GermanyIrritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.ItalyDyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Germany, WestRomeQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Germany, EastGastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Manuscripts, MedicalDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.PaintingsGastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Employment, Supported: Paid work for mentally or physically disabled persons, taking place in regular or normal work settings. It may be competitive employment (work that pays minimum wage) or employment with subminimal wages in individualized or group placement situations. It is intended for persons with severe disabilities who require a range of support services to maintain employment. Supported employment differs from SHELTERED WORKSHOPS in that work in the latter takes place in a controlled working environment. Federal regulations are authorized and administered by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.EuropeNorth SeaRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.AustriaAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Concentration Camps: Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.SwitzerlandMortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.USSRGastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.IranWorld War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Military Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with problems related to the prevention, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of mental or emotional disorders of Armed Forces personnel.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Matricaria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. M. chamomilla appears similar to Anthemis but this flower disk is conical and hollow and lacks chaffy bract scales and the odor is weaker. The common name of 'manzanilla' is confused with other meanings of the word. 'Matricaria chamomilla sensu' is classified by some as Tripleurospermum perforata. Other plants with similar common names include CHAMAEMELUM; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM and ANTHEMIS.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Complicity: Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Prednimustine: Ester of CHLORAMBUCIL and PREDNISOLONE used as a combination alkylating agent and synthetic steroid to treat various leukemias and other neoplasms. It causes gastrointestinal and bone marrow toxicity.Parvovirinae: A subfamily of DNA vertebrate viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. There are three genera: PARVOVIRUS; ERYTHROVIRUS; and DEPENDOVIRUS.Balkan Peninsula: A peninsula in Southeast EUROPE between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the West and Aegean and Black Seas on the East. (from www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/balkan%20peninsula)Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.RussiaProfessional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Wedge Argument: An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Parvovirus, Porcine: A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Nursing Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Legal Guardians: A legal concept for individuals who are designated to act on behalf of persons who are considered incapable of acting in their own behalf, e.g., minors and persons found to be not mentally competent.Personnel Delegation: To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structureData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Famous PersonsQuality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Ascaridida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms possess two or three pairs of dorsolateral caudal papillae.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Dictyocaulus: Nematodes parasitic in the bronchi of herbivorous animals.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).EcuadorRailroads: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Medicine in ArtPractice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Gastropexy: Surgical fixation of the stomach to the abdominal wall.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.BerlinLinkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Secularism: Indifference to, or rejection of, RELIGION or religious considerations. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Mesopic Vision: The function of the eye that is used in the intermediate level of illumination (mesopic intensities) where both the RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS are active in processing light input simultaneously.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.PolandAttitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Thorium Dioxide: Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.
  • Book your flight from Germany to Rome Fiumicino in July 2018 here. (eurowings.com)
  • Select your desired date in July 2018 and view all the airports in Germany you can fly to Rome Fiumicino from on that day. (eurowings.com)
  • Liverpool's English midfielder Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain is stretchered off the pitch during the UEFA Champions League first leg semi-final football match between Liverpool and Roma at Anfield stadium in Liverpool, north west England on April 24, 2018. (vanguardngr.com)
  • In the present study, a set of 45 Enterobacteriaceae isolated from German retail seafood (clams and shrimps), sampled in 2016, were investigated by real-time PCR for the presence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The Central Council of German Sinti and Roma (German: Zentralrat Deutscher Sinti und Roma) is a German Romanies rights group based in Heidelberg, Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the union of the umbrella organisations of the four national autochthonous minorities which belong to the German nation and have always been resident and here: The Domowina of the Sorbs, the Friesian Council, the South Schleswig Association of the Danish minority and the Central Council of German Sinti and Roma. (wikipedia.org)
