Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An orphan nuclear receptor expressed mainly in the GERM CELLS of GONADS. It functions as a transcription factor that binds to a direct repeat of the sequence AGGTCA and may play a role in the regulation of EMBRYOGENESIS and germ cell differentiation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A complex neoplasm composed of a mixture of gonadal elements, such as large primordial GERM CELLS, immature SERTOLI CELLS or GRANULOSA CELLS of the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. Gonadoblastomas are most often associated with gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XY.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Germ Theory[edit]. Main articles: Pasteur Louis Pasteur ; Germ Theory: Germ theory of disease ... Since Pasteur provided support for a germ theory of infectious disease, we have increasingly induced immunity against a ...
Germ theory[edit]. By 1863, motivated by Louis Pasteur's report on fermentation to butyric acid, fellow Frenchman Casimir ... Germ theory of disease crystallized the concept of cause-presumably identifiable by scientific investigation.[4] ... "Germ theory, hysteria, and Freud's early work in psychopathology". Medical History. 24 (3): 259-74. doi:10.1017/ ...
Germ cell versus sex cell[edit]. Recent edits involved changing germ cell to sex cell and back again, when the meaning was post ... "germ cells" was wrong. Guess we'll have to work on explaining this all even more clearly. Nadiatalent (talk) 12:31, 31 October ... The wording was perfect as germ cells, e.g. but the idea of ... distinguishing gametes from their precursors, and calling the precursors germ cells, seems to be overwhelming basic education, ...
Separation of somatic and germ cells[edit]. In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a ... Chen, L.; Xiao, S.; Pang, K.; Zhou, C.; Yuan, X. (2014). "Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal ... true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells (i.e. sperm and egg cells ... sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell line evolved. However, Weismannist development is relatively rare (e.g. vertebrates, ...
Germ theory of disease[edit]. Main article: Germ theory of disease. East German postage stamps depicting four antique ...
Fermentation and germ theory of diseases. Pasteur was motivated to investigate fermentation while working at Lille. In 1856 a ... Today, he is often regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory.[8] Pasteur made significant discoveries in chemistry, most ... His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is ... There is no known circumstance in which it can be confirmed that microscopic beings came into the world without germs, without ...
Germ layers[change , change source]. Among animals, sponges show the simplest organization, having a single germ layer. ... Development of germ layers[change , change source]. The purpose of gastrulation is to position the 3 embryonic germ layers, the ... Gastrulation of a diploblast: The formation of germ layers from a (1) sphere of cells (the blastula) to a (2) gastrula. Some of ... Cnidaria and ctenophores show an increase in complexity, having two germ layers, the endoderm and ectoderm. All higher animals ...
Germs. We treat bacteria as an ever-present enemy even though there are only a small number that actually cause disease, and by ...
"Germs". *"Polka Power!". *"Your Horoscope for Today". *"It's All About the Pentiums" ...
Germs. 6 (3): 106-10. doi:10.11599/germs.2016.1097. PMC 5018387. PMID 27622163. Laber KE, Whary MT, Bingel SA, Goodrich JA, ...
GI) - Germs". AllMusic. Retrieved October 4, 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Germs: (GI)". Mojo. p. 105. [A] ... In 2012, (GI) was reissued on CD with "Caught in My Eye" as a bonus track, after "Shut Down". After the Germs recorded for ... GI) is the only studio album by American punk rock band the Germs. Often considered the first hardcore punk album, it was ... The album's title is an acronym for "Germs Incognito", an alternate name the band used to obtain bookings when their early ...
Episode Season 2, Episode 3. Caulfield, Timothy (2018). "Germs". A User's Guide to Cheating Death. Episode Season 2, Episode 4 ...
Germ., rodzaj kocimiętka (Nepeta L.)[9]. Gatunki flory Polski[7]. *kocimiętka Mussina (Nepeta mussinii Spreng. ex Henckel) - ...
It is expressed in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ ... CD117 and CD30 in germ cell tumors]". Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology (in Chinese). 34 (11): 711-5. ...
Germ cell tumor. Bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin. BEP. Stomach cancer[2]. Epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil. ECF. ...
Orva, Rosa; Orva, David (April 1998). "Germ line Mosaicism". Human Genetics. 102: 381-6. doi:10.1007/s004390050708. PMID ...
"Germs are Us. Bacteria makes us sick. Do they also keep us alive?" The New Yorker by Michael Specter. October 22, 2012. http:// ...
The NCLs present with progressive loss of visual function and neurodevelopmental decline, seizure, myoclonic jerks and premature death. The CTSD gene is one of the identified eight genes the deficiency of which is responsible for NCLs.[10] It has been reported that a homozygous single nucleotide duplication in exon 6 could alter the reading frame and causes a premature stop codon at position 255. Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. This protease has been regarded an independent marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer being correlated with the incidence of clinical metastasis.[21][22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus, indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal.[9] It is also reported that there might be a strong effect for CTSD genotype on Alzheimer disease risk in male.[23] Cathepsin D ...
Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ... Germ line DNA repair mutations are noted on the figure's left side. However, such germline mutations (which cause highly ...
Germ cell tumor Seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. Other germ cell tumors are: Endodermal sinus tumor and ... "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2017-12-01.. ... Meiosis is the general process in eukaryotic organisms by which germ cells are formed, and it is likely an adaptation for ... Germ cell tumors (ICD-O 9060-9119) (C45-C49/D17-D21, 171/214-215) ... from germ line DNA.[20] (see Meiosis and Origin and function of ...
