The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A plant species of the genus LEPIDIUM, family BRASSICACEAE that is a fast-growing, often weedy native of western Asia. It is widely grown, especially in its curl-leaved form, and used as a garnish
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A plant genus of the family Orobanchaceae that is parasitic on the roots of other plants. Members contain the flavones, APIGENIN and LUTEOLIN.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The common name of stinkwood is also used for Zieria (RUTACEAE).
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A genus of aquatic fungi of the family Blastocladiaceae, order Blastocladiales, used in the study of zoospore formation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Diseases of plants.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for its peppery red root.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
The reproductive cells of plants.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant family of the order Hydropteridales, class Filicopsida, division PTERIDOPHYTA. They are aquatic ferns with quatrifoliate leaves resembling four leaf clover, creeping rhizome, and bean shaped sporocarps.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A plant family of the order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.
A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A plant genus of the family Oleaceae. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.

A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. (1/1498)

The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain.  (+info)

Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step. (2/1498)

Low concentrations of the glucose (Glc) analog mannose (Man) inhibit germination of Arabidopsis seeds. Man is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HXK), but the absence of germination was not due to ATP or phosphate depletion. The addition of metabolizable sugars reversed the Man-mediated inhibition of germination. Carbohydrate-mediated regulation of gene expression involving a HXK-mediated pathway is known to be activated by Glc, Man, and other monosaccharides. Therefore, we investigated whether Man blocks germination through this system. By testing other Glc analogs, we found that 2-deoxyglucose, which, like Man, is phosphorylated by HXK, also blocked germination; no inhibition was observed with 6-deoxyglucose or 3-O-methylglucose, which are not substrates for HXK. Since these latter two sugars are taken up at a rate similar to that of Man, uptake is unlikely to be involved in the inhibition of germination. Furthermore, we show that mannoheptulose, a specific HXK inhibitor, restores germination of seeds grown in the presence of Man. We conclude that HXK is involved in the Man-mediated repression of germination of Arabidopsis seeds, possibly via energy depletion.  (+info)

Cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase during postgerminative growth. Its expression and action on lipid bodies. (3/1498)

In cucumber (Cucumis sativus), high lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) activity has been detected in the soluble fraction prepared from cotyledons of germinating seeds, and the involvement of this enzyme in lipid turnover has been suggested (K. Matsui, M. Irie, T. Kajiwara, A. Hatanaka [1992] Plant Sci 85: 23-32; I. Fuessner, C. Wasternack, H. Kindl, H. Kuhn [1995] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 11849-11853). In this study we have investigated the expression of the gene lox-1, corresponding to the LOX-1 enzyme. LOX-1 expression is highly coordinated with that of a typical glyoxysomal enzyme, isocitrate lyase, during the postgerminative stage of cotyledon development. In contrast, although icl transcripts accumulated in tissue during in vitro senescence, no accumulation of lox-1 mRNA could be observed, suggesting that lox-1 plays a specialized role in fat mobilization. LOX-1 is also known to be a major lipid body protein. The partial peptide sequences of purified LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 entirely coincided with that deduced from the lox-1 cDNA sequence. The data strongly suggest that LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 are derived from a single gene and that LOX-1 can exist both in the cytosol and on the lipid bodies. We constructed an in vitro oxygenation system to address the mechanism of this dual localization and to investigate the action of LOX-1 on lipids in the lipid bodies. LOX-1 cannot act on the lipids in intact lipid bodies, although degradation of lipid body proteins, either during seedling growth or by treatment with trypsin, allows lipid bodies to become susceptible to LOX-1. We discuss the role of LOX-1 in fat mobilization and its mechanism of action.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of TPE4A, a thiol-protease gene induced during ovary senescence and seed germination in pea. (4/1498)

A cDNA clone encoding a thiol-protease (TPE4A) was isolated from senescent ovaries of pea (Pisum sativum) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of TPE4A has the conserved catalytic amino acids of papain. It is very similar to VSCYSPROA, a thiol-protease induced during seed germination in common vetch. TPE4A mRNA levels increase during the senescence of unpollinated pea ovaries and are totally suppressed by treatment with gibberellic acid. In situ hybridization indicated that TPE4A mRNA distribution in senescent pea ovaries is different from that of previously reported thiol-proteases induced during senescence, suggesting the involvement of different proteases in the mobilization of proteins from senescent pea ovaries. TPE4A is also induced during the germination of pea seeds, indicating that a single protease gene can be induced during two different physiological processes, senescence and germination, both of which require protein mobilization.  (+info)

Extragenic suppressors of the arabidopsis zwi-3 mutation identify new genes that function in trichome branch formation and pollen tube growth. (5/1498)

The plant cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in determining the direction of cell wall expansion, and ultimately the cell's final shape. However, the mechanisms by which localized expansion events are initiated remain obscure. Mutational analysis of the trichome (plant hair) morphogenic pathway in Arabidopsis has identified at least eight genes that determine trichome branch number. One of these genes, ZWICHEL (ZWI), encodes a novel member of the kinesin superfamily of motor proteins. Mutations in the ZWI gene cause a reduction in the number of trichome branches. To identify additional genes involved in trichome branch initiation, we screened for extragenic suppressors of the zwi-3 mutation and isolated three suppressors that rescued the branch number defect of zwi-3. These suppressors define three genes, named suz, for suppressor of zwichel-3. All of the suppressors were shown to be allele specific. One of the suppressors, suz2, also rescued the trichome branch number defect of another branch mutant, furca1-2. Plants homozygous for suz2 have more than the wild-type number of trichome branches. This suggests that SUZ2 is a negative regulator of trichome branching and may interact with ZWI and FURCA1. The suz1 and suz3 mutants display no obvious phenotype in the absence of the zwi-3 mutation. The suz1 zwi-3 double mutants also exhibited a male-sterile phenotype due to a defect in pollen tube germination and growth, whereas both the suz1 and the zwi-3 single mutants are fertile. The synthetic male sterility of the suz1 zwi-3 double mutants suggests a role for SUZ1 and ZWI in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. DNA sequence analysis of the zwi-3 mutation indicated that only the tail domain of the zwi-3 protein would be expressed. Thus, the suz mutations show allele-specific suppression of a kinesin mutant that lacks the motor domain.  (+info)

Molecular and biochemical properties and physiological roles of plant phospholipase D. (6/1498)

Recent advances have thrust the study of plant phospholipase D (PLD) into the molecular era. This review will highlight some of the recent progress made in elucidating the molecular and biochemical nature of plant PLDs as well as their roles in plant physiology.  (+info)

Root formation in ethylene-insensitive plants. (7/1498)

Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more below-ground root mass but fewer above-ground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated tap-roots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli.  (+info)

Differences in spatial expression between 14-3-3 isoforms in germinating barley embryos. (8/1498)

The family of 14-3-3 proteins is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and has been shown to exert an array of functions. We were interested in the possible role of 14-3-3 proteins in seed germination. Therefore, we studied the expression of 14-3-3 mRNA and protein in barley (Hordeum distichum L.) embryos during germination. With the use of specific cDNA probes and antibodies, we could detect individual expression of three 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3A, 14-3-3B, and 14-3-3C. Each homolog was found to be expressed in barley embryos. Whereas protein levels of all three isoforms were constant during germination, mRNA expression was found to be induced upon imbibition of the grains. The induction of 14-3-3A gene expression during germination was different from that of 14-3-3B and 14-3-3C. In situ immunolocalization analysis showed similar spatial expression for 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B, while 14-3-3C expression was markedly different. Whereas 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B were expressed throughout the embryo, 14-3-3C expression was tissue specific, with the strongest expression observed in the scutellum and the L2 layer of the shoot apical meristem. These results show that 14-3-3 homologs are differently regulated in barley embryos, and provide a first step in acquiring more knowledge about the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the germination process.  (+info)

