The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A plant species of the genus LEPIDIUM, family BRASSICACEAE that is a fast-growing, often weedy native of western Asia. It is widely grown, especially in its curl-leaved form, and used as a garnish
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A plant genus of the family Orobanchaceae that is parasitic on the roots of other plants. Members contain the flavones, APIGENIN and LUTEOLIN.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The common name of stinkwood is also used for Zieria (RUTACEAE).
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A genus of aquatic fungi of the family Blastocladiaceae, order Blastocladiales, used in the study of zoospore formation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Diseases of plants.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for its peppery red root.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
The reproductive cells of plants.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant family of the order Hydropteridales, class Filicopsida, division PTERIDOPHYTA. They are aquatic ferns with quatrifoliate leaves resembling four leaf clover, creeping rhizome, and bean shaped sporocarps.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A plant family of the order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.
A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A plant genus of the family Oleaceae. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.

A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. (1/1498)

The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.41) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain.  (+info)

Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step. (2/1498)

Low concentrations of the glucose (Glc) analog mannose (Man) inhibit germination of Arabidopsis seeds. Man is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HXK), but the absence of germination was not due to ATP or phosphate depletion. The addition of metabolizable sugars reversed the Man-mediated inhibition of germination. Carbohydrate-mediated regulation of gene expression involving a HXK-mediated pathway is known to be activated by Glc, Man, and other monosaccharides. Therefore, we investigated whether Man blocks germination through this system. By testing other Glc analogs, we found that 2-deoxyglucose, which, like Man, is phosphorylated by HXK, also blocked germination; no inhibition was observed with 6-deoxyglucose or 3-O-methylglucose, which are not substrates for HXK. Since these latter two sugars are taken up at a rate similar to that of Man, uptake is unlikely to be involved in the inhibition of germination. Furthermore, we show that mannoheptulose, a specific HXK inhibitor, restores germination of seeds grown in the presence of Man. We conclude that HXK is involved in the Man-mediated repression of germination of Arabidopsis seeds, possibly via energy depletion.  (+info)

Cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase during postgerminative growth. Its expression and action on lipid bodies. (3/1498)

In cucumber (Cucumis sativus), high lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) activity has been detected in the soluble fraction prepared from cotyledons of germinating seeds, and the involvement of this enzyme in lipid turnover has been suggested (K. Matsui, M. Irie, T. Kajiwara, A. Hatanaka [1992] Plant Sci 85: 23-32; I. Fuessner, C. Wasternack, H. Kindl, H. Kuhn [1995] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 11849-11853). In this study we have investigated the expression of the gene lox-1, corresponding to the LOX-1 enzyme. LOX-1 expression is highly coordinated with that of a typical glyoxysomal enzyme, isocitrate lyase, during the postgerminative stage of cotyledon development. In contrast, although icl transcripts accumulated in tissue during in vitro senescence, no accumulation of lox-1 mRNA could be observed, suggesting that lox-1 plays a specialized role in fat mobilization. LOX-1 is also known to be a major lipid body protein. The partial peptide sequences of purified LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 entirely coincided with that deduced from the lox-1 cDNA sequence. The data strongly suggest that LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 are derived from a single gene and that LOX-1 can exist both in the cytosol and on the lipid bodies. We constructed an in vitro oxygenation system to address the mechanism of this dual localization and to investigate the action of LOX-1 on lipids in the lipid bodies. LOX-1 cannot act on the lipids in intact lipid bodies, although degradation of lipid body proteins, either during seedling growth or by treatment with trypsin, allows lipid bodies to become susceptible to LOX-1. We discuss the role of LOX-1 in fat mobilization and its mechanism of action.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of TPE4A, a thiol-protease gene induced during ovary senescence and seed germination in pea. (4/1498)

A cDNA clone encoding a thiol-protease (TPE4A) was isolated from senescent ovaries of pea (Pisum sativum) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of TPE4A has the conserved catalytic amino acids of papain. It is very similar to VSCYSPROA, a thiol-protease induced during seed germination in common vetch. TPE4A mRNA levels increase during the senescence of unpollinated pea ovaries and are totally suppressed by treatment with gibberellic acid. In situ hybridization indicated that TPE4A mRNA distribution in senescent pea ovaries is different from that of previously reported thiol-proteases induced during senescence, suggesting the involvement of different proteases in the mobilization of proteins from senescent pea ovaries. TPE4A is also induced during the germination of pea seeds, indicating that a single protease gene can be induced during two different physiological processes, senescence and germination, both of which require protein mobilization.  (+info)

Extragenic suppressors of the arabidopsis zwi-3 mutation identify new genes that function in trichome branch formation and pollen tube growth. (5/1498)

The plant cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in determining the direction of cell wall expansion, and ultimately the cell's final shape. However, the mechanisms by which localized expansion events are initiated remain obscure. Mutational analysis of the trichome (plant hair) morphogenic pathway in Arabidopsis has identified at least eight genes that determine trichome branch number. One of these genes, ZWICHEL (ZWI), encodes a novel member of the kinesin superfamily of motor proteins. Mutations in the ZWI gene cause a reduction in the number of trichome branches. To identify additional genes involved in trichome branch initiation, we screened for extragenic suppressors of the zwi-3 mutation and isolated three suppressors that rescued the branch number defect of zwi-3. These suppressors define three genes, named suz, for suppressor of zwichel-3. All of the suppressors were shown to be allele specific. One of the suppressors, suz2, also rescued the trichome branch number defect of another branch mutant, furca1-2. Plants homozygous for suz2 have more than the wild-type number of trichome branches. This suggests that SUZ2 is a negative regulator of trichome branching and may interact with ZWI and FURCA1. The suz1 and suz3 mutants display no obvious phenotype in the absence of the zwi-3 mutation. The suz1 zwi-3 double mutants also exhibited a male-sterile phenotype due to a defect in pollen tube germination and growth, whereas both the suz1 and the zwi-3 single mutants are fertile. The synthetic male sterility of the suz1 zwi-3 double mutants suggests a role for SUZ1 and ZWI in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. DNA sequence analysis of the zwi-3 mutation indicated that only the tail domain of the zwi-3 protein would be expressed. Thus, the suz mutations show allele-specific suppression of a kinesin mutant that lacks the motor domain.  (+info)

Molecular and biochemical properties and physiological roles of plant phospholipase D. (6/1498)

Recent advances have thrust the study of plant phospholipase D (PLD) into the molecular era. This review will highlight some of the recent progress made in elucidating the molecular and biochemical nature of plant PLDs as well as their roles in plant physiology.  (+info)

Root formation in ethylene-insensitive plants. (7/1498)

Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more below-ground root mass but fewer above-ground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated tap-roots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli.  (+info)

Differences in spatial expression between 14-3-3 isoforms in germinating barley embryos. (8/1498)

The family of 14-3-3 proteins is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and has been shown to exert an array of functions. We were interested in the possible role of 14-3-3 proteins in seed germination. Therefore, we studied the expression of 14-3-3 mRNA and protein in barley (Hordeum distichum L.) embryos during germination. With the use of specific cDNA probes and antibodies, we could detect individual expression of three 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3A, 14-3-3B, and 14-3-3C. Each homolog was found to be expressed in barley embryos. Whereas protein levels of all three isoforms were constant during germination, mRNA expression was found to be induced upon imbibition of the grains. The induction of 14-3-3A gene expression during germination was different from that of 14-3-3B and 14-3-3C. In situ immunolocalization analysis showed similar spatial expression for 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B, while 14-3-3C expression was markedly different. Whereas 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B were expressed throughout the embryo, 14-3-3C expression was tissue specific, with the strongest expression observed in the scutellum and the L2 layer of the shoot apical meristem. These results show that 14-3-3 homologs are differently regulated in barley embryos, and provide a first step in acquiring more knowledge about the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the germination process.  (+info)