The Germs endured for one more year before finally disbanding in 1980 after Crash killed himself. Following the demise of the ... It was there that he met vocalist Darby Crash, alongside whom he would play in the Germs in the late 1970s. Smear and Crash ... For most of his time in the Germs, Smear reported that he didn't own a guitar but rather "just borrowed from whoever we were ... Of the Germs. Of Circle One. Everything". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2007. ...
Germs, Kuya. "Billy Crawford, kinukuha ng GMA 7". Sanga-sangandila: Makikita ang bf ni Jolina sa 'Magpakailanman ... See Thats Entertainment column of Master Showman Kuya Germs, February 6, 2006, Ang Pilipino Star Ngayon See also A Little Bit ...
Georgie's Germs; Pest of the West; and The Tiddlers). Long before the Fantastic Four joined the lineup, John M. Burns' Kelpie ... Junior Spy and Georgie's Germs, in which Baxendale attempted to break the mould of older strips by the use of bizarre humour, ... artists including Graham Allen Frankie Stein by Ken Reid General Nitt and his Barmy Army by Leo Baxendale Georgie's Germs by ...
Germ-Fighting Zim and Germy GIR. (from "Germs"). Zim in his Old Man disguise with Doggy Suit GIR (from Walk of Doom). On ... Hot Topic also made an exclusive which includes Zim with his germ fighting equipment and a germ-covered Doggy suit GIR. There ... are 8 Invader Zim plush toys to date, which include alien Zim, Zim in his germ-prevention suit, GIR in his robot form, GIR in ...
"Girl Germs". Rookie. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-11. "Vazzko Alien Dance". 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-20. "The force ... "Girl Germs", its list of favorite riot grrrl songs. Lucid Nation provided the music for deaf Muslim punk playwright and ...
Hedberg, Sally; Raidt, Dana (May 19, 2014). "L'Assassins Talk Garage Rock and Thee Headcoatees". Girl Germs. Retrieved October ...
Primordial germ cellsEdit. In mouse primordial germ cells, genome-wide reprogramming leading to totipotency involves erasure of ... Western P (2009). "Foetal germ cells: striking the balance between pluripotency and differentiation". Int. J. Dev. Biol. 53 (2- ... Seydoux G, Braun RE (December 2006). "Pathway to totipotency: lessons from germ cells". Cell. 127 (5): 891-904. doi:10.1016/j. ... Lawson KA, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA (1991). "Clonal analysis of epiblast fate during germ layer formation in the mouse embryo". ...
Mysophobia, germophobia - fear of germs, contamination or dirt. N *Necrophobia - fear of death or the dead ...
ISBN 0-387-19844-X. Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 210. ISBN 0-393-03891-2. "Special ...
Episode: "Germs of Endearment" 2017 The Fake News with Ted Nelms Ted Nelms TV special; also creator, writer, and executive ...
What Types of Germs Are There?. Germs are found all over the world, in all kinds of places. The four major types of germs are ... How Can You Protect Yourself From Germs?. Most germs are spread through the air in sneezes, coughs, or even breaths. Germs can ... What Do Germs Do?. Once germs invade our bodies, they snuggle in for a long stay. They gobble up nutrients and energy, and can ... Germs are so small and sneaky that they creep into our bodies without being noticed. In fact, germs are so tiny that you need ...
Germs are tiny organisms that can cause disease - and theyre so small that they can creep into your system without you ... What Are Germs?. The term germs refers to the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. ... Washing hands well and often is the best way to prevent germs from leading to infections and sickness. ...
Germs, And Steel. Briefly, European and Asian people had lots of domestic animals from which to acquire germs ancestral two- ... Guns, Germs, and Steel is a PBS Program Club pick. Dr. Jared M. Diamond is professor of geography, environmental health ... Washington, D.C.: I loved reading Guns, Germs and Steel a few years ago, and recently read of Spencer Wells work tracing human ... Jared M. Diamond, host and consultant for Guns, Germs, and Steel, and author of its newly revised companion book, was online ...
Study: Dysons powerful jet dryers may spread 1,300 times more germs than paper towels. *Sean Kane, Tech Insider ... Your supermarket is filled with germs - here are 7 facts that will make you dread grocery shopping. *Joanna Fantozzi ... The most popular way of avoiding bathroom germs is bogus - heres what you should do instead. *Erin Brodwin ... If you really want to avoid germs, you should stop doing this popular birthday tradition. *Erin Brodwin ...
Stopping the spread of germs is as easy as thoroughly washing your hands or covering your mouth when you sneeze or cough. Raise ... The main types of germs are bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.. How do germs spread?. There are different ways that germs ... Germs: Learn How Germs Work and What You Can Do to Protect Yourself (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also ... There are also germs on your skin and in your body. Many germs live in and on our bodies without causing harm. Some even help ...
It produces and protects good germs for your gut. Thats the theory from surgeons and immunologists at Duke University Medical ... Its location _ just below the normal one-way flow of food and germs in the large intestine in a sort of gut cul-de-sac _ helps ... If a persons gut flora dies, they can usually repopulate it easily with germs they pick up from other people, he said. But ... Also, the worm-shaped organ outgrowth acts like a bacteria factory, cultivating the good germs, Parker said. ...
Infectious diseases are caused by four main kinds of germs. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent ... Germs: Learn How Germs Work and What You Can Do to Protect Yourself (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also ... Germs, or microbes, are found everywhere - in the air, soil, and water. There are also germs on your skin and in your body. ... There are four main kinds of germs:. *Bacteria - one-celled germs that multiply quickly. They may give off toxins, which are ...
