The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)
Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
An orphan nuclear receptor expressed mainly in the GERM CELLS of GONADS. It functions as a transcription factor that binds to a direct repeat of the sequence AGGTCA and may play a role in the regulation of EMBRYOGENESIS and germ cell differentiation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A complex neoplasm composed of a mixture of gonadal elements, such as large primordial GERM CELLS, immature SERTOLI CELLS or GRANULOSA CELLS of the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. Gonadoblastomas are most often associated with gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XY.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of male infertility in which no germ cells are visible in any of the biopsied SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (type I) or in which germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (type II). Clinical features include AZOOSPERMIA, normal VIRILIZATION, and normal chromosomal complement.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Gonadal neoplasm composed entirely of SERTOLI CELLS or may have a component of GRANULOSA CELLS. Some of the Sertoli cell tumors produce ESTROGEN or ANDROGENS, but seldom in sufficient quantity to cause clinical symptoms such as FEMINIZATION or masculinization (VIRILISM).
A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.

The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene mog-1 encodes a member of the DEAH-Box protein family. (1/2975)

In the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germ line, the sex-determining gene fem-3 is repressed posttranscriptionally to arrest spermatogenesis and permit oogenesis. This repression requires a cis-acting regulatory element in the fem-3 3' untranslated region; the FBF protein, which binds to this element; and at least six mog genes. In this paper, we report the molecular characterization of mog-1 as well as additional phenotypic characterization of this gene. The mog-1 gene encodes a member of the DEAH-box family. Three mog-1 alleles possess premature stop codons and are likely to be null alleles, and one is a missense mutation and is likely to retain residual activity. mog-1 mRNA is expressed in both germ line and somatic tissues and appears to be ubiquitous. The MOG-1 DEAH-box protein is most closely related to proteins essential for splicing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but splicing appears to occur normally in a mog-1-null mutant. In addition to its involvement in the sperm-oocyte switch and control of fem-3, zygotic mog-1 is required for robust germ line proliferation and for normal growth during development. We suggest that mog-1 plays a broader role in RNA regulation than previously considered.  (+info)

Bmp4 is required for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. (2/2975)

In many organisms the allocation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is determined by the inheritance of maternal factors deposited in the egg. However, in mammals, inductive cell interactions are required around gastrulation to establish the germ line. Here, we show that Bmp4 homozygous null embryos contain no PGCs. They also lack an allantois, an extraembryonic mesodermal tissue derived, like the PGCs, from precursors in the proximal epiblast. Heterozygotes have fewer PGCs than normal, due to a reduction in the size of the founding population and not to an effect on its subsequent expansion. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity in Bmp4(lacZneo) embryos reveals that prior to gastrulation, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic ectoderm. Later, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic mesoderm, but not in PGCs. Chimera analysis indicates that it is the Bmp4 expression in the extraembryonic ectoderm that regulates the formation of allantois and primordial germ cell precursors, and the size of the founding population of PGCs. The initiation of the germ line in the mouse therefore depends on a secreted signal from the previously segregated, extraembryonic, trophectoderm lineage.  (+info)

Germ cell development in the XXY mouse: evidence that X chromosome reactivation is independent of sexual differentiation. (3/2975)

Prior to entry into meiosis, XX germ cells in the fetal ovary undergo X chromosome reactivation. The signal for reactivation is thought to emanate from the genital ridge, but it is unclear whether it is specific to the developing ovary. To determine whether the signals are present in the developing testis as well as the ovary, we examined the expression of X-linked genes in germ cells from XXY male mice. To facilitate this analysis, we generated XXY and XX fetuses carrying X chromosomes that were differentially marked and subject to nonrandom inactivation. This pattern of nonrandom inactivation was maintained in somatic cells but, in XX as well as XXY fetuses, both parental alleles were expressed in germ cell-enriched cell populations. Because testis differentiation is temporally and morphologically normal in the XXY testis and because all germ cells embark upon a male pathway of development, these results provide compelling evidence that X chromosome reactivation in fetal germ cells is independent of the somatic events of sexual differentiation. Proper X chromosome dosage is essential for the normal fertility of male mammals, and abnormalities in germ cell development are apparent in the XXY testis within several days of X reactivation. Studies of exceptional germ cells that survive in the postnatal XXY testis demonstrated that surviving germ cells are exclusively XY and result from rare nondisjunctional events that give rise to clones of XY cells.  (+info)

Ialpha exon-replacement mice synthesize a spliced HPRT-C(alpha) transcript which may explain their ability to switch to IgA. Inhibition of switching to IgG in these mice. (4/2975)

Antibody class switching is regulated by transcription of unrearranged C(H) genes to produce germline (GL) transcripts which direct the choice of isotype and are required for switching. However, their role is unknown. GL transcripts are initiated at the I exons located upstream of each switch region. Although deletion of the I exon by gene targeting prevents switch recombination to that CH gene, the Ialpha exon can be replaced by an entirely different DNA segment, a minigene driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter and encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), oriented in the sense direction, without reducing antibody class switching to IgA. To understand why HPRT substitution of the Ialpha exon does not disrupt switch recombination, we have analyzed the structure of the transcript from the targeted allele in these mice. We identify a spliced transcript in which the HPRT exons are spliced to the C(alpha) gene segments, resulting in a structure similar to normal GL transcripts. The abundance of this transcript is similar to that of the normal alpha GL RNA. We also demonstrate that switching to the four IgG subclasses in B cells from these mice is reduced in comparison to wild-type mice. We discuss the possibility that the strong PGK promoter inserted at the Ig alpha locus may interfere with interaction of the promoters for gamma GL transcripts with the 3' IgH enhancer.  (+info)

Production of donor-derived offspring by transfer of primordial germ cells in Japanese quail. (5/2975)

We transfused concentrated primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the black strain (D: homozygous for the autosomal incomplete dominant gene, D) of quail into the embryos of the wild-type plumage strain (WP: d+/d+) of quail. The recipient quail were raised until sexual maturity and a progeny test of the putative germline chimeras was performed to examine the donor gamete-derived offspring (D/d+). Thirty-one percent (36/115) of the transfused quail hatched and 21 (13 females and 8 males) of them reached maturity. Five females and 2 males were germline chimeras producing donor gamete-derived offspring. Transmission rates of the donor derived gametes in the chimeric females and males were 1.8-8.3% and 2.6-63.0%, respectively. Germline chimeric and the other putative chimeric males were also test-mated with females from the sex-linked imperfect albino strain (AL: d+/d+, al/W, where al indicates the sex-linked imperfect albino gene on the Z chromosome, and W indicates the W chromosome) for autosexing of W-bearing spermatozoa: No albino offspring were born.  (+info)

Histone ubiquitination and chromatin remodeling in mouse spermatogenesis. (6/2975)

Male infertility in HR6B knockout mice is associated with impairment of spermatogenesis. The HR6B gene is a mammalian, autosomal homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene Rad6 encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. In addition, X-chromosomal HR6A has been identified, in human and mouse. RAD6 in yeast is required for a variety of cellular functions, including sporulation, DNA repair, and mutagenesis. Since RAD6 and its mammalian homologs can ubiquitinate histones in vitro, we have investigated the pattern of histone ubiquitination in mouse testis. By immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis of wild-type mouse testis, a high amount of ubiquitinated H2A (uH2A) was detected in pachytene spermatocytes. This signal became undetectable in round spermatids, but then increased again during a relatively short developmental period, in elongating spermatids. No other ubiquitinated histones were observed. In the HR6B knockout mice, we failed to detect an overt defect in the overall pattern of histone ubiquitination. For somatic cell types, it has been shown that histone ubiquitination is associated with destabilization of nucleosomes, in relation to active gene transcription. Unexpectedly, the most intense uH2A signal in pachytene spermatocytes was detected in the sex body, an inactive nuclear structure that contains the heterochromatic X and Y chromosomes. The postmeiotic uH2A immunoexpression in elongating spermatids indicates that nucleosome destabilization induced by histone ubiquitination may play a facilitating role during histone-to-protamine replacement.  (+info)

Activin and TGFbeta limit murine primordial germ cell proliferation. (7/2975)

Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) proliferate as they migrate from their initial location in the extraembryonic mesoderm to the genital ridge, the gonadal anlage. Once in the genital ridge, PGCs cease dividing and differentiate according to their gender. To identify ligands that might limit PGC proliferation, we analyzed growth factor receptors encoded in RNA obtained from purified germ cells shortly after their arrival in the genital ridge. Receptors for two members of the TGFbeta superfamily were found, TGFbeta1 and activin. As the signal-transducing domains of both receptor systems are highly conserved, the effects of both TGFbeta1 and activin on PGCs would be expected to be similar. We found that both ligands limited the accumulation of germ cells in primary PGC cultures. BrdU incorporation assays demonstrated that either ligand inhibits PGC proliferation. These results suggest that these signal transduction pathways are important elements of the mechanism that determines germ cell endowment.  (+info)

A novel quantitative morphometry of germ cells for the histopathological evaluation of rat testicular toxicity. (8/2975)

