capsules". American Journal of Hygiene. 59 (2): 209-220. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a119634 ...
Additional contaminants include protozoan oocysts such as Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia, Legionella, and viruses ( ...
The water for Ryde is supplied from Pipe Head.: 38 Low levels of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were first detected in the water ... Francis, Geoff; Hicks, Peter (16 September 1998). "David Hill: from Giardia to Labor MP?". Green Left Weekly. Retrieved 16 ... of the water supply system of Greater Metropolitan Sydney by the microscopic pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia between July ...
"Giardia in Drinking Water Giardiasis Waterborne Disease". Water-research.net. Retrieved May 17, 2013. "Mental Health for Gay ...
A tiny parasite called Giardia lamblia causes it. ... Giardia, or giardiasis, is a parasitic infection of the small ... Giardia, or giardiasis, is a parasitic infection of the small intestine. A tiny parasite called Giardia lamblia causes it. ... The giardia parasite lives in soil, food, and water. It may also be found on surfaces that have come into contact with animal ... Giardia lamblia. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles and Practice of Infectious ...
and Giardia duodenalis in Pigs in Hubei Province of China. Li D, Deng H, Zheng Y, Zhang H, Wang S, He L, Zhao J. Li D, et al. ... and Giardia duodenalis isolates from two wild rodent species in Gansu Province, China. Xu J, Liu H, Jiang Y, Jing H, Cao J, Yin ... Detection of Giardia and helminths in Western Europe at local K9 (canine) sites (DOGWALKS Study). Drake J, Sweet S, Baxendale K ... and Giardia spp. Infection in Humans in Latvia: Evidence of Underdiagnosed and Underreported Cases. Deksne G, Krūmiņš A, ...
Giardia beltrani Giardia botauri Giardia bovis Giardia bradypi Giardia canis Giardia caprae Giardia cati Giardia caviae Giardia ... Giardia dasi Giardia equii Giardia floridae Giardia hegneri Giardia herodiadis Giardia hyderabadensis Giardia irarae Giardia ... Giardia sanguinis Giardia serpentis Giardia simoni Giardia sturnellae Giardia suricatae Giardia tucani Giardia varani Giardia ... marginalis Giardia melospizae Giardia nycticori Giardia ondatrae Giardia otomyis Giardia pitymysi Giardia pseudoardeae Giardia ...
Giardia is a parasite that can cause diarrhea. Learn how to prevent getting sick, common symptoms, how it spreads, and what to ... Giardia is a tiny parasite (germ) that causes the diarrheal disease giardiasis. Giardia is found on surfaces or in soil, food, ... You can get giardiasis if you swallow Giardia germs. Giardia spreads easily and can spread from person to person or through ... Giardia infection can cause no symptoms, short-term symptoms, or long-term symptoms. ...
Giardia lamblia infection was associated with increased risks for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 3 years after ... "Infection with Giardia lamblia in a non-endemic area was associated with a high prevalence of IBS and chronic fatigue 3 years ... "Giardia lamblia is a common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, but there is limited knowledge about the long-term ... Cite this: Giardia lamblia Infection Linked to IBS, Chronic Fatigue - Medscape - Sep 13, 2011. ...
Giardia may also be present in contaminated food and water and is a risk for campers drinking untreated water from mountain ... Most children with a Giardia infection have no symptoms at all. A few have abdominal pain and watery, foul-smelling diarrhea ... Most often, symptoms begin 7 to 14 days after exposure to the Giardia parasite and can last, without treatment, for about 4 to ... Giardiasis is the name doctors give to infections caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia Intestinalis. This organism ...
GIARDIA LAMBLIA (UNII: 89IEJ09R73) (GIARDIA LAMBLIA - UNII:89IEJ09R73) GIARDIA LAMBLIA. 11 [hp_C] in 1 mL. ... GIAR HOMO- giardia lamblia liquid. Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. Out of ... GIAR HOMO- giardia lamblia liquid. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... GIAR HOMO- giardia lamblia liquid. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they ...
Giardia is a Zombie at Night of the living maps. 07.02.2012 ...
En este contexto, dos especies, Giardia (Figura 1) y Cryptosporidium (Figura 2), merecen una atención particular. Los datos de ... "Giardia y Cryptosporidium como agentes infecciosos emergentes", Intestinal Diseases - Veterinary Focus - Vol. 19(1) - Feb. ... Available at: https://www.ivis.org/library/veterinary-focus/intestinal-diseases-veterinary-focus-vol-191-feb-2009/giardia-y- ...
giardia, frequently asked questions, giardia FAQs, diarrhea, giardiasis, giardia information, what is giardia, intestinals, ... Learn the symptoms, when they ... giardia symptoms, giardia symptoms in humans, diarrhea, giardiasis, giardia illness, giardia ... Giardia infection Giardia, or giardiasis, is a parasitic infection of the small intestine. A tiny parasite called Giardia ... Giardia Infection (Giardiasis) (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Giardia Infections/Start Here ... Giardia ...
Giardia is a common intestinal parasite that we see in Dubai and part of understanding the cause of diarrhoea in a dog or cat ... Giardia is a common intestinal parasite that we see in Dubai and part of understanding the cause of diarrhoea in a dog or cat ... is running a giardia test to see if the parasite is present or not. It involves taking a small amount of the offending stool ...