A lot of public places have more germs than a toilet seat. See you where bacteria and viruses lurk, from playgrounds to ... Where do all those germs go? Maybe into that old-fashioned wall-mounted dryer. A new study says theyre spreading germs with ... Even though you go there to get healthy, the place is home to a wide range of germs. Thats because bacteria make the leap from ... What about those fancy jet dryers? One group of researchers says they, too, shoot germs into the air at warp speed. But their ...
Germs and Bacteria. If they make it into circulation, they can make you sick. Lennox PureAir® Air Purification system ... ... Germs and Bacteria. If they make it into circulation, they can make you sick. Lennox PureAir® Air Purification system combats ... 90% of germs and bacteria down to .01 micron*. Watch the video to learn more.. *One micron = 1/25,000 of an inch in diameter. ...
Taking a trip during cold and flu season but want to avoid germs? Boost your chances of healthy travel by taking a few ... So what can you do to stay one step ahead of cold and flu germs while flying? Experts offered these tips. ... Many people worry that theyre more susceptible to cold and flu germs while sitting inside a plane for hours with hundreds of ... If youre on a cruise, dont ruin your trip with much concern about germs, experts say. But realize that in the semi-confined ...
... there are things you can do to help make surfaces in your home and workplace less hospitable to a variety of germs. Germs pass ... Although it is impossible to eradicate every germ around you, ... Germs do like to live on bars of soap, but they are typically ... Sanitization and Germs. Although it is impossible to eradicate every germ around you, there are things you can do to help make ... Germs pass freely to and from surfaces, and this category will enlighten the curious and aid the phobic with various tips, ...
Indeed, efforts are already underway to incorporate these into food wraps (see Germ-killing plastic wrap at Germ-killing ... Staging germ warfare in foods. Science News 153(Feb. 7):89. Available at [Go to].. Travis, J. 2000. Viruses that slay bacteria ... Final populations were less than a thousandth of the starting count-or on the order of about 1,000 germs. Thats about 10 times ... However, the safest approach, she says, may be to pair this germ-killing strategy with another so that one technique can mop up ...
Salmonella likes it in orbit, and not just for the view.. According to research conducted on the International Space Station (ISS), the effects of microgravity trip a switch in the bacterium that makes it much more virulent. The findings, which are to be published in PNAS Online Early Edition suggest astronauts could be at greater risk of developing infections on long space flights.. Although bad news for space-farers, the research could pave the way for better disease control on Earth, the researchers said.. Cheryl Nickerson and colleagues at the Centre for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, sent up flasks of salmonella on the STS-115 mission to the ISS. They wanted to discover whether or not spaceflight would affect gene expression and the disease-causing potential of a microbial pathogen.. The flask stayed aboard the ISS for just 24 hours. According to The Times, the experiment was kicked off by astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper. She opened a chamber in the ...
The number one germ zone? Food spills.) Keep It Clean:Regularly swipe the inside of your car with disinfecting wipes. Be more ... So while you may be diligent, the guy who poured the ketchup before you may not have been, which means his germs are now on ... Germs (the catchall name for bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms) are everywhere -- at home, in the office, even in ... Although the metal part of the disposal produces ions that can help kill germs, they still love to grow on the crevices in and ...
Guns, Germs, Steel and Now, TV. Why were some cultures able to conquer others? Why do some populations barely scrape by when ... I think it is unusual to do it to the extent I did it in Guns, Germs, and Steel. My professional background is as a scientist ... Or is geography the answer? Thats what Jared Diamond posits in Guns, Germs, and Steel, a Pulitzer Prize-winning book and, now ... The Norse lost their guns, germs and steel and came into conflict with the Inuit. If European brains had been the advantage, ...
germ (third-person singular simple present germs, present participle germing, simple past and past participle germed) ... See Wikipedia article on cereal germ.. *(figuratively) The origin of an idea or project. the germ of civil liberty. *. 1899 Feb ... germ in Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.. *germ in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The ... Retrieved from "" ...
Concerns about airborne diseases and flu pandemics coupled with increasing passenger concerns about environmental conditions are prompting some aircraft designers to take a closer look at ventilation systems. In many instances, improvements in air quality and cleanliness are being expedited by using design tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
How to Clean Germs Off Your Sponges the Easy Way (Video) This fast fix shows us how to clean germs off of a sponge the easy way ... Eat the Seeds: Why the Germs Found Inside Apples May Be Good for You ...
But humans are resilient too, and weve known for decades about "good germs" that can resist or defeat "bad germs" in our ... There are even germs that display "amphibiosis": They can be good or bad depending on which other microbes are present, or on ... Save the Germs. With modern medicine killing off whole categories of bacteria and viruses - including benign ones that promote ... The key to understanding the proposal is that not all germs are bad. Some bacteria and viruses aid digestion; others regulate ...
... Alison Young, USA TODAY Published 11:18 a.m. ET Jan. 4, 2017 , Updated 7:11 p.m ... CDC keeps secret its mishaps with deadly germs. The CDC is keeping secret large swaths of information about dozens of recent ... CDC keeps secret its mishaps with deadly germs The CDC is keeping secret large swaths of information about dozens of recent lab ...
Killer Germs takes readers on a fascinating (sometimes horrifying) journey into the amazing world of viruses, bacteria, ... Killer Germs: Microbes and Diseases that Threaten Humanity. Barry E. Zimmerman,David J. Zimmerman. No preview available - 1996 ... Germs.html?id=mNJu5Pq8BwQC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareKiller Germs. ... Killer Germs takes readers on a fascinating (sometimes horrifying) journey into the amazing world of viruses, bacteria, ...