A view that 14 stages of rat spermatogenic cycle could be arranged into 4 groups, viz., conventional stages I-VI, VII-VIII, IX-XI and XII-XIV, according to the features of elongated spermatids was previously presented. A novel morphometry of seminiferous epithelia based on these 4 groups was also proposed. In the present study, utility of the proposed morphometry in the histopathological evaluations of testicular toxicities was monitored in comparison with the conventional one. After administrating adriamycin, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether or 1,3-dinitrobenzene to rats, the viability of their germ cells was estimated by the proposed morphometry and the conventional one employed stages II-III, V, VII, X and XII. In every case, the evaluating results of the proposed morphometry were similar to those of the conventional one. Thus, it was verified that the proposed morphometry was identical with the conventional one in respect of reliable detection of the testicular toxicities. In addition, in situ terminal dUTP nick end labeling indicated that death of spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes or round spermatids induced by the above 3 toxic compounds was exclusively apoptotic death. In conclusion, the proposed morphometry would be useful as a practical tool in the evaluation of testicular toxicities.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Proliferation of mouse primordial germ cells in Vitro. T2 - A key role for cAMP. AU - De Felici, Massimo. AU - Dolci, Susanna. AU - Pesce, Maurizio. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Two agents known to enhance the level of intracellular cAMP (dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin) markedly increase the number of 8.5, 10.5, and 11.5 days postcoitum (dpc) mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) cultured on TM4 cell feeder layers. Forskolin (FRSK) caused a significant increase of PGC number also in monodispersed cell suspensions obtained from PGC-containing tissues of the three embryonic ages studied and in purified 11.5 dpc PGCs cultured without feeder layers. The addition to the culture medium of adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate RP isomer (Rp-cAMPS, a competitive antagonist for cAMP-dependent protein kinases), significantly reduced the effects of FRSK. Last, FRSK stimulated PGC proliferation, as assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridin incorporation. We conclude that cAMP-dependent ...
In Drosophila, the posterior determinant nanos is required for embryonic patterning and for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. We have identified three genes in Caenorhabditis elegans that contain a putative zinc-binding domain similar to the one found in nanos, and show that two of these genes function during PGC development. Like Drosophila nanos, C. elegans nos-1 and nos-2 are not generally required for PGC fate specification, but instead regulate specific aspects of PGC development. nos-2 is expressed in PGCs around the time of gastrulation from a maternal RNA associated with P granules, and is required for the efficient incorporation of PGCs into the somatic gonad. nos-1 is expressed in PGCs after gastrulation, and is required redundantly with nos-2 to prevent PGCs from dividing in starved animals and to maintain germ cell viability during larval development. In the absence of nos-1 and nos-2, germ cells cease proliferation at the end of the second larval stage, and die in a manner ...
Jenn-Fa Liou, Yu-Min Shue, Hsiao-Lung Liu, Chein Tai, Lih-Ren Chen, and Jen-Wen Shiau. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of gonadal migration and characterization for chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) after long-term in vitro culture. Chicken PGCs collected from the primitive gonads of 5.5-day-old White Leghorn chicken embryos were plated together with their own stroma cells as co-culture. The cultured PGCs began to from colonies 7-10 days after plating. The PGC-derived colonies maintained in culture up to 280 days were positively stained with antibodies specific to SSEA-1, SSEA-4, integrin α6 and integrin β1, and also strongly expressed periodic acid Schiff reaction. Their capacities of migration and colonizing in the primary gonadal ridge were further demonstrated by transferring to stage 14-15 (3 days old) recipient embryos. These results suggested that chicken PGCs maintained in long-term culture retains their capacity to express pluripotent markers and to ...
Liu-Xiao-Ping; Gao-Ying-Mao; Xu-Luo; Guo-Fei-Fei; Bing-Lu-Jun, 2007: The effect of transplantation of mouse primordial germ cells on the acute damaged liver
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of gametes responsible for genetic transmission to the next generation. They provide an ideal system for cryopr...
The directional migration and the following development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during gonad formation are key steps for germline development. It has been proposed that the interaction between germ cells and genital ridge (GR) somatic cells plays essential roles in this process. However, the in vivo functional requirements of GR somatic cells in germ cell development are largely unknown. Wt1 mutation (Wt1R394W/R394W) results in GR agenesis through mitotic arrest of coelomic epitheliums. In this study, we employed the GR-deficient mouse model, Wt1R394W/R394W, to investigate the roles of GR somatic cells in PGC migration and proliferation. We found that the number of PGCs was dramatically reduced in GR-deficient embryos at embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E12.5 due to decreased proliferation of PGCs, involving low levels of BMP signaling. In contrast, the germ cells in Wt1R394W/R394W embryos were still mitotically active at E13.5, while all the germ cells in control embryos underwent mitotic arrest at
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zebrafish primordial germ cell cultures derived from vasa::RFP transgenic embryos. AU - Fan, Lianchun. AU - Moon, Jesung. AU - Wong, Ten Tsao. AU - Crodian, Jennifer. AU - Collodi, Paul. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Although embryonic germ (EG) cell-mediated gene transfer has been successful in the mouse for more than a decade, this approach is limited in other species due to the difficulty of isolating the small numbers of progenitors of germ cell lineage (PGCs) from early-stage embryos and the lack of information on the in vitro culture requirements of the cells. In this study, methods were established for the culture of PGCs obtained from zebrafish embryos. Transgenic embryos that express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) under the control of the PGC-specific vasa promoter were used, making it possible to isolate pure populations of PGCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and to optimize the culture conditions by counting the number of fluorescent PGC colonies ...
Although mutations are the force of evolution, most mutations are deleterious. Faithful inheritance of genetic information is the key to evolutionary success. The only cell lineage that is capable of transferring genetic information is the germ line. Therefore, refined control of mutation frequency in germ cells is of great importance. The control mechanism mainly involves the DNA damage response (DDR), since DNA damage is the major source of mutations. In mammals, most studies on germ line mutation and DDR focus on meiosis. In contrast, little is known about these processes in primordial germ cells (PGCs). In particular, checkpoint signaling has not been characterized in PGCs. Multiple analysis showed that the mutation rate in germ cells is consistently lower than that in somatic cells. Therefore, it has been proposed that there is a fundamental difference in DDR between germ cells and somatic cells. Indeed, a few DDR mutants have revealed a hypersensitivity of PGCs to DNA damage. In this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution DNA methylome analysis of primordial germ cells identifies gender-specific reprogramming in mice. AU - Kobayashi, Hisato. AU - Sakurai, Takayuki. AU - Miura, Fumihito. AU - Imai, Misaki. AU - Mochiduki, Kentaro. AU - Yanagisawa, Eikichi. AU - Sakashita, Akihiko. AU - Wakai, Takuya. AU - Suzuki, Yutaka. AU - Ito, Takashi. AU - Matsui, Yasuhisa. AU - Kono, Tomohiro. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during mammalian germ cell development, although the targets of this process, including DNA demethylation and de novo methylation, remain poorly understood. We performed genomewide DNA methylation analysis in male and female mouse primordial germ cells at embryonic days 10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 by whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing. Our high-resolution DNA methylome maps demonstrated gender-specific differences in CpG methylation at genome-wide and gene-specific levels during fetal germline progression. There was extensive intra- ...
Germ cell development involves formation of the spermatogenic or oogenic lineages from the bipotential primordial germ cells. Signaling mechanisms in the fetal testis and ovary determine whether germ cells enter the male or female developmental pathway, respectively. These signaling processes underpin an important phase of germ cell development, disruption of which can lead to failed germ cell function resulting in infertility or the formation of germ cell tumours. In this study we have developed a small molecule screening protocol combined with flow cytometry to identify signaling pathways that direct male-specific development of germ cells. Here we provide a detailed method for this screening protocol, which we have used to identify signaling pathways important for male germ cell development. This method will be of particular use in screening inhibitors of signaling pathways, endocrine disruptors or other chemicals for their ability to disrupt testis and germ cell development, thereby providing
Directional cell migration is an intensively studied process relevant for both normal development of an organism as well as for a number of pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and cancer. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) in Xenopus laevis embryos can be used as a model system to study cell migration, since during embryogenesis they actively migrate within the endoderm towards genital ridges. Transition to active cell migration is a highly regulated process important for the normal PGC development in many species. This study is focused on molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in initiation of active PGC migration within the endoderm of X. laevis embryos. Analysis of cell shape fluctuations demonstrated that in comparison to pre-migratory neural stage, PGCs isolated from tailbud stage embryos are characterized by an increased cellular dynamics due to formation of bleb-like protrusions and migration via bleb-associated mechanism. Analysis of intracellular PIP3 distribution that ...
Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian germ cells, zygote and early embryos, plays a crucial role in regulating genome functions at critical stages of development. Germ line epigenetic reprogramming assures erasure of all the imprinting marks and epi-mutations and establishment of new sex-specific gametic imprints. The presented work focuses on the erasure of epigenetic modifications that occur in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) between day 10.5 to 13.5 post coitum (dpc). Contrary to previous assumptions, our results show that as they enter the genital ridge the PGCs still possess DNA methylation marks comparable to those found in somatic cells. Shortly after the entry of PGCs into the gonadal anlagen the DNA methylation marks associated with imprinted and non-imprinted genes are erased. For most genes the erasure commences simultaneously in PGCs of both male and female embryos and is completed within only one day of development. The kinetics of this process indicates that is an active ...
Stochastic specification of primordial germ cells from mesoderm precursors in axolotl embryos[7] A common feature of development in most vertebrate models is the early segregation of the germ line from the soma. For example, in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by germ plasm that is inherited from the egg; in mice, Blimp1 expression in the epiblast mediates the commitment of cells to the germ line. How these disparate mechanisms of PGC specification evolved is unknown. Here, in order to identify the ancestral mechanism of PGC specification in vertebrates, we studied PGC specification in embryos from the axolotl (Mexican salamander), a model for the tetrapod ancestor. In the axolotl, PGCs develop within mesoderm, and classic studies have reported their induction from primitive ectoderm (animal cap). We used an axolotl animal cap system to demonstrate that signalling through FGF and BMP4 induces PGCs. The role of FGF was then confirmed in vivo. We also ...
Stem cells in adult animal tissues have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into functional cells that replenish lost cells. Their self-renewal and differentiation are controlled by concerted actions of extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors (1, 2). Although a plethora of intrinsic factors has been identified for their roles in stem cell regulation, it remains largely unclear how differentiation factors are functionally repressed in stem cells. In this study, we show that a translation initiation factor eIF4A maintains germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal in the Drosophila ovary by antagonizing the differentiation factor BAM.. In the Drosophila ovary, 2 or 3 GSCs are located at the tip of the germarium, where they are directly anchored to cap cells through E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion (3). In addition, GSCs are also laterally wrapped around by escort stem cells (4). After GSC division, the daughter attaching to cap cells/escort stem cells renews as a stem cell, while the other ...
As with cultures of mouse ES cells, human ES cells begin to differentiate if they are removed from feeder layers and grown in suspension culture on a non-adherent surface. The human ES cells form embryoid bodies which, in the early stages, may be simple or cystic and filled with fluid. Although human embryoid bodies vary in their cellular content, many include cells that look like neurons and heart muscle cells [14, 25, 26].. After the human embryoid bodies form, they can be dissociated and replated in monolayer cultures which are then exposed to specific growth factors that influence further cell differentiation. Some growth factors induce cell types that would normally be derived from ectoderm in the embryo; these include retinoic acid, epidermal growth factor (EGF), bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Other growth factors, such as activin-A and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) trigger the differentiation of mesodermally derived cells. Two ...
Germ cell development is a step-wise process that ensures the progression of the life cycle due to their unique ability to transmit their genome from one generation to the next. In the mouse, the precursors of germ cells, the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs), arise at the onset of gastrulation. Here we discuss how PGCs acquire their fate in the epiblast and outline their development until their arrival into the gonads. Male germ cell tumors (GCTs) have a similar gene expression pattern to that of fetal germ cells and to pluripotent cells, suggesting that GCT originate from an alteration of gonocyte normal development. We evaluate coincidences and differences in germ cell development in mouse and humans and on this basis, we speculate future research perspectives.