  • he has also fought for their protection from racism and discrimination and for compensation for the survivors of the Holocaust, at the same time announcing the magnitude and the historical importance of the genocide of 500,000 Sinti and Roma in National Socialist occupied Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 1995, in cooperation with the member organisations of the Central Council, Rose achieved recognition for German Sinti and Roma as a national minority in Germany with their own minority language, connected with their goal of equal participation in social and political life. (wikipedia.org)
  • the delegation of German Sinti and Roma led by Rose to meet the former Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, who proclaimed the historically important and internationally binding recognition of the National Socialist crimes against Sinti and Roma as genocide determined by their so-called "Rasse" (race). (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) The until now unique memorial Mass initiated by Rose, given by the Bishop Dr. Anton Schlembach in the Speyer cathedral on March 13, 1988, the 45th anniversary of the deportation of 23,000 European Sinti and Roma to Auschwitz. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5) Public meetings, gaining signatures on petitions (with 2,124 German Sinti and Roma, among which were 1,520 KZ survivors), other actions and many press appointments since 1989 demanding the erection of the Holocaust memorial for murdered Sinti and Roma on the position between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate agreed to for 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the course of 20 years since 1985 the office in Heidelberg - which was sponsored by the Federal government since August 1982 and since the year 2000 by the state Minister for Culture and Media - the Central Council, under the crucial leadership of Rose, brought about a significant change to the earlier discriminatory procedure of compensation for 3,200 Sinti and Roma Holocaust survivors. (wikipedia.org)
  • During official ceremonies in front of a memorial to Sinti and Roma dead amid the ruins of gas chambers and barracks, Jackson warned diplomats and Roma from across Europe of the current dangers from a resurgence of racism and white nationalism. (go.com)
  • It was only in 1982 that West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt publicly declared that Sinti and Roma "were persecuted for reasons of race" and that "these crimes constituted an act of genocide. (go.com)
  • In turn, a German Roma leader, Romani Rose, said the African American civil rights struggle that made vast achievements in the 20th century was a model and inspiration for his people, who still face marginalization and violence. (go.com)
  • Nevertheless, the German government is planning the deportation of Roma on a massive scale-but to Kosovo rather than Romania. (wsws.org)
  • Responding to an enquiry from the Left Party, the German Interior Ministry recently confirmed that it would be adhering to its deportation plans that were first reported a year ago by the Süddeutsche Zeitung newspaper (See: "Roma face deportation," published October 14, 2009). (wsws.org)
  • It can thus be assumed that Sarkozy did not simply invent Merkel's comment about the clearance of camps, but had been informed of the forthcoming deportation of Roma. (wsws.org)
  • A recent report aired by the German public broadcaster ARD provided a shocking exposure of the contempt shown by local authorities and church institutions in the city of Dortmund for impoverished workers from southeastern Europe. (wsws.org)
  • In the ARD report, television journalists Isabel Schayani and Esat Mogul accompanied Ercan, a Roma worker from Plovdiv in Bulgaria, who had spent a week fruitlessly looking for a low-paying job in the north of Dortmund, the city's poorest area. (wsws.org)
  • Having out-witted Manchester City manager Pep Guardiola in the quarter-finals, Klopp - drawing on the knowledge gleaned from leading Borussia Dortmund to the 2013 final - out-manoeuvered Roma boss Eusebio Di Francesco so emphatically in the first leg that even Roma's late goal blitz in the return wasn't enough to stop the Reds setting up a repeat of the 1981 final. (vanguardngr.com)
  • Sarkozy said at the summit he had Merkel's support in a row with Brussels, which accuses Paris of breaking EU law by sending Roma migrants back to Romania and Bulgaria. (reuters.com)
  • France stepped up its expulsion of Roma migrants during the summer, rounding up families in illegal camps and offering them a financial incentive to leave the country as part of an initiative by Sarkozy to tighten security. (reuters.com)
  • Nearly 30 per cent of migrants travelled to Germany in 2012 under EU free movement rules, compared to seven per cent of EU free-mobility migrants that moved to the UK, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) revealed. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • FREILASSING, GERMANY - SEPTEMBER 14: A cordon is set up in front of migrants in police custody as they wait to be brought to emergency accomodations on September 14, 2015 at the railway station in Freilassing, Germany. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • German authorities announced they are temporarily reinstating border controls along Germany's border to Austria in order to stem the recent massive influx of migrants and uphold the Dublin agreement. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Tens of thousands of migrants arrived in Germany over the last few weeks and the country is struggling to find adequate accommodation for them all. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • By enforcing the Dublin agreement, which requires migrants applying for asylum to register in the first EU country they enter, German authorities are hoping for a broader distribution of arriving migrants across EU member states. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • In a letter posted on his party's website Monday, German Vice Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel said his country now expects to receive 1 million migrants this year - up from 800,000 - among the massive wave of humanity fleeing to Europe from the Mideast and North Africa. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Gabriel's letter makes clear that Germany is no longer willing to be the only European port in the migrants' storm. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • David (Stray Bullets) Lapham and painter German Noble return to the time of hedonism and supernatural evil with Caligula: Heart of Rome #1! (comixology.com)
  • Location and access to the heart of Rome makes this an ideal location to see all the major sites on Rome. (booking.com)
  • Potatoes are seen inside a planter on a field outside Vaudoy-en-Brie, near Paris, on April 23. (newsweek.com)
  • Israel has pulled out of a planned exhibit of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Frankfurt because the German government would not guarantee their return if claimed by Palestinians. (haaretz.com)
  • DAM Frankfurt a.M., Elisabeth-Montag Stiftung Bonn, Art Gallery AAM, Rome. (behance.net)
  • In addition to the 6 million Jews killed in camps such as Auschwitz, the Nazis killed other minorities during World War II, including between 250,000 and 500,000 Roma and Sinti. (go.com)
  • The inhumanity of such an undertaking on the part of the German authorities is hardly less alarming than that of the French government. (wsws.org)
  • According to German news reports, the government guarantee would have blocked Palestinian or Jordanian authorities from contesting the provenance of the scrolls , which are among the oldest known texts related to the Hebrew Bible. (haaretz.com)
  • The post-war German authorities decided that they were not a race and, thus, did not qualify for reparations or any other alleviation of the consequences of deadly persecutions. (eaie.org)
  • If you feel like visiting the surroundings, check out Pantheon (500 metres) and Campo de Fiori Square (500 metres).Rome Fiumicino Airport is located 22 km away. (agoda.com)
  • In the first century B.C., the Roman poet Virgil developed the Aeneas myth in his epic poem the Aeneid, which told of Aeneas' journey to Rome. (history.com)
  • The thermal springs of Baden-Baden, in southwestern Germany, have enjoyed fame since ancient Roman times. (travelandleisure.com)
  • One top EU official went as far as to recall the Nazis' persecution of the Roma. (reuters.com)
  • The Roma issue is loaded with historical sensitivity in Germany, heightened after European Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding -- referring to Nazi Germany's persecution of gypsies during World War Two -- said on Tuesday she was afraid of a return to ethnic targeting and Europe's dark past. (reuters.com)
  • The First Crusade began an era of persecution of Jews in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illuminating another aspect of this year's conference theme, 'Encompassing all voices', Michael Woolf implores us to break our historic silence on the persecution of the Roma. (eaie.org)
  • The "Deutsche Historische Institut in Rom", short DHI Rome, was founded as "Prussian Historical Station" in 1888 after the opening of the Vatican Secret Archives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Georginio Wijnaldum claimed he had no problem resting in the build-up to Liverpool's biggest match for a decade, but the ice-cool Dutch midfielder's crucial contribution left Roma facing sleepless nights for weeks to come. (vanguardngr.com)
  • BERLIN (Reuters) - A European row over France's repatriation of Roma escalated on Friday, pitting President Nicolas Sarkozy against Germany's Angela Merkel, who was forced to deny his assertion Berlin also planned to clear camps. (reuters.com)
  • The issue of the Roma here in Germany played no role at all in the talks between the chancellor and the French president," Merkel's spokesman said in a prepared statement in Berlin. (reuters.com)
  • Germany had already issued a statement saying Merkel spoke neither during the EU summit nor with Sarkozy about "supposed Roma encampments in Germany" but that Berlin supported France "with regard to the form and tone" of Reding's criticism. (reuters.com)
  • BERLIN (AP) - Mally the monkey, Justin Bieber's former pet, has emerged from quarantine at his new German home three months after the pop star brought him to the country. (yahoo.com)
  • Italian transport minister Graziano Delrio claims that austerity policies imposed by Germany have weakened the European project and that the FIAT emissions scandal needs clarification from Berlin. (euractiv.com)
  • Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany. (nih.gov)
  • the total estimated enlarged population of Jews living in Germany, including non-Jewish household members, was close to 250,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • This, in turn, has acted as a mechanism to drive living standards down sharply in countries such as France and Germany. (wsws.org)
  • There are indeed no camps in Germany comparable to those in France. (wsws.org)
  • France has faced a large amount of criticism from its European neighbours over its treatment of Roma people. (france24.com)
  • Or does Macron want more space dedicated to the fantastic France-Germany axis, which has worked so well? (euractiv.com)
  • In the well-trafficked skies above the Somme River in France, Baron Manfred von Richthofen, the notorious German flying ace known as the Red Baron," is killed by Allied fire on April 21, 1918. (history.com)