Iran is located in a hot and dry region. As a result of low precipitation and a vast area of salty and alkali soil, osmotic pressure is very high in most parts of the country (i.e., osmotic potential is more negative). In the present study four levels of osmotic pressure (-0.25, -0.35, -0.45, -0.50 MPa) were created artificially, by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and treatment of three seed types, namely, barley, corn and canola. The study aimed at finding the seeds with better germination potential under high osmotic pressure. The seeds germination potential under different levels of osmotic pressure was also investigated. The experiment was conducted with four replications at the Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, in a completely randomized design. Parameters under study were germination rate and germination percentage. Results showed that germination rate was not affected by osmoticpotential. Considering germination percentage, only osmotic potential of -0.50
Thirty European larch seedlots stored in plastic, screw-capped containers at 4°C for 3 to 24 yr were tested for their viability. The average germination percentage was 26.7% per seedlot. Fifty percent of all germinating seeds germinated by the 20th day after sowing and 90% had germinated by the 26th day. Correlation analysis indicated there was a significant negative association between years in storage and germination percentage and a significant positive association between years of storage and the number of days required to reach 15% germination. Although one seedlot germinated no seeds after 10 yr in storage, 21 of 30 seedlots, ranging from 3 to 24 yr in storage, maintained a minimum germination percentage of 20 ...
The low seed vigor and poor field emergence are main factors that restricting the extension of sweet corn in China. Spermidine (Spd) plays an important role in plant growth and development, but little is known about the effect of Spd on sweet corn seed germination. Therefore the effect of exogenous Spd on seed germination and physiological and biochemical changes during seed imbibition of Xiantian No.5 were investigated in this study. Spd soaking treatment not only improved seed germination percentage but also significantly enhanced seed vigor which was indicated by higher germination index, vigor index, shoot heights and dry weights of shoot and root compared with the control; while exogenous CHA, the biosynthesis inhibitor of Spd, significantly inhibited seed germination and declined seed vigor. Spd application significantly increased endogenous Spd, gibberellins and ethylene contents and simultaneously reduced ABA concentration in embryos during seed imbibition. In addition, the effects of exogenous
AbstractThis study was carried out to determine effects of salinity on germination and seedling development of commercially important common bean genotypes in Cameroon. The seeds of eight genotypes were used for both trials. The germination experiments were carried out on petri dishes in the laboratory while early growth trials continued in plastic pots in the screenhouse. Both stages were setup using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Germination and early growth trials of the different genotypes were studied using distilled water as control or osmotic potentials of 50, 100, 150 and 200mM NaCl to study the effects of salinity on germination and seedling growth characteristics. Leaf concentrations of Na+ and K+ were determined. At the germination level, germination percentage, germination index and the coefficient of velocity of germination decreased with increasing salinity while the mean germination time and time to 50% germination increased with increasing level of salt. All
Determining the relative role of various cues on seed germination in Mediterranean plants is important to understanding their response to variable conditions. We studied germination responses of 12 eastern Mediterranean Basin species (Alyssum caricum, A. minus, Carthamus dentatus, Daucus broteri, D. carota, Hypericum aviculariifolium, Muscari comosum, Onopordum caricum, Rumex crispus, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Silene vulgaris, Smyrnium rotundifolium) to different smoke and nitrate concentrations in laboratory. Smoke treatments resulted in significant increase in germination of D. carota, O. caricum, and S. spinosum, but had a negative effect on germination of Hypericum aviculariifolium. Of the 12 studied species, five showed significant improvement in germination after at least one of the nitrate treatments compared with the control. In total, smoke and nitrate treatments significantly increased the germination percentage in six of the 12 studied species. All the species that have smoke and/or ...
Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. belonging to the Apiaceae family, is well known for its medicinal and nutritional importance, endemic to Iran. Seed dormancy is a major problem present in Kelussia odoratissima leading to low germination percentage; thus, improvement of seed germination and breaking seed dormancy is important. Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus, promotes plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to evaluate the effects of different treatments of P. indica on seed germination traits of Kelussia odoratissima, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The experimental treatments were application of fungal mycelium of P. indica (M), spore suspension of P. indica (S), the combination of Gibberellic acid and fungal mycelium (H+M), the combination of Gibberellic acid and spore suspension (H+S), and control (C). Based on the results the highest percentage of
This study was aimed at unraveling the morphological effect of salinity on germination, growth and yield of S. lycopersicum, through inducement of salinity (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g NaCl). All the parameters considered: germination percentage, leaves number, stem girth, plant height and fruit quality, were significantly affected by NaCl treatments (salinity) compared with the control (no salinity). 100% germination was recorded only in control and 4 g NaCl concentration, though the percentage of germination was faster in control than within the 4 g NaCl. ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ plants’ growth till maturity, shed leaves, chlorosis and leaf burns around edges occurred due to osmotic imbalance and water deficit caused by salinity, which invariably had effect on leaf area, although the reduction in leaf area varied among tested NaCl concentrations. Fruits yield and quality of ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ treated with NaCl was poor and relative to the degree of saline inducements, with 10 g ...
Effects of the elephant gut and elephant dung on seed germination and early seedling establishment/growth were investigated in Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary using undestroyed seeds of 14 plant species sorted from fresh elephant dung between 1 June 1994 and 31 May 1995 and similar seeds extracted from fresh ripe fruits fallen on the forest floor within the same period both sown in fresh elephant dung and forest soil. Parameters measured were final germination success, germination time and seedling growth rate. Results indicated that two species, Panda oleosa and Poga oleosa, did not germinate at all after 365 d irrespective of their sources and media of planting. Germination success observed in ingested seeds was significantly different from that observed in seeds from fresh fruits. Germination success observed in elephant dung was not significantly different from that in forest soil. Mean germination time varied widely between species and treatments but was generally shorter in seeds that ...
  Arnebia benthamii is under intensive utilization because of its wide use as medicinal and aromatic plant resource. Self-propagation of this species is by both seed and vegetative propagation. In an effort to improve and promote the cultivation of this over-exploited medicinal herb, the effect of temperature and light on the germination of seeds was investigated with various presowing treatments of water and GA3. Germination was found to be temperature and light dependent. Though the seed viability was 82% as determined by tetrazolium staining, maximum germination of 100% was obtained only when the seed was soaked in 100 ppm GA3 solution for 24 h and incubated for germination at 25oC constant temperatures in 12 h light conditions. Barring this treatment all other presowing treatments, incubation temperatures and photoperiod treatments showed less germination. Mean germination time (MGT) was lowest at 25oC both in light and continuous dark conditions. The present study indicates
Seeds are the preferred method of propagation because they are abundant and easy to handle, but germination percentages can vary from 30 to 70% depending on such factors as species, season of harvest and the collection site within the tree canopy (El-Lakany, 1996; El … Casuarina equisetifolia is an evergreen tree and has a conifer-like appearance.The foliage of this perennial plant consists of slender, much branched green to grey-green twigs, bearing minute scale-leaves in whorls of 6 to 8. Casuarina cunninghamiana River Oak , River Sheoak , Creek Oak or Fire Oak is a species of Casuarina , native to New South Wales and Queensland , Australia . Get … Hence, This is likely to be an adaptive response to the environment, providing the germinating seed with an inbuilt source of moisture. Full sun - do not shade in early germination stages. In this dataset, the effect of Casuarina equisetifolia-L leaf aquatic extract on seed germination and growth of four selected plant crops (Maize, Lentil, ...
Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in sporesinner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75C heat activation times: 15 min for L-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine glucose fructose K mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates ...
I have given up too early on some seeds. It is perennial and only has to be bought once and will last a lifetime. I just googled, germination Thyme and the first link I clicked on says 21-28 days to germinate. Bean seed germination usually takes about eight to 10 days. Disclaimer - You must be over 18 years old to view/use this site does not encourage growing Cannabis or possessing Cannabis. When I can to work my raised bed for planting other stuff I was surprised that all the seeds germinated. If you have spent any time with plants, the term germination makes sense to you. Ill be sending good vibes your way. Nothing I have read says these need anything different or special to germinate them. The growth of a seed into a young plant or a seedling is called germination. Monitor your marijuana seeds at least two times daily. I do have a French tarragon plant growing (if it made it through the winter). Methods of Seed Germination. When you start out, it may seem ...
Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including Tamaizumi. However, a single mutation in TaABA8OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of Tamaizumi. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8OH1-A and TaABA8OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8OH1 expression, higher ABA content in
The genus Dirca L. (Thymelaeaceae) consists of three species of understory shrubs. Dirca palustris L. is sparsely distributed across eastern North America, D. occidentalis Gray is endemic near the San Francisco Bay, and D. mexicana Nesom & Mayfield is known only in one population in northeastern Mexico. Despite interest in the horticultural use of Dirca, plants seldom are marketed. Difficult propagation impedes production of Dirca. We sought to define protocols that promote uniform seed germination of all three Dirca spp. Endodormancy and paradormancy cause sporadic germination over several years under natural conditions, but endocarp removal, cold stratification, and treatment with GA3 increased germination percentage, speed, and uniformity. Dirca occidentalis was most responsive; up to 94% of seeds germinated after endocarp removal, 24 hours in GA3 at 50 mg·L-1, and stratification at 4 °C for 30 days. Treatments also were effective for D. palustris (up to 68% germination), but seeds of D. ...
Germination of purple sage [Salvia dorrii (Kellogg) Abrams] seed was evaluated under 21 temperature combinations (day temperatures from 5 to 30C and night temperatures from 5 to 30C) in two experiments: 1) cool-moist stratification; and 2) sandpaper scarification, leaching with water, or gibberellic acid (GA3). The quadratic responses of weighted germination percentage (WGP), a combined index of germination percentage and speed of germination, were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for all treatments. The interaction of day and night temperatures was significant (P ≤ 0.05) only for the 2-week stratification treatments and for the Expt. 2 control. Stratification increased WGP over the control. Optimal WGP for all stratification treatments ranged from 46% to 51%. Optimal WGP was the same for both GA3 treatments. Optimal WGP for 0.29 mmol GA3 occurred at 16C night temperature and 22C day temperature, and for the 1.44 mmol GA3 treatment at 18C night and at 30C day temperature. ...
Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16h, 18°C/8h) and optimum temperature (28°C/24h) between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the
spore germination is activated by a multitude of proteins and purine nucleosides. blood stream (18). The constant secretion of poisons prospects to fatal septicemia. Although spore germination is usually a critical part of the establishment of anthrax contamination (18), hardly any is well known about the signaling pathways involved with spore germination (28, 32). The first rung on the ladder in the germination procedure is mostly the binding of metabolites by germination (Ger) receptors (8, 23, 38). NVP-BHG712 These receptors are membrane protein mainly encoded by tricistronic operons. Up to seven Ger receptors have already been characterized in (13). Mixtures of Ger receptors could be involved with different interacting pathways for germination (13, 30). Generally a purine and an amino acidity are necessary for the effective germination of spores (2, 23, 37). Once germination is usually activated, some degradative events split up spore-specific buildings and proteins (24, 29, 34). Germination ...
spore germination is activated by a multitude of proteins and purine nucleosides. blood stream (18). The constant secretion of poisons prospects to fatal septicemia. Although spore germination is usually a critical part of the establishment of anthrax contamination (18), hardly any is well known about the signaling pathways involved with spore germination (28, 32). The first rung on the ladder in the germination procedure is mostly the binding of metabolites by germination (Ger) receptors (8, 23, 38). NVP-BHG712 These receptors are membrane protein mainly encoded by tricistronic operons. Up to seven Ger receptors have already been characterized in (13). Mixtures of Ger receptors could be involved with different interacting pathways for germination (13, 30). Generally a purine and an amino acidity are necessary for the effective germination of spores (2, 23, 37). Once germination is usually activated, some degradative events split up spore-specific buildings and proteins (24, 29, 34). Germination ...
Hakim, M.A., A.S. Juraimi, M. Begum, M.M. Hanafi, M.R. Ismail and A. Selamat, 2010. Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Afri. J. Biotech., 9: 1911-1918 ...
Ever wonder how marijuana plants grow? In this marijuana seed germination time lapse sequence, you can see the life of a cannabis plant step into the realm of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Generation of plasma functionalized water : Antimicrobial assessment and impact on seed germination. AU - Darmanin, Martina. AU - Kozak, Dmytro. AU - de Oliveira Mallia, Jefferson. AU - Blundell, Renald. AU - Gatt, Ruben. AU - Valdramidis, Vasilis P.. PY - 2020/7. Y1 - 2020/7. KW - Functionalised water. KW - Germination. KW - Microorganisms. KW - Plasma. KW - Seeds. KW - ESCHERICHIA-COLI O157-H7. KW - AIR. KW - INACTIVATION. KW - ACTIVATED WATER. KW - MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY. KW - O157/H7 87-23. KW - PLANT-GROWTH. KW - ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE PLASMA. KW - ALFALFA. KW - FOOD. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107168. DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107168. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85080060880. VL - 113. JO - Food Control. JF - Food Control. SN - ...
Changes in carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions during seed germination of fenugreek under water stress and GA^ treatment were investigated. The germination percentage was reduced with the decrease in the osmotic potential of seed media, reaching its lower value at -0.8 MPa. Sucrose was accumulated considerably which could have had a major contribution in the total carbohydrate, while monosaccharides showed a substantial reduction and polysaccharides demonstrated no consistent pattern of changes due to water stress. The response of total nitrogen was variable; it increased considerably in -0.1 and -0.3 MPa osmotic potential, then dropped sharply at -0.5 and -0.8 MPa. Similar behavior was found in TSN(Total Soluble Nitrogen), whereas protein-N changed only slightly and proline was accumulated substantially by decreasing the osmotic potential of the seed media. Although GA, application had no any promotive influence on seed germination under water stress, it caused considerable changes in ...
We laid down this experiment with two objectives. First to evaluate the germination and early seedling growth behaviour of rice seeds primed with water (hydroprimed or HP) and primed with zinc (Zn)...
Ruminska, A.; Suchorska, K.; Weglarz, Z., 1978: Effect of gibberellic acid on seed germination of some vegetable and medicinal plants
TY - JOUR. T1 - Barley germination. T2 - Spatio-temporal considerations for designing and interpreting omics experiments. AU - Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.. AU - Svensson, Birte. AU - Roberts, Thomas H.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing omics experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel ...
A pot experiment was carried at Patuakhali Science and Technology University to study the performance of some BARI wheat varieties under the coastal area of Patuakhali. Four wheat varieties viz. BARI ghom-23, BARI ghom-24, BARI ghom-25 and BARI ghom-26 were planted in the field to evaluate their comparative performance in respect of germination percentage, growth, yield and yield attributing characters. Among the four varieties, BARI ghom-26 showed superior performance irrespective of all parameters studied except total dry matter content (TDM) and yield reduction percentage. Among the BARI varieties, BARI ghom-26 produced greater germination (61.00%) at 13 days judge against to other varieties. The taller plant (47.91 cm), higher LAI (1.84), maximum TDM (17.37 g plant-1) and effective tillers hill-1 (18.08) were also obtained with the similar variety. BARI ghom-26 was also most effective to produce the maximum grains spike-1 (38.52), higher weight of 1000-grains (49.38 g), higher grain (3.35 t ...