We have developed a technology to efficiently produce infertile fish by disrupting primordial germ cell development in fish embryos. The technology uses a bath immersion to administer a Morpholino oligomer (MO) against Deadend (Dnd), an essential protein for early germ cell development in fish. This approach has been successfully used in the zebrafish, trout and salmon. The goal of this proposal is to examine the feasibility of applying this technology to sablefish. ...
We have developed a technology to efficiently produce infertile fish by disrupting primordial germ cell development in fish embryos. The technology uses a bath immersion to administer a Morpholino oligomer (MO) against Deadend (Dnd), an essential protein for early germ cell development in fish. This approach has been successfully used in the zebrafish, trout and salmon. The goal of this proposal is to examine the feasibility of applying this technology to sablefish. ...
Background Dmrt1 is a highly conserved gene involved in the determination and early differentiation phase of the primordial gonad in vertebrates. In the fish medaka dmrt1bY, a functional duplicate of...
Germ cell sex is defined by factors derived from somatic cells. CYP26B1 is known to be a male sex-promoting factor that inactivates retinoic acid (RA) in somatic cells. In CYP26B1-null XY gonads, germ cells are exposed to a higher level of RA than in normal XY gonads and this activates Stra8 to induce meiosis while male-specific gene expression is suppressed. However, it is unknown whether meiotic entry by an elevated level of RA is responsible for the suppression of male-type gene expression. To address this question, we have generated Cyp26b1/Stra8 double knockout (dKO) embryos. We successfully suppressed the induction of meiosis in CYP26B1-null XY germ cells by removing the Stra8 gene. Concomitantly, we found that the male genetic program represented by the expression of NANOS2 and DNMT3L was totally rescued in about half of dKO germ cells, indicating that meiotic entry causes the suppression of male differentiation. However, half of the germ cells still failed to enter the appropriate male pathway
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Michael Buszczak on Legacy of drosophila genetics: female germline stem cells, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
The homeostasis of self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells is strictly controlled by intrinsic signals and their niche. We conducted a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila testes and identified 221 genes required for germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation. Knockdown of these genes in transit-amplifying spermatogonia and cyst cells further revealed various phenotypes. Complex analysis uncovered that many of the identified genes are involved in key steps of protein synthesis and degradation. A group of genes that are required for mRNA splicing and protein translation contributes to both GSC self-renewal and early germ cell differentiation. Loss of genes in protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumor with overproliferated germ cells. Importantly, in the Cullin 4-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) complex, we identified multiple proteins that are critical to GSC self-renewal. pic/DDB1, the linker protein of CRL4, is not only required for ...
Background The regulation of gene expression via a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) plays essential roles in the discrimination of the germ cell lineage from somatic cells during embryogenesis. This is fundamental to the continuation of a species. Mouse NANOS3 is an essential protein required for the germ cell maintenance and is specifically expressed in these cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms that restrict the expression of this gene in the germ cells is largely unknown at present. Methodology/Principal Findings In our current study, we show that differences in the stability of Nanos3 mRNA between germ cells and somatic cells is brought about in a 3′UTR-dependent manner in mouse embryos. Although Nanos3 is transcribed in both cell lineages, it is efficiently translated only in the germ lineage. We also find that the translational suppression of NANOS3 in somatic cells is caused by a 3′UTR-mediated mRNA destabilizing mechanism. Surprisingly, even when under the control of the CAG promoter
Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314 ...
In animals like Drosophila, C. elegans, zebrafish and Xenopus, the primordial germ cells (PGC), the precursors of the gametes, are specified through the inheritance of germ plasm. Early PGC development is regulated by the genetic program coded by unique maternal factors in the germ plasm. However, the biological functions of these germ plasm components and their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that Dzip1 (Daz-interacting protein1) is a novel component of germ plasm in Xenopus oocytes and embryos. The loss-of-function analysis showed that Dzip1 regulates the first wave of PGC proliferation. Overexpression of Dzip1 and Xvelo stabilize each other in the germ plasm during oocyte maturation. In vitro analysis suggests that Dzip1 decreases the solubility of Xvelo and induces Xvelo to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Therefore we argue that Dzip1, by interacting and stabilizing Xvelo, regulates the integrity of germ plasm. In addition, our results reveal that Dzip1, by interacting ...
Clusters of primordial germ cells (PGCs) with somatic cells come closer to form ovigerous cords, which is first discernible in the fetal ovary upon establishment of initial contact between germ cells and somatic cells near the surface of the ovarian epithelium.. The first mechanistic difference between an XX and an XY germ cell in the genital ridge is reactivation of the inactive X in the female PGCs. The XX germ cells continue to divide and then enter meiosis at around E12.5. Subsequently, the female germ cells arrest at the diplotene stage of meiosis I and do not resume meiosis until postnatal ovarian folliculogenesis.. Folliculogenesis: Before formation of an ovarian follicle, oocytes are present within germ cell clusters (cysts or nests). The first stage of ovarian folliculogenesis involves the formation of the primordial follicle, which occurs when oocytes that survive the process of germ cell cluster breakdown are individually surrounded with squamous pre-granulosa cells. This takes place ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prospects for transgenesis in the chick. AU - Sang, Helen. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Research to develop a useful method for genetic modification of the chick has been on-going since the first demonstrations in the mouse in the 1980s that genetic modification is an invaluable tool for the study of gene function. Manipulation of the chick zygote is possible but inefficient. Considerable progress has been made in developing potentially pluripotent embryo stem cells and their contribution to somatic chimeric birds well-established. Germ line transmission of gametes derived from genetically modified embryo cells has not been described. Transfer of primordial germ cells from a donor embryo to a recipient and production of functional gametes from the donor-derived cells is possible. Genetic modification of primordial germ cells before transfer and their recovery through the germ line has not been achieved. The first transgenic birds described were generated using retroviral ...
Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells, and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. It functions together with Pumilio to translationally repress targeted mRNAs. Here we show by loss-of-function experiments that Xenopus Nanos1 is required to preserve PGC fate. Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and loss of germ cells from the gonads. Lineage tracing and TUNEL staining reveals that Nanos1 deficient PGCs fail to migrate out of the endoderm. They appear to undergo apoptosis rather than convert to normal endoderm. Whereas normal PGCs do not become transcriptionally active until neurula, Nanos1 depleted PGCs prematurely express a hyperphosphorylated RNA Pol II-CTD at the mid-blastula transition. Furthermore, they now inappropriately express somatic genes characteristic of endoderm regulated by maternal VegT including Xsox17-alpha, Bix4, Mixer, GATA4, and Edd. We further demonstrate that Pumilio specifically
Chromatin epigenetics participate in control of gene expression during metazoan development. DNA methylation and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones have been extensively characterised in cell types present in, or derived from, mouse embryos. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from blastocysts, factors involved in deposition of epigenetic marks regulate properties related to self-renewal and pluripotency. In the germ lineage, changes in histone PTMs and DNA demethylation occur during formation of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) to reset the epigenome of the future gametes. Trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb group proteins is involved in several epigenome-remodelling steps, but it remains unclear whether these epigenetic features are conserved in non-mammalian vertebrates. To investigate this question, we compared the abundance and nuclear distribution of the main histone PTMs, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in chicken ESCs,
To estimate the developmental toxicity of environmental chemicals on the formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to caffeine at 200 mg/l during the migratory stage of presumptive PGCs. The PGC-containing region of the larvae at stage 46, which corresponds to genital ridge, was illuminated by cold light using a halogen lamp and photographed using a digital camera under a dissecting microscope. The length along the cephalocaudal axis and area of the PGC-containing region were measured using image-measuring software. The length and area of the PGC-containing region as well as its relative length compared to the 100-µn;m body length of caffeine-exposed larvae were significantly shorter and smaller, respectively, than those of the control. Though further studies concerning the effect of caffeine on PGC formation are needed, these findings suggest that the Xenopus embryo and larva system examined in this study is useful as a simple, rapid and low-cost ...
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the N332 supersite of the HIV envelope (Env) trimer are the most common bnAbs induced during infection, making them promising leads for vaccine design. Wild-type Env glycoproteins lack detectable affinity for supersite-bnAb germline precursors and are …
TY - JOUR. T1 - zif-1 translational repression defines a second, mutually exclusive OMA function in germline transcriptional repression. AU - Guven-Ozkan, Tugba. AU - Robertson, Scott M.. AU - Nishi, Yuichi. AU - Lin, Rueyling. PY - 2010/10/15. Y1 - 2010/10/15. N2 - Specification of primordial germ cells requires global repression of transcription. In C. elegans, primordial germ cells are generated through four rounds of asymmetric divisions, starting from the zygote P0, each producing a transcriptionally repressed germline blastomere (P1-P4). Repression in P2-P4 requires PIE-1, which is provided maternally in oocytes and segregated to all germline blastomeres. We have shown previously that OMA-1 and OMA-2 repress global transcription in P0 and P1 by sequestering TAF-4, an essential component of TFIID. Soon after the first mitotic cycle, OMA proteins undergo developmentally regulated degradation. Here, we show that OMA proteins also repress transcription in P2-P4 indirectly, through a completely ...
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The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is activated in follicle stem cells of animals lacking boi (CIL# 13757), relative to wild-type Drosophila (this image), base...
Background Expressing several markers of migrating primordial germ cells (PGCs), the rare population of quiescent, bone tissue marrow (BM)-residing really small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) could be given like PGCs into hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). talk about an operating EpoR. Conclusions Our data offer even more proof a potential developmental hyperlink between germline cells, VSELs, and sheds and HSCs more light in the developmental hierarchy from the stem cell area in adult tissue. civilizations that murine PGCs isolated from embryos, stem cells isolated Kenpaullone from murine testes [4], and teratocarcinoma cell lines could be given into hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) [11]. Our latest work demonstrated the current presence of little, quiescent, Sca-1+Lin-CD45- stem cells in adult murine BM and little Compact disc133+Lin-CD45- cells in individual BM and umbilical cable bloodstream (UCB) [12-16]. These cells, under suitable co-culture circumstances with OP-9 ...
ESRP1 regulates alternative splicing, producing multiple transcripts from its target genes in epithelial tissues. It is upregulated during mesenchymal to epithelial transition associated with reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells and has been linked to pluripotency. Mouse fetal germ cells are the founders of the adult gonadal lineages and we found that Esrp1 mRNA was expressed in both male and female germ cells but not in gonadal somatic cells at various stages of gonadal development (E12.5-E15.5). In the postnatal testis, Esrp1 mRNA was highly expressed in isolated cell preparations enriched for spermatogonia but expressed at lower levels in those enriched for pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids ...
Germ cells occupy a central position in development, heredity, and evolution. In mammals, germ cells are first recognizable outside the portion of the embryo that will form the body. These primordial germ cells invade the developing body and migrate to the gonads, which at that stage are indistinguishable in males and females. The gonads differentiate into ovaries or testes. In parallel, the primordial germ cells become committed to give rise to oocytes or sperm. We use genetic tools to explore the development of the mammalian reproductive tract. While much of our research has focused on the mechanism by which the ovarian or testicular fate of the embryonic gonad is decided, our studies are increasingly directed toward understanding the mechanisms by which primordial germ cells give rise to gametes.. Germ Cell Development and Male Infertility: Three percent of men are infertile because of severe defects in sperm production. In few cases has the cause of spermatogenic failure been identified. We ...
We focus on the development of a single tissue, the germline, in the model organism C. elegans. This small nematode provides two key advantages: an excellent genetic system for understanding how cell fate is specified, and a completely sequenced and well-annotated genome. We use functional genomics tools to dissect the molecular mechanisms governing germ cell maintenance and differentiation in the model organism C. elegans. Conserved regulatory pathways, such as the Notch, Ras, and Retinoblastoma pathways, act to control proliferation and differentiation in these cells. The developing C. elegans germline requires tight spatial and temporal control of gene activity for proper formation. Epigenetic control of gene expression plays an important role in governing germ cell fate through the post-translational modification of histones and by RNAi-mediated post-transcriptional control. Projects in the lab investigate the mechanisms controlling germ cell specification in the early embryo, as well as the ...