How many germs are on your toothbrush? See how to store and keep your toothbrush clean from the millions of bacteria that can ... Most of these germs already exist in your mouth so you probably wont get sick from them. However, if others use your ... While some of these products do kill some germs, there is no evidence using them will reduce your risk of illness. ... Brushing your teeth, particularly with an electric toothbrush, can actually push germs under your gums, says R. Thomas Glass, ...
More from Eliminate Germs from Your Life. So where are some of the hottest spots for germs this holiday season ... More from Fight Household Germs. Madeline Haller Im the social media editor for, as well as a ... Studies have shown that 71 percent of gas pump handles are contaminated with of germs that are associated with a high risk of ... In fact, according to a study by Kimberly-Clark Professional, at least 43 percent of escalator rails are crawling with germs. " ...
Also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, germ theory was first suggested in the fourth century BC by Greek philosopher ... Germ Theory The germ theory is a fundamental tenet of medicine that states that microorganisms, which are too small to be seen ... Democritus (c. Source for information on Germ Theory: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary. ... Germ Theory. The germ theory is a fundamental tenet of medicine that states that microorganisms, which are too small to be seen ...
Germ Warfare. Were obsessed with cleanliness-but now the bugs are fighting back.. Kiera ButlerNovember/December 2008 Issue * ... Germ" Gerba, Americas most widely cited public hygiene expert, gave his son the middle name Escherichia-the E in E. coli. ... Purells Force Sanitizer Military Bottle is sold to GIs as "a fistful of protection in the war on germs." ... package included a microbe-killing ultraviolet wand and a copy of The Germ Freaks Guide to Outwitting Colds and Flu. ...
Some researchers suggest the wipes arent very good at killing germs. They may remove them from your counter, but the germs ... Battling germs that keep getting stronger. Every year, 250,000 Canadians pick up infections while they are in hospitals being ... The Canadian Paediatric Society says handwashing remains the most effective way to fight the spread of germs. As for ... Theyre in millions of homes and workplaces across the country: antibacterial wipes that are designed to kill germs and protect ...
Hard-to-treat superbugs are an increasing problem as widespread use of antibiotics produces new germs that are drug-resistant- ... Watnoski is all too aware of the destruction a tiny, unseen germ can wreak. Two of the most dangerous and most common bugs that ... These facts underline the urgent need for all health facilities to adopt the best practices to stop the spread of germs- ... Hard-to-treat superbugs are an increasing problem as widespread use of antibiotics produces new germs that are drug-resistant- ...
Dog owners and their pets may exchange harmful mouth bacteria that can cause gum disease and tooth decay in both humans and canines, according to a report.
  • The term 'germs' refers to the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. (
  • Also, the worm-shaped organ outgrowth acts like a bacteria factory, cultivating the good germs, Parker said. (
  • Bacteria - one-celled germs that multiply quickly. (
  • Germs (the catchall name for bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms) are everywhere -- at home, in the office, even in your car. (
  • Killer Germs takes readers on a fascinating (sometimes horrifying) journey into the amazing world of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and worms and explores the roles they have played in shaping the course of human history. (
  • The development of the germ theory was made possible by the certain laboratory tools and techniques that permitted the study of bacteria during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. (
  • Childhood exposure to bacteria and other germs may help build immunity to various microbes later on in life, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) claim in a new study. (
  • According to Carrie Gann of ABC News , this belief is known as the "hygiene hypothesis," and suggests -- in contrast to the common belief that people should strive to remain germ free regardless of circumstances -- that bacteria and other germs may be "a necessary part of a healthy immune system, helping our body's defenses beef up and fight future illnesses. (
  • The BWH researchers report that, after studying the immune systems of both "germ-free mice" and those who have received normal exposure to bacteria and other microbes, they discovered that the germ-free mice "had exaggerated inflammation of the lungs and colon resembling asthma and colitis, respectively. (
  • Philip Tierno, a professor of microbiology and pathology at the New York University School of Medicine and author of the book, "The Secret Life of Germs," said bacteria from the skin, such as staphylococcus , can be found on clothing and towels. (
  • You may have been relying on your detergent to get rid of all the dirt and germs, but if you're not using bleach or very hot water, you're not killing the bacteria -- they're getting on your hands and staying in the washing machine. (
  • In 1972 a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association studied bacteria from 200 coins and bills and found harmful germs like fecal bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus on 13 percent of coins and 42 percent of notes. (
  • She says her children are exposed to enough bacteria and germs in their daily lives at school and in day care so she tries to control what she can at home. (
  • The more porous the toy, the more bacteria and germs can grow. (
  • There is no way to get rid of all the germs in your mouth, but you can protect your oral health from bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses by taking good care of your health and practicing good oral hygiene. (
  • When you or your child must take antibiotics, talk with your doctor about choosing the least gut-disruptive drug available and consider taking probiotics (beneficial bacteria that may help protect against drug-resistant germs). (
  • How many defenses does body have against germs and bacteria? (
  • I know the germs and bacteria can enter through the eyes, mouth, and the nose. (
  • You know a sponge can harbor nasty germs, but dish towels are just as dangerous. (
  • Are they carrying the same nasty germs that made us sick in the first place? (
  • This would make more sense in a doctor's office or hospital where really nasty germs might be on the handle. (