Iran is located in a hot and dry region. As a result of low precipitation and a vast area of salty and alkali soil, osmotic pressure is very high in most parts of the country (i.e., osmotic potential is more negative). In the present study four levels of osmotic pressure (-0.25, -0.35, -0.45, -0.50 MPa) were created artificially, by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and treatment of three seed types, namely, barley, corn and canola. The study aimed at finding the seeds with better germination potential under high osmotic pressure. The seeds germination potential under different levels of osmotic pressure was also investigated. The experiment was conducted with four replications at the Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, in a completely randomized design. Parameters under study were germination rate and germination percentage. Results showed that germination rate was not affected by osmoticpotential. Considering germination percentage, only osmotic potential of -0.50
Thirty European larch seedlots stored in plastic, screw-capped containers at 4°C for 3 to 24 yr were tested for their viability. The average germination percentage was 26.7% per seedlot. Fifty percent of all germinating seeds germinated by the 20th day after sowing and 90% had germinated by the 26th day. Correlation analysis indicated there was a significant negative association between years in storage and germination percentage and a significant positive association between years of storage and the number of days required to reach 15% germination. Although one seedlot germinated no seeds after 10 yr in storage, 21 of 30 seedlots, ranging from 3 to 24 yr in storage, maintained a minimum germination percentage of 20 ...
The low seed vigor and poor field emergence are main factors that restricting the extension of sweet corn in China. Spermidine (Spd) plays an important role in plant growth and development, but little is known about the effect of Spd on sweet corn seed germination. Therefore the effect of exogenous Spd on seed germination and physiological and biochemical changes during seed imbibition of Xiantian No.5 were investigated in this study. Spd soaking treatment not only improved seed germination percentage but also significantly enhanced seed vigor which was indicated by higher germination index, vigor index, shoot heights and dry weights of shoot and root compared with the control; while exogenous CHA, the biosynthesis inhibitor of Spd, significantly inhibited seed germination and declined seed vigor. Spd application significantly increased endogenous Spd, gibberellins and ethylene contents and simultaneously reduced ABA concentration in embryos during seed imbibition. In addition, the effects of exogenous
AbstractThis study was carried out to determine effects of salinity on germination and seedling development of commercially important common bean genotypes in Cameroon. The seeds of eight genotypes were used for both trials. The germination experiments were carried out on petri dishes in the laboratory while early growth trials continued in plastic pots in the screenhouse. Both stages were setup using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Germination and early growth trials of the different genotypes were studied using distilled water as control or osmotic potentials of 50, 100, 150 and 200mM NaCl to study the effects of salinity on germination and seedling growth characteristics. Leaf concentrations of Na+ and K+ were determined. At the germination level, germination percentage, germination index and the coefficient of velocity of germination decreased with increasing salinity while the mean germination time and time to 50% germination increased with increasing level of salt. All
Determining the relative role of various cues on seed germination in Mediterranean plants is important to understanding their response to variable conditions. We studied germination responses of 12 eastern Mediterranean Basin species (Alyssum caricum, A. minus, Carthamus dentatus, Daucus broteri, D. carota, Hypericum aviculariifolium, Muscari comosum, Onopordum caricum, Rumex crispus, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Silene vulgaris, Smyrnium rotundifolium) to different smoke and nitrate concentrations in laboratory. Smoke treatments resulted in significant increase in germination of D. carota, O. caricum, and S. spinosum, but had a negative effect on germination of Hypericum aviculariifolium. Of the 12 studied species, five showed significant improvement in germination after at least one of the nitrate treatments compared with the control. In total, smoke and nitrate treatments significantly increased the germination percentage in six of the 12 studied species. All the species that have smoke and/or ...
Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. belonging to the Apiaceae family, is well known for its medicinal and nutritional importance, endemic to Iran. Seed dormancy is a major problem present in Kelussia odoratissima leading to low germination percentage; thus, improvement of seed germination and breaking seed dormancy is important. Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus, promotes plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to evaluate the effects of different treatments of P. indica on seed germination traits of Kelussia odoratissima, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The experimental treatments were application of fungal mycelium of P. indica (M), spore suspension of P. indica (S), the combination of Gibberellic acid and fungal mycelium (H+M), the combination of Gibberellic acid and spore suspension (H+S), and control (C). Based on the results the highest percentage of
This study was aimed at unraveling the morphological effect of salinity on germination, growth and yield of S. lycopersicum, through inducement of salinity (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g NaCl). All the parameters considered: germination percentage, leaves number, stem girth, plant height and fruit quality, were significantly affected by NaCl treatments (salinity) compared with the control (no salinity). 100% germination was recorded only in control and 4 g NaCl concentration, though the percentage of germination was faster in control than within the 4 g NaCl. ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ plants’ growth till maturity, shed leaves, chlorosis and leaf burns around edges occurred due to osmotic imbalance and water deficit caused by salinity, which invariably had effect on leaf area, although the reduction in leaf area varied among tested NaCl concentrations. Fruits yield and quality of ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ treated with NaCl was poor and relative to the degree of saline inducements, with 10 g ...
Effects of the elephant gut and elephant dung on seed germination and early seedling establishment/growth were investigated in Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary using undestroyed seeds of 14 plant species sorted from fresh elephant dung between 1 June 1994 and 31 May 1995 and similar seeds extracted from fresh ripe fruits fallen on the forest floor within the same period both sown in fresh elephant dung and forest soil. Parameters measured were final germination success, germination time and seedling growth rate. Results indicated that two species, Panda oleosa and Poga oleosa, did not germinate at all after 365 d irrespective of their sources and media of planting. Germination success observed in ingested seeds was significantly different from that observed in seeds from fresh fruits. Germination success observed in elephant dung was not significantly different from that in forest soil. Mean germination time varied widely between species and treatments but was generally shorter in seeds that ...
  Arnebia benthamii is under intensive utilization because of its wide use as medicinal and aromatic plant resource. Self-propagation of this species is by both seed and vegetative propagation. In an effort to improve and promote the cultivation of this over-exploited medicinal herb, the effect of temperature and light on the germination of seeds was investigated with various presowing treatments of water and GA3. Germination was found to be temperature and light dependent. Though the seed viability was 82% as determined by tetrazolium staining, maximum germination of 100% was obtained only when the seed was soaked in 100 ppm GA3 solution for 24 h and incubated for germination at 25oC constant temperatures in 12 h light conditions. Barring this treatment all other presowing treatments, incubation temperatures and photoperiod treatments showed less germination. Mean germination time (MGT) was lowest at 25oC both in light and continuous dark conditions. The present study indicates
Seeds are the preferred method of propagation because they are abundant and easy to handle, but germination percentages can vary from 30 to 70% depending on such factors as species, season of harvest and the collection site within the tree canopy (El-Lakany, 1996; El … Casuarina equisetifolia is an evergreen tree and has a conifer-like appearance.The foliage of this perennial plant consists of slender, much branched green to grey-green twigs, bearing minute scale-leaves in whorls of 6 to 8. Casuarina cunninghamiana River Oak , River Sheoak , Creek Oak or Fire Oak is a species of Casuarina , native to New South Wales and Queensland , Australia . Get … Hence, This is likely to be an adaptive response to the environment, providing the germinating seed with an inbuilt source of moisture. Full sun - do not shade in early germination stages. In this dataset, the effect of Casuarina equisetifolia-L leaf aquatic extract on seed germination and growth of four selected plant crops (Maize, Lentil, ...
Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in sporesinner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75C heat activation times: 15 min for L-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine glucose fructose K mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates ...
I have given up too early on some seeds. It is perennial and only has to be bought once and will last a lifetime. I just googled, germination Thyme and the first link I clicked on says 21-28 days to germinate. Bean seed germination usually takes about eight to 10 days. THCtalk.com Disclaimer - You must be over 18 years old to view/use this site .THCtalk.com does not encourage growing Cannabis or possessing Cannabis. When I can to work my raised bed for planting other stuff I was surprised that all the seeds germinated. If you have spent any time with plants, the term germination makes sense to you. Ill be sending good vibes your way. Nothing I have read says these need anything different or special to germinate them. The growth of a seed into a young plant or a seedling is called germination. Monitor your marijuana seeds at least two times daily. I do have a French tarragon plant growing (if it made it through the winter). Methods of Seed Germination. When you start out, it may seem ...
Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including Tamaizumi. However, a single mutation in TaABA8OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of Tamaizumi. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8OH1-A and TaABA8OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8OH1 expression, higher ABA content in
The genus Dirca L. (Thymelaeaceae) consists of three species of understory shrubs. Dirca palustris L. is sparsely distributed across eastern North America, D. occidentalis Gray is endemic near the San Francisco Bay, and D. mexicana Nesom & Mayfield is known only in one population in northeastern Mexico. Despite interest in the horticultural use of Dirca, plants seldom are marketed. Difficult propagation impedes production of Dirca. We sought to define protocols that promote uniform seed germination of all three Dirca spp. Endodormancy and paradormancy cause sporadic germination over several years under natural conditions, but endocarp removal, cold stratification, and treatment with GA3 increased germination percentage, speed, and uniformity. Dirca occidentalis was most responsive; up to 94% of seeds germinated after endocarp removal, 24 hours in GA3 at 50 mg·L-1, and stratification at 4 °C for 30 days. Treatments also were effective for D. palustris (up to 68% germination), but seeds of D. ...
Germination of purple sage [Salvia dorrii (Kellogg) Abrams] seed was evaluated under 21 temperature combinations (day temperatures from 5 to 30C and night temperatures from 5 to 30C) in two experiments: 1) cool-moist stratification; and 2) sandpaper scarification, leaching with water, or gibberellic acid (GA3). The quadratic responses of weighted germination percentage (WGP), a combined index of germination percentage and speed of germination, were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for all treatments. The interaction of day and night temperatures was significant (P ≤ 0.05) only for the 2-week stratification treatments and for the Expt. 2 control. Stratification increased WGP over the control. Optimal WGP for all stratification treatments ranged from 46% to 51%. Optimal WGP was the same for both GA3 treatments. Optimal WGP for 0.29 mmol GA3 occurred at 16C night temperature and 22C day temperature, and for the 1.44 mmol GA3 treatment at 18C night and at 30C day temperature. ...
Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16h, 18°C/8h) and optimum temperature (28°C/24h) between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the