Abortion obviously produces aborted fetuses. The taboo of using aborted fetal tissue for research is not a deterrent for some researchers; such tissue is just another tool in their toolbox. West freely admits that he has used aborted fetal tissue to advance his research. By scrambling around and persuading, I found a means of getting early human fetal testes and tried to grow the human embryonic germ cell in a dish. But, for his research, those germ cells were too old. In his words, I needed five week old fetuses. But where could I get those? Women do not abort fetuses that early, when they are just learning they are pregnant. 9. It is not just testes from aborted male babies that researchers want. Some want eggs from aborted female babies as well. The much-ignored reality of therapeutic cloning is this: to become a viable commercial therapy, an enormous amount of human eggs are required. For every attempt at cloning to harvest embryonic stem cells, it usually requires more than one human egg. ...
Abortion obviously produces aborted fetuses. The taboo of using aborted fetal tissue for research is not a deterrent for some researchers; such tissue is just another tool in their toolbox. West freely admits that he has used aborted fetal tissue to advance his research. By scrambling around and persuading, I found a means of getting early human fetal testes and tried to grow the human embryonic germ cell in a dish. But, for his research, those germ cells were too old. In his words, I needed five week old fetuses. But where could I get those? Women do not abort fetuses that early, when they are just learning they are pregnant. 9. It is not just testes from aborted male babies that researchers want. Some want eggs from aborted female babies as well. The much-ignored reality of therapeutic cloning is this: to become a viable commercial therapy, an enormous amount of human eggs are required. For every attempt at cloning to harvest embryonic stem cells, it usually requires more than one human egg. ...
Topoisomerase IIIα (topo IIIα), a member of the conserved Type IA subfamily of topoisomerases, is required for the cell proliferation in mitotic tissues, but has a lesser effect on DNA endoreplication. The top3α gene encodes two forms of protein by utilizing alternative translation initiation sites: one (short form) with the nuclear localization signal only, exclusively localized in the nuclei, and the other (long form), retaining a mitochondrial import sequence at the N-terminus and the nuclear localization sequence at the C-terminus, localized primarily in the mitochondria, though with a small portion in the nuclei. Both forms of topo IIIα can rescue the viability of null mutants of top3α. No apparent defect is associated with the flies rescued by the long form; short-form-rescued flies (referred to as M1L), however, exhibit defects in fertilities. M1L females are sterile. They can lay eggs but with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and ATP content decreased by 20- and 2- to 3-fold, ...
Background Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs) have significant potential to be utilized as a cell-based system for the research and preservation of bird germplasm, and the hereditary modification of the bird genome. development of ovum and semen in the adult patient. In mammals, PGCs are described at the starting of gastrulation. In comparison, in bird varieties the bacteria cell family tree can be segregated from somatic cell lineages in the epiblast of the placed egg [1]. Early bacteria cell precursors in poultry embryos can become determined by the phrase of the bacteria cell-specific proteins, chicken breast PD173074 vasa homologue (CVH) [2]. From a placement in the central epiblast, PGCs migrate to an extraembryonic area to the potential mind area anterior, called the germinal crescent. From right here, at three times of advancement (stage 15 HH, [3]), the PGCs invade the developing vascular program, congregate in the horizontal dish mesoderm conjoining the potential gonadal area, and ...
Embryo formation requires tight regulation and coordination of adhesion in multiple cell types. By imaging, 3D reconstructions and genetic analysis during posterior midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila we find a novel requirement for the conserved FGF signaling pathway in maintenance of epithelial cell adhesion, by modulation of zygotic E-cadherin. During Drosophila gastrulation, primordial germ cells (PGC) are transported with the posterior midgut while it undergoes dynamic cell shape changes. In Branchless and Breathless mutant embryos zygotic E-cadherin is not targeted to AJs causing midgut pocket collapse impacting on PGC movement. We find that the ventral midline also requires FGF signaling to maintain cell-cell adhesion. We show that FGF signaling regulates the distribution of zygotic E-cadherin during early embryonic development to maintain cell-cell adhesion in the posterior midgut and the ventral midline, a role that is likely crucial in other tissues undergoing active cell shape changes ...
Additionally, Silman et al. identified that there is an abrupt reduction in melatonin amounts amongst boys just prior to a increase in testosterone stages with
We have here reported the generation of a transgenic strain that recapitulates the endogenous expression and subcellular localization of NANOS3, and rescues the germ cell-less phenotype of Nanos3 homozygous−/− mutant mice. Nanos is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein essential for germ cell development and is a component of germ plasm in organisms, in which germ cells are specified by germ plasm-based preformation (Wang & Lehmann 1991, Subramaniam & Seydoux 1999, Seydoux & Braun 2006). NANOS3 is a mammalian homolog of Nanos, whose function is critical for the survival of PGCs immediately after their specification (Tsuda et al. 2003). However, the mechanism by which NANOS3 functions in PGCs remains totally unresolved. The Nanos3-EGFP transgenic strain, which, for the first time, revealed the precise subcellular localization of NANOS3 in PGCs and spermatogonia, should thus serve as a critical model for exploring the mechanisms of action of conserved RNA-binding proteins in PGCs ...
1998 Thomson et al., derive human ES cells from the inner cell mass of normal human blastocysts donated by couples undergoing treatment for infertility. The cells are cultured through many passages, retain their normal karyotypes, maintain high levels of telomerase activity, and express a panel of markers typical of human EC cells non-human primate ES cells. Several (non-clonal) cell lines are established that form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. The teratomas include cell types derived from all three primary germ layers, demonstrating the pluripotency of human ES cells. Gearhart and colleagues derive human embryonic germ (EG) cells from the gonadal ridge and mesenchyma of 5- to 9-week fetal tissue that resulted from elective abortions. They grow EG cells in vitro for approximately 20 passages, and the cells maintain normal karyotypes. The cells spontaneously form aggregates that differentiate spontaneously, and ultimately contain derivatives of all three primary germ ...
Following primordial germ cell (PGC) specification, global, as well as parent-specific, methylation marks are erased, to be subsequently re-established in a sex-dependent manner during gametogenesis. Identification of key regulators that participate in the global remodeling of the epigenome, together with genome-wide sequencing maps of the dynamic epigenome landscape from the post-implantation embryo through gametogenesis, significantly enhanced our understanding of these key events. Yet, a full understanding of the developmental timing, kinetics and mechanisms of these processes at different loci is still far from complete. Furthermore, as previous studies mostly applied bulk population sequencing approaches, the levels of cell-to-cell variations was not fully appreciated. We will utilize our allele-specific DNA methylation reporter systems to monitor sex-specific methylation erasure and establishment, at single cell resolution. Our unique experimental systems, which allow the monitoring and ...
Segregation of the germ line from the soma is an essential event for transmission of genetic information across generations in all sexually reproducing animals. Although some well-studied systems such as Drosophila and Xenopus use maternally inherited germ determinants to specify germ cells, most animals, including mice, appear to utilize zygotic inductive cell signals to specify germ cells during later embryogenesis. Such inductive germ cell specification is thought to be an ancestral trait of Bilateria, but major questions remain as to the nature of an ancestral mechanism to induce germ cells, and how that mechanism evolved. We previously reported that BMP signaling-based germ cell induction is conserved in both the mouse Mus musculus and the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which is an emerging model organism for functional studies of induction-based germ cell formation. In order to gain further insight into the functional evolution of germ cell specification, here we examined the Gryllus ...
Prof. TANG Fuchou from Boidynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University visited Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHB) on Nov. 16, 2016. During his visit, Prof. Tang gave a lecture on the Single-cell functional genomic studies of the human early embryo development. Human primordial germ cell generates from early stage of early embryos. The primordial germ cells are the common origins of spermatozoa and oocytes and thus represent the ancestors of the germline. The genetic material is passed on to the offspring. Therefore, studies on human early embryos and development of primordial germ cell are essential to understand the recurrent abortion, embryo damage, infertility or other reproduction diseases. Prof. Tang and his team developed the single cell RNA-Seqs, single-cell reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing and single-cell triple omics technology, and overcame the limitations to get large amount of human early embryos cells. Using these methods, they dissected ...
Notch signaling is mainly regulated by Notch1 during development of chicken germ stem cells; however, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to generation of these germ stem cells have not been thoroughly investigated. In our studies, Overexpression of the Notch1 NICD promoted development of the reproductive ridge, but inhibited the formation of seminiferous tubules. The formation efficiency of PGCs in the reproductive ridge following overexpression of NICD (7.5% ± 0.11) was significantly higher than that (4.9% ± 0.17, p | 0.05) following inhibition of NICD, While the formation efficiency of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the testes (12.7% ± 0.08) was significantly lower after NICD overexpression than that after inhibition of NICD (16.3% ± 0.16, p | 0.05). Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that this anomaly stemmed from the reversal of dissociation of the Notch-regulated transcription factor CBF-1/RBP co-suppression complex during the differentiation of PGCs into SSCs. This dissociation
Maintenance of stem cells requires spatially restricted, niche-associated signals. In the Drosophila female germline stem cell (GSC) niche, Decapentaplegic (DPP) is the primary niche-associated factor and functions over a short range to promote GSC self-renewal rather than differentiation. Here, we show that the GSC lineage and, more specifically, the stem cells themselves participate in the spatial restriction of DPP function by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the surrounding somatic cells. EGFR-MAPK signaling in somatic cells repressed the expression of dally, which encodes a glypican required for DPP movement and stability. Consequently, only GSCs close to the DPP source (the somatic cells in the niche) showed high signal activation and were maintained as stem cells, whereas cystoblasts outside the niche showed low signal activation and initiated differentiation. Thus, our data reveal that the reciprocal crosstalk between ...
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This is a combined protocol for the generation of embryonic germ cells (EGCs) or male gametes from embryoid bodies (EBs) constructed from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The induced primordial germ cells mature into haploid male gametes that can be injected into oocytes and develop into blastocysts ...
No gene has yet been identified that generates an ovary from an undifferentiated gonad. It is only in the absence of the sex-determining region of the Y gene (SRY) that the gonad develops into an ovary. (For more details, see the discussion of sexual differentiation in Chapter 14.) Primordial germ cells, which give rise to oocytes or spermatogonia, are first identifiable in the yolk sac endoderm (hindgut) at 3 to 4 weeks gestation. Once specified, they migrate and proliferate en route through the dorsal mesentery into the gonadal ridge, which is located lateral to the dorsal mesentery of the gut and medial to the mesonephros (Figure 13-1). Studies in mice have suggested that the process of proliferation and navigation to the gonad depends on several genes, including Steel (kit ligand and receptor), β1 integrin, pog (proliferation of germ cells), and many cytokines. Failure of primordial germ cells to develop or migrate into the gonadal ridge results in failure of ovarian development. In ...
There must however be a tradeoff in keeping totipotent stem cell genes expressed in germ cells such as nanog, sox2, oct4. Quite likely that tradeoff is the risk of teratocarcinoma, which is the bizarre cancers deriving from germ cells. Great measures are taken to control germ cells and stop them from either differentiating into somatic cells or turning into cancers. Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) are mostly transciptionally silent. They have vast changes in their chromatin structure, and very specific changes in histone and DNA methylation. In fact their embryonic precursors dont even express the stemness genes, those need to be reactivated by the BMP signal. To simplify, the stemness of the ES cell is a great liability and is quickly erased by down regulating master genes, only later does the germ cell regain this ability but at the cost of becoming transcriptionally silent. Futhermore, the migration of PGCs to the gonadal ridge acts as a second barrier to weed out potentially defective germ ...
Reconstitution of female germ cell development in vitro is a key challenge in reproductive biology and medicine. We show here that female (XX) embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells in mice are induced into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs), which, when aggregated with female gonadal somatic cells as reconstituted ovaries, undergo X-reactivation, imprint erasure, and cyst formation, and exhibit meiotic potential. Upon transplantation under mouse ovarian bursa, PGCLCs in the reconstituted ovaries mature into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes, which then contribute to fertile offspring after in vitro maturation and fertilization. Our culture system serves as a robust foundation for the investigation of key properties of female germ cells, including the acquisition of totipotency, and for the reconstitution of whole female germ cell development in vitro. ...
Estrogen production within the testis has been a subject of substantial interest for years. Testicular germ cells and epididymal sperm have been hypothesized to be capable of synthesizing active P450 aromatase (P450arom), the estrogen synthesizing enzyme. This investigation was undertaken to establish that testicular germ cells and epididymal sperm contain active P450arom, to determine if P450arom mRNA is synthesized in germ cells, and to examine if there is a difference in the transcription of the P450arom gene between male germ cells and somatic cells. Specifically, the objectives of this research were: (1) to determine if adult mouse epididymal sperm contain active P450arom; (2) to determine if adult rat testicular germ cells and epididymal sperm contain active P450arom; (3) to determine if P450arom mRNA is expressed in adult rat germ cells; and (4) to determine if differences exist between germ cell and somatic cell P450arom transcripts. The major findings were: (1) adult mouse epididymal ...
Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-4 (SSEA-4) cell surface embryonic antigen of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES) which is down-regulated following differentiation of human EC cells. Antigen not expressed on undifferentiated murine EC, ES and EG cells but upregulated on differentiation of murine EC and ES cells. Can be identified by Davor Solter monoclonal antibody MC-813-70 (SSEA-4 ...
Germ cells are unique in undergoing meiosis to generate oocytes and sperm. In mammals, meiosis onset is before birth in females, or at puberty in males, and recent studies have uncovered several regulatory steps involved in initiating meiosis in each sex. Evidence suggests that retinoic acid (RA) induces expression of the critical pre-meiosis gene Stra8 in germ cells of the fetal ovary, pubertal testis and adult testis. In the fetal testis, CYP26B1 degrades RA, while FGF9 further antagonises RA signalling to suppress meiosis. Failsafe mechanisms involving Nanos2 may further suppress meiosis in the fetal testis. Here, we draw together the growing knowledge relating to these meiotic control mechanisms, and present evidence that they are co-ordinately regulated and that additional factors remain to be identified. Understanding this regulatory network will illuminate not only how the foundations of mammalian reproduction are laid, but also how mis-regulation of these steps can result in infertility ...
Stem cells maintain populations of highly differentiated, short-lived cell-types, including blood, skin and sperm, throughout adult life. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate stem cell behaviour is crucial for realizing their potential in regenerative medicine. A fundamental characteristic of …
RNA localization is a cellular mechanism used to localize proteins to sub-cellular domains and to control protein synthesis regionally. In oocytes, RNA localization has profound implications for development, generating asymmetric protein distributions that promote morphological and functional cell polarization and establish regional fates in the future embryo. One such fate is that of the germ cell lineage. In Drosophila, germ cell formation depends on maternal inherited factors localized in the posterior pole region of oocytes and early embryos, named germ plasm. Oskar (Osk), a key determinant of germ plasm assembly, is both necessary and sufficient for germ-line formation and posterior patterning The localization of oskar (osk) mRNA starts during oogenesis and it is mediated by trans-acting factors several of which have been shown to have roles in post-transcriptional regulation of RNA, such as splicing, translational control and degradation. However, most of the molecular mechanisms ...
p,Messenger RNA localization is a conserved mechanism for spatial control of protein synthesis, with key roles in generating cellular and developmental asymmetry. Whereas different transcripts may be targeted to the same subcellular domain, the extent to which their localization is coordinated is unclear. Using quantitative single-molecule imaging, we analysed the assembly of Drosophila germ plasm mRNA granules inherited by nascent germ cells. We find that the germ-cell-destined transcripts nanos, cyclin B and polar granule component travel within the oocyte as ribonucleoprotein particles containing single mRNA molecules but co-assemble into multi-copy heterogeneous granules selectively at the posterior of the oocyte. The stoichiometry and dynamics of assembly indicate a defined stepwise sequence. Our data suggest that co-packaging of these transcripts ensures their effective segregation to germ cells. In contrast, compartmentalization of the germline determinant oskar mRNA into different ...
Our aims for RC1-00137 entitled Human Oocyte Development for Genetic, Pharmacological and Reprogramming Applications are as follows: Aim 1) Assess and compare the potential of multiple nonfederal hESC lines to contribute to the germ cell lineage. Aim 2) Differentiate hESCs to oocytes. Aim 3) Assay the ability of differentiated germ cells to reprogram a somatic nucleus. In the last funding cycle, we have succeeded in extending our analysis of human embryonic stem cell lines and differentiation of the germ cell lineage (that gives rise ultimately to oocytes or eggs) to 11 lines (initially, we proposed 12 lines in total). We have demonstrated that we can control or regulate germ cell differentiation in vitro to increase numbers of germ cells via external and internal induction, and we have succeeded in differentiating germ cells that enter and progress through meiosis, in multiple lines. We have developed the ability to use transplantation to promote mouse oocyte (egg) differentiation (in ...
In the present study, we have shown that DNMT3L, a fetal specific DNMT-like protein, is a novel marker and essential for the growth of human EC: immunohistochemical detection of DNMT3L is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of human EC. Suppression of DNMT3L in EC cells results in growth inhibition through apoptosis.. In mice, Dnmt3L is expressed in ES cells and is downregulated in differentiated embryonic body (10). In germ cells, Dnmt3L is expressed in testes during a brief perinatal period in the nondividing precursors of spermatogonial stem cells at a stage in which retrotransposons undergo de novo methylation (11). Expression of Dnmt3L declines rapidly after birth and is extinguished by 6 days postpartum, when most prospermatogonia have differentiated into dividing spermatogonial stem cells (11). Targeted disruption of Dnmt3L causes azoospermia in homozygous male mice (12). In detail, loss of Dnmt3L from early germ cells leads to meiotic failure in spermatocytes, which do not ...
Global cell line development market size is expected to reach USD 6.24 billion by 2022, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. The Increasing demand for monoclonal antibodies and patent expiration of blockbuster biologics are expected to drive the cell line development industry over the forecast period.. Increasing prevalence of autoimmune diseases and cancer are likely to increase the demand for accurate and cost effective treatment options which is expected to render a positive impact on market growth. In addition, improving healthcare infrastructure, economic development and favorable government initiatives promoting the growth of the biotechnology industry are factors contributing towards the growth of the cell line development market.. Ongoing R&D for stable & authentic cell lines and the introduction of technologically advanced processes such as single use bioreactor and micro bioreactor for large scale bioproduction are further expected to provide this market with ...
Pluripotent cells give rise to the germ line and the soma. The expression of the Nanog orthologue axNanog is required to establish pluripotency during axolotl development and has a conserved role interacting with axSMAD2 and DPY30 to deposit H3K4me3 through COMPASS. Transcriptome analysis has revealed a second Nanog orthologue: EggNog. EggNog possesses a nearly identical intron- exon structure and yet has a profoundly different role to axNanog, acting to suppress primordial germ cell specification. We aimed to identify whether axNanog and EggNog exhibit different translational regulation or biochemical properties. We also aimed to further define AOE reprogramming of mammalian cells. AOE was probed using western blotting for the presence of axNanog and EggNog proteins. We explored the biochemical properties of axNanog and EggNog using a series of luciferase assays. RT-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR were used to investigate the changes to gene expression and chromatin structure of cells treated with AOE. ...
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
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Regulation of Sertoli cell and germ cell differentation. Animals; Cell Differentiation/physiology*; Germ Cells/cytology; Germ Cells/physiology*; Germinoma/.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mouse Piwi interactome identifies binding mechanism of Tdrkh Tudor domain to arginine methylated Miwi. AU - Chen, Chen. AU - Jin, Jing. AU - James, D. Andrew. AU - Adams-Cioaba, Melanie A.. AU - Park, Jin Gyoon. AU - Guo, Yahong. AU - Tenaglia, Enrico. AU - Xu, Chao. AU - Gish, Gerald. AU - Min, Jinrong. AU - Pawson, Tony. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/12/1. Y1 - 2009/12/1. N2 - Tudor domains are protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions, potentially by binding to methylated ligands. A group of germline specific single and multiTudor domain containing proteins (TDRDs) represented by drosophila Tudor and its mammalian orthologs Tdrd1, Tdrd4/RNF17, and Tdrd6 play evolutionarily conserved roles in germinal granule/nuage formation and germ cell specification and differentiation. However, their physiological ligands, and the biochemical and structural basis for ligand recognition, are largely unclear. Here, by ...
Specific Tandem 3UTR Patterns and Gene Expression Profiles in Mouse Thy1 Germline Stem Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
I did my undergraduate and masters studies in the field of Biochemistry from the University of Delhi, India and then went on to do a PhD in Genetics and Development from Columbia University, New York. My current projects involve understanding the mechanisms by which non-canonical Wnt signaling regulates development of the reproductive system including, gonad development, sex differentiation and duct morphogenesis. I am also interested in understanding the process of oogenesis with an aim to develop methods to promote the differentiation of ES cell or iPS cell derived primordial germ cell like cells into meiotic germ cells.. Funding/Fellowships: California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) training grant, 2012-2015; UCSF Program in Breakthrough Biomedical Research Postdoc Fellowship; T32 Training Grant ...
The sex chromosomes of mammalian germ cells must match those of the surrounding soma in order for the germ cells to successfully complete development as sperm o...
p53 is a key regulator of the DNA damage-induced checkpoint in mammals (reviewed in Sancar et al., 2004). cep-1, the C. elegans homolog of p53, is required for DNA damage-induced apoptosis in the C. elegans germ line, but not for programmed cell death occurring during worm development nor physiological (radiation-independent) germ cell death (Schumacher et al., 2001; Derry et al., 2001). Despite the differences in the three-dimensional structure of the DNA binding domain between CEP-1 and human p53 (Huyen et al., 2004) its role in the DNA damage checkpoint appears to be conserved. Furthermore, CEP-1 can induce apoptosis in mammalian cells and this induction can be inhibited by iASPP, an evolutionarily conserved inhibitor of p53 (Bergamaschi et al., 2003). Several genes have been identified that either regulate cep-1 activity or are regulated by cep-1. The C.elegans iASPP ortholog, ape-1 (apoptotic enhancer) is a conserved inhibitor of cep-1. ape-1(RNAi) results in an increase in cep-1-mediated ...
Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this documentation for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the authors written permission.. ...
What is Germ Cell Ovarian Cancer? Get the facts about Germ Cell Ovarian Cancer symptoms, testing, treatment and care options from trusted sources.
RNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi) has become a very useful tool for analyzing gene function in development and other processes. RNAi can be used as a complement to traditional genetic studies or as a primary means of determining biological function. However, the efficacy of RNAi depends on a variety of factors that the researcher must take into consideration. This review focuses on germline development in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and discusses the uses and limitations of RNAi in providing new information about gene function as well as the possible endogenous role RNAi plays in germline physiology.
A cancerous neoplasm, or abnormal growth, of the ovary which is thought to arise from primordial germ line cells while the individual is still an embryo...
Novel, optimized, and innovative - with Chinas growing and increasingly competitive biologics market, industry players are seeking out innovative and practical methods to develop a successful cell line and perfect production processes.. The 9th Cell Line Development & Engineering Asia is the regions leading conference for bringing together the brightest minds, innovators and industry players to uncover novel techniques, optimize workflows, and accelerate CLD for commercial success.. Hear from global and regional cell line experts on best practices and the latest case studies for improving yields, cell line expression, as well as discuss up-and-coming topics for genomics, therapeutic cells, technology and more.. 2020 Themes ...
Igor: Our Gene to GMP service offering brings together the collective expertise of both KBI and Selexis to deliver a seamless process for fast development of protein therapeutics without sacrificing quality or analytics. For conventional mAbs and more readily-expressible proteins, a partner provides us with their gene sequence and we advance the development process all the way to clinical grade API, active pharmaceutical ingredient, in nine months. The Selexis team brings more than 17 years of cell line development technology and experience to this collaboration. With our accelerated research cell bank program, we can generate stable and high expressing RBCs in 14 weeks.. Tim: Dovetailing off of what Igor said about no sacrifice in quality or analytics, at KBI, we are driven by data. We believe that reliable high quality manufacturing can only be achieved with a thorough understanding of the protein at the biochemical and structural level. As a result, we have built deep analytics capabilities ...
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Abe, M., Y. Kobayashi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Daimon, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Ikeda, H. Ichinoki, M. Notaguchi, K. Goto and T. Araki. 2005. FD, a bZIP protein mediating signals from the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex. Science 309: 1052-1056. Ainsworth, C. 2015. Sex defined. Nature 518: 288-291.. Anderson, E. L., A. E. Baltus, H. L. Ropers-Gajadien, T. J. Hassold, D. G. de Rooij, A. M. van Pelt and D. C. Page. 2008. Stra8 and its inducer, retinoic acid, regulate meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 14976-14980.. PubMed Link. Anderson, R., T. K. Copeland, H. Schöler, J. Heasman and C. Wylie. 2000. The onset of germ cell migration in the mouse embryo. Mech. Dev. 91: 61-68.. PubMed Link. Andersson, S., D. M. Berman, E. P. Jenkins and D. W. Russell. 1991. Deletion of steroid 5a-reductase 2 gene in male pseudohermaphroditism. Nature 354: 159-161.. PubMed Link. Arango, N. A., R. Lovell-Badge and R. R. Behringer. 1999. Targeted mutagenesis ...
Learn how a zygote, the single cell produced by fertilization, divides by mitosis to produce all the tissues of the human body (including germ cells, which can undergo meiosis to make sperm and eggs).
Germ cell research has produced enormous advances in recent years and more recently has entered into an explosive phase of new discoveries with the introduction of transgenic technologies and nuclear
A new method for producing genetically customized chickens will likely lead to important applications in research as well as in agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry, report scientists at Origen Therapeutics and the University of California, Davis. The new system uses primordial germ cells (PGCs) -- the very earliest cells that normally mature into sperm and eggs in the
Scientists at the University of Cambridge working with the Weizmann Institute have created primordial germ cells - cells that will go on to become egg and sperm - using human embryonic stem cells. Although this had already ...

