Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Laron Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, defective GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR, and failure to generate INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I by GROWTH HORMONE. Laron syndrome is not a form of primary pituitary dwarfism (GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY DWARFISM) but the result of mutation of the human GHR gene on chromosome 5.Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome: A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Dictionaries, ChemicalGingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with Laron syndrome , also known as the growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS), a disorder characterized by short stature (proportional dwarfism). (wikipedia.org)
  • The type specimen (LB1) of Homo floresiensis has been hypothesized to be a pathological human afflicted with Laron Syndrome (LS), a type of primary growth hormone insensitivity (Hershkovitz et al. (curehunter.com)
  • This assay provides a direct and practical tool for rapid, accurate and sensitive estimation of GHBP concentration in serum. (garvan.org.au)
  • To define the impact of HIV infection and ART on growth and pubertal development (and their hormonal regulation), along with the cognitive, academic, and social development, of pre-adolescents and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection as they move through adolescence into adulthood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although data suggest that a significant proportion of plasma GH is bound to specific GHBPs, the regulation of plasma GHBP levels as well as their role in modulating the GH-IGF-I system in fish is virtually unknown. (gu.se)
  • Beside regulation of growth hGH exerts an anabolic effect on muscle and connective tissue as wells as on bone and different other organs (heart, intestine). (biovendor.com)
  • If there is low GHBP concentration then there are high levels of GHR expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, low levels of growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, IGF-1, associate with hepatic lipid accumulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Low levels of growth hormone (GH) in the general population associate with NAFLD ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After diet-induced massive weight loss, GHBP levels were restored to normal in obese subjects (BMI, 27.8 +/- 1.4 kg/m2). (garvan.org.au)
  • Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that changes in waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter during weight loss were the major determinants of and accounted for 54% of the fall in GHBP levels. (garvan.org.au)
  • No changes were observed in GHBP in normal, obese, or reduced weight obese subjects after 4 days of a very low calorie diet, although mean insulin levels fell significantly in the normal subgroup as well as in the obese subgroup studied after weight loss. (garvan.org.au)
  • In summary, GHBP levels are elevated in obesity, are restored to normal by massive weight loss, and are unaffected by short term hypocaloric feeding. (garvan.org.au)
  • GHBP levels were not different between normal, acromegalic, or GH-deficient subjects. (garvan.org.au)
  • Growth hormone insensitivity also appears to alter how the body responds to insulin, which is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder the authors. (blogspot.com)
  • Levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP in the group with autism/ASD were all significantly higher than in controls. (blogspot.com)
  • From these findings the researchers concluded that the significantly higher hormone levels could explain the significantly bigger head circumferences, weights and body mass indices of the boys with autism/ASD and suggested that future research should examine the potential role of growth-related hormones in the pathophysiology of autism. (blogspot.com)
  • Plasma GHBP levels varied between 5 and 25 ng ml(-1), with large fluctuations during both long-term (4 weeks) fasting and short-term (72 h) refeeding, indicating differentiated responses depending on prior energy status of the fish. (gu.se)
  • PHENOTYPE: Homozygotes for targeted null mutations exhibit retarded postnatal growth, proportionate dwarfism, decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels, small pituitaries, reduced fecundity in females, and extended life-span. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Although growth hormone provides us with several benefits directly applicable to bodybuilding, it is its ability to increase IGF-1 levels that is almost entirely responsible for its muscle building effect, and to a lesser degree, its ability to induce fat loss. (ironmagazineforums.com)
  • Efficacy of ATL1103 will be assessed by measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. (anzctr.org.au)
  • The obese type II diabetes mellitus group had the highest GHBP levels and the most visceral fat. (elsevier.com)
  • In the acute phase circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) are elevated. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • GH, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin belong to a group of homologous hormones with growth-promoting and lactogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. (ucsc.edu)
  • For example, these hormones stimulate the growth and division of cells called chondrocytes, which play a critical role in producing new bone tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In recent years, replacement therapies with human growth hormones (hGH) have become popular in the battle against aging and weight management. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Many of the biologic actions of GH are mediated through insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), but GH also has direct effects independent of IGF-I. Unlike most other hormones, GH is species specific, not only in its structure but also partially in its function. (wordpress.com)
  • We conclude that GHBP may be regulated by the same or closely related factors that regulate fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular, but not by insulin or acute changes in nutrition. (garvan.org.au)
  • The effects of GH on skeletal and muscular growth appear to be due to the activity of somatomedins, or insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) - processed in the liver. (slideserve.com)
  • GHRH first appears in the human hypothalamus between 18 and 29 weeks of gestation, which corresponds to the start of production of growth hormone and other somatotropes in fetuses. (wikidoc.org)
  • GHBP increases the half-life of GH, but decreases biological activity (bound GH is not biologically available). (slideserve.com)
  • a task accomplished by increasing the liver's conversion rate of growth hormone to IGF-1, improving its bioavailability, and extending its half-life in plasma. (ironmagazineforums.com)
  • In the first, plasma GHBP activity was compared in patients with IDDM on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or on conventional therapy and in healthy subjects. (elsevier.com)