spore germination is activated by a multitude of proteins and purine nucleosides. blood stream (18). The constant secretion of poisons prospects to fatal septicemia. Although spore germination is usually a critical part of the establishment of anthrax contamination (18), hardly any is well known about the signaling pathways involved with spore germination (28, 32). The first rung on the ladder in the germination procedure is mostly the binding of metabolites by germination (Ger) receptors (8, 23, 38). NVP-BHG712 These receptors are membrane protein mainly encoded by tricistronic operons. Up to seven Ger receptors have already been characterized in (13). Mixtures of Ger receptors could be involved with different interacting pathways for germination (13, 30). Generally a purine and an amino acidity are necessary for the effective germination of spores (2, 23, 37). Once germination is usually activated, some degradative events split up spore-specific buildings and proteins (24, 29, 34). Germination ...
spore germination is activated by a multitude of proteins and purine nucleosides. blood stream (18). The constant secretion of poisons prospects to fatal septicemia. Although spore germination is usually a critical part of the establishment of anthrax contamination (18), hardly any is well known about the signaling pathways involved with spore germination (28, 32). The first rung on the ladder in the germination procedure is mostly the binding of metabolites by germination (Ger) receptors (8, 23, 38). NVP-BHG712 These receptors are membrane protein mainly encoded by tricistronic operons. Up to seven Ger receptors have already been characterized in (13). Mixtures of Ger receptors could be involved with different interacting pathways for germination (13, 30). Generally a purine and an amino acidity are necessary for the effective germination of spores (2, 23, 37). Once germination is usually activated, some degradative events split up spore-specific buildings and proteins (24, 29, 34). Germination ...
Hakim, M.A., A.S. Juraimi, M. Begum, M.M. Hanafi, M.R. Ismail and A. Selamat, 2010. Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Afri. J. Biotech., 9: 1911-1918 ...
Ever wonder how marijuana plants grow? In this marijuana seed germination time lapse sequence, you can see the life of a cannabis plant step into the realm of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Generation of plasma functionalized water : Antimicrobial assessment and impact on seed germination. AU - Darmanin, Martina. AU - Kozak, Dmytro. AU - de Oliveira Mallia, Jefferson. AU - Blundell, Renald. AU - Gatt, Ruben. AU - Valdramidis, Vasilis P.. PY - 2020/7. Y1 - 2020/7. KW - Functionalised water. KW - Germination. KW - Microorganisms. KW - Plasma. KW - Seeds. KW - ESCHERICHIA-COLI O157-H7. KW - AIR. KW - INACTIVATION. KW - ACTIVATED WATER. KW - MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY. KW - O157/H7 87-23. KW - PLANT-GROWTH. KW - ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE PLASMA. KW - ALFALFA. KW - FOOD. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85080060880&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - https://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=tsmetrics&SrcApp=tsm_test&DestApp=WOS_CPL&DestLinkType=FullRecord&KeyUT=000525322400018. U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107168. DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107168. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85080060880. VL - 113. JO - Food Control. JF - Food Control. SN - ...
Changes in carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions during seed germination of fenugreek under water stress and GA^ treatment were investigated. The germination percentage was reduced with the decrease in the osmotic potential of seed media, reaching its lower value at -0.8 MPa. Sucrose was accumulated considerably which could have had a major contribution in the total carbohydrate, while monosaccharides showed a substantial reduction and polysaccharides demonstrated no consistent pattern of changes due to water stress. The response of total nitrogen was variable; it increased considerably in -0.1 and -0.3 MPa osmotic potential, then dropped sharply at -0.5 and -0.8 MPa. Similar behavior was found in TSN(Total Soluble Nitrogen), whereas protein-N changed only slightly and proline was accumulated substantially by decreasing the osmotic potential of the seed media. Although GA, application had no any promotive influence on seed germination under water stress, it caused considerable changes in ...
We laid down this experiment with two objectives. First to evaluate the germination and early seedling growth behaviour of rice seeds primed with water (hydroprimed or HP) and primed with zinc (Zn)...
Ruminska, A.; Suchorska, K.; Weglarz, Z., 1978: Effect of gibberellic acid on seed germination of some vegetable and medicinal plants
TY - JOUR. T1 - Barley germination. T2 - Spatio-temporal considerations for designing and interpreting omics experiments. AU - Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.. AU - Svensson, Birte. AU - Roberts, Thomas H.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing omics experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel ...
Introduction. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is largely grown in South East Asia and generally consumed as chunky soup made from whole grain or split pulse (Zia-ul-Haq et al., 2011). Lentils are excellent source of protein and also rich in important vitamins, minerals, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, so often termed as poor mans meat (Bhatty, 1988). After chickpea, it is the second largest rain fed grown winter legume (Ayub et al., 2001). There is short time water availability under arid and semiarid environments so successful crop establishment depends on early, rapid and uniform seed germination under stressful conditions (Windauer et al., 2007). Nonetheless, chances for achieving a good crop yield would be high if the stress effect can be lessened at the germination stage (Afzal et al., 2012).. Lentil is usually gown in mid-winter when the soil temperature is very low for optimum germination. Seeds sown when, the soil temperature is 10°C or lower often injured by cold water ...
Senna alata is a plant with great medicinal value that belongs to Fabaceae family and grows as wild perennial shrubby species. Seeds of this species possess seed coat-induced dormancy. The seeds were subjected to different treatment methods and durations of exposure to break the dormancy and enhance germination. Treatments includes scarification with 60, 80 and 100% H2SO4 and HCL for 2, 4 and 6 min; exposure to 60, 80 and 100 0C dry (oven) and wet (hot water) heat for 2, 4 and 6 min; and soaking in water for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h. The experimental results revealed that seeds scarified with 100% H2SO4 for 4 and 6 min were the most effective treatments for enhancing seed germination (both gave 100.00% germination), followed by 100 0C wet heat for 6 min (77.50%) and 80% H2SO4 for 6 min (70.00%). Other treatments were less effective. The treatments that gave significantly higher germination percentages also produced low MGT (1.80, 1.73, 2.71 and 1.51 days, respectively) and increased ...
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Today at Fishhawk Creek Elementary, students in the gardening club participated in a lesson on seed germination. Students had the chance to learn about the germination process of many different types of seeds. This included pumpkin, squash, tomato, carnations, and pepper seeds as well as numerous others!. ...
In order to study the germination and growth of pepper seeds, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. The first factor was consisting of five cultivars of pepper (Marquiza, Cadia, California Wonder, California Wonder 310 and California Wonder 300) and the second factor was gibberellic acid with three levels (0 as control, 250 and 500 ppm), and the third factor was naphthalene acetic acid with three levels (0 as control, 50 and 100 ppm). The results showed that the highest germination percentage (89.9%- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), rate of germination (0.85- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), shoot height (95.99 mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar), shoot fresh weight (6.62 g- California Wonder 300 cultivar) root fresh weight (3.46g- California Wonder 300 cultivar), root length (15.85 cm- Marquiza cultivar), leaf length (5.36 cm-Cadia cultivar) and stem diameter (26.91mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar) were obtained from the concentration of
One of the important strategies for increasing germination speed and germination percentage, to produce high-quality seedling and plant optimal establishment is seed priming. In order to evaluate reactions of a lentil seed to priming duration and concentrations of the applied material as priming, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with ...
Seeds of the Salsoloideae contain fully differentiated embryos. On imbibition, the embryo cells elongate and the spiral embryo uncoils and ruptures the thin seed coat. This can occur in as little as 10 min. Nearly all of the families showing very fast germination have small to very small seeds and little or no endosperm. Most species have soft, thin seed coats that imbibe water readily. All are from high-stress habitats, either arid or saline or from active floodplains, where they can rapidly exploit temporarily favourable conditions for germination. They exhibit one of two contrasting germination behaviours, either having seeds which all germinate within a very short time of wetting or having seed persistence whereby small amounts of rain cause germination of small fractions of seed from a long-living soil seed bank. Serious confusion in the literature in the use of the term opportunistic is pointed out and clarified ...
I had given -80 degree treatment to the arabidopsis seeds to kill the thrips. After sterilization and plating there is no germination? -- Kulbir Singh ...
Germination is a biological process important to herb development and agricultural production. sequence and expression pattern of a gene switch PF-04620110 quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and comparative in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. Introduction Seed germination is usually a biological process important to plant development, herb development and agricultural production. Strictly defined, germination PF-04620110 begins with the uptake of water by dry quiescent PF-04620110 seeds and ends with ...
Abiotic stress is a term to describe a complex syndrome of effects of various environmental stress factors (e.g. temperature, water availability, salt, heavy metals, pesticides, UV) if they severely deviate from a normal or optimal (non-stress) situation. The overall aim of the project is to generate knowledge and establish tools required to make the most vulnerable stages of the sugar beet life cycle, namely germination and emerged seedlings, more resilient towards abiotic stresses. Due to erratic weather and climate change in temperate growing regions an increase the abiotic stress tolerance during early season stages requires a strategic focus on germination and seedling responses to improve seed quality ...
Italian researches from the University of Bologna carried this work out to confirm the effects of homeopathically prepared Arsenic in the form of As2O3 45X on the growth of wheat seedlings. The results demonstrated a significant increase of germination rate and stalk growth with respect to control. Further work was done using this model to determine the effects of temperature, the time taken for the germination effects to become apparent, succussion number and potency level, as well as gene expression, on the wheat-germination effects of As2O3. From these experiments it was shown that As2O3 45X heated to 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 70 degrees C, induced a significant increase of germination rate vs. control, losing its effectiveness at 100 degrees C. A2O3 45x induced a stimulating effect on germination, that reached significance only after three months from beginning treatment. In regard to the number of succussions used to prepare the As2O3, a significant increase of germination was obtained ...
Italian researches from the University of Bologna carried this work out to confirm the effects of homeopathically prepared Arsenic in the form of As2O3 45X on the growth of wheat seedlings. The results demonstrated a significant increase of germination rate and stalk growth with respect to control. Further work was done using this model to determine the effects of temperature, the time taken for the germination effects to become apparent, succussion number and potency level, as well as gene expression, on the wheat-germination effects of As2O3. From these experiments it was shown that As2O3 45X heated to 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 70 degrees C, induced a significant increase of germination rate vs. control, losing its effectiveness at 100 degrees C. A2O3 45x induced a stimulating effect on germination, that reached significance only after three months from beginning treatment. In regard to the number of succussions used to prepare the As2O3, a significant increase of germination was obtained ...
Types of seed germination: It is of two types.Epigeal and hypogeal. Epigeal germination : In this type of germination, the cotyledons are brought
Citation: Williams, R.D., Bartholomew, P.W. 2006. Interaction of accelerated aging and p-coumaric acid on crimson clover seed germination.. Agronomy Society of America, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America Meeting. Interpretive Summary: ABSTRACT ONLY Technical Abstract: Several phenolic acids, including p-coumaric acid, have been described as allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination or seedling growth. Whether, in forage species, these effects are exacerbated by environmental stressors is not known. Accelerated seed aging (high temperature (41 C) and high humidity (100%)) reduces germination and seedling vigor, and provides some indication as to seed germination and seedling performance under stress conditions (eg., temperature and water stress). Thus, accelerated aging provides a means to determine how seed age might affect germination or seedling vigor in response to a stressor. Here we compare responses of aged and non-aged seed of crimson clover ...