Introduction. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is largely grown in South East Asia and generally consumed as chunky soup made from whole grain or split pulse (Zia-ul-Haq et al., 2011). Lentils are excellent source of protein and also rich in important vitamins, minerals, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, so often termed as poor mans meat (Bhatty, 1988). After chickpea, it is the second largest rain fed grown winter legume (Ayub et al., 2001). There is short time water availability under arid and semiarid environments so successful crop establishment depends on early, rapid and uniform seed germination under stressful conditions (Windauer et al., 2007). Nonetheless, chances for achieving a good crop yield would be high if the stress effect can be lessened at the germination stage (Afzal et al., 2012).. Lentil is usually gown in mid-winter when the soil temperature is very low for optimum germination. Seeds sown when, the soil temperature is 10°C or lower often injured by cold water ...
Senna alata is a plant with great medicinal value that belongs to Fabaceae family and grows as wild perennial shrubby species. Seeds of this species possess seed coat-induced dormancy. The seeds were subjected to different treatment methods and durations of exposure to break the dormancy and enhance germination. Treatments includes scarification with 60, 80 and 100% H2SO4 and HCL for 2, 4 and 6 min; exposure to 60, 80 and 100 0C dry (oven) and wet (hot water) heat for 2, 4 and 6 min; and soaking in water for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h. The experimental results revealed that seeds scarified with 100% H2SO4 for 4 and 6 min were the most effective treatments for enhancing seed germination (both gave 100.00% germination), followed by 100 0C wet heat for 6 min (77.50%) and 80% H2SO4 for 6 min (70.00%). Other treatments were less effective. The treatments that gave significantly higher germination percentages also produced low MGT (1.80, 1.73, 2.71 and 1.51 days, respectively) and increased ...
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Today at Fishhawk Creek Elementary, students in the gardening club participated in a lesson on seed germination. Students had the chance to learn about the germination process of many different types of seeds. This included pumpkin, squash, tomato, carnations, and pepper seeds as well as numerous others!. ...
In order to study the germination and growth of pepper seeds, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. The first factor was consisting of five cultivars of pepper (Marquiza, Cadia, California Wonder, California Wonder 310 and California Wonder 300) and the second factor was gibberellic acid with three levels (0 as control, 250 and 500 ppm), and the third factor was naphthalene acetic acid with three levels (0 as control, 50 and 100 ppm). The results showed that the highest germination percentage (89.9%- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), rate of germination (0.85- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), shoot height (95.99 mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar), shoot fresh weight (6.62 g- California Wonder 300 cultivar) root fresh weight (3.46g- California Wonder 300 cultivar), root length (15.85 cm- Marquiza cultivar), leaf length (5.36 cm-Cadia cultivar) and stem diameter (26.91mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar) were obtained from the concentration of
The genus Adesmia (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae) is one of the scarce forage resources at high altitude and arid zones of South America. Its germination behavior has not been examined. Seeds of Adesmia subterranea Cuerno de Cabra were pretreated with sulfuric acid (1, 3, and 5 minutes soaking) and mechanical scarification to determine their impact upon dormancy and percentage and speed of germination. Treatments were evaluated under a range of constant temperatures (5 to 30 degrees C) and 2 day/night cycles resembling the extreme environmental conditions of this species habitat. Water uptake and leachate conductivity were higher in the seeds scarified mechanically or with 5 minutes chemical scarification. These treatments also had the greatest total germination and rate at all temperatures in a petri dish germination test. However, in a cell tray experiment using a commercial substrate, the highest seedling emergence and rate were observed with chemical scarification (5 and 3 minutes). The high ...
One of the important strategies for increasing germination speed and germination percentage, to produce high-quality seedling and plant optimal establishment is seed priming. In order to evaluate reactions of a lentil seed to priming duration and concentrations of the applied material as priming, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with ...
Seeds of the Salsoloideae contain fully differentiated embryos. On imbibition, the embryo cells elongate and the spiral embryo uncoils and ruptures the thin seed coat. This can occur in as little as 10 min. Nearly all of the families showing very fast germination have small to very small seeds and little or no endosperm. Most species have soft, thin seed coats that imbibe water readily. All are from high-stress habitats, either arid or saline or from active floodplains, where they can rapidly exploit temporarily favourable conditions for germination. They exhibit one of two contrasting germination behaviours, either having seeds which all germinate within a very short time of wetting or having seed persistence whereby small amounts of rain cause germination of small fractions of seed from a long-living soil seed bank. Serious confusion in the literature in the use of the term opportunistic is pointed out and clarified ...
I had given -80 degree treatment to the arabidopsis seeds to kill the thrips. After sterilization and plating there is no germination? -- Kulbir Singh ...
Germination is a biological process important to herb development and agricultural production. sequence and expression pattern of a gene switch PF-04620110 quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and comparative in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. Introduction Seed germination is usually a biological process important to plant development, herb development and agricultural production. Strictly defined, germination PF-04620110 begins with the uptake of water by dry quiescent PF-04620110 seeds and ends with ...
Abiotic stress is a term to describe a complex syndrome of effects of various environmental stress factors (e.g. temperature, water availability, salt, heavy metals, pesticides, UV) if they severely deviate from a normal or optimal (non-stress) situation. The overall aim of the project is to generate knowledge and establish tools required to make the most vulnerable stages of the sugar beet life cycle, namely germination and emerged seedlings, more resilient towards abiotic stresses. Due to erratic weather and climate change in temperate growing regions an increase the abiotic stress tolerance during early season stages requires a strategic focus on germination and seedling responses to improve seed quality ...
Italian researches from the University of Bologna carried this work out to confirm the effects of homeopathically prepared Arsenic in the form of As2O3 45X on the growth of wheat seedlings. The results demonstrated a significant increase of germination rate and stalk growth with respect to control. Further work was done using this model to determine the effects of temperature, the time taken for the germination effects to become apparent, succussion number and potency level, as well as gene expression, on the wheat-germination effects of As2O3. From these experiments it was shown that As2O3 45X heated to 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 70 degrees C, induced a significant increase of germination rate vs. control, losing its effectiveness at 100 degrees C. A2O3 45x induced a stimulating effect on germination, that reached significance only after three months from beginning treatment. In regard to the number of succussions used to prepare the As2O3, a significant increase of germination was obtained ...
Italian researches from the University of Bologna carried this work out to confirm the effects of homeopathically prepared Arsenic in the form of As2O3 45X on the growth of wheat seedlings. The results demonstrated a significant increase of germination rate and stalk growth with respect to control. Further work was done using this model to determine the effects of temperature, the time taken for the germination effects to become apparent, succussion number and potency level, as well as gene expression, on the wheat-germination effects of As2O3. From these experiments it was shown that As2O3 45X heated to 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 70 degrees C, induced a significant increase of germination rate vs. control, losing its effectiveness at 100 degrees C. A2O3 45x induced a stimulating effect on germination, that reached significance only after three months from beginning treatment. In regard to the number of succussions used to prepare the As2O3, a significant increase of germination was obtained ...