  • With their own rosters of military and naval units, distinct traits and play styles, these Balkan factions offer a new and unique way to experience the Grand Campaign in ROME II. (steampowered.com)
  • Under pressure from its refugee influx, Germany added Western Balkan nations to its "safe country" list. (irinnews.org)
  • At the time, NATO's Kosovo militia allies expelled more than two-thirds of the 150,000 Roma from Kosovo. (wsws.org)
  • Investigations, carried out in the country by political scientist Peter Widmann, show that unemployment among Roma in Kosovo is almost 100 percent, and Roma families are commonly segregated. (wsws.org)
  • Nevertheless, the German government insists that conditions for Roma in Kosovo have improved in recent years. (wsws.org)
  • Rev. Jesse Jackson gathered Friday with survivors at the former Nazi death camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau to commemorate an often forgotten genocide - that of the Roma people. (go.com)
  • Organizers said around 20 survivors, most of them Roma and Sinti but some Jewish, joined Friday's commemorations. (go.com)
  • German songwriter Ralph Siegel is one of the most notable figures in the competition, having written more than 20 different entries, including Germany's first winner in 1982. (eurovision.tv)
  • Mally was transferred to the zoo last month from a Munich animal shelter where he had been since being seized by German customs March 28. (yahoo.com)
  • Roma originated in Northern India and first arrived in Europe at the end of the 13th century. (eaie.org)
  • Broadly speaking, Sinti are people who arrived from India and settled in Western and Central Europe many centuries ago, while Roma are centered largely in Eastern Europe. (go.com)
  • German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle also struck a diplomatic tone, saying of Sarkozy's remarks: "I suspect there is a misunderstanding here. (reuters.com)
  • A segment of the scrolls was displayed in Berlin's Martin Gropius-Bau Museum in 2005 as part of an exhibit honoring 40 years of diplomatic relations between Germany and the Jewish state. (haaretz.com)
  • After the war, the Jewish community in Germany started to slowly grow again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning around 1990, a spurt of growth was fueled by immigration from the former Soviet Union , so that at the turn of the 21st century, Germany had the only growing Jewish community in Europe, and the majority of German Jews were Russian-speaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is no accident that Rome is an "Eternal City": it was once the centre of the world and its history spans centuries. (flytap.com)
  • In the fifth century B.C., a few Greek historians speculated that Aeneas settled at Rome, which was then still a small city-state. (history.com)
  • The Black Sea Colonies Culture Pack introduces three new playable factions into the ROME II Grand Campaign: Cimmeria, Pergamon and Colchis. (steampowered.com)
  • The atrocities during the Khmelnytsky Uprising committed by Khmelnytskyi 's Cossacks (1648, in the Ukrainian part of southeastern Poland) drove the Polish Jews back into western Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • NBC News has a prime location which one staff member said, "is what we always use for Vatican stories" - the gardens of the Urbanianum, a pontifical missionary university on one of Rome's famed Seven Hills that overlooks much of Rome and the Vatican. (ncregister.com)
  • Fox News Channel has erected a platform on the roof of the building that houses its Rome bureau about a half mile from the Vatican as the crow flies. (ncregister.com)
  • Boris Rhein, the culture minister from the state of Hesse, told German news agencies that the German Foreign Ministry and federal commissioner for cultural affairs considered the ownership of the scrolls to be unclear. (haaretz.com)
  • Want to read Eurovision news in German? (eurovision.tv)
  • Germany, not the United Kingdom, is the main destination of free movement within the European Union, an international economic organisation has found. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In its annual International Migration Outlook, it said recent national estimates suggest an increase in free movement migration to the UK this year - but Germany continues to be the main destination of free movement within the 28-country bloc. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Location was amazing and could walk to all the main attractions in Rome. (booking.com)
  • This paper traces the main macroeconomic developments in the German economy from national unification. (ssrn.com)
  • This is especially so because the Roma, together with the Jews, were the principal targets of the Nazi genocide. (wsws.org)
  • Accusations of well poisoning during the Black Death (1346-53) led to mass slaughter of German Jews and they fled in large numbers to Poland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The commemorations in southern Poland, which was under German occupation during World War II, fall exactly 75 years after thousands of the last remaining prisoners in the so-called Gypsy family camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau were killed. (go.com)
  • So close to Termini Station and central Rome. (booking.com)
  • Hotel Cressy is situated within the walls of the historic center of Rome, about 300 feet from Roma Termini Train Station, the city hub for all kinds of public transportation. (booking.com)
  • CasaPound took over an empty office building in the center of Rome in 2003 and has housed people there ever since. (nybooks.com)
  • However, this approach - which is rooted in US-centric conceptions of race and inclusion - can exclude certain voices from the conversation, such as those of the Roma people. (eaie.org)