Seed germination is a complex biological process which is influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. The effects of temperature on plant development are the basis for models used to predict the timing of germination. Estimation of the cardinal temperatures, including base, optimum, and maximum, is essential because rate of development increases between base and optimum, decreases between optimum and maximum, and ceases above the maximum and below the base temperature. Nonlinear growth curves can be specified to model the time course of germination at various temperatures. Quantiles of such models are regressed on temperature to estimate cardinal quantities. Bootstrap simulation techniques may then be employed to assure the statistical accuracy of these estimates and to provide approximate nonparametric confidence intervals. A statistical approach to modelling germination is presented and application is demonstrated with reference to replicated experiments designed to determine the effect
Gardening tips and tricks: seed growing. Want improve your seed germination success rate? Learn about the Germination Triangle and how to balance it...
Evaluation of herbicide potential of sesquiterpene lactone and flavonoid: impact on germination, seedling growth indices and root length in arabidopsis ...
The seeds need to stay moist but you dont want to drown them. Sounds like youre seeding in a 1020 flat with a humidity dome. The humidity dome will help retain moisture.. Im assuming youre also using a typical seed starting mix that contains a lot of peat moss. You can tell if the the mix is too dry for seeds to germinate if the color on the top has gone from black to brown. That still may not have a negative effect on germination if you can water it in time. I cover the inserts in my trays with plastic wrap and they usually dont need additional water until the seeds start to germinate and I have removed the plastic. If the humidity dome you have provides a decent seal it should be similar for you.. What did you plant and what is the room temperature where you have your tray? I usually start to see germination of tomatoes in a couple of days, eggplants and peppers after 7. I have my trays heated though to speed up germination. After 5 days you should have seen some form of life depending on ...
N the fall of 1940 several instances of delayed germination were I noted in freshly harvested samples of Vicland oats, a new variety recently described by Stanton (IO) .3 Certain samples when tested at room temperature germinated only 65% in two weeks. However, germination was increased to 95% or better when the seed was prechilled. As this variety was about to be released for commercial prod ~ c t i o n , ~ it seemed important to determine the extent and nature of the delayed germination. The immediate need for such a study was occasioned by the necessity of establishing a satisfactory testing procedure for making germination tests in order to judge freshly harvested seed as to requirements for certification.
Demographic recruitment processes, such as seed germination and seedling emergence, are critical transitional phases to the re-establishment of degraded plant populations, but often fail due to rainfall not supporting plant requirements. Using species from the widespread arid Australian perennial grass genus Triodia, we investigated the interactions of seeds in different dormancy states and their functional germination envelope in response to water stress after simulated pulse rainfall events. Seed dormancy was alleviated in Triodia species to varying degrees by wet/dry cycling or by removing floret structures from seeds. The seeds were then exposed to different rainfall frequency and quantity events mimicking the 25th, median, 75th and 95th percentile rainfall events found in natural habitats for the study species in the north-west Australian arid zone. Under 95th percentile rainfall conditions recruitment was highest, but still limited to 35% germination and 10% emergence of cleaned seeds ...
Dormancy is typically broken in the laboratory with a stratification period of 3 days this is known as the 3 day pre chill, and the use of a growth promoter such as potassium nitrate KNO3. However this year in many cases this regime is not enough to completely break the dormancy and we are retesting with a 7 day Prechill period and potassium nitrate. This is naturally causing delays with germination, as we are often retesting as many as three times to obtain the best possible result.. We know that you are anxious for results because we understand that good seed is in short supply, but unfortunately this season is shaping up to be a challenge for us all. We expect this phenomenon to persist at least until we get some very cold weather.. Germination tests are taking longer.. If you are experiencing a delay, please go on-line to see the status of your germination test. We are taking care to provide good notes and revised ETAs for your information.. Physiological dormancy is certainly a factor in ...
Diy plant mat: diy heat mat for seed germination the startup homestead, plant heating mat plant seed germination propagation, diy with outdoor patio paint on coir mat to plant a
During plug production, seed germination and seedling emergence is extremely important. The objective is to get as close to 100% emergence as possible. Some growers elect to germinate plugs in controlled germination rooms. There are a number of different designs, but all control light, temperature and humidity in the rooms. ...
Researchers at UC Davis have produced a non-dormant alfalfa line highly amenable to transformation, allowing direct improvement of the line. Higher transformation efficiency and a non-dormant life-cycle make this line of alfalfa a valuable tool for research and breeding.
Germination: Types, Process and Effects is a book that brings together the contribution of new and relevant information from many experts in the fields of food and biological sciences, nutrition, and food engineering, to provide the reader with the latest information of fundamental and applied research in the role of edible seeds and discuss the benefits of consuming them.. In this book, you will find relevant information regarding origin and taxonomy of seeds, global markets, physicochemical composition and the effect of edible seeds germination on chronic degenerative diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammation and arthritis. This book will be of great interest to food scientist, biologists, nutritionists, and food engineers who are particularly interested in the process, changes and contribution of seed germination to food security.. (Imprint: Nova). ...
Fruit and germination[edit]. The fruit matures from December to February, being a pear-shaped red berry, known as a riberry, ... Seed germination is unreliable, complete after 25 days; however, cuttings strike readily. The fruit is eaten by the ...
Germination[edit]. Germination of chickpeas improves protein digestibility, although at a lower level than cooking. Germination ... Germination decreases lysine, tryptophan, sulphur and total aromatic amino acids, but most contents are still higher than ... Minerals and B vitamins are retained more effectively during germination than with cooking. Phytic acids are reduced ... Essential amino acids are slightly increased by boiling and microwave cooking when compared to autoclaving and germination. ...
Germination of cysts takes about 4-6 h. During germination, the central body grows and captures the granules of volutin, which ... Germination of cysts[edit]. A cyst of the genus Azotobacter is the resting form of a vegetative cell; however, whereas usual ... During germination of cysts, the intima hydrolyses and is used by the cell for the synthesis its components.[22] ... Germination of cysts is accompanied by changes in the intima, visible with an electron microscope. The intima consists of ...
Germination is also known as sprouting; it is also considered as the first sign of life shown by a seed. The process of ... Germination is a process by which the seed develops into a seedling. The vital conditions necessary for this process are water ... 1858). "Germination". Household Words. 17 (418): 340-343. OCLC 1752326. ProQuest 7889762. Brown, Paul W. Importance of ...
"How Isobel Parkin is Breaking New Ground". Germination. Retrieved 10 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) " ...
Annuals Annuals; preparing a garden; germination; landscaping. Building a Backyard Greenhouse Greenhouse gardening; windbreak ...
Germination refers to the process in which an organism grows from a spore. Here, the conidia present within the body begins to ... Development of the fungus via spores is initiated through germination; this marks the beginning of fungal development. Spores ... Editors, B. D. (2018-02-11). "Germination". Biology Dictionary. Retrieved 2020-05-29.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link ...
... germination behavior; and spore shape. Detailed analysis and comparison of fresh specimens revealed that what had been ...
cotyledon The primary leaf or leaves of a plant embryo which upon germination develops into the seed-leaf or the first set of ... germination 1. of seeds, describing the complex sequence of physiological and structural changes that occur from resting to ... Unlike the coleoptile, the coleorhiza is associated with the root and does not emerge from the soil during germination. ... True synaptospermy is when the diaspore generally remains entire until germination, as commonly happens in species of Grielum. ...
Germination is hypogeal. Burial of seeds by squirrels seems to be important, but it is not necessary for the successful ...
Germination is hypogeal. Sometimes nearly 80 percent of the seed crop germinates. As a result, thickets and clumps of water ... Seedling development- After seedfall in the autumn, the seeds lie dormant until germination in late April through early June. ...
Germination indicated pregnancy. The type of grain that sprouted was taken as an indicator of the fetus's sex. Hippocrates ...
However, germination rates drop considerably at very cold seedbed temperatures. There are five subspecies of B. elongata: ... integrifolia seed germination". Journal of Range Management. 56 (6): 623-626. doi:10.2307/4003937. JSTOR 4003937. Flora of ...
Germination is hypogeal. Alfaroa includes the following species (This list may be incomplete): A. columbiana, G. Lozano-C., J. ...
Leaves narrow, awl-like; cones less than 12 cm (4.7 in) diameter; seed germination epigeal Araucaria bernieri - New Caledonia ... Leaves broad; cones more than 12 cm (4.7 in) diameter; seed germination hypogeal. Syn. sect. Columbea; sometimes includes ... Produces recalcitrant seeds with hypogeal (cryptocotylar) germination, though extinct species may have exhibited epigeal ... germination. Araucaria bidwillii - bunya-bunya; Eastern Australia Section Intermedia. Contains only one living species. ...
Germination is unreliable. However, abundant new seedlings may unexpectedly form. Seedlings are unlikely to survive at lower ...
Germination is hypogeal. Mockernut seedlings are not fast-growing. The height growth of mockernut seedlings observed in the ... Hickory shuckworm (Laspeyresia caryana) is probably a major factor in reducing germination. Mockernut hickory produces one of ... Hickory species normally require a moderately moist seedbed for satisfactory seed germination, and mockernut hickory seems to ...
Germination is hypogeal; the first two arial leaves are simple and opposite. "Flora Costaricensis" Fieldiana: Botany 40 40-42, ...
Birraux, D.; Fries, N. (November 1981). "Germination of basidiospores". Canadian Journal of Botany. 59 (11): 2062-2064. doi: ...
Germination is erratic. However, roots and shoots can appear within six weeks. Cuttings strike well. Syzygium papyraceum - bark ...
Germination is epigeal. Very few seedlings have been observed in the field and most of those seen apparently do not live past ... In a greenhouse heated at 13 °C to 16 °C (55 °F to 60 °F), similar germination percentages were obtained but up to 24 days were ... Seed germination in petri dishes in sunlight is high: 70 to 80 percent within 10 days. ...
The seedlings show embryo dormancy and germinate the following spring after fall ripening; germination is hypogeal. Swamp ...
Germination indicated pregnancy. The type of grain that sprouted was taken as an indicator of the fetus's sex. Birth control - ...
Germination is hypogeal. Size: Cherrybark oaks often attain heights of 100 to 130 feet and trunk diameters of 36 to 60 inches, ...
Germination is hypogeal. The leaves are pinnately compound, and are distinguishable from other species by their heavy ...
Seeds are best sown in the spring, germination is normally easy. Known germination tip; soak the seeds. Place in warm water ...
Germination is unreliable. However, abundant new seedlings may unexpectedly form. Its distribution is from the Tia River west ...
Germination is epigeal. Under swamp conditions, germination generally takes place on a sphagnum moss or a wet-muck seedbed. ... After germination, seedlings must grow quickly to escape floodwaters; they often reach a height of 20-75 cm (up to 100 cm in ... After germination, seedlings must grow fast enough to keep at least part of their crowns above floodwaters for most of the ... Thus, a soil saturated but not flooded for a period of one to three months after seedfall is required for germination. ...
GerminationEdit. The first stage of growth is germination, a method which first becomes apparent as a seed's radicle emerges.[ ...