Types of seed germination: It is of two types.Epigeal and hypogeal. Epigeal germination : In this type of germination, the cotyledons are brought
Citation: Williams, R.D., Bartholomew, P.W. 2006. Interaction of accelerated aging and p-coumaric acid on crimson clover seed germination.. Agronomy Society of America, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America Meeting. Interpretive Summary: ABSTRACT ONLY Technical Abstract: Several phenolic acids, including p-coumaric acid, have been described as allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination or seedling growth. Whether, in forage species, these effects are exacerbated by environmental stressors is not known. Accelerated seed aging (high temperature (41 C) and high humidity (100%)) reduces germination and seedling vigor, and provides some indication as to seed germination and seedling performance under stress conditions (eg., temperature and water stress). Thus, accelerated aging provides a means to determine how seed age might affect germination or seedling vigor in response to a stressor. Here we compare responses of aged and non-aged seed of crimson clover ...
Seed germination is a complex biological process which is influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. The effects of temperature on plant development are the basis for models used to predict the timing of germination. Estimation of the cardinal temperatures, including base, optimum, and maximum, is essential because rate of development increases between base and optimum, decreases between optimum and maximum, and ceases above the maximum and below the base temperature. Nonlinear growth curves can be specified to model the time course of germination at various temperatures. Quantiles of such models are regressed on temperature to estimate cardinal quantities. Bootstrap simulation techniques may then be employed to assure the statistical accuracy of these estimates and to provide approximate nonparametric confidence intervals. A statistical approach to modelling germination is presented and application is demonstrated with reference to replicated experiments designed to determine the effect
Gardening tips and tricks: seed growing. Want improve your seed germination success rate? Learn about the Germination Triangle and how to balance it...
Evaluation of herbicide potential of sesquiterpene lactone and flavonoid: impact on germination, seedling growth indices and root length in arabidopsis ...
The seeds need to stay moist but you dont want to drown them. Sounds like youre seeding in a 1020 flat with a humidity dome. The humidity dome will help retain moisture.. Im assuming youre also using a typical seed starting mix that contains a lot of peat moss. You can tell if the the mix is too dry for seeds to germinate if the color on the top has gone from black to brown. That still may not have a negative effect on germination if you can water it in time. I cover the inserts in my trays with plastic wrap and they usually dont need additional water until the seeds start to germinate and I have removed the plastic. If the humidity dome you have provides a decent seal it should be similar for you.. What did you plant and what is the room temperature where you have your tray? I usually start to see germination of tomatoes in a couple of days, eggplants and peppers after 7. I have my trays heated though to speed up germination. After 5 days you should have seen some form of life depending on ...
N the fall of 1940 several instances of delayed germination were I noted in freshly harvested samples of Vicland oats, a new variety recently described by Stanton (IO) .3 Certain samples when tested at room temperature germinated only 65% in two weeks. However, germination was increased to 95% or better when the seed was prechilled. As this variety was about to be released for commercial prod ~ c t i o n , ~ it seemed important to determine the extent and nature of the delayed germination. The immediate need for such a study was occasioned by the necessity of establishing a satisfactory testing procedure for making germination tests in order to judge freshly harvested seed as to requirements for certification.
Demographic recruitment processes, such as seed germination and seedling emergence, are critical transitional phases to the re-establishment of degraded plant populations, but often fail due to rainfall not supporting plant requirements. Using species from the widespread arid Australian perennial grass genus Triodia, we investigated the interactions of seeds in different dormancy states and their functional germination envelope in response to water stress after simulated pulse rainfall events. Seed dormancy was alleviated in Triodia species to varying degrees by wet/dry cycling or by removing floret structures from seeds. The seeds were then exposed to different rainfall frequency and quantity events mimicking the 25th, median, 75th and 95th percentile rainfall events found in natural habitats for the study species in the north-west Australian arid zone. Under 95th percentile rainfall conditions recruitment was highest, but still limited to 35% germination and 10% emergence of cleaned seeds ...
Dormancy is typically broken in the laboratory with a stratification period of 3 days this is known as the 3 day pre chill, and the use of a growth promoter such as potassium nitrate KNO3. However this year in many cases this regime is not enough to completely break the dormancy and we are retesting with a 7 day Prechill period and potassium nitrate. This is naturally causing delays with germination, as we are often retesting as many as three times to obtain the best possible result.. We know that you are anxious for results because we understand that good seed is in short supply, but unfortunately this season is shaping up to be a challenge for us all. We expect this phenomenon to persist at least until we get some very cold weather.. Germination tests are taking longer.. If you are experiencing a delay, please go on-line to see the status of your germination test. We are taking care to provide good notes and revised ETAs for your information.. Physiological dormancy is certainly a factor in ...
Diy plant mat: diy heat mat for seed germination the startup homestead, plant heating mat plant seed germination propagation, diy with outdoor patio paint on coir mat to plant a
During plug production, seed germination and seedling emergence is extremely important. The objective is to get as close to 100% emergence as possible. Some growers elect to germinate plugs in controlled germination rooms. There are a number of different designs, but all control light, temperature and humidity in the rooms. ...
Germination is also known as sprouting; it is also considered the first sign of life shown by a seed. The process of ... Germination is a process by which the seed develops into a seedling. The vital conditions necessary for this process are water ... 1858). "Germination". Household Words. 17 (418): 340-343. OCLC 1752326. ProQuest 7889762. Rowe, Jervis E. (2011). Crop ...
Halsall, Mark (29 October 2020). "How Isobel Parkin is Breaking New Ground". Germination. Retrieved 10 November 2020. " ...
Annuals Annuals; preparing a garden; germination; landscaping. Building a Backyard Greenhouse Greenhouse gardening; windbreak ...
Germination refers to the process in which an organism grows from a spore. Here, the conidia present within the body begins to ... Development of the fungus via spores is initiated through germination; this marks the beginning of fungal development. Spores ... Editors, B. D. (2018-02-11). "Germination". Biology Dictionary. Retrieved 2020-05-29. {{cite web}}: ,last= has generic name ( ...
... germination behavior; and spore shape. Detailed analysis and comparison of fresh specimens revealed that what had been ...
cotyledon The primary leaf or leaves of a plant embryo which upon germination develops into the seed-leaf or the first set of ... germination 1. of seeds, describing the complex sequence of physiological and structural changes that occur from resting to ... Unlike the coleoptile, the coleorhiza is associated with the root and does not emerge from the soil during germination. ... True synaptospermy is when the diaspore generally remains entire until germination, as commonly happens in species of Grielum. ...
Germination is hypogeal. Burial of seeds by squirrels seems to be important, but it is not necessary for the successful ...
Germination is hypogeal. Sometimes nearly 80 percent of the seed crop germinates. As a result, thickets and clumps of water ... Seedling development- After seedfall in the autumn, the seeds lie dormant until germination in late April through early June. ...
Germination indicated pregnancy. The type of grain that sprouted was taken as an indicator of the fetus's sex. Hippocrates ...
However, germination rates drop considerably at very cold seedbed temperatures. There are five subspecies of B. elongata: ... integrifolia seed germination". Journal of Range Management. 56 (6): 623-626. doi:10.2307/4003937. hdl:10150/643486. JSTOR ...
Germination is hypogeal. Alfaroa includes the following species (This list may be incomplete): A. columbiana, G. Lozano-C., J. ...
Wilde and Eames, 1952 Leaves broad; cones more than 12 cm (4.7 in) diameter; seed germination hypogeal. Syn. sect. Columbea; ... 1847 Leaves narrow, awl-like; cones less than 12 cm (4.7 in) diameter; seed germination epigeal Araucaria bernieri - New ... Produces recalcitrant seeds with hypogeal (cryptocotylar) germination, though extinct species may have exhibited epigeal ... germination. Araucaria bidwillii - bunya-bunya; Eastern Australia Section Intermedia. White, 1947 Contains only one living ...