No data available that match "germ cells"

  • The nonseminoma germ cell tumors include: embryonal carcinoma , malignant teratoma, endodermal sinus tumor, choriocarcinoma, and mixed germ cell tumors. (
  • The specific category of extragonadal germ cell tumor that is present has a major influence on both treatment and prognosis. (
  • The symptoms of an extragonadal germ cell tumor depend on the type and location of the tumor. (
  • In some cases, a pineal germ cell tumor can begin to produce hormones that can cause a child to enter puberty at an abnormally young age (precocious puberty). (
  • The diagnosis of an extragonadal germ cell tumor usually begins with a thorough physical examination. (
  • In cases where a germ cell tumor of the pineal area is suspected, a complete neurological examination will be performed. (
  • Teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumor to develop in extragonadal (not in the ovary or testes) areas. (
  • Boys with undescended testicles (testes that stay up inside the pelvis) also seem to be at a higher risk for a germ cell tumor. (
  • Early on, a child with a benign or malignant germ cell tumor might have few symptoms or none at all. (
  • Higher levels can suggest a germ cell tumor. (
  • Children with benign germ cell tumors will have surgery to remove the tumor. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor, an uncommon cancer in women, is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in egg-making cells in the ovary. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor is different from cancer that occurs in the lining (epithelium) of the ovary (see the PDQ patient information summary on cancer of the ovary for treatment of cancer of the ovary). (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor can be difficult to diagnose (find) early. (
  • Once ovarian germ cell tumor has been found, more tests will be done to find out if the cancer has spread from the ovary to other parts of the body (staging). (
  • The cells making up this malignant tumor usually develop among other types of malignant cells. (
  • Doctors do know that certain medical conditions can make a child more likely to develop a germ cell tumor. (
  • Sometimes these cells don't travel to the right part of the body and end up forming a tumor. (
  • Teratomas of the tail bone are the most common germ cell tumor found in children, and are about four times more common in girls than in boys. (
  • They are a very rare, aggressive type of germ cell tumor that is usually found in the ovaries. (
  • There are several factors that seem to increase the risk of a child developing a germ cell tumor. (
  • Swyer syndrome may increase a person's chance of developing a germ cell tumor in the ovaries or testicles. (
  • Dysgerminoma - The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor, dysgerminomas are typically slow growing. (
  • Choriocarcinoma - Another very rare type of germ cell tumor, choriocarcinoma more commonly develops in the placenta than in an ovary. (
  • Germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. (
  • Extragonadal GCTs were thought initially to be isolated metastases from an undetected primary tumor in a gonad, but many germ cell tumors are now known to be congenital and originate outside the gonads. (
  • Teratocarcinoma refers to a germ cell tumor that is a mixture of teratoma with embryonal carcinoma, or with choriocarcinoma, or with both. (
  • This kind of mixed germ cell tumor may be known simply as a teratoma with elements of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or simply by ignoring the teratoma component and referring only to its malignant component: embryonal carcinoma and/or choriocarcinoma. (
  • Germ Cell Tumor Targeting Chemotherapy in Gastric Adenocarcinoma with an Endodermal Sinus Tumor Component: A Case Report. (
  • The stomach-originated primary germ cell tumor carries a poor prognosis, especially when metastasis occurs to the liver, with a mean survival time of 1 month. (
  • Gastric adenocarcinoma with a germ cell tumor component is uncommon and an effective combination of chemotherapeutic agents is not yet clear. (
  • In this case, the patient received germ cell tumor-targeting chemotherapy and showed a durable response. (
  • Treatment for germ cell tumors depends upon the child's age and overall health, the types of tissues in the tumor, the tumor's location, the child's tolerance for specific types of procedures and the overall prognosis. (
  • To build nomogram incorporating potential prognostic factors for predicting survival outcomes of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) patients after resection of the primary tumor. (
  • Differential expression of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases among the various testicular germ cell tumor subtypes. (
  • These tests may include blood chemistries, evaluation of liver and kidney functions, tumor cell markers, and genetic studies. (
  • We conducted a meta-analysis to identify new susceptibility loci for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). (
  • An international germ cell tumor prognostic classification has been developed based on a retrospective analysis of 5,202 patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors and 660 patients with metastatic seminomatous germ cell tumors. (
  • Doctors and scientists are always looking for better ways to care for children with a germ cell tumor. (
  • Even if they do not benefit directly from the clinical trial, their participation may benefit future patients with a germ cell tumor. (
  • For specific topics being studied for germ cell tumor, learn more in the Latest Research section. (
  • This is a slow-growing germ cell tumor. (
  • This is a germ cell tumor that is most often malignant, but may also be benign. (
  • It's the most common germ cell tumor in the ovaries. (
  • 5] There have been reports of greater toxicity from ASCR in germ cell tumor patients with greater prior cisplatin exposure. (
  • The efficacy of HDC-ASCR in germ cell tumor patients at first relapse or with primary refractory germ cell tumors is controversial. (
  • Some patients with "poorly differentiated neoplasm" or "poorly differentiated carcinoma" of the mediastinum have the i(12p) chromosomal abnormality diagnostic of germ cell tumor. (
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for germ cell tumors are listed below (see Tables 1 and 2). (
  • Paraneoplastic Cytopenia in Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor: A Novel Pres. (
  • We report on the case of a 12-year-old girl, who presented with an ovarian germ cell tumor and cytopenia (anemia and thrombocytopenia) as an associated paraneoplastic syndrome, which gradually regressed after the tumor's removal. (
  • This report adds to the previously described paraneoplastic syndromes potentially associated with ovarian germ cell tumor. (
  • What is the long-term outlook of a child with a germ cell tumor? (
  • Continuous follow-up care is essential for a child diagnosed with a germ cell tumor. (
  • A procedure in which a sample of blood is examined to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs, tissues , or tumor cells in the body. (
  • A PET scan is a procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. (
  • Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do. (
  • Also searched for Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor . (
  • The term ovarian germ cell tumor represents various ovarian cancers as a whole. (
  • The most common ovarian germ cell tumor is called dysgerminoma. (
  • In many cases, the tumor has broken the ovary wall and cancerous cells are detected in fluid from the peritoneal cavity which contains most of the organs in the abdomen. (
  • Stage IIIA: The stromal tumor is only detected in the pelvis but cancerous cells have begun to spread to the peritoneum's surface. (
  • The prognosis of an Ovarian germ cell tumor depends on the stage of the tumor, as well as its DNA ploidy (amount of DNA in each cell). (
  • An individual's prognosis also depends on the tumor's location as well as its histiology (shape, function, structure of tumor cells), and their risk. (
  • Because there are suttle symptoms of an Ovarian germ cell tumor, it is often hard to detect, especially in progressive-staged cases. (
  • To find out if a woman has an Ovarian germ cell tumor, there are several tests that can be performed to confirm a diagnosis. (
  • Are you sure your patient has a germ cell tumor? (
  • Embryonic germ cell tumors include teratoma , and extraembryonic germ cell tumors include Choriocarcinoma and Yolk sac tumor . (
  • The name of a germ cell tumor came from the word (germinate), which means to begin to grow. (
  • Common risk factors include Caucasian race , Family history or personal history of germ cell tumor, Klinefelter syndrome . (
  • Lab findings include abnormal serum tumor marker levels such as LDH , HCG ( seminoma ), lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ), human chorionic gonadotropin ( HCG ), CA-125 , and alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) ( ovarian germ cell tumors ), alpha fetoprotein ( AFP ) greater than 100 ng/ml ( Endodermal sinus tumor) . (
  • Texas Children's Cancer Center's Brain Tumor Program and the Neuro-oncology Team treat patients with Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors. (
  • A mixed germ cell tumor has two types of germ cells in it. (
  • The type of biopsy depends on where the extragonadal germ cell tumor is found. (
  • Primary CNS germ cell tumors in Japan and the United States: An analysis of 4 tumor registries," Neuro-Oncology, vol. (
  • A teratoma is a type of germ cell tumor that is believed to be present at birth. (
  • Fine needle aspiration or a biopsy of the tumor cells can generally confirm a diagnosis. (
  • These may require taking samples for blood chemistry, blood cell count, genetics and certain proteins called tumor markers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and the beta subunit of the human chorionic gonadotropin (b-HCG) that are produced by some germ cell tumors. (
  • After a germ cell tumor is diagnosed, doctors need to assess how advanced the tumor is. (
  • The prognosis of germ cell tumors depends on a number of factors, including the location of the tumor and the different cellular characteristics. (
  • Boys born with undescended testes have a higher risk of developing a germ cell tumor of the testis. (
  • Pathological diagnosis was non-seminomatous germ cell tumor containing yolk sac, embryonal and immature teratomatous elements. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the germ (egg) cells of the ovary. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor is a general name that is used to describe several different types of cancer. (
  • Signs of ovarian germ cell tumor are swelling of the abdomen or vaginal bleeding after menopause. (
  • Tests that examine the ovaries, pelvic area, blood, and ovarian tissue are used to detect (find) and diagnose ovarian germ cell tumor. (
  • A study found that about half of advanced germ cell tumor patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory disease harbor potentially actionable mutations. (
  • Instead, CNS GCTs are classified simply into two entities, namely germinomas and nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), with mature teratoma considered separately as a benign tumor. (
  • Temin, "Guideline summary ASCO clinical practice guideline on uses of serum tumor markers in adult males with germ cell tumors part I: NSGCT," Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. (
  • If your doctor failed to diagnose a germ cell tumor, you might qualify for compensation. (
  • The longer a germ cell tumor progresses before treatment begins, the more painful, invasive, and expensive it is to cure it. (
  • A germ cell tumor misdiagnosis lawyer might be able to help you file for malpractice . (
  • Was My Doctor Negligent in Misdiagnosing My Germ Cell Tumor? (
  • Depending on where the tumor originates, it could present symptoms associated with other, less-serious conditions, causing doctors to overlook germ cell cancer as a cause. (
  • The embryologic migration of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) from the head of the embryo into the gonad explains the many possible sites, mostly midline, in which this tumor can arise. (
  • Isochromosome 12p was identified in carcinoid tumor cells in all four samples. (
  • Some investigators have hypothesized that testicular carcinoid tumor arises from germ cells and represents a monodermal teratoma or simply a component of a mature teratoma ( 4 ), but definitive proof of this hypothesis has not been provided in previous studies. (
  • In this study, we did fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis to evaluate several testicular carcinoid tumors for the presence of a chromosomal abnormality commonly present in testicular germ cell tumors, and also evaluated the immunoreactivity of these tumors to antibodies against a number of well-established neuroendocrine and testicular germ cell tumor markers. (
  • The green (12p) and red (12 centromeric signal) were counted for each tumor cell nucleus, and the average number of each signal was recorded. (
  • Fankhauser CD, Gerke TA, Roth L, Sander S, Grossmann NC, Kranzbühler B, Eberli D, Sulser T, Beyer J, Hermanns T. Pre-orchiectomy tumor marker levels should not be used for International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCCG) risk group assignment. (
  • An increased level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the blood may be a sign of ovarian germ cell tumor. (
  • Fifth Annual International Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor Conference hosted by Nationwide Children's Hospital. (
  • Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). (
  • C ) Sohlh −/− ovary (−/−) lacks germ cells. (
  • In the ovary of the adult fruit fly, somatically-derived cap cells form a niche that supports 2-3 germ-line cells by providing signals that prevent germ cell differentiation ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Germ cell tumors of the ovary are uncommon, but aggressive, tumors, which are seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. (
  • Some studies have found that size and histology were the major factors determining prognosis for patients with malignant mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors contain malignant (cancerous) cells that grow in tissue covering the ovary(ies) and begin in the reproductive cells. (
  • We found that retinoic acid, produced by mesonephroi of both sexes, causes germ cells in the ovary to enter meiosis and inititate oogenesis. (
  • In testes of Cyp26b1 -knockout mouse embryos, germ cells enter meiosis precociously, as if in a normal ovary. (
  • Whether germ cells develop as oocytes or spermatogonia depends on the time at which they enter meiosis: If meiosis begins during fetal development, as occurs in the mouse ovary around 13.5 days postcoitum (dpc), oogenesis is triggered, whereas germ cells that delay the onset of meiosis until after birth, as occurs in the testis, adopt a spermatogenic fate ( 1 ). (
  • Based on their location, germ cell tumors can be classified into intragonadal ( ovary and testis ) or extragonadal ( mediastinum , brain , retroperitoneum , coccyx ). (
  • During fetus development, germ cells migrate to become the eggs in the ovary or the sperms in the testicles . (
  • Germ cell tumors develop due to the abnormal growth of the germ cells in the ovary , testis , brain , mediastinum , coccyx , or pelvis . (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors usually occur in teenage girls or young women and most often affect just one ovary. (
  • Establishment of oocyte population in the fetal ovary: primordial germ cell proliferation and oocyte programmed cell death. (
  • Germ cell tumors develop in the egg-producing cells of the ovary, and comprise about 5% of ovarian tumors. (
  • Chosen for their proven success in advancing our understanding of germ cells, these methods cover sperm and egg activation, motility, fertilization, nuclear development, nuclear cloning, the molecular characterization of specific events, the imaging of cell structures, and the cryopreservation of germ cells. (
  • In animals, the reproductive male gametes are sperm cells and the female gametes the oocytes. (
  • Germ cells are primitive cells within the body that normally mature into ova (egg) or sperm cells. (
  • In boys , the cells make sperm and in girls , they make eggs. (
  • The end-products of the germ cell cycle are the egg or sperm. (
  • Germ cells are the cells in a developing fetus that eventually produce sperm in males and eggs in females. (
  • In a fetus, germ cells are cells that should become sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries. (
  • In the developing embryo germ cells migrate to the ovaries or testicles and form the ova (egg cells) or sperm cells. (
  • A key event during germ cell development is the decision to leave mitosis and enter meiosis, leading to the formation of mature eggs and sperm. (
  • Finally, with the release of the morphologically mature product, the germ cells are called spermatozoa or, more simply, just sperm. (
  • The term spermiogenesis refers specifically to the final morphological differentiation of haploid cells into sperm. (
  • At the time of release into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, sperm cells are still not physiologically mature. (
  • Germ cells form the eggs (ova) in females and the sperm in males. (