  • But the door doesn't open by itself, so I often find myself stuck in the bathroom trying to figure out how to get out without getting any of those nasty, nasty germs on any of my skin. (
  • Nasty germs may be hiding way up in your nose, far out of reach of antibiotics. (
  • There are even germs that display "amphibiosis": They can be good or bad depending on which other microbes are present, or on their human hosts' genes, age or environment. (
  • Put simply, while we were nearly eradicating TB, the arsenal of wonder drugs - along with practices like elective cesarean sections, processing foods and purifying water - were carpet-bombing many good microbes, alongside toxic germs, that come with birth. (
  • Most importantly, the researchers discovered that exposing the germ-free mice to microbes during their first weeks of life, but not when exposed later in adult life, led to a normalized immune system and prevention of diseases," they added. (
  • Antibacterial soaps, sprays and detergents have tried to eliminate germs and microbes from our daily lives. (
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the terrifying plot lines of many a sci-fi film, there's no need to worry that germs in space might transform into ferocious, malevolent microbes that threaten the human race. (
  • That's why the new approach to microbes is directed at maintaining a healthy balance of germs throughout the body. (
  • Gerba added that day care centers and young children's classrooms are also full of germs, as are airplane toilets. (
  • And unlike non-native disease-causing germs, they are not dislodged by standard hygiene. (
  • Disease-causing germs often pass from one person to another on dirty hands. (
  • While it may come as no surprise that these are germy -- they are "touch" screens, after all -- one study found some disturbing kinds of germs on them. (
  • There are certain kinds of germs that sanitizers aren't great at getting rid of, and many people don't use them properly (not using enough or wiping it off prematurely, for example). (
  • Of the more than 60,000 kinds of germs, only one to two percent of them are potentially pathogenic," Tierno said. (
  • Although it is impossible to eradicate every germ around you, there are things you can do to help make surfaces in your home and workplace less hospitable to a variety of germs. (
  • Several scientific studies have shown that MyClyns can kill a wide variety of germs. (
  • The health department culture showed a variety of germs, including E.coli and the highly pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can cause antibiotic-resistant infections. (
  • mysterious personal tragedies befalling opponents of germ warfare. (
  • I have just finished reading a book by a man named Ken Alibek reguarding the Soviet Unions germ warfare research and development. (
  • A new Army study contending that germ warfare defense research poses no public threat contains information that other Army documents indicate is wrong or misleading. (
  • But other documents say a vast area of Utah's West Desert is likely contaminated with buried, unexploded germ warfare arms used in early testing.The new document also says open-air testing for germ research has always been small-scale. (
  • Claims that old and sick people died after scientists used them as guinea pigs in germ warfare experiments are to be investigated by the police. (
  • WASHINGTON -- Some scientists think they have figured out the real job of the troublesome and seemingly useless appendix: It produces and protects good germs for your gut. (
  • But humans are resilient too, and we've known for decades about "good germs" that can resist or defeat "bad germs" in our bodies. (
  • The trouble is that industrial environments, antibacterial drugs and sophisticated medical procedures can kill off those good germs while letting bad ones grow unchecked. (
  • There's no question that bioterrorism is here to stay,' said Dr. Tierno the author of The Secret Life of Germs . (
  • The constant wind probably keeps germs from staying on,' said Tierno, the author of 'The Secret Life of Germs. (
  • We always hear about things we can do to prevent the spread of germs in the workplace - the No. 1 being stay home. (
  • Beginning yesterday, pupils at the Eldersburg school will be offered a prepackaged hand wipe to use before eating lunch in an effort to prevent the spread of germs. (
  • The No. 1 thing to prevent the spread of germs is proper and consistent hand washing, and the kids just aren't doing it. (
  • Until the acceptance of the germ theory, many people believed that disease was punishment for a person ' s evil behavior. (
  • In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the development and general acceptance of the germ theory of disease caused a setback in medical thinking about scurvy. (
  • The researchers visited several times during peak 2015-2016 flu season to collect germ samples right after the airport's morning, noon, and mid-afternoon rushes. (
  • Most germs are spread through the air in sneezes, coughs, or even breaths. (
  • Coughs and sneezes release germ-covered particles in the air, he explains, and people catch illnesses by inhaling the particles pretty much immediately. (
  • You may think you know the obvious places that germs propagate -- the doctor's office, the soles of your shoes -- but many more germ-friendly locales are completely unexpected yet no less dangerous. (
  • Germs found in the doctor's tests included staph aureus, klebsiella, enterobacter and E. coli, which can cause various ailments. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics offers tips to help protect kids from germs at the doctor's office. (
  • Cold and flu season is officially upon us, and while kids can pick up germs anywhere from the school bus to the classroom to the playground, there's one place you might not think to take extra precautions but should: the doctor's office. (
  • Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest population of germ cells established during embryonic development and constitute the beginning of the totipotent state. (
  • As a consequence, translational control plays a central role in governing various germ cell decisions including the formation of primordial germ cells, self-renewal/differentiation decisions in the adult germline, onset of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation. (
  • Germs are microorganisms. (
  • The germ theory is a fundamental tenet of medicine that states that microorganisms, which are too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope, can invade the body and cause certain diseases. (
  • Mouth germs are microorganisms that live in your mouth that can cause tooth decay, infection, and diseases. (