Germination is unreliable. However, abundant new seedlings may unexpectedly form. Seedlings are unlikely to survive at lower ...
Germination is hypogeal. Mockernut seedlings are not fast-growing. The height growth of mockernut seedlings observed in the ... Hickory shuckworm (Laspeyresia caryana) is probably a major factor in reducing germination. Mockernut hickory produces one of ... Hickory species normally require a moderately moist seedbed for satisfactory seed germination, and mockernut hickory seems to ...
Germination is hypogeal; the first two aerial leaves are simple and opposite. "Flora Costaricensis" Fieldiana: Botany 40 40-42 ...
ISBN 978-0-88192-935-5. Birraux, D.; Fries, N. (November 1981). "Germination of basidiospores". Canadian Journal of Botany. 59 ...
Germination is erratic. However, roots and shoots can appear within six weeks. Cuttings strike well. Syzygium papyraceum - bark ...
Germination is epigeal. Very few seedlings have been observed in the field and most of those seen apparently do not live past ... In a greenhouse heated at 13 °C to 16 °C (55 °F to 60 °F), similar germination percentages were obtained but up to 24 days were ... Seed germination in petri dishes in sunlight is high: 70 to 80 percent within 10 days. ...
The seedlings show embryo dormancy and germinate the following spring after fall ripening; germination is hypogeal. Swamp ...
Germination indicated pregnancy. The type of grain that sprouted was taken as an indicator of the fetus's sex. Birth control - ...
Germination is hypogeal. In the past, cherrybark oak was classified as a variety (Q. falcata var. pagodafolia) of southern red ...
Germination is hypogeal. The leaves are pinnately compound, and are distinguishable from other species by their heavy ...
Seeds are best sown in the spring, germination is normally easy. Known germination tip; soak the seeds. Place in warm water ...
Germination is epigeal. It grows in uncultivated Olea europaea groves at altitudes of 50 to 200 meters near Kythrea in northern ...
Germination is unreliable. However, abundant new seedlings may unexpectedly form. Its distribution is from the Tia River west ...
Germination is epigeal. Under swamp conditions, germination generally takes place on a sphagnum moss or a wet-muck seedbed. ... After germination, seedlings must grow quickly to escape floodwaters; they often reach a height of 20-75 cm (up to 100 cm in ... After germination, seedlings must grow fast enough to keep at least part of their crowns above floodwaters for most of the ... Thus, a soil saturated but not flooded for a period of one to three months after seedfall is required for germination. ...
Bewley, J. D. and Black, M. (1994). Seeds: physiology of development and germination, 2nd end. New York, London: Plenum Press. ... It is a physical barrier to germination, not a true form of dormancy (Quinliven, 1971; Quinliven and Nichol, 1971). Seed ... This is because agricultural practice desires rapid germination and growth for food whereas in nature, most plants are only ... A simple diagram can be drawn of ABA inhibits seed germination, while gibberellin (GA, also plant hormone) inhibits ABA ...
Seed germination is epigeal. Produces 3-4mm wide, greenish to white sessile flowers with 5 petals. The flowers produce greenish ...
The stratifying seeds should be checked on a regular basis for either fungus or germination. If any seeds germinate while in ... "Germination of Tree Seed". University of Iowa Extension. Retrieved 2008-07-01. "Growing Milkweed". University of Minnesota ... Seeds of many trees, shrubs and perennials require these conditions before germination will ensue. In the wild, seed dormancy ... Scarification (botany) - process to improve germination by making seeds more permeable Vernalization - induction of flowering ...
Germination is very quick. BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on ...
germination, Sprouting of a seed, spore, or other reproductive body, usually after a period of dormancy. ... Home Science Biology Life Cycle, Processes & Properties germination germination summary. Actions Cite verifiedCite ... For the full article, see germination. germination, Sprouting of a seed, spore, or other reproductive body, usually after a ... and light exposure may all operate in initiating the germination process. The carefully controlled mass germination of cereal ...
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stuttgart, Arkansas » Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center » Docs » Germination procedures - ...
Posts about seed germination written by What Doctors Dont Tell You ...
All posts tagged with germination. * Birds help produce rare wild chili peppers through symbiotic relationships. ...
Seed germination begins when the first root breaks through the seed wall and ends when the first pair of true leaves begin the ... Successful germination depend on several factors occurring in harmony with one another. The seed must first be viable, or alive ... Germination is complete when the new leaves begin to photosynthesize energy from the sun to promote the plants growth. ... What Are the Five Stages of Seed Germination?. By Staff WriterLast Updated March 29, 2020 ...
Germination was evaluated seven, 14 and 21 days after sowing to calculate the germination rate index. The physalis fruit cold ... Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effects of storage and of film coating on the germination potential of physalis ... Seed coating increases the germination percentage and speed.. Keywords : Physalis peruviana L; cape gooseberry; physiological ... Does fruit cooling and seed film coating affect the germination potential of physalis?. Scientia Agropecuaria [online]. 2015, ...
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides comprehensive integrated biological information for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Germination Test Results of Seed Lots Variety name OR item number: Show All. ... Organic Seed at Fedco New/Returned Varieties Seed Quality Coated and Pelleted Seeds Germination Rates Catalog Codes Breeders ...
... rising soil temperatures could cause germination failure in 20% of tropical plants, and reduced rates in more than 50%, with ... Seed germination experiments can provide data on maximum, minimum, or optimum germination temperatures and are comparatively ... used data from seed germination experiments compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew to calculate germination tolerance ... Germination marks the first potential point of failure for a plant, and it is also comparatively easy to study. But global ...
Butternut Squash Germination. Sweet, tender and slightly smoky, butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) makes a versatile fall ... Moisture Requirements for Germination. Butternut squash seeds need consistently moist -- but not soggy -- soil to germinate. ...
Environmental Influences on Germination of Utricles and Seedling Establishment of Immigrant Forage Kochia ... Environmental Influences on Germination of Utricles and Seedling Establishment of Immigrant Forage Kochia. Title. ... Environmental Influences on Germination of Utricles and Seedling Establishment of Immigrant Forage Kochia. ... Environmental Influences on Germination of Utricles and Seedling Establishment of Immigrant Forage Kochia ...
Are there any other methods worth trying that result in high germination rates, or with less intensive methods? Any advice or ... Also Im curious about the germination of Epipactis Gigantea and E. Helleborine. Ive seen a few posts about these plants and ... We have received our Seed Order (thank you!) and have a few questions about the germination of certain Terrestrial Orchid ...
... germination occurring at −0.96 MPa. Physalis hederifolia seed germination was not significantly affected by substrate pH 4 to ... Optimal temperature for germination is diurnal fluctuations of 15 C within the temperature range of 10 and 30 C. Increasing ... Hanwen Wu, Rex Stanton, and Deirdre Lemerle "Seed Fecundity, Persistence, and Germination Biology of Prairie Groundcherry ( ... Hanwen Wu, Rex Stanton, Deirdre Lemerle "Seed Fecundity, Persistence, and Germination Biology of Prairie Groundcherry (Physalis ...
All the latest science news about seed germination from ... News tagged with seed germination. * Date 6 hours 12 hours 1 ... Proteins control light-induced seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. The seeds of a plant are relatively well protected ... AI system facilitates plant imaging from germination to root development. For plant biologists, understanding how plants grow ... Although some studies have demonstrated the effects of microplastics on seed germination, the impact of microplastics on the ...
Deminicis, B.B., Almeida, J.C.C., Malafaia, P.A.M., Blume, M.C., Abreu, J.B.R. and Vieira, H.D. (2009) Germination of Seeds in ... Lisboa, C.A.V., de Medeiros, R.B., de Azevedo, E.B., Patino, H.O., Carlotto, S.B. and Garcia, R.P.A. (2009) Germination of ... Nakao, E.A. and Cardoso, V.J.M. (2010) Recovery and Germination of Legume Seeds Passed through the Digestive Tract of Bovine ... Germination, Vigor of Seeds and Emergence of Fabaceae Seedling in Bovine Faeces () ...
PANICED QUESTION ON GERMINATION! Started by Kitchen Cottage (9.41). Replies: 16. Views: 7773 April 06, 2015, 02:21:24 pm. by ... Carrots germination. - The Accidental Smallholder. We provide help, support and advice for smallholders and aspiring ... You are here » Home » The Accidental Smallholder Forum » Growing » Vegetables » Carrots germination. ... its easy to get and is sterile but does not contain any fungicides or preservatives that would kill of the seed germinations. ...