If kept moist, they can be stored in a cool place for a few months, but must be checked regularly for signs of germination.[60] ... Climate, seasonal germination cycleEdit. Chestnuts produce a better crop when subjected to chill temperatures during the ...
germination, in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seed resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the ... Dormancy can be prolonged by extremely tough seed coats that exclude the water necessary for germination. Internally, growth is ...
Dear Colleague Letter: Germination of Research Ideas for Large Opportunities and Critical Societal Needs (GERMINATION) (NSF 16- ... EAGER Germination: What we talk about when we talk about big ideas: Using case studies to train PhD students in ideation and ... Germination projects involve early- and mid-career faculty, graduate students and/or post-doctoral fellows as participants in ... EAGER Germination: A Seed-Funding and Analytics Platform for High-Risk/High-Impact Research. Principal Investigator: Eric ...
Germination: Dormancy has at least three functions: (1) immediate germination must be prevented even when circumstances are ... Germination. Dormancy and life span of seeds. Dormancy has at least three functions: (1) immediate germination must be ... Stages of germination of a bean seed.. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Lack of dormancy. In some plants, the seeds are able to ...
In epigeous germination, the radicle emerges from the seed and the hypocotyl elongates, raising the cotyledons, epicotyl, and ... Other articles where Epigeous germination is discussed: angiosperm: Seedlings: ... angiosperm seed germination. *. In angiosperm: Seedlings. In epigeous germination, the radicle emerges from the seed and the ...
... Doug Rhoads DRHOADS at MERCURY.UARK.EDU Thu Jun 30 16:41:25 EST 1994 *Previous message: Germination ... Germination ,Date sent: 30 Jun 1994 14:26:36 -0700 , ,Greetings spore (ts) fans, ,Nothing personal, but this group has been ...
Germination of disconnect. When settlements were created, the military had to guard them. Guarding settlements made the ...
During germination, the most resistant stage of the life cycle - the seed - changes to the most sensitive stage, namely the ... Germination, Seeds Keimung Keimung, Samen Negev Samen Seeds Wüste desert development environment evolution plant plants ... During germination, the most resistant stage of the life cycle - the seed - changes to the most sensitive stage, namely the ... Therefore, in desert plant species seed dispersal and subsequent germination in the optimum time an place place are ...
... Janice M. Glime jmglime at mtu.edu Sun Feb 27 12:41:28 EST 2000 *Previous message: seed germination ...
... Publications. \ The Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener. \ Spring 2003. \ Germination Testing. ... and extra seed often will be added to compensate for the low germination rate.. Germination tests can be done at the seed ... then add the two counts for your total germination test result. If 90 out of 100 seeds sprout, then the germination rate is 90 ... It will germinate in a month or a year or whenever the seed coat is sufficiently broken down to allow germination. These seeds ...
Germination (Zombies Are Human #0.5) 3.71 avg rating - 279 ratings - published 2015 - 6 editions ... Apocalypse Whenever: May Giveaway: Germination (Feast of Weeds) by Jamie Thornton 25 138. Jun 14, 2015 11:06AM. ... Germination #0. Contamination #1. Infestation #2. Eradication #3. Thank you for your help! ...more ...
Examine what factors affect germination. Vary the amount of heat, water, and light the seeds get. Practice designing controlled ... Examine what factors affect germination. Vary the amount of heat, water, and light the seeds get. Practice designing controlled ... Examine what factors affect germination. Vary the amount of heat, water, and light the seeds get. Practice designing controlled ...
Germination can also be done by hypogeal germination (or hypogeous germination), where the epicotyl elongates and forms the ... Another germination event during the life cycle of gymnosperms and flowering plants is the germination of a pollen grain after ... On the other hand, the number of seed able to complete germination in a population (i.e. seed lot) is referred as germination ... In epigeal germination (or epigeous germination), the hypocotyl elongates and forms a hook, pulling rather than pushing the ...
Hasegawa said that the ABI5 protein can become active again, halting germination and seedling development if condition are no ... When environmental factors such as temperature are not optimal for seed germination, ABA levels are high, which causes ... Image Caption: Mike Hasegawa discovered a process that regulates the genes in seeds that control germination and seedling ... Purdue University researchers have determined a process that regulates activity of genes that control seed germination and ...
Pea seeds are tolerant of cold soils, so all should have sprouted. Why not dig around in the area to see if you can find the peas? Sometimes birds will unearth the seeds and eat them. Sometimes seeds rot because of wet soils. In either case, the peas should be replanted ...
I put the seeds in seed starting mix and into the refrigerator for germination. Is the refrigerator too cold to start the seeds ...
Three different types of seeds can be studied, and the temperature, water and light in the germination chamber can be ... Perform experiments with several seed types to see what conditions yield the highest germination (sprouting) rate. ... Three different types of seeds can be studied, and the temperature, water and light in the germination chamber can be ... Three different types of seeds can be studied, and the temperature, water and light in the germination chamber can be ...
... both types of germination in monocot and dicot seedlings. Daylily seed germination is hypogeal, with the single cotyledon ... GERMINATION: When environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, oxygen and sometimes light are favorable. a viable seed ... Germination is either hypogeal (cotyledon/s remaining below ground) or epigeal (cotyledon/s emerging above the soil surface). ...
... above-ground germination). Hypogeal germination implies that the cotyledons stay below the ground. The epicotyl (part of the ... see Lily seed germination types Araucaria: species in the section Araucaria show hypogeal germination, whereas species in the ... Hypogeal germination (from Ancient Greek ὑπόγειος [hupógeios] below ground, from ὑπό [hupó] below and γῆ [gê] earth, ... Normally, the cotyledon is fleshy, and contains many nutrients that are used for germination but it .com be the hypogeal . ...
Thus early germination seeds had a larger germination index.. Table 4. Germination effects of electrostatic field treatment on ... where the germination at 6, 8 and 10 days, and the germination index are shown. The germination index, GI, is an another ... The mean germination time (MGT), an international common statistic for speed of germination of seeds, is also shown in Table 4 ... The quick germination of seeds, uniform germination of seeds, and robust growth of seedlings indicate high vigor of seeds. In ...
The most rapid seed germination was at 25°C (. DAS). The number of days to germinate at 30, 20, and 15°C was , , and , ... Germination of seeds lacking the seed coat was observed from 7 DAS at 25°C, and the germination frequency reached 100% at 18 ... Observations of seed germination were recorded for 42 DAI.. 3. Results. 3.1. Germination or Emergence Test of Seeds and Embryos ... Figure 3: Effects of scarification and seed coat removal on seed germination in A. crenata. (a) Germination frequency of intact ...
Listen to Germination by Mahdar on Deezer. With music streaming on Deezer you can discover more than 56 million tracks, create ...
Germination and survival of species along an elevation gradient (PhD 2016-2019). A field experiment along an elevation gradient ... and propagule type on germination and survival of species. Three species groups will be sown: ubiquitous species, species ...
... seed germination of root parasitic plants; seed germination of halophytes; allelopathy and germination; seed germination of ... water relations in germination; control of seed dormancy and germination in the gaseous environment (O2, CO2, C2H4); recent ... carbohydrate degradation during germination; control of mobilization of storage compounds following germination of ... inhibition and promotion of seed germination in soil - dormancy cycles; modelling seed germination of weeds; ...
SEED GERMINATION OF ERODIUM MACROPHYLLUM (GERANIACEAE) Seed Germination Strategies of Species With Restoration Potential in a ... Hot water treatment did not affect the seed germination in the light, but significantly (P , 0.05) reduced the germination rate ... Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence... Comparative Germination and Emergence Ecology ... increased the germination rate in the light. Cold stratification alone did not influence seed germination under constant ...
The seed germination papers can be supplied in different formats and in customised shapes and sizes for testing seeds according ... Seed germination papers are ideal for ensuring an optimal moisture content for the most diverse types of seeds and germination ... Seed germination papers are ideal for ensuring an optimal moisture content for the most diverse types of seeds and germination ... The seed germination papers can be supplied in different formats and in customised shapes and sizes for testing seeds according ...
2014) High pressure germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with alterations in levels and types of germination proteins. ... break their dormancy and resume metabolic activity through a process called germination. Germination can be broken down into a ... After germination, the new cell resumes vegetative growth. Key Concepts. *Bacillus species have a survival mechanism called ... Differences in germination receptors and nutrient stimulus exist among Bacillus species. *Bacillus spores can also germinate in ...
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides comprehensive integrated biological information for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Keyphrases: Convolutional Neural Networks, image classification, Jasmine rice, rice germination, Seeds germination ... An assessment of rice-seeds germination is a process of measuring the quality of the seeds for the benefit of rice planting ... We need specialists or experts in the area of agriculture to evaluate the seeds germination by classifying them into normal and ... We collected 1,562 sample images of Jasmine rice seed germination and categorized them into two groups, normal and abnormal. We ...
... at the seed germination stage is one of the major determinants for the stable stand establishment in salinity soil. One ... was used to determine the germination traits including imbibition rate and germination percentage under control (water) and ... Salt tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at the seed germination stage is one of the major determinants for the stable stand ... Wang ZF, Wang JF, Bao YM, Wu YY, Su X, Zhang HS (2010a) Inheritance of rice seed germination ability under salt stress. Rice ...
Lengthened cold stratification improves bulk whitebark pine germination. In: Haase, D. L.; Pinto, J. R.; Wilkinson, K. M., ... This paper describes trials comparing germination percentages of whitebark seedlots grown under operational conditions at the ... Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) field screening for blister rust resistance in British Columbia: Germination results. ... Releasing seed dormancy through scarification and stratification needs to result in adequate and consistent germination ...
  • If 90 out of 100 seeds sprout, then the germination rate is 90 percent. (mofga.org)
  • clarification needed] Disturbance of soil can result in vigorous plant growth by exposing seeds already in the soil to changes in environmental factors where germination may have previously been inhibited by depth of the seeds or soil that was too compact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seeds produce a hormone called abscisic acid, or ABA, that prevents germination. (redorbit.com)
  • Image Caption: Mike Hasegawa discovered a process that regulates the genes in seeds that control germination and seedling development. (redorbit.com)
  • I put the seeds in seed starting mix and into the refrigerator for germination. (garden.org)
  • as well as other species, such as fast-germination tree seeds that are widely used in aerial sowing for reforestation in China, were treated by electrostatic fields to enhance germination, improving germination percentage, and to explore theoretical relationships between electrostatic field treatment and changes in seed vigour. (fao.org)
  • The optimal dosage was 500 kV/m for 10 minutes for treatment of dry or wet seeds for improvement of both germination and root development during initial germination and middle and later stages of seedling development. (fao.org)
  • We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months and the effects of seed storage conditions, germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the endosperm on seed germination. (hindawi.com)
  • Seeds and embryos collected in late September or later showed good germination rates. (hindawi.com)
  • Seeds germinated at 15-30°C, but not at 5-10°C. Removal of the seed coat enhanced water uptake and seed germination. (hindawi.com)
  • Although this is the traditional method of cultivation, the seeds require a long germination period and show considerable variations in the timing of germination. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months. (hindawi.com)
  • A field experiment along an elevation gradient (2000 m, 2300 m, 2600 m, 2900 m a.s.l.) in the Central Austrian Alps (Obergurgl) will test the effects of altitude, soil type, presence of established species, provenance of seeds, and propagule type on germination and survival of species. (uibk.ac.at)