  • The remaining 5-10% of germ cell tumors arise outside of the gonads: these are the extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors are related to developmental problems that occur prior to birth. (
  • Benign extragonadal germ cell tumors are called benign teratomas. (
  • Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors are subdivided into seminoma and nonseminoma. (
  • The nonseminoma germ cell tumors include: embryonal carcinoma , malignant teratoma, endodermal sinus tumor, choriocarcinoma, and mixed germ cell tumors. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors are quite rare. (
  • In young children, extragonadal germ cell tumors tend to occur primarily in the presacral area. (
  • In adults, extragonadal germ cell tumors tend to be in the mediastinum. (
  • Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors occur with equal frequency in boys and girls. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors occur with equal frequency in members of all races and ethnic groups. (
  • There does not appear to be any relationship of extragonadal germ cell tumors to any geographic region. (
  • The cause, or causes, of extragonadal germ cell tumors are not known. (
  • Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are primarily diagnosed in men between the ages of 20 and 30. (
  • Presacral germ cell tumors are primarily diagnosed in children under the age of six. (
  • Almost all pineal germ cell tumors occur in people under the age of 40. (
  • Germ cell tumors of the presacral area are diagnosed by either magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound imaging techniques. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors usually occur in teenage girls or young women. (
  • I just goes to show, germs grow into viruses and viruses become deadly, so while I was taking this topic a bit tongue and cheek - it really is more important than ever to be aware of what one touches throughout the day. (
  • Mosley took her concern to school administrators and the PTA , who backed her efforts to help stem the spread of germs, especially during winter when colds and viruses are prevalent. (
  • Keeping your distance from sick co-workers may not be enough to avoid contact with their germs: A new study shows that some viruses quickly spread through offices and other buildings, contaminating many surfaces in just hours. (
  • Hard-to-treat superbugs are an increasing problem as widespread use of antibiotics produces new germs that are drug-resistant-and few new medications are in the pipeline. (
  • What Types of Germs Are There? (
  • Among the types of germs that Dr. Philip Tierno has looked at, include those found on paper currency. (
  • The worst spot is the sandbox, with 36 times more germs than a cafeteria tray. (
  • This fingertip cover simply helps to limit contact with germs, while at the same time the device's antimicrobial components begins to break down contaminants that it comes into contact with. (
  • Don't assume that activities like using a public toilet mean greater contact with germs than others, like sitting at a desk. (
  • Charles "Dr. Germ" Gerba, America's most widely cited public hygiene expert, gave his son the middle name Escherichia-the E in E. coli. (
  • Charles Gerba, a professor of microbiology at the University of Arizona, has done extensive research on the germs that fester in our washing machines. (
  • Charles Gerba, a microbiologist and coauthor of The Germ Freak's Guide to Outwitting Colds and Flu , reveals germ hotspots and how to disinfect them. (
  • Compared to your kitchen sink, a bare floor is quite safe," says Gerba, who practically shudders at all the germs he's catalogued in drain traps, dishcloths, and sponges. (
  • And the University of Alabama at Birmingham found that fecal germs were on your toothbrushes too. (
  • Fecal matter can carry a number of different germs, including the hepatitis A virus, norovirus, rotavirus, salmonella and E. coli. (
  • The success of new treatments called fecal transplants and the new citizen-science initiative, the American Gut Project, are highlighting the importance of germs to our health and well being. (
  • If you've seen the television ad for the anti-germ spray MyClyns, you no doubt remember the pivotal scene: A mom and her two kids sit at a dinner table, the little boy coughs on his sister and mom heroically grabs the spray bottle of MyClyns. (
  • Healthcare providers' hands can spread potentially harmful germs to patients, leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). (
  • Again, we're so concerned with icky bathroom germs that we often "nuke the toilet seat," but neglect the very space where we prepare and eat food. (
  • Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. (
  • Also questionable in the new report - according to other Army statements and documents - are statements that the Army uses only harmless materials in open-air tests, that the Army has not introduced new diseases into the environment and that virtually all records about germ research are open for inspection. (
  • The New York Times, ABC's Good Morning America, NBC's Today Show, the CBS Early Show and Self Magazine have all done stories about the alarming levels of germs found on gym equipment, and the National Athletic Trainers' Association issued a position paper recently citing that skin infections in athletes are extremely common and account for more than half of all outbreaks of infectious diseases. (
  • Germs may be responsible for most infections and diseases, but did you know that countless germs live in healthy people, too? (
  • Germs can also spread in sweat, saliva, and blood. (
  • Steering clear of the things that can spread germs is the best way to protect yourself. (
  • How do germs spread? (
  • However, if others use your toothbrush (or you use someone else's) germs can be spread. (
  • The Canadian Paediatric Society says handwashing remains the most effective way to fight the spread of germs. (
  • Like a particularly resistant germ strain, it has weathered dormancy and outright attack to spread its seeds to over 100 countries on all continents and to an estimated two million living speakers. (
  • How Quickly Do Germs Spread in the Office? (
  • So we asked the obvious question: how well do germs spread if one person comes to work sick? (
  • Anyone who has worked in an office has had suspicions about how quickly germs spread in an office but your study puts a time stamp on it. (
  • Employers are also told to provide employees with an effective, convenient means of disinfecting surfaces in the workplace to reduce the spread of germs. (
  • The researchers suggest that airports could offer hand sanitizer and frequently disinfect the trays to stop the spread of germs. (