... which could impact the vigor and germination of seed planted this year, according to the Iowa State University Seed Science ...
In experiments is obtained increasing germination by 15% and the germination time to 10%. ... Increasing the quality and germination gymnosperms by photonics methods Author(s): Alexey Iakovlev; Anastasia Durova; Sergey ... The results show that laser exposure of seeds has positive impact on growth rate, technical germination ability, root formation ...
germination time for strawberry seeds?. Gardening Reference » Gardening in 2006. « Prev thread: germinating seeds...., Next ...
Deliverables, publications, datasets, software, exploitable results
Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography ... Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography ... Results revealed that smoke obtained from G. biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then ... At low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations ...
Germination Experiment. Happy Spring! While we currently arent offering any programs during our social distancing to stop the ...
The first stage of growth is germination. Germination happens when the seed sprouts and starts to grow out of its shell. This ... The best temperatures for germination are between 20 and 25 degrees Celsius. It is important to note that soil germination ... Germination Process:. The first indication that your cannabis seeds have begun to germinate is when the root begins to emerge ... The germination process is divided into five stages:. 1) sprouting,. 2) radicle emergence,. 3) first true leaves (cotyledon),. ...
We are currently running some germination trials to show the impact the EM has when applied at sowing. ... Germination Trials. *28 August 2015. We are currently running some germination trials to show the impact the EM has when ... These trials focusing on Fodder Crops, Kale and Fodder Beet, were designed to show how EM can enhance germination. We had 6 ...
germination question. Discussion in First Time Marijuana Growers started by microwavez, May 27, 2010. ... Also, you may want to try this method: I ...
I have a few questions regarding germination. When can I expect seeds to germinate? Do Phrags require a dark period? And do ...
Hemp Germination and Seedling analysis with LemnaTec imaging and image processing tools provides added value in seed quality ... Germination is a critical step in plant growth, and simply speaking the young plant must pass two obstacles, first it must ... The first data type of interest is the germination rate, or emergence rate, i.e. the number of plants growing out of the soil ...
Not all soil is equal when youre talking about the germination of seeds. Starter soil is best for germination: it is light, ... Your Guide To Good Germination. We are fast approaching Canadas indoor seed starting time. Our days are longer now (thank ...
... genocide/germination The Mixtape Mixtape by Sshabazz/Dj W.I.Z Hosted by Dj W.I.Z ...
I know VERY little about seeds/germination etc. and I may be fooling myself. Can these radicles emerging be purely a result of ... Why I cant find any numbers the increased germination of using h2o2? Just noticed some toothpastes has also it because it ... Why I cant find any numbers the increased germination of using h2o2? Just noticed some toothpastes has also it because it ... Ive also been able to successfully germinate ...
  • Over 20% of plant species in the tropics may face temperatures higher than their maximum germination temperature … [and] over half of tropical species may have reduced rates of germination," warned study author Alexander Sentinella, a PhD student at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. (
  • By comparison, just 8% of species outside the tropics would exceed their maximum germination temperature in the next 50 years under the model projections. (
  • In fact, the study showed that some species have already exceeded their maximum germination temperature, suggesting that they may be in "extinction debt. (
  • Seed quality from the 2018 soybean harvest is considerably lower than what is seen most years, which could impact the vigor and germination of seed planted this year, according to the Iowa State University Seed Science Center (SSC). (
  • 10% and 20% PEG decreased the values for germination indices, such as germination percentage, coefficient of variation of germination time, germination index, and seedling vigor index. (
  • They found that many species - particularly those in the tropics - are already living outside their optima, and likely suffering reduced germination rates. (
  • Internal and extrinsic factors influence seed germination. (
  • Genetic, physiological and environmental factors influence seed germination potential by triggering a complex interplay of hormones, being GA/ABA balance the most important. (
  • germination , Sprouting of a seed , spore, or other reproductive body, usually after a period of dormancy. (
  • Germination is the process of an organism growing from a seed or spore. (
  • In addition, a laboratory test evaluated the efficacy of leachates from treated wood on spore germination. (
  • These disks were used for either copper analysis or spore germination testing against Gleophyllum sepiarium and Oligoporus placentus. (
  • Disks previously stored adjacent to MCQ- and CCA-treated wood were largely free of spore germination. (
  • Divide the viable seeds by the total number of seeds and multiply by 100 to determine the germination percentage. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the low seed germination of 12 varieties of Oregon grown monogerm sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L., using several methods to determine the germination potential. (
  • Optimal temperature for germination is diurnal fluctuations of 15 C within the temperature range of 10 and 30 C. Increasing osmotic stress levels reduced the germination under all temperature regimes, with less than 6% germination occurring at −0.96 MPa. (
  • The ideal temperature for germination of cannabis seeds is between 20-25 degrees Celsius. (
  • How To Select the Ideal Temperature for Germination of Cannabis Seeds? (
  • To know the ideal temperature for germination of cannabis seeds, it is important to understand the different stages of growth. (
  • The first data type of interest is the germination rate, or emergence rate, i.e. the number of plants growing out of the soil substrate and becoming visible. (
  • Analysing seed germination and emergence data with R: a tutorial. (
  • The methods were: (1) X-ray radiograph examination, (2) standard laboratory germination following official rules, (3) laboratory germination by hydrogen peroxide method, and (4) field emergence. (
  • In 2015, three new stratification protocols were tested against operational protocols on eight seedlots from three national forests to examine differences in speed of germination and total germination. (
  • No significant difference in speed of germination among treatments was observed, but the seeds stratified for 140 days in sand had significantly higher total germination than all other treatments. (
  • The speed of germination, as well as total germination, was higher for the hydrogen peroxide method than the standard method. (
  • It was determined that of the three laboratory methods investigated, no single method would give an accurate estimate of the total germination potential of a variety. (
  • This research studied the morphology of seeds and seedlings, in addition to obtaining information about the type and time of germination of sweet lemon seeds in five substrates (on blotting paper, between blotting paper, on washed sterilized sand, between washed sterilized sand and in paper roll). (
  • Afterwards, sown in the sand and kept at 25 ºC to monitoring germination and morphological description of the resulting seedlings. (
  • The primary factors contributing to low laboratory germination were: (1) undeveloped seeds, (2) abnormal seedlings, and (3) firm ungerminated seeds. (
  • Germination and early survivorship of seedlings under different management regimes. (
  • The results were quicker seed germination in the coir dust and larger sided seedlings. (
  • Transplant seedlings begun indoors when they are about 3 inches high - usually 5 to 6 weeks after germination. (
  • Seed coating increases the germination percentage and speed. (
  • Growers of small grain crops normally calibrate planting equipment to achieve specific plant populations per acre, even though the germination percentage of the planted seed is often unknown. (
  • Placing a specific number of seeds on the towel or placing the seeds in a specific pattern (like rows) will aid in the calculation of germination percentage. (
  • However, seeds treated in mild salt concentration at 25 mM of NaCl showed an increment of germination percentage and germination index. (
  • Under a worst-case climate change scenario, more than 20% of plant species in the tropics may experience temperatures too high for their seeds to germinate by 2070, according to an analysis of seed germination data compiled by the UK's Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. (
  • Under that same worst-case scenario, over half of tropical species may see reduced rates of germination by 2070 as well, the study reports, while many temperate species at high latitudes will move closer to their optimum temperature and may experience increased germination success as a result. (