  • As it turns out, the tiny, seemingly cross-eyed flatworm is an ideal subject for the study of germ cells, precursors of eggs and sperm in all sexually reproducing species . (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors form from developing sperm or egg cells that travel from the gonads to other parts of the body. (
  • When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into extragonadal germ cell tumors . (
  • In men, germ cells form the sperm in the testicles. (
  • This transition is particularly important for male germ cells: too little proliferation reduces sperm numbers and fertility, whereas escape from commitment and prolonged pluripotency can cause testicular germ cell tumours. (
  • Scientists have discovered that some treatments for cancer and sickle cell disease can destroy the germ cells that go on to develop into sperm in the testes of young boys. (
  • These singled-out cells move through the gut to the developing gonads and undergo mitotic proliferation followed by meiosis and differentiation into either eggs or sperm (mature gametes). (
  • At the transition zone (3), germ cells enter meiosis and proceed through meiotic prophase (4) to give rise to sperm in the L4 stage (6) and to oocytes during adulthood (5). (
  • Childhood Central Nervous System (CNS) germ cell tumors form in germ cells, which are cells that develop into sperm or ova (eggs). (
  • As a fetus develops, cells form in eggs in the ovaries or sperm in the testicles. (
  • The main role of mature Sertoli cells is to provide support and nutrition to the developing sperm cells. (
  • Germ cell tumors begin in the reproductive cells (egg or sperm) of the body. (
  • Although the researchers were able to create primordial germ cells from the infertile men, their stem cells made far fewer of these sperm progenitors than did stem cells from men without the mutations. (
  • Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Iranian researchers in collaboration with their Canadian colleagues managed to create early sperm cells, called primordial germ cells (PGCs), from the skin of individuals, even infertile people. (
  • When Zheng and Wang examined their germ cells more closely, they found that spermatogenesis had apparently come to a halt at the post-meiotic stage: Early stages of the germ cells were present, but the mice completely lacked mature sperm. (
  • Malignant germ cell tumors (MGCTs) derive from the primordial germ cell (stem cell) destined to become either the egg or the sperm. (
  • These cells go on to become sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries. (
  • In the growing embryo, germ cells migrate to the immature ovaries or testes. (
  • Germ cell tumors arise in the ovaries (in girls), the testes (in boys), and in several other locations, including the lower back (common in infancy), the abdomen, the chest, and within the brain. (
  • Germ cell tumors in the testes of an adolescent male commonly present as an enlarging, solid mass, which may be painful. (
  • Germ cell tumors are more common, but still rare, in undescended testes that were not corrected. (
  • Abnormal groupings of germ cells that cluster together, becoming tumors, tend to develop in the ovaries or testes. (
  • Most malignant germ cell tumors are gonadal, meaning they're in either the ovaries or testes. (
  • These are referred to as Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors - meaning that they started outside of the gonads and there is no evidence of cancer in the testes/ovaries. (
  • Male germ cell differentiation occurs continuously in the seminiferous tubules of the testes throughout the life of a normal animal. (
  • Specifically, males with cryptorchidism (failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac) have an increased risk to develop testicular germ cell tumors. (
  • They are much less common than germinal tumors arising in the testes, and account for only 1 to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms. (
  • However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. (
  • This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF. (
  • Some other mechanism, as yet unknown, prevents these germ cells from developing into functional testes and ovaries. (
  • The cause of germ cell tumors development is not fully understood but some causes include, genetic mutations , cryptorchidism , undescended testes , trauma , mumps , maternal estrogen exposure. (
  • Germ cell tumors that form outside the testes or ovaries are known as extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • Are there clinical trials for relapsed or refractory germ cell tumors? (
  • This is a proof-of-concept study to define efficacy of AVELUMAB in patients with multiple relapsed/refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs). (
  • Non-randomized, open-label, multi-centre trial to assess efficacy (as measured by 12-week progression-free survival) of AVELUMAB in patients with refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs). (
  • Chicago, IL ( Anja Lorch, MD, gave a talk on how to approach and treat refractory germ cell tumors (GCTs). (
  • At birth, the testis contains only undifferentiated type A1 spermatogonia, which will serve as a self-renewing stem cell population throughout the life of a male mouse. (
  • Although the incidence of primary testis tumors is low amongst racial minorities in the United States, the occurrence of extragonadal germ cell tumors is somewhat more common (7% versus 16% of cases, respectively). (
  • In general, mediastinal germ cell tumors appear histologically identical to germ cell tumors arising in the testis, and all histologic subtypes seen in gonadal germ cell neoplasms have also been recognized in the mediastinum. (
  • The vast majority of testis germ cell tumors are detected by men who notice enlargement, induration, pain or tenderness in the involved testicle. (
  • Like primary testis cancers, extragonadal germ cell tumors can present with gynecomastia. (
  • Therefore, finding an alternative source of these cells independent of the donor testis cells is of paramount interest both for basic research and clinical applications. (
  • Otherwise, you could get proliferating cells only from fetal testis. (
  • As reported in Cell Stem Cell's September issue, scientists trans-differentiated mouse skin cells into embryonic Sertoli-like cells by breaking the process into two main steps, mimicking Sertoli cells' development in the testis. (
  • The resulting cells exhibited many of the characteristics of embryonic Sertoli cells, including aggregating, forming tubular structures similar to the seminiferous tubules found in the testis, and secreting the typical Sertoli cell factors. (
  • When injected into a mouse fetal testis, the trans-differentiated cells migrated to the proper place and integrated into the endogenous tubules. (
  • Caucasian males under age 20 are about 7 times more likely to develop a germ cell in the testis compared to African American males. (
  • Incidence of carcinoma in situ of germ cells in contralateral testis of men with testicular tumours. (
  • Berthelsen J G , Skakkebaek N E , Mogensen P , Sørensen B L . Incidence of carcinoma in situ of germ cells in contralateral testis of men with testicular tumours. (
  • To study genes that may be crucial for the male germ cell development of Drosophila we screened a cDNA expression library with a polyclonal antiserum against testis proteins of Drosophila hydei. (
  • Most of these regions, designated as large hypomethylated domains (LoDs), contain gene families showing germ cell- or testis-specific expression, including cancer testis antigen genes. (
  • Germ cell tumours outside of the ovaries and testis are often birth defects resulting from errors during the development of the embryo. (
  • Testicular germ cell tumors share a marked sensitivity to cisplatin, contributing to their overall good prognosis. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors generally have a good prognosis and are curable if found and treated immediately. (
  • The International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group divides seminoma into two prognosis groups: good and intermediate. (
  • Germ cell tumors of the gonads have a better prognosis than extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • Nonseminoma germ cell tumors are more aggressive in terms of early spread, have poorer prognosis in advanced stage disease, and are sensitive to platinum-based combination chemotherapy but less responsive to radiation, except for teratomas. (
  • The Nanos family protein, NANOS2, is required for sexual differentiation of male germ cells in mice, however, the molecular RNA targets are unknown. (
  • A recent study provides a new protocol for the efficient generation of PGC-like cells from human embryonic stem cells, providing an in vitro platform to study human PGC differentiation and specification. (
  • As a consequence, translational control plays a central role in governing various germ cell decisions including the formation of primordial germ cells, self-renewal/differentiation decisions in the adult germline, onset of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation. (
  • The chromatin-associated protein XND-1 is identified as a key regulator of a novel pathway for primordial germ cell differentiation in C. elegans . (
  • these include regenerating stem cells as well as those that have taken the path to terminal differentiation. (
  • The entire process of differentiation from stem cell to released spermatozoa is called spermatogenesis . (
  • Female germ cell differentiation operates under a two-phase time course dramatically different from that found in the male. (
  • The balance between germ-line stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation in Drosophila ovaries is mediated by the antagonistic relationship between the Nanos (Nos)-Pumilio translational repressor complex, which promotes GSC self-renewal, and expression of Bam, a key differentiation factor. (
  • These findings emphasize the importance of translational repression in balancing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. (
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in stem cell systems has important implications for many areas of biology, including new cell-based therapies for a host of diseases. (
  • CB) moves away from the niche, Dpp signaling declines, and bam is transcribed to initiate germ cell differentiation ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Repression of Bam transcription is critical, because ectopic expression of bam in GSCs can induce differentiation and cause stem cell depletion ( 7 ). (
  • Loss of any one of several genes can cause GSCs to exit the niche, and undergo differentiation, forming a differentiating germ cell, and thus, depleting the supply of stem cells. (
  • Nos-Pum complexes are hypothesized to serve a similar role in GSCs to suppress translation of mRNAs that promote germ cell differentiation, but no targets have been identified to date. (
  • Genetic suppression of Nodal signalling leads to depressed pluripotency marker expression and early XY germ cell differentiation, they report, whereas NODAL and CRIPTO are upregulated in human testicular tumours. (
  • The technique overcomes the drawback of the in vitro-transduction approach, and will be useful as a novel method for producing transgenic animals as well as providing a means for analyzing the self-renewal and differentiation processes of spermatogonial stem cells in vivo. (
  • Using a stepwise trans-differentiation process, Whitehead Institute researchers have turned skin cells into embryonic Sertoli-like cells. (
  • Jaenisch lab researchers have seemingly overcome the supply and lifespan challenges through trans-differentiation, the process of reprogramming a cell directly from one mature cell type to another without first taking the cell in question all the way back to the embryonic stem-cell stage. (
  • Unlike other reprogramming methods that produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), trans-differentiation does not rely on the use of genes that can cause cancer. (
  • Such a pre-determination model of germ cell specification assures that germ cells are set-aside during the earliest steps of embryonic development, protecting them from the lineage specification and differentiation events that craft the body plan of the embryo. (
  • To demonstrate bivalent H3K4me3/ H3K27me3 chromatin of germ cell samples, cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1), growth differentiation factor 10 (GDF10), and gremlin 1 (GREM1) genes were chosen for illustration (Figure 4). (
  • Testicular germ cell tumours. (
  • Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. (
  • Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. (
  • In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. (
  • We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors. (
  • Most germ cell tumours occur in the testicals (male gonads) or in the ovaries (female gonads). (
  • For information on germ cell tumours of the brain see also the section on brain tumors . (
  • Germ cell tumours occur mostly in the area above the pituitary gland or in the pineal region of the brain. (
  • Non-germinatous germ cell tumours are less common. (
  • They are sometimes called mixed malignant germ cell tumours or secreting tumours because they can secrete substances (tumour markers) such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and HCG. (
  • Recurrent germ cell tumours are tumours that have come back after treatment. (
  • Treatment of germ cell tumours of the brain depends on the type of germ cell tumour. (
  • But most germ cell tumours are treated with radiation therapy or a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy instead of surgery. (
  • This is because germ cell tumours are often hard to reach with surgery. (
  • It may be the only type of therapy needed because these types of germ cell tumours are very sensitive to radiation and can often be cured with radiation therapy. (
  • Chemotherapy is often combined with radiation therapy to treat germ cell tumours. (
  • Surgery is not usually used to treat any other types of germ cell tumours. (
  • Treatment for recurrent germ cell tumours will depend on previous treatment. (
  • Recurrent germ cell tumours may also be treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplant. (
  • Many children with germ cell tumours are treated in a clinical trial. (
  • Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are extraordinarily chemosensitive and resemble the clinical and biological characteristics of a model for the cure of cancer. (
  • These tumours typically occur in the ovaries or testicles because this is where germ cells are - however, germ cells can sometimes be left behind in other parts of the body during a baby's development in the womb. (
  • The use of immunohistochemical stains is imperative in the diagnosis of germ cell tumours. (
  • Benign extragonadal germ cell tumors are called benign teratomas. (
  • Like tumors that occur in other places in the body, germ cell tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). (
  • The majority of ovarian tumors that develop in the germ cells are benign (noncancerous), but they can also be malignant (cancerous). (
  • Germ-cell tumors can be cancerous or benign. (
  • Germ cell tumors are malignant (cancerous) or nonmalignant (benign, noncancerous) tumors that are comprised mostly of germ cells. (
  • The clinical and pathologic characteristics of benign and malignant germ cell tumors and of "poorly differentiated carcinoma" of the mediastinum are presented, with special attention focused on the treatment of these neoplasms. (
  • Germ cell tumors may be either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign) and may occur in the chest, abdomen or brain. (
  • While germ cells are one of the three main cell types that ovarian cancer develops in, ovarian germ cell tumors account for only about 2% of ovarian cancers. (
  • Treatment for ovarian germ cell tumors varies from patient to patient and depends on a number of factors, including the type of cancer. (
  • Patients with germ-cell cancer often need to be treated with combination chemotherapy for at least three cycles, but female patients with early-stage disease may not require this treatment. (
  • See separate pages on testicular cancer , ovarian cancer and childhood germ cell tumors (which tend to be quite different to those in adults). (
  • The following are treatment options for stages of germ cell ovarian cancer. (
  • The stages, grades and types of germ cell ovarian cancer are treated the same except for stage 1 dysgerminoma and grade 1 immature teratomas. (
  • Surgery is the first treatment for all stages of germ cell ovarian cancer. (
  • Most women with germ cell ovarian cancer will have chemotherapy after surgery. (
  • Chemotherapy with a combination of drugs is the main treatment for recurrent or persistent germ cell cancer. (
  • It is not used very often for other types of germ cell ovarian cancer. (
  • Children's Cancer Hospital offers the most up-to-date and advanced chemotherapy options for childhood germ cell tumors. (
  • Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) uses high-energy beams to destroy cancer cells. (
  • New radiation therapy techniques and remarkable skill allow Children's Cancer Hospital doctors to target tumors more precisely, delivering the maximum amount of radiation with the least damage to healthy cells. (
  • Children's Cancer Hospital is committed to providing the most advanced treatments for childhood germ cell tumors with the least impact on your child's body, today and in the future. (
  • Children's Cancer Hospital offers a range of clinical trials for childhood germ cell tumors. (
  • Childhood germ cell tumors are treated in our Children's Cancer Hospital and our Proton Therapy Center. (