  • control of mobilization of storage compounds following germination of dicotyledonous seeds. (routledge.com)
  • Seed germination papers are ideal for ensuring an optimal moisture content for the most diverse types of seeds and germination forms. (sartorius.com)
  • The seed germination papers can be supplied in different formats and in customised shapes and sizes for testing seeds according to ISTA (International Seed Test Association). (sartorius.com)
  • An assessment of rice-seeds germination is a process of measuring the quality of the seeds for the benefit of rice planting farms in Surin Province and the neighboring areas in Thailand. (easychair.org)
  • We need specialists or experts in the area of agriculture to evaluate the seeds germination by classifying them into normal and abnormal seeds which require a lot of times and hard work. (easychair.org)
  • In this paper, we present our dataset collection and use convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to classify normal and abnormal Jasmine rice-seeds after germination of 7 days. (easychair.org)
  • Germination capacity, photosensitivity, and desiccation tolerance are important attributes that seeds acquire during their development. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In fresh seeds, 100% germination was observed 7 DAF. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Dark germination of fresh seeds increased from 0% at 11 DAF to 86% at 17 DAF and then decreased to less than 20% at 21 DAF. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In general, desiccated seeds had lower dark germination percentages than fresh seeds. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Very cold temperatures can effectively kill the seeds, which could result in the lack of germination. (edmontonjournal.com)
  • The drainage issue can certainly keep your seeds from germinating, as wet soil will inhibit germination. (edmontonjournal.com)
  • In warmer temperatures, imbibing or soaking the seeds in water for at least 16 hours before planting in a well-lit area will increase the germination percentages greatly. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Soaking the seeds in the dark in warmer conditions decreased their germination rates. (motherearthnews.com)
  • For a closer look at what happens when a seed goes through germination, read our article Starting Seeds at Home - a Deeper Look . (motherearthnews.com)
  • I am designing an experiment on the effects of two different wavelenths on the germination of Pinus banksiani seeds (Jack pine). (bio.net)
  • The sprouting of seeds is called germination . (education.com)
  • Microwaves also can affect the germination of seeds. (education.com)
  • If no seeds have started sprouting, rewrap and check again every day until you see germination. (education.com)
  • A possible explanation for why seeds microwaved a short time sprouted more than the control seeds is that the heating opened the seeds' coats a tiny bit, allowing water in and starting germination sooner. (education.com)
  • Aqueous and organic solvent culture extracts, as well as fungus suspension, when mixed with GR24, a synthetic analog of the natural germination stimulant strigol, inhibited germination of conditioned Striga seeds. (bioone.org)
  • Some perennials and tree and shrub seeds can be very slow and erratic in germination. (backyardgardener.com)
  • The germination of seeds as effected by certain chemical fertilizers. (biodiversitylibrary.org)
  • The vitality and germination of seeds. (biodiversitylibrary.org)
  • In fact, germination testing is required by federal and state law to ensure that seeds sold meet minimum germination standards. (nativeseeds.org)
  • As a home gardener and seed saver, you can use the same principles of germination testing to make sure your seeds are going to sprout when planted. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Keep in mind, the more seeds you test, the more accurate the germination rate will be. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Do not seal completely as seeds also need air for healthy germination. (nativeseeds.org)
  • You can start checking your seeds 3 days after set-up and continue checking the seeds every couple of days until all have sprouted or look like there isn't going to be any more germination activity. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Most vegetable seeds will show signs of germination after 10 days but harder seeds may take longer. (nativeseeds.org)
  • To determine germination rate, divide the number of seeds sprouted by the number of total seeds used in the test and multiply it by 100. (nativeseeds.org)
  • The lower the germination rate, the sooner the seeds should be grown to ensure the variety is not lost. (nativeseeds.org)
  • For example, if your goal is to have 5 zucchini plants and the germination rate is 60% then it is necessary to plant 8-9 seeds But be aware that other conditions can impact seedling survival in the ground such as animal predation, compact soil, etc. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Seed corn on modern farms comes with a clearly marked germination rate: a measure of how many seeds will begin to grow if planted, and what proportion of the seeds might be duds. (livingchurch.org)
  • The high germination rate of HAGA's survival seed vault is possible because of the company's dedication to using only the finest-quality, heirloom survival seeds. (pr.com)
  • There was apparently simultaneous germination of a batch of seeds in each case. (aroid.org)
  • Modelling germination times of seeds resulted in software programs like SeedCalculator, developed by Plant Research International.Recently new insights in the way to analyse germination data, led to different statistical analysis methods. (wur.nl)
  • The germination of seeds is a topic that has received much attention in Plant Sciences. (wur.nl)
  • Modelling germination times of seeds resulted in software programs like SeedCalculator, developed by Plant Research International. (wur.nl)
  • Jatropha seeds for germination We are capable of supplying Jatropha curcas seeds for germination . (burrillandco.com)
  • Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were performed with a randomized component corresponding to the percentage of germination for a normal distribution or to the number of germinated seeds for a binomial distribution. (scielo.br)
  • Some authors criticize the inappropriate use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for discrete data such as copaiba oil, but we noted that all model assumptions were met, even though the species had dormant seeds with irregular germination. (scielo.br)
  • Conclusions: DiSCount is accurate and efficient in quantifying total and germinated Striga seeds in a standardized germination assay. (wur.nl)
  • Seeds remain dormant or inactive until conditions are right for germination. (illinois.edu)
  • In this study, germination experiments were performed on seeds of six species of winter annuals from Portal, Arizona. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, germination fractions in the first 2 yr are not equal fractions of remaining viable seeds, which is the theoretical optimal behavior, and the germination distributions differ greatly among species. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Germination behavior is age-dependent, and germination trials conducted on seeds of unknown ages from soil samples may give misleading results. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Little information has been available on nonhosts of S. gesnerioides that are capable of stimulating germination of parasite seeds. (apsnet.org)
  • When seeds of single-plant isolates of S. gesnerioides were tested against roots of seedlings from Sorghum bicolor landraces and from a susceptible cowpea cultivar, only specific isolate and plant combinations resulted in parasite seed germination. (apsnet.org)
  • To achieve our aim of providing our gardeners and commercial growers with the highest quality agricultural seed available that also fits our ethical profile, West Coast Seeds tests our seeds regularly for seed germination , vigour and for the presence of weed seeds. (westcoastseeds.com)
  • Our friends at Painted Lady Vineyard and The Xerces Society have provided these detailed instructions to cold soak and stratify your milkweed seeds to get better and faster germination! (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Slow soaking and rinsing milkweed seeds removes a naturally occurring chemical from the seed surface to enable quick germination. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Water the newly planted seeds often until germination becomes evident. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Claire, we've had customers tell us that they have used a simplified version of the procedure with just soaking the seeds in wet sand in the fridge for a month, then planting them and they had almost 100% germination. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • For plants and fruits that reproduce through seeds and pollen, the seeds eventually grow into young plants through the process of seed germination. (maximumyield.com)
  • When seeds are planted, they remain inactive until conditions are suitable for germination. (maximumyield.com)
  • Key changes in the spore during germination decrease overall resistance. (els.net)
  • Overview of the major events of nutrient‐mediated Bacillus spore germination. (els.net)
  • The spore commits to germination after germinant addition as it releases monovalent ions and leaks Ca‐DPA from the core. (els.net)
  • Chesnokova ON, McPherson SA, Steichen CT and Turnbough CL (2009) The spore‐specific alanine racemase of Bacillus anthracis and its role in suppressing germination during spore development. (els.net)
  • During germination, the spore case appears to split along this ridge, and thus allows the new cell to emerge. (sciencemag.org)
  • The germination is the initial growth phase of a seed , spore or pollen grain . (cactus-art.biz)
  • Recent advances in our understanding of C. difficile spore germination mechanisms indicate that this process is both complex and unique. (asm.org)
  • However, it has been reported that preexposure to antibiotics is not a requirement for C. difficile spore germination but that germination and outgrowth in mouse ileal contents can be enhanced with antibiotic treatment ( 8 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Slightly dry substrate might be the cause or non-optimal germination temperatures or even a dilute spore syringe. (shroomery.org)
  • The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS) to germling (GL) and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. (frontiersin.org)
  • In response to the right signals, this can lead to spore germination followed by extensive hyphal (vegetative) growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genus Aspergillus , composed of ca. 300 species, contains both pathogenic and saprophytic species which break spore dormancy through three distinct stages of spore maturation, collectively known as the germination process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Surface hydrophobicity and hardness regulates spore germination in Magnaporthe grisea ( Talbot, 1995 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Since spore germination is believed to be the first step in the establishment of Bacilli and Clostridia infections, we analyzed the requirements for C. sordellii spore germination in vitro . (asm.org)
  • Unlike the case for Bacilli species, d -alanine had no effect on C. sordellii spore germination. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, C. sordellii spore germination was significantly less sensitive to temperature changes than that of the Bacilli . (asm.org)
  • The analysis of the kinetics of C. sordellii spore germination showed strong allosteric behavior in the binding of l -phenylalanine and l -alanine but not in that of bicarbonate or l -arginine. (asm.org)
  • Basic knowledge about the process and mechanism of spore germination may lead to better ways to either prevent or stimulate this process, thus enabling spore eradication. (phys.org)
  • That, he said, motivated him and his collaborators to re-examine spore germination, in an effort to resolve the controversy, so that the science could move on to addressing the spoilage and illness caused by the relevant bacterial species. (phys.org)
  • Changes inSpore Small Molecules, rRNA, Germination and Outgrowth After Extended Sub-Lethal Exposure to Various Temperatures: Evidence That Protein Synthesis is not Essential for Spore Germination, Journal of Bacteriology (2016). (phys.org)
  • germination, in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seed resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. (infoplease.com)
  • Dormancy can be prolonged by extremely tough seed coats that exclude the water necessary for germination. (infoplease.com)
  • In response to the presence of nutrients, spores can break their dormancy and resume metabolic activity through a process called germination. (els.net)
  • Releasing seed dormancy through scarification and stratification needs to result in adequate and consistent germination percentages, and also needs to be practical and efficient at a restoration-production scale. (usda.gov)
  • Speed of germination is genetically correlated to seed dormancy. (hindawi.com)
  • This may sometimes be due to seed dormancy, a condition which prevents the seed from germinating even when it is perfectly healthy and all conditions for germination are at optimum. (backyardgardener.com)