  • Unlike other germs, Listeria can grow and spread even in the cold temperatures of an average refrigerator. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is urging doctors to take steps to stop the spread of germs in their practices. (
  • Staff clean furniture, books and items regularly but germs can spread on surfaces and you don't know who was there before you," Orringer said. (
  • They are taking action to minimize the exposure and spread of germs. (
  • Once ovarian germ cell tumor has been found, more tests will be done to find out if the cancer has spread from the ovary to other parts of the body (staging). (
  • Replacing cloth hand towels with disposable paper ones can also minimize the spread of germs. (
  • Germs pass freely to and from surfaces, and this category will enlighten the curious and aid the phobic with various tips, tricks, and methods of deep cleaning and sanitizing. (
  • That not only keeps germy droplets from traveling through the air, it also helps avoid the transfer of germs from hands to frequently touched surfaces like doorknobs , where others are likely to pick them up. (
  • Those surfaces may be teaming with germs, courtesy of individuals who didn't wash. (
  • NEW YORK, Aug 08, 2004 (United Press International via COMTEX) -- A test for germs on New York City surfaces found the door handle of the city's Department of Health had the greatest accumulation of E.coli. (
  • Though sanitizers claim to kill 99.9 percent germs on contact, this is true on inorganic surfaces and the percentage would be much lower for live or complex surfaces like hands. (
  • In the growing embryo, germ cells migrate to the immature ovaries or testes. (
  • Wheat germ is the part of the lower section of the wheat plant's embryo. (
  • We uncovered a host of surprising new spots where germs like to lurk, and offer easy solutions to keep you and your family safe and healthy. (
  • So where are some of the hottest spots for germs this holiday season? (
  • i'm testing to see if we've got any germs on the bathroom faucet handles, or the bathroom doors SPOTS. (
  • Certain items in your home receive lots of love from hands, and these spots tend to harbor a wealth of germs, including faucets and refrigerator handles, computer keyboards, light switches, doorknobs, remote controls, and phone handsets. (
  • They may remove them from your counter, but the germs stay on the wipe and are either deposited on the next surface you wipe, or enter the environment when the wipe is tossed out with the trash or flushed down the toilet. (
  • Apparently, they have more germs than a toilet. (
  • It turns out, those plastic bins that hold your cell phone, wallet, shoes, and other personal belongings contained more samples of germs than any other tested area in airport-including toilet flushers, elevator buttons, and the flight check-in machine. (
  • ANSWER {Let's start with the toilet: Unless the seat is wet or dirty (yuck), it probably harbors few germs. (
  • Flushing the toilet with the lid up can launch germs into the air, landing them on the door and faucet handles as well as (gasp! (
  • So what exactly are mouth germs, and what happens to them when you practice good oral hygiene? (
  • Battling a new generation of corporate giants and uncovering threats right in our own backyard, Kenneth King's Germs Gone Wild reveals the massive expansion of America's biodefense research labs and the culture of deception surrounding hundreds of facilities that have opened since 9/11. (
  • Miller, Engelberg, and Broad are also the co-authors of Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War , published by Simon & Schuster. (
  • In Good Morning America's tests, microbiologist Dr. Philip Teirno found the most germs on equipment used by "multiple people in quick sequence, such as dumbbells. (
  • It seems the Japanese don't even want to talk about icky germs. (
  • It's a haven that traps the germs of anyone who has been inside, which generally includes individuals who are ill. (
  • Mucous is a defense mechanism, it traps germs. (
  • Cover your nose and mouth when you sneeze and cover your mouth when you cough to keep from spreading germs. (
  • They're in millions of homes and workplaces across the country: antibacterial wipes that are designed to kill germs and protect you and your family from getting sick. (
  • Not too long ago, we thought of all germs as enemies to be destroyed with antibacterial soaps and antibiotic drugs. (
  • CDC keeps secret its mishaps with deadly germs The CDC is keeping secret large swaths of information about dozens of recent lab mishaps involving potential bioterrorism pathogens. (
  • But other documents say the Army in fact sprayed hundreds of gallons of liquids highly concentrated with deadly germs over Dugway Proving Ground. (
  • But numerous documents talk of dropping aerosols of deadly germs in the past from airplanes or firing them from towers at Dugway. (
  • To show the large amounts of germs that might have been used, Piller said just one test in 1958 dropped 40 gallons of deadly Q-fever slurry from an F-100A jet traveling near the speed of sound. (
  • Dr. Germ, for his unprecedented studies of which germs lurk where). (
  • One of the most effective germ-killers is the sun, so scientists say avoid the dryer altogether and let your clothes dry in the sun. (
  • Free your hands, wow your friends, avoid germs, conserve water -- did someone say avoid germs? (
  • Avoid spreading germs by giving each member of the family his or her own toothpaste tube. (
  • This involves getting as far away from aisle traffic as possible to avoid the flow of germs. (
  • With the £9.99 kerjigger you can avoid touching those second-hand germs entirely! (
  • Getting your kids to avoid handling their faces may be a hard sell, so focus on diligently washing your own hands to avoid spreading germs. (
  • Washing hands well and often is the best way to prevent germs from leading to infections and sickness. (
  • And hands are hardly germ-free. (
  • In each case, they could show the DNA from the keyboards and computer mice more closely matched DNA from germs on the hands of the owners than they did anybody else's hands. (
  • With his Germ Radio, the professor is a surrogate for the filmmaker: Tee Bee and his "tribe," as they are called, are really the most ancient "traditional culture" [sic] that Ulmer filmed during his ethnic period, and not the only one threatened with extinction at the hands of science and reason. (
  • This does not mean that keeping our hands germ-free is not important especially before and after certain activities. (
  • Hands-free, germs-free, logic-free. (
  • Home / Skepticism / Hands-free, germs-free, logic-free. (
  • Their reasoning is, dirty germ-ridden hands touch the regular soap dispenser which then gets covered in germs. (