... à transmissão hídrica revelaram que os protozoários parasitas Cryptosporidium parvum e Giardia duodenalis (sinonímia: G. ... Results showed that the frequency of occurrence of these protozoa at the catchment points was 29,7% for Giardia and 30,4% for ... Os resultados mostraram que a frequência de ocorrência desses protozoários nos pontos de captação foi de 29,7% para Giardia e ... Ocorrência e identificação de Cryptosporidium e Giardia em amostras de água superficial destinada ao abastecimento público do ...
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... offers a suite of parasitology tests that provide definitive and differentiated detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia ... Immunocard STAT!® Crypto/Giardia Controls. External Controls to be used with Immunocard STAT!® Crypto/Giardia.. NOTE: Actual ... Cryptosporidium/Giardia. Our Cryptosporidium/Giardia testing portfolio is flexible to match the way your organization works. ... Merifluor® Cryptosporidium/Giardia. Direct fluorescent assay for the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. A simple, highly ...
This is a combination assay for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. SPECIMEN REQUIREMENTS SPECIMEN: Preserved stool. 3 collected ... TEST NAME Cryptosporidium/Giardia Screen DEPARTMENT PARA TESTS P2 DESCRIPTION Direct Fluorescent Antibody test and/or modified ... This is a combination assay for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia.. SPECIMEN REQUIREMENTS. SPECIMEN: Preserved stool. 3 ...
My 15 month old female cat was just diagnosed with Giardia. Vet gave me Panacur Suspension vials to use for treatment. I am 77 ... My 15 month old female cat was just diagnosed with Giardia. Vet gave me Panacur Suspension vials to use for treatment. I am 77 ... A compounding pharmacy may be able to reformulate one of the several medications used to treat Giardia in cats in such a way ... Also, if a cat carries Giardia parasites in its digestive tract but does not have any clinical signs associated with their ...
... including those that treat Giardia duodenalis in dogs. ... FDA approves first animal drug for Giardia duodenalis, ... Ayradia is a metronidazole oral suspension for the treatment of Giardia duodenalis infection in dogs and the first Food and ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved a number of animal drugs, including those that treat Giardia ... On October 11, the FDA approved Ayradia, metronidazole oral suspension, for the treatment of Giardia duodenalis infection in ...
Genetic variation in the nucleotide sequences of Giardia microti parasites in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) (a) ... Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Characterization and Potential Zoonotic Transmission of Giardia duodenalis Irshad M. Sulaiman*, ... Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Characterization and Potential Zoonotic Transmission of Giardia duodenalis. ...
Pages that link to "The Role of Giardia lamblia in Day Cares". From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource ... Retrieved from "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Special:WhatLinksHere/The_Role_of_Giardia_lamblia_in_Day_Cares" ...
Saffar, M.J., Qaffari, J., Khalilian, A.R. & Kosarian, M. (‎2005)‎. Rapid reinfection by Giardia lamblia after treatment in a ... Rapid reinfection by Giardia lamblia after treatment in a hyperendemic area: the case against treatment. ... We selected 405 children aged 1-10 years with Giardia lamblia infection but without abdominal or gastrointestinal complaints ... we do not recommend treatment for children with asymptomatic giardia infection ...
A local dog owner is worried other dogs may become ill with giardia, a parasite that damages intestines. ... The test came back positive for giardia.. "They immediately asked if I was down the street here at the dog park and I said, ... He also said the water is where giardia would be contracted.. Evans wants Draper City to test the water and post warning signs ... The City spokesperson said the city was going to start a public educational campaign about giardia and how to keep your dogs ...
Giardia infection was confirmed in 35 of 45 samples by a Giardia specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. ... Genotyping of the Giardia PCR product by restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated that 74% (26 of 35) were assemblage ... Giardia intestinalis is comprised of two major genotypes, A and B, which may vary in their propensity to cause disease. We ... Giardia intestinalis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16 :453-460.. Ali SA, Hill DR, 2003. . Giardia intestinalis. . Curr Opin Infect Dis ...
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We deal with conditions like Giardia in dogs and cats frequently with numerous clients from all over the country. Our ... Giardia We deal with conditions like Giardia in dogs and cats frequently with numerous clients from all over the country. Our ...
Protozoa Giardia lamblia. Reference. Adam RD. Biology of Giardia lamblia. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Jul14(3):447-75 DOI: 10.1128 ...
Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have ... We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them ... We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test) autochthonous Giardia cases with ... We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified ...
Format AsideCategories Health, PersonalTags giardia lambliaLeave a comment on Not Giardia? [en] Giardiose: ma copine giardia ... Tag: giardia lamblia. Not Giardia? [en]. As many of you know, Ive been ill this winter. It started out with what seemed to be ... Categories Health, India, PersonalTags giardia, giardia lamblia, giardiase, giardiasis, giardiose, illness, infection, malade, ... Was it giardia? Was it something else that all the antibiotics got rid of? How long have I had giardia? ...
Functional Differentiation of Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases in Giardia lamblia. Authors: Kim J, Park EA, Shin MY, Park ... IMPORTANCE Giardia lamblia CDKs (GlCDKs) and their cognate cyclins have not yet been studied. In this study, the functional ... Limited information is available on Giardia lamblia CDKs (GlCDKs), GlCDK1 and GlCDK2. After treatment with the CDK inhibitor ... In contrast, GlCDK2 along with Glcyclin 22394 and 6584 functions from the early stages of the Giardia cell cycle. ...
Una ning gihulagway ni Wilhelm Kobelt ni adtong 1899.[2] Ang Giardia mantongensis sakop sa kahenera nga Giardia, ug kabanay nga ... Gikuha gikan sa "https://ceb.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Giardia_mantongensis&oldid=30145215" ...

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