  • In modern commercial crops, loss or reduced seed dormancy and quick germination are the two key aspects directly related to PHS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Last September in Perth (Australia), during the 13th International Symposium on PHS in Cereals (ISPHSC), the consensus was reached that significant progress has been made to understand the mechanisms of seed dormancy and germination, which can now be applied to developing technologies to manage PHS. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Research Topic aims to highlight the current understanding of seed dormancy and germination biology, translate the knowledge into PHS prevention, and realise solutions for the future of the grain industry. (frontiersin.org)
  • The topology of the SeedNet graph reflects the biological process, including two state-dependent sets of interactions associated with dormancy or germination. (pnas.org)
  • An intermediate transition region between the dormancy and germination subdomains is enriched with genes involved in cellular phase transitions. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that seed dormancy acts as a form of bet hedging but that selection for an optimal distribution of germination across years may be weak. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We collected 1,562 sample images of Jasmine rice seed germination and categorized them into two groups, normal and abnormal. (easychair.org)
  • Enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination by presoaking with hemoglobin. (nih.gov)
  • The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L) differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination. (nih.gov)
  • Rigetti, S. (1998) Weed control in direct-seeded pea and lentil Archived 2013-10-11 at the Wayback Machine University of Saskatchewan Parolin, P., Ferreira, L.V., Junk, W.J. (2003) "Germination characteristics and establishment of trees from central Amazonian flood plains" Tropical Ecology 44(2): 157-169 Duke, J.A. (1965) "Keys for the identification of seedlings of some prominent woody species in 8 forest types in Puerto Rico" Ann. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gard no. 52 pp. 314-350 Franceschini, M. (2004) "An unusual case of epigeal cryptocotylar germination in Rollinia salicifolia (Annonaceae)" Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society vol. 146 no. 1 Garwood, N.C. (1996) "Functional morphology of tropical tree seedlings", in: The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings, pp. 59-129. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following image shows both types of germination in monocot and dicot seedlings. (daylilies.org)
  • Listen to Sade's musical seedlings sprout in Germination and purchase above. (singersroom.com)
  • Therefore, in desert plant species seed dispersal and subsequent germination in the optimum time an place place are particularly critical parameters. (springer.com)
  • It is possible that within the same genus one species shows hypogeal germination while another species shows epigeal germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, it was discovered that there are rare cases of species where the germination is epigeal and cryptocotylar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences in germination receptors and nutrient stimulus exist among Bacillus species. (els.net)
  • To investigate the germination requirements of this species, stratification treatments at 1-3°C for 15, 30 or 45 days on top of paper or in sand were applied. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Most species require 3 weeks or more for germination. (carnivorousplants.org)
  • For seed sellers, the industry standards vary by species, but are around 75-80% minimum germination. (nativeseeds.org)
  • I ask because everything else I've found seems to suggest a long germination time for this species, including two posts on this list that I found in the archive. (aroid.org)
  • As the jatropha is considered a strategic oilseed crop in biofuel production, the aim of this work was to quantify the major reserve components (starch, protein, soluble sugar and lipid) of the jatropha seed and its disposition in the cells during different periods of germination, in order to understand the process of reserve mobilisation and to determine the potentially right time for the extraction of vegetable oil for that species. (scielo.br)
  • To examine the potential mechanistic predictors of germination and first-year survival in two species of Great Basin sub-alpine trees along an elevation gradient on three soil types. (fed.us)
  • We collected germination and first-year survival data of each species while measuring temperature, soil water content, and other environmental variables to examine the potential predictors of first-year survival in these two species. (fed.us)
  • Germination under good conditions following a year of bad conditions for germination also differs among species. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A laboratory procedure was used to evaluate species and cultivars for their ability to stimulate S. gesnerioides seed germination. (apsnet.org)
  • Some genotypes of the nonhost species Cajanus cajan , Lablab purpureus , stenocarpa , and Sorghum bicolor also stimulated parasite seed germination. (apsnet.org)
  • One cultivar of Sorghum bicolor stimulated significantly more germination than any other cultivar or species. (apsnet.org)
  • The opposite of hypogeal is epigeal (above-ground germination). (wikipedia.org)
  • After the slower first phase, the plant develops faster than plants that show epigeal germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germination is either hypogeal ( cotyledon /s remaining below ground) or epigeal (cotyledon/s emerging above the soil surface). (daylilies.org)
  • Lima beans use epigeal germination, where the seed leaves remain on the shoot from the seed and push above ground. (gardenguides.com)
  • I think it is necessary to clarify that hypogeal and epigeal do not refer exclusively to the process of germination. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
  • In this activity, you will investigate factors that can affect the germination of a seedling. (biologycorner.com)
  • There are several factors that can affect the germination process. (maximumyield.com)
  • When environmental factors such as temperature are not optimal for seed germination, ABA levels are high, which causes production of higher levels of a protein called ABI5. (redorbit.com)
  • We concluded that the optimal temperature of 25°C is the most critical factor for seed germination in A. crenata . (hindawi.com)
  • Seed germination is controlled by several environmental factors, such as seed moisture content, temperature, and light. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, it is unclear whether high-soil moisture and low temperature during seed storage are essential for seed germination and what temperature is optimal for seed germination. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the effects of germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the effects of the seed coat and endosperm on germination were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Hayashi E, Aoyama N, Still DW (2008) Quantitative trait loci associated with lettuce seed germination under different temperature and light environments. (springer.com)
  • Seed germination /Sprout vegetable growth Technical parameters: Volume: 250L Temperature range: 5-50 ℃ Temperature Accuracy: ± 0.5. (burrillandco.com)
  • Limber pine germination and survival showed weak negative responses while bristlecone pine germination and survival showed stronger negative responses to temperature. (fed.us)
  • A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive germination mutants of A. nidulans identified genes directly involved in translation and protein folding, a putative malonyl-CoA synthatase, and a ras homolog ( Osherov and May, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For germination to occur various conditions must be met such as the proper amounts of water, oxygen, temperature, and light. (maximumyield.com)
  • Selection for quick germination was unsuccessful, and differences between genotypes were regulated by maternal tissue of seed ball [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Alternatively, compounds produced by fungi themselves can inhibit germination. (frontiersin.org)
  • As solutions of various exogenous nutrients of similar type and concentration to those found in the phylloplane failed to increase the germination and growth of germ tubes of mature uredospores, and as these uredospores can germinate in deionized water, it was deduced that competition for nutrients by microorganisms in the phylloplane would not inhibit germination of nutrient-independent uredospores. (bl.uk)
  • Salt tolerance of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) at the seed germination stage is one of the major determinants for the stable stand establishment in salinity soil. (springer.com)
  • We have everything you need to make your plants grow from Organic Compost & Organic Potting Soil to Soilless Germination Mixes! (groworganic.com)
  • Thanks to consecutive anomalously wet and dry years, we found germination and first-year survival to be largely limited by soil type, soil water content, and precipitation timing. (fed.us)
  • During this waiting period, the process of germination is taking place within the garden soil. (gardenguides.com)
  • This can happen when there is enough soil moisture to swell the seed and start the germination process and then a period of dry weather occurs, or seed is planted into a very dry soil and receives a light rain good enough to start germination followed by a period of drought. (mossyoak.com)
  • For germination, water lightly and frequently to prevent top of soil from drying out. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Germination is the budding of a seed after it has been planted in soil and remained dormant for a certain period of time. (maximumyield.com)
  • An isolate of Fusarium solani (Sud 96) obtained from infected Striga plants in Sudan and six other isolates from Japan were evaluated for their effects on Striga germination. (bioone.org)
  • Fusarium solani (Sud 96) filtrates, from cultures grown on autoclaved rice, sorghum grains, and potato dextrose agar (PDA), were more effective in reducing Striga germination than those from cultures grown on wheat straw. (bioone.org)
  • Mutant alleles at the LGS1 ( LOW GERMINATION STIMULANT 1 ) locus drastically reduce Striga germination stimulant activity. (pnas.org)
  • We provide evidence that the responsible gene at LGS1 codes for an enzyme annotated as a sulfotransferase and show that functional loss of this gene results in a change of the dominant strigolactone (SL) in root exudates from 5-deoxystrigol, a highly active Striga germination stimulant, to orobanchol, an SL with opposite stereochemistry. (pnas.org)
  • Orobanchol, although not previously reported in sorghum, functions in the multiple SL roles required for normal growth and environmental responsiveness but does not stimulate germination of Striga . (pnas.org)
  • Hence, there is a need for high-throughput assays that allow for large-scale screening of compounds or microorganisms that adversely affect Striga seed germination. (wur.nl)
  • Crop rotation with nonhost cultivars, selected to stimulate parasite seed germination, is being used successfully to control other Striga spp. (apsnet.org)
  • Dry conditions mean the plant doesn't have enough moisture to start the germination process and keep it going. (illinois.edu)
  • 0.05) increased the germination rate in the light. (bioone.org)
  • This approach has increased the germination rate up to 97% when planted in warmer conditions. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Hasegawa said that the ABI5 protein can become active again, halting germination and seedling development if condition are no longer optimal. (redorbit.com)
  • When spores sense nutrients they transition back to metabolically active and growing cells, by a process called germination. (els.net)
  • Key players involved in the germination of Bacillus spores and general structure of layers (sizes not to scale). (els.net)
  • 2012) Analysis of the effects of a gerP mutation on the germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis. (els.net)
  • Carr KA, Janes BK and Hanna PC (2010) Role of the gerP operon in germination and outgrowth of Bacillus anthracis spores. (els.net)
  • Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. (asm.org)
  • Dormant spores can remain viable for hundreds of years (or longer) and return to a metabolically active state, a process known as germination, within minutes upon sensing specific nutrients that signal that the external environment may be favorable for growth ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • I have recently had a problem with the germination of spores into the cakes. (shroomery.org)
  • Overexpression of dominant negative forms of rasA in A. nidulans delays germination, whereas overexpression of dominant active forms yields large multinucleate spores where early germ tube formation is inhibited ( Som and Kolaparthi, 1994 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data showed that C. sordellii spores require three structurally different amino acids and bicarbonate for maximum germination. (asm.org)
  • The treated spores germinated, despite an absence of both ribosomal RNA and ATP, demonstrating that they were unnecessary for germination. (phys.org)
  • As someone who has been working on spores, and their resistance and germination, for nearly 50 years, Setlow said that he was very familiar with long ago studies that indicated that spores germinated without the synthesis of either ATP or protein. (phys.org)