  • You could go through your life automating everything so you don't have to touch anything and potentially pick up some germ, or you could take the easy route and just cut off your hands. (
  • It's getting us all talking about the role of germ transmission from hands. (
  • That metal aeration screen at the end of the faucet is a total germ magnet. (
  • You need water that's between 140 and 150 degrees to kill germs," said Tierno. (
  • The ultraviolet radiation kills germs," said Tierno. (
  • Another is to see these phages approved to treat the dreaded hospital germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most frequent bacterial cause of pneumonia. (
  • Jared Diamond's theories about the course of human civilization come to television in 'Guns, Germs, and Steel: A National Geographic Presentation,' a three-part television series produced exclusively for PBS. (
  • Diamond's Pulitzer Prize-winning book offers a look at the rise and fall of societies through the lens of geography, technology, biology and economics - forces symbolized by the power of guns, germs and steel. (
  • Guns, Germs, and Steel' is a PBS Program Club pick. (
  • In 1998 he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for the national bestseller 'Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies' (1997). (
  • And I discuss it briefly in the epilogue, the last part, of my book Guns, Germs, And Steel. (
  • That's what Jared Diamond posits in Guns, Germs, and Steel , a Pulitzer Prize-winning book and, now, a three-part PBS series . (
  • The Norse lost their guns, germs and steel and came into conflict with the Inuit. (
  • I think it is unusual to do it to the extent I did it in Guns, Germs, and Steel . (
  • It's been a pleasant surprise how widely Guns, Germs, and Steel has been accepted. (
  • We couldn't make the most of a healthy meal without these important helper germs! (
  • Even though you go there to get healthy, the place is home to a wide range of germs. (
  • I have small kids so I think I might remember feeling healthy, way back when I got decent sleep and didn't have little germ factories leaving messes everywhere. (
  • the other experiment found that gut germs from people with MS made mice more likely to develop the disease than did gut germs from their identical but healthy twins. (
  • But there is a group of tiny invaders that can make our bodies sick - they're called germs. (
  • But some germs can make you sick. (
  • Hospitals are constantly fighting a battle against germs that make patients sicker. (
  • Buses and trains also make excellent homes for germs, which is probably not a surprise to folks who have sat beside someone who coughed through the commute, or have gripped a community bar, railing, or handle for stabilization. (
  • Those germs can make you sick if they get into the body. (
  • Why do germs make us so squeamish? (
  • Devotees of Ulmer's way with a budget will be interested to know that Goodbye, Mr. Germ was budgeted at $4,799.75 and cost $5,410.13 to make. (
  • Or you might touch a contaminated armrest or tray table and transfer the germs to your eyes or nose by hand. (
  • The TV ad says that MyClyns 'kills 99% of germs and is safe for the eyes, nose and mouth where germs can enter your body. (
  • ANSWER {The drug-resistant germs you've heard about are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile (often referred to as C. diff). (
  • MyClyns undoubtedly kills germs, says Dr. Marc Eckstein, professor of emergency medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC and medical director for the Los Angeles Fire Department . (
  • Since it kills so many germs without any harsh chemicals, MyClyns could be useful for cleaning doorknobs or countertops, says Dr. Jeffrey Kahn , chief of the division of pediatric infectious disease at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. (
  • Along with bran, germ is often a by-product of the milling that produces refined grain products. (
  • Cereal grains and their components, such as wheat germ oil, rice bran oil, and maize, may be used as a source from which vegetable oil is extracted, or used directly as a food ingredient. (
  • Non-whole grain methods of milling are intended to isolate the endosperm, which is ground into flour, with removal of both the husk (bran) and the germ. (
  • Remember the words that germs fear - soap and water. (
  • The society says if you want to go beyond soap and water, a solution of diluted bleach - nine parts water to one part bleach - is an effective germ killer. (
  • News : Could Germs in Your Gut Send You Into Depression? (
  • A schoolwide poster contest and a series of 'Germ Buster' commercials presented on the school's in-house morning news program are spurring pupil interest and enthusiasm for the effort. (
  • By looking at samples of blood, pee, and other fluids under a microscope or sending these samples to a laboratory for more tests, doctors can tell which germs are living in your body and how they are making you sick. (
  • In Germ Cell Protocols, expert laboratory investigators describe in step-by-step detail a series of powerful techniques for the molecular and genetic analysis of germ cells in a variety of different reproductive systems. (
  • A secret germ laboratory on Plum Island in New York. (
  • Throw wet sponges in the microwave on high for about a minute to zap away the germs and run any cleaning wands through the dishwasher. (
  • Germs thrive on the very e-reader you treasure, along with the tablet you saved up for, and the phone you can't put down. (
  • Similar to airplanes, movie theaters are another excuse for germs to thrive -- close quarters with a room full of strangers for at least a few hours. (
  • Last winter , a Rhode Island hotel's "Germaphobe's Dream" package included a microbe-killing ultraviolet wand and a copy of The Germ Freak's Guide to Outwitting Colds and Flu . (
  • If a person's gut flora dies, they can usually repopulate it easily with germs they pick up from other people, he said. (
  • Many people worry that they're more susceptible to cold and flu germs while sitting inside a plane for hours with hundreds of other travelers. (
  • Researchers like Jeff Leach , who has studied Hadza hunter-gatherers in Tanzania, and Cecil Lewis and Alexandra Obregon-Tito, who have worked with the Matses people in Peru, have documented that beneficial germs have been disappearing less often in less developed societies. (
  • People leave more than fingerprints when they touch stuff - they also deposit a tell-tale trail of germs that could help investigators solve crimes, U.S. researchers reported on Monday. (
  • People are a lot more aware of the germs that are around them," Hedlund says. (