  • Researchers found a higher risk of germination failure for species living closer to the equator. (
  • The study , published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography , used data from seed germination experiments compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew to calculate germination tolerance characteristics such as maximum, minimum, and optimum temperature for over 1,300 plant species, spanning every continent except Antarctica. (
  • For species at higher latitudes, increased temperatures may increase rates of germination," Sentinella explained. (
  • and have a few questions about the germination of certain Terrestrial Orchid Species. (
  • Very often, seed scientists need to compare the germination behavior of different seed populations, e.g., different plant species, or one single plant species submitted to different temperatures, light conditions, priming treatments and so on. (
  • Let's take a practical approach and start from an example: a few years ago, some colleagues of mine studied the germination behavior of a plant species ( Verbascum arcturus ), in different conditions. (
  • well, there is evidence that, for some plant species, the germination ability improves over time, after seed maturation. (
  • The effect of different organic additives on in vitro seed germination of Vanda dearei, an endemic species of orchid to Borneo was investigated. (
  • An Investigation on the Pollen Production Capacities and Germination R" by FATMA KOYUNCU, HÜDAİ YILMAZ et al. (
  • This investigation was conducted to determine the pollen germination rates and the pollen production capacities of some strawberry cultivars grown in Van ecological conditions. (
  • The examinations of pollen germinations were done in vitro by the 'agar in plate' method (0, 10, 15, and 20 % sucrose solutions with 1 % agar). (
  • Boron directly affects germination, pollen formation, and flower retention. (
  • Effect of PEG8000 and NaCl on germination and seedling traits of tropical maize (Zea mays L. (
  • Similarly, Keeley and Fotheringham (1997) reported nitrogen oxides present in smoke responsible for stimulation of seed germination. (
  • Does fruit cooling and seed film coating affect the germination potential of physalis? (
  • Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effects of storage and of film coating on the germination potential of physalis seeds. (
  • The physalis fruit cold storage for seven days does not affect the germination viability of the seeds. (
  • The addition of organic additives has significantly enhanced the seed germination rate of V. dearei cultured in vitro. (
  • Therefore, the effects of salinity ranging from 0 mM, 25 mM, 50 mM and 75 mM Sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations on germination and early seedling growth of water spinach and their salt tolerance mechanism. (
  • germination time for strawberry seeds? (
  • Speed index, average time and relative frequency of germination were evaluated. (
  • The average germination time is between 18 and 22 days. (
  • In order to answer this latter question, we should consider the entire time-course of germination and not only one single summary statistic. (
  • Therefore, if we take seeds and store them for different periods of time, there might be an effect on their germination traits. (
  • The use of this technique for determining germination potential is questionable at this time, since the abnormalities present in the seedballs could not be detected from the radiograph. (
  • I have been studying the germination process, grow reports, scientific studies, picking up hints and developing ideas for some time now, and in my eagerness to do *something* toward my eventual grow, I began this project. (
  • The initial trial is underway, and subsequent trials will be focused on improving germination rates (assuming I don't get 100% the first time). (
  • Supplemental 24-hour assimilation light provided at this stage will increase germination, reduce crop time and improve plug quality. (
  • However, information concerning factors that could affect germination viability are scarce. (
  • Our results confirms that drought impact on seed germination and seedling traits could be quantified by using different indices which can further help to design drought adaptation and mitigation strategies. (
  • Based on these results it can be concluded that germination indices, seedling traits, and drought tolerance indices have great potential to simulate drought stress impacts on different crop traits thus they should be used in all kinds of stress related studies. (
  • Microplastic pollution is known to negatively impact seed germination and seedling growth. (
  • Plants that produce seeds The growth of a plant contained within a seed is called germination, and ultimately results in the formation of a seedling. (
  • For seed scientists, all these mechanisms are very important, as they permit to trigger the germinations when the environmental conditions are favorable for seedling survival. (
  • effect of growing media on seed germination and seedling growth of papaya cv. (
  • This study was carried out to explore the effect of growing media on seed germination and seedling growth of papaya ( Carrica papaya ). (
  • Aims: Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress that negatively affects plant growth in germination and early seedling stages. (
  • After germination, the seedling grows into a rosette with oblong leaves. (
  • The germination of cannabis seeds is illegal in most countries. (
  • Germination was evaluated seven, 14 and 21 days after sowing to calculate the germination rate index. (
  • 23 of 25 barley seeds germinating after 7 days [(23/25)*100 = 92% germination] (Click on the image to view an enlargement. (
  • Inspections were made for 15 days, until no more germinations could be observed. (
  • Germination will occur in 7-14 days at 75-78 °F (23-25 °C). Sow seed on a fine media with good water holding capacity and good drainage. (
  • The researchers combined these results with climate modelling to predict the risk of germination failure by 2070. (
  • The results show that laser exposure of seeds has positive impact on growth rate, technical germination ability, root formation, and more over on establishment and root formation while grafting. (
  • Results revealed that smoke obtained from G. biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. (
  • For the latest results of our germination tests, please see the germination page . (
  • Planting in soil under 60ºF results in poor germination. (
  • For best germination results treat seeds with the Kirstenbosch Instant Smoke Plus Seed Primer. (
  • Germination and establishment of the chalk grassland perennials Pimpinella saxifraga , Scabiosa columbaria , Plantago media and Achillea millefolium wer. (
  • Among all these, four different compounds were tested on lettuce seed germination assay at concentration ranging from 10 −4 to 10 −15 M, but none of them stimulated germination. (
  • In the manufacturing of barley malt, barley seeds are treated with gibberellin to guarantee consistent seed germination. (
  • Early life stages are often particularly temperature sensitive, so germination is a good place to start when examining sensitivity to climate change," she added. (
  • The procedure below does not pre-chill or pre-dry the seed as required for official seed certification standards, but provides some basic guidance on germination testing for the purpose of adjusting planting rate to achieve desired plant stands. (
  • These represent viable seeds in the germination rate. (
  • Great germination rate. (
  • Growers can do a simple germination test at home. (
  • Consistent moisture levels are important to uniform germination. (
  • Germination issues are common when moisture levels are not properly maintained. (
  • The first report about role of plant-extracted smoke in the induction of seed germination was published in 1990 ( De Lange and Boucher, 1990 ). (
  • We are currently running some germination trials to show the impact the EM has when applied at sowing. (
  • Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. (
  • The germination of plant seeds is already being adversely affected by climate change, an impact expected to worsen throughout the 21st century. (
  • The presence of certain plant hormones, particularly abscisic acid, which delays germination, and gibberellin, which ends seed dormancy, might impact seed dormancy. (
  • Are there any other methods worth trying that result in high germination rates, or with less intensive methods? (
  • These trials focusing on Fodder Crops, Kale and Fodder Beet, were designed to show how EM can enhance germination. (
  • Germination is complete when the new leaves begin to photosynthesize energy from the sun to promote the plant's growth. (
  • The first stage of growth is germination. (
  • Germination is a critical step in plant growth, and simply speaking the young plant must pass two obstacles, first it must leave the seed, and second it must emerge from the soil. (
  • Soil disturbance can promote strong plant growth by exposing seeds already in the soil to changes in environmental conditions that may have previously hindered germination due to seed depth or dense soil. (
  • However, higher concentrations of coconut water at 15% and 20% (v/v) were found to be inhibitory for seed germination of V. dearei. (