  • These results support the involvement of ABA in storage reserve deposition and acquisition of desiccation tolerance during lettuce seed development and suggest that changes in seed water content during the maturation desiccation phase are associated with the onset of light requirement for lettuce seed germination. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • All these items can take several months to germinate and are very erratic in germination. (backyardgardener.com)
  • C. difficile germination is unique, as C. difficile does not contain any orthologs of the traditional GerA-type germinant receptor complexes and is the only known sporeformer to require bile salts in order to germinate. (asm.org)
  • Genetic and environmental factors determine germination rate, speed of germination, and vigor of seed and seedling [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Various plants require different variables for successful seed germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Get your garden off to the right start with our Guidelines for Successful Seed Germination. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of the invasive weed, apple of Peru. (bioone.org)
  • Why analyze germination experiments using Generalized Linear Models? (scielo.br)
  • Plants that show hypogeal germination need relatively little in the way of external nutrients to grow, therefore they are more frequent on nutrient-poor soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants that show hypogeal germination grow relatively slowly, especially in the first phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • No differences in nuclear behavior were found between direct and indirect germination on host plants or on glass slides. (usda.gov)
  • 1. The lower the pH, the weaker the plants will be in terms of germination and plant height. (prezi.com)
  • Although the major focus will be placed on crops, research articles using model plants to understand the fundamental questions on seed development and germination, which are related to PHS, are also welcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • If you learn about seed germination, you can grow many more plants in your garden! (lovetoknow.com)
  • The phase transition regulators SERRATE and EARLY FLOWERING IN SHORT DAYS from this region affect seed germination, indicating that conserved mechanisms control transitions in cell identity in plants. (pnas.org)
  • But studies on seed germination of aquatic and lacustrine plants are very few. (intechopen.com)
  • Germination is a form of propagation that occurs in most plants. (maximumyield.com)
  • Soaking for less than 16 hours has little to no positive effect on germination. (motherearthnews.com)
  • I just noticed that both of them are from Alan Galloway, in 1997 and 2001, reporting germination times of 21 months and 29 months respectively. (aroid.org)
  • This paper describes trials comparing germination percentages of whitebark seedlots grown under operational conditions at the Forest Service Coeur d'Alene Nursery to determine the relative influence of seed source elevation and location, seedlot (collection) age, and 60 or 90-days of cold stratification. (usda.gov)
  • Genes with additive action conferred high germination speed, while slow germination speed appeared to be induced by genes with pleiotropic effects [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • GT slow germination? (shroomery.org)
  • Re: GT slow germination? (shroomery.org)
  • Because of the high germination rate, many gardeners are easily able to grow fresh, heirloom vegetables in their own organic gardens. (pr.com)
  • Also selected, graded good quality seed with high germination percent. (burrillandco.com)
  • In the early 1900s, a survey of vegetable seed sold in stores showed that of 12,454 packets tested, the mean germination rate was 60.5 percent. (mofga.org)
  • I'd bet, though I have not needed to actually test this, that the dark germination could be brought to 0% by a brief FR exposure after imbibition. (bio.net)
  • When the ABI5 protein is active, it switches on genes that prevent germination. (redorbit.com)
  • Hasegawa's research showed that when a SUMO peptide is attached to the ABI5 protein, the protein becomes inactive, switching off the genes that prevent germination and seedling development. (redorbit.com)
  • An inhibitor within the seed (probably abscisic acid ABA) ) is gradually broken down at low temperatures until finally there is not enough to prevent germination when other conditions become favourable. (cactus-art.biz)
  • Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purdue University researchers have determined a process that regulates activity of genes that control seed germination and seedling development. (redorbit.com)
  • When a peptide is attached to a particular protein in the seed, a process can begin that turns off the genes that are prohibiting germination. (redorbit.com)
  • Germination is an intricate process, and many factors, including lack of water or strong chemicals, can prevent it. (education.com)
  • Seed germination begins when the first root breaks through the seed wall and ends when the first pair of true leaves begin the process of photosynthesis. (reference.com)
  • The process by which an organism grows from a seed into a plant is called germination . (biologycorner.com)
  • The carbohydrate levels, in both the endosperm and the embryo are minimal during protrusion and shortly after, indicating the maximum use of carbohydrates in the germination process. (scielo.br)
  • This piece was initially thought up for the ideal of a space theme, but the germination process is about the same thing. (macjams.com)
  • Additionally, many studies have described delays in the general germination process in Aspergillus spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Few genetic factors regulating germination have been identified, and the means by which their concerted action controls this developmental process remains largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • SeedNet highlights interactions between known regulators of this process and predicts the germination-associated function of uncharacterized hub nodes connected to them with 50% accuracy. (pnas.org)
  • In this botany activity, learners will create an experiment about seed germination. (howtosmile.org)
  • The reader is provided with a good understanding of the complex influences on each seed traced through from initial development to germination stage regarding germination preparation and subsequent survival. (springer.com)
  • Recently new insights in the way to analyse germination data, led to different statistical analysis methods, based on survival analysis and right- and interval-censored data. (wur.nl)
  • Seed germination and seedling survival are obviously vital to a successful planting. (mossyoak.com)
  • Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the presence of starch in the endosperm of jatropha curcas L., starch cannot be considered a source of sugars during the period of germination studied. (scielo.br)
  • Germination seed SPECIFICATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEED EliteNewly harversted seed for germination fresh and dry. (burrillandco.com)
  • After germination, the new cell resumes vegetative growth. (els.net)
  • Germination is complete when the new leaves begin to photosynthesize energy from the sun to promote the plant's growth. (reference.com)
  • Ecological investigations upon the germination and early growth of forest trees. (biodiversitylibrary.org)
  • The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of pH change were even greater than expected: No germination instead of poor growth. (prezi.com)
  • I've not noticed no difference in germination time or mycellial growth in GT compared to PF. (shroomery.org)
  • Alginate oligosaccharides can promote the seed germination and seed ling growth of pea, it features: 1.the seed germination rate increased 2.the seed ling height, root length and biomass were increased. (burrillandco.com)
  • Germination is the growth of an embryonic plant contained within a seed. (macjams.com)
  • Germination Station with heated mat Grow healthier starts Increase germination success Humidity control for optimum growth Three adjustable vents on t. (earlmay.com)
  • However it was found that solutions of yeast extract or various vitamins and growth substances could stimulate germination and growth of germ tubes of older uredospores. (bl.uk)
  • Various reactions were seen including stimulation, inhibition or no effect on uredospore germination and growth of germ tubes. (bl.uk)
  • However, interaction studies indicated that uredospore germination, growth of germ tubes and infection could be increased by the presence of cells of Cryptococcus, Sporobolomyces and Aureobasidium pullulans. (bl.uk)
  • Leachate from Cryptococcus cells also stimulated uredospore germination, growth of germ tubes and infection on detached leaves but to a lesser extent than the presence of the yeast cells. (bl.uk)
  • Before germination occurs, the seed does not have the required nutrients for plant growth. (maximumyield.com)
  • Water is vital to germination because the seed must undergo imbibition to stimulate root growth. (maximumyield.com)
  • Stages of germination of a bean seed. (britannica.com)
  • Germination can be broken down into a series of stages or steps: commitment, stage I, stage II and outgrowth. (els.net)
  • What Are the Five Stages of Seed Germination? (reference.com)
  • We outline two methods to investigate molecular changes during germination: measuring respiration increase to detect metabolic activation and assessing changing molecular events by isolating teliospores at distinct morphological stages. (jove.com)
  • These unscrupulous practices and more led to the Parliamentary passage of the Adulterated Seed Act in 1869, and in 1897, the U.S. Department of Agriculture published the first rules for standard seed tests for germination, seed purity, weed and inert seed, hard seed and moisture content. (mofga.org)
  • from north China, with a thousand-seed weight of 40.2 g, moisture content of 7 to 9% and 80% germination when tested for 16 days at 20/25 °C, were selected and divided into two equal lots. (fao.org)
  • Germination begins when the lima bean is exposed to the right combination of moisture and heat. (gardenguides.com)
  • Complete inhibition of germination occurred when F. solani (Sud 96) culture filtrates and GR24 were applied simultaneously. (bioone.org)
  • An example of a plant with hypogeal germination is the pea (Pisum sativum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypogeal germination implies that the cotyledons stay below the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daylily seed germination is hypogeal, with the single cotyledon remaining in the seed below the ground. (daylilies.org)
  • One population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F 2:9 ), derived from a cross between a japonica rice landrace tolerant to salt stress and a sensitive indica rice variety, was used to determine the germination traits including imbibition rate and germination percentage under control (water) and salt stress (100 mM NaCl) for 10 days at 30 °C. The multiple interval mapping (MIM) were applied to conduct QTL for the traits. (springer.com)
  • We propose that A. fumigatus acquisition of LoxB (found in few fungi) enhances germination rates in polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proposed model of germination receptor pathways in Bacillus anthracis . (els.net)
  • A single stimulus such as ABA affects transcription factors, which are major controllers of genes involved in complex processes such as seed germination," Hasegawa said. (redorbit.com)
  • The results showed that seed germination was a quantitative trait controlled by several genes, and strongly affected by salt stress. (springer.com)
  • While recent advances describing C. difficile germination mechanisms have been made on several fronts, major gaps in our understanding of C. difficile germination signaling remain. (asm.org)
  • Germination percentage was calculated according to Rules for Seed Testing (ISTA, 1993) and Zhu et al. (fao.org)
  • The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. (hindawi.com)
  • The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. (hindawi.com)
  • Volatile seed germination inhibitors from plant residues. (nih.gov)
  • One of the easiest ways to determine viability before you plant is to perform an at-home germination test. (nativeseeds.org)
  • The germination rate can also help you determine how many to plant in the garden. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Has anyone ever tried speeding up germination in any way, such as by using Giberellic acid (a plant hormone, for those who might be curious)? (aroid.org)
  • Disease and disorder research has been conducted in relation to the Seed Germination Pathway and Physiological Stress, Plant Diseases, Dehydration, Protrusion, Salmonella Infections. (novusbio.com)
  • The parasite's life cycle starts with the induction of seed germination by host plant-derived signals, followed by parasite attachment, infection, outgrowth, flowering, reproduction, seed set and dispersal. (wur.nl)
  • Germination is the beginning stage when a young plant starts to grow from a seed. (gardenguides.com)
  • The environmental triggers which initiate germination of DSs are thought to include sugars, amino acids, and inorganic salts ( Carlile and Watkinson, 1994 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • How do microwaves affect radish seed germination? (education.com)
  • The germination frequency increased as the size of the remaining endosperm decreased. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic approaches to identify phase-specific germination mutants have identified only a handful of candidates. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is also sometimes needed to leach away a germination inhibitor within the seed. (cactus-art.biz)
  • Perhaps germination inhibitor(s) leach out by soaking? (aroid.org)