  • A comparison of stage-specific all-cause mortality between testicular sex cord stromal tumors and germ cell tumors: results from the National Cancer Database. (
  • This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of ovarian germ cell tumors. (
  • Avelumab in Refractory Testicular Germ Cell Cancer. (
  • Phase II Study of Avelumab in Multiple Relapsed/Refractory Testicular Germ Cell Cancer. (
  • The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. (
  • Most germ cell tumors occur in the ovaries and testicles, forming ovarian cancer or testicular cancer. (
  • Your surgeon may also remove surrounding tissue to make sure no cancer cells have spread. (
  • If germ cell tumors are cancerous, surgery is often followed by chemotherapy , which uses medicines to kill cancer cells. (
  • Radiation therapy, which uses high-energy particles or waves to burn away cancer cells, might be used with chemotherapy or in place of chemotherapy. (
  • Radiation therapy precisely targets cancer cells to help leave as many healthy cells as possible. (
  • Autonomic neuropathy after treatment with cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin for germ cell cancer. (
  • These results indicate that Nodal signalling regulates male germ cell potency during normal development and provides new clues about the aetiology of testicular cancer. (
  • Testicular germ cell cancer, a disease that is rare but growing in incidence in men in the United States, is considered to be among the most curable of solid tumors. (
  • Germ cell tumors are relatively rare and represent a highly curable epithelial cancer. (
  • Information about pediatric CNS Germ Cell Tumors treatment, clinical trials, and research from Texas Children's Cancer Center. (
  • T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. (
  • To analyze the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after treatment of male germ cell cancer (GCC). (
  • One of these men developed early invasive germ-cell cancer 46 months after carcinoma in situ was first diagnosed. (
  • Based on these results, we developed a prognostic tool using PD-L1 on tumors and TILs independently of International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) criteria [41]. (
  • The International Germ Cell Classication Consensus (IGCCC) was developed using data from more than 5000 men with advanced-stage testicular cancer. (
  • Back is October I was also diagnosed with germ cell cancer, nonseminoma. (
  • The biopsy came back as embryonic, After almost 2 months of researching my medical records, it was found that at birth I had an undescended testicle which my oncologist said is a precursor for testicular or germ cell cancer. (
  • New Delhi, March 1: Indian cricketer Yuvraj Singh has completed the second cycle of chemotherapy, continuing his recovery from a rare germ cell cancer in Boston ( United States). (
  • Briefly, eligibility criteria for cases included diagnosis of testicular cancer or extragonadal germ cell tumors between July 1995 and December 1997, being between 15 and 69 years of age at the time of diagnosis and being linguistically competent to complete the personal interview. (
  • Germ cell tumors include most kinds of testicular cancer as well as extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • He specializes in testicular cancer and other germ cell tumors. (
  • Patients who relapse after receiving chemotherapy can still be cured, with use of additional chemotherapy (such as Paclitaxel, Ifosfamide and Carboplatin) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (this involves harvesting the patient's blood or marrow stem cells, followed by very high dose chemotherapy with Carboplatin and Etoposide, and finally re-infusion of the patient's own stem cells to rescue the blood counts). (
  • 1 The bad news if that for those who aren't cured with standard dose combination cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without eventual high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (stem cell transplant), there are few options. (
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy for ovarian germ cell malignancies: the Australian experience. (
  • When relapse occurs in patients with germ cell tumors, two salvage treatment paradigms exist: standard-dose chemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue. (
  • Most patients with germ cell tumors will be cured with local therapy and/or standard chemotherapy. (
  • When relapse occurs, two salvage treatment paradigms exist: standard-dose chemotherapy (SDC), or high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR). (
  • Only 20-40% of them will be cured with the use of platinum-containing standard-dose or high-dose salvage chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). (
  • Side effects of radiation and chemotherapy, as well as second malignancies, can occur in survivors of germ cell tumors. (
  • This is a randomized phase 3 trial comparing conventional-dose chemotherapy using TIP with high-dose chemotherapy using TI-CE (paclitaxel plus ifosfamide followed by high-dose carboplatin plus etoposide with stem-cell support), as first salvage treatment in relapsed or refractory GCTs. (
  • For patients with advanced or recurring disease, we have extensive experience with high-dose chemotherapy, including the use of stem cell support. (
  • Role of the Dnmt3 family in de novo methylation of imprinted and repetitive sequences during male germ cell development in the mouse," Human Molecular Genetics , vol. 16, no. 19, pp. 2272-2280, 2007. (
  • These new TGCT susceptibility loci contain biologically plausible genes encoding proteins important for male germ cell development, chromosomal segregation and the DNA damage response. (
  • Clastogenic damage in male germ cell stage dependent dominant lethal mutations results from exposure to ethyl-methanesulfonate (62500) (EMS). (
  • Similar to neonate SCCM, adult SCCM can be used as a motivating factor for induction of male germ cell from somatic stem cells. (
  • Laminin in the male germ cells of Drosophila. (
  • Transcripts of laminin B2 were detected in the RNA of male germ cells with the polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridization. (
  • We studied the reaction of different polyclonal antibodies including those against a Drosophila laminin B2-lac fusion protein, the entire Drosophila laminin complex, or against the mouse laminin complex and against laminin A and B1 chains with specific structures in developing male germ cells of Drosophila. (
  • The possible biological functions of the laminin in the male germ cells of Drosophila are discussed. (
  • They identified large hypomethylated sequences that tend to be clustered, forming large (10 kb to ~9 Mb) genomic domains particularly on the X chromosome of male germ cells. (
  • They are found in: head inside the cranium - pineal and suprasellar locations are most commonly reported inside the mouth - a fairly common location for teratoma neck mediastinum - account for 1% to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms pelvis, particularly sacrococcygeal teratoma In females, GCTs account for 30% of ovarian tumors, but only 1 to 3% of ovarian cancers in North America. (
  • Surgery is used to treat a type of germ cell tumour called a mature teratoma. (
  • Isochromosome 12p and 12p overrepresentation were present in cells of coexisting mature teratoma in three cases. (
  • Our findings suggest that testicular carcinoid represents a phenotypic expression of testicular teratoma and is of germ cell origin. (
  • Mutation rate data is available that indicates a higher rate of germ line mutations in mice and humans, species which undergo induction, than in C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, species which undergo inheritance. (
  • In the model organism Drosophila, pole cells passively move from the posterior end of the embryo to the posterior midgut because of the infolding of the blastoderm. (
  • Drosophila germ-line stem cells (GSCs) have been a fruitful system for studying stem cell biology and dissecting the interactions between stem cells and associated stromal cells. (
  • The oskar gene directs germ plasm assembly and controls the number of germ cell precursors formed at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo. (
  • 14-3-3epsilon Is required for germ cell migration in Drosophila. (
  • Recognizing the vital importance of germ cells to species survival, in many lower organisms including Drosophila Melanogaster , Xenopus Laevis and the Zebrafish ( Danio Rerio ) germ cell formation is rigidly programmed. (
  • The keystone component of Drosophila germ-plasm assembly is Oskar (Ephrussi et al. (
  • Many of the Drosophila germ plasm components are conserved and play an essential role in mammalian germ cell formation as well, but it is interesting to note that the key factor in Drosophila, Oskar, has no known orthologs in any other species. (
  • As mentioned, in many species, including mammals, orthologs of other Drosophila germ plasm components have been identified and have been shown to play a role in germ cell development. (
  • We describe a novel genetic locus, wunen (wun) , required for guidance of germ cell migration in early Drosophila development. (
  • Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells in the adult, such as the floral meristem of flowering plants. (
  • Somatic cells are all the other cells that form the building blocks of the body and they only divide by mitosis. (
  • Others hypothesize a widespread distribution of germ cells to multiple sites during normal embryogenesis, with these cells conveying genetic information or providing regulatory functions at somatic sites. (
  • This Spotlight discusses the use of new in vitro models to study the origin of human primordial germ cells, prompting further consideration of the somatic cell fate decisions that occur during early human development. (
  • DNA methylation is a primary mechanism for silencing postmigratory primordial germ cell genes in both germ cell and somatic cell lineages," Development , vol. 133, no. 17, pp. 3411-3418, 2006. (
  • During mammalian gonadal development, somatic cues regulate the sex-specific development of foetal germ cells and control the transition between proliferation and cell-fate commitment. (
  • The researchers show that Nodal signalling is active in XY germ cells at the developmental stage when this transition occurs and that Nodal signalling is triggered when somatic signals, including FGF9, induce testicular germ cells to upregulate the Nodal co-receptor Cripto. (
  • We show that although D14-3-3ε is enriched within pole cells it is required in mesodermal somatic gonad precursor cells which guide pole cells in their migration through the mesoderm and coalesce with them to form the embryonic gonad. (
  • We present evidence that D14-3-3ε loss results in reduction or loss of the transcription factor Zfh-1, one of the main regulatory molecules of the pole cell migration, from the somatic gonad precursor cells. (
  • Instead germ cells can come from somatic cells in the adult floral meristem. (
  • METT-10 also promotes vulva, somatic gonad, and embryo development and ensures meiotic development of those germ cells that do differentiate. (
  • In the distal region, proliferating germ cells (2) reside in close contact with the somatic distal tip cell (1). (
  • Loss of wun function does not abolish movement but disrupts the orientation of the motion causing the germ cells to disperse even though their normal target, the somatic gonad, is well formed. (
  • To understand the epigenetic regulation for germ cell-specific gene expression in the mouse, the researchers first devised a DNA methylation assay adapted for a small number of cells (100 cells) and obtained DNA methylation profiles from germ cells of different developmental stages and from stem cell lines or somatic tissues. (
  • Main article: Primordial germ cell migration Primordial germ cells, germ cells that still have to reach the gonads (also known as PGCs, precursor germ cells or gonocytes) divide repeatedly on their migratory route through the gut and into the developing gonads. (
  • Treatment for childhood Germ Cell Tumors often includes surgery. (
  • Find the latest news and information about childhood germ cell tumors in our Knowledge Center, including blog posts, articles, videos, news releases and more. (
  • Primary intracranial germ cell tumors: a clinical analysis of 153 histologically verified cases," Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. (
  • Primary intracranial germ cell tumors are neoplasms that predominantly occur within the pediatric population and account for 0-4-3.4% of primary intracranial tumors [7]. (
  • CT of pineal tumors and intracranial germ-cell tumors. (
  • We reviewed 59 cases of pineal tumors and intracranial germ-cell tumors. (
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal" by people in Profiles. (
  • The differentiated cells derived from embryonal carcinomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and the more differentiated elements of choriocarcinomas only rarely had persistent nucleoli. (
  • A young child can grow choriocarcinoma from chorion cells that are still in the body. (
  • Diagnosis of germ cell tumors depends on the types of cells involved. (
  • The differential diagnosis for a testicular mass and/or tenderness include hydrocele, spermatocele, orchitis, epididymitis, germ cell tumors and non-germ cell cancers. (
  • CT , MRI , and ultrasound are used in combination with biopsy to distinguish between the types and subtypes of germ cell tumors and for diagnosis confirmation. (
  • Nevertheless, this entity is a diagnosis of exclusion and GCT, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic hyophysitis must be given some consideration, particularly if there is any endocrine disturbance. (
  • Wood MJ, Thomas R, Howard SA, Braschi-Amirfarzan M. Imaging of Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors in Male Patients From Initial Diagnosis to Treatment-Related Toxicities: A Primer for Radiologists. (
  • In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads. (
  • There are two mechanisms to establish the germ cell lineage in the embryo. (
  • In mammals, a few cells of the early embryo are induced by signals of neighboring cells to become primordial germ cells. (
  • However, they can also develop in other parts of the body such as the sacrococcygeal region, brain, abdomen and other sites - this may occur when some of the germ cells in the embryo did not migrate properly. (
  • Developmental pattern of gene-specific DNA methylation in the mouse embryo and germ line," Genes and Development , vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 705-714, 1992. (
  • Germ cell development involves unique gene expression programs and the establishment of epigenetic marks that ensure success during fertilization and embryo development. (
  • Germ cells are the cells that develop in the embryo (fetus, or unborn baby) and become the cells that make up the reproductive system in males and females. (
  • Germ cells in the mouse embryo can develop as oocytes or spermatogonia, depending on molecular cues that have not been identified. (
  • 2002 ). Mammalian germ cell specification is a plastic process and occurs after the embryo has implanted into the uterus. (
  • However, these tumors seem to arise when cells which normally migrate to the gonads (sex organs) in the developing embryo fail to reach the right location. (
  • The identification, origin, and migration of the primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. (
  • This means that the very early cells of the embryo that will ultimately develop into the ovaries and the peritoneum share a common origin. (
  • Mediastinal and other extragonadal germ cell tumors were initially thought to represent isolated metastases from an inapparent gonadal primary site. (
  • The relative rarity of extragonadal germ cell tumors in women parallels the lower incidence of female gonadal germ cell tumors as compared with their incidence in males. (
  • Malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare and a heterogeneous group of pediatric cancers. (
  • In Germ Cell Protocols, expert laboratory investigators describe in step-by-step detail a series of powerful techniques for the molecular and genetic analysis of germ cells in a variety of different reproductive systems. (
  • This volume, which includes discussions of gamete recognition proteins, egg activation, and genetic reprogramming following nuclear transfer, is an indispensable reference for cell, molecular, and developmental biologists and anyone wishing to understand the implications of germ cell biology for reproductive technologies. (
  • In addition to transcriptional control of stem cell maintenance, genetic studies unexpectedly implicated a role for translational regulation in GSC maintenance. (
  • Cell type-specific genetic modification using the Cre/loxP system is a powerful tool for genetic analysis of distinct cell lineages. (
  • A UMD researcher has uncovered new mechanisms that dictate the development of germline stem cells or germ cells, the only cell type capable of passing genetic information on to the next generation. (
  • Spermatogonial stem cells are the only stem cells in the postnatal body that can transmit parental genetic information to the offspring, making them an attractive target cell population for animal transgenesis. (
  • Combining gene editing and stem-cell induction improves efficiency of functional genetic analyses. (
  • Next the scientists devised a cocktail of five transcription factors that activate the epithelial cells' embryonic Sertoli cell genetic program. (
  • Endowed with the task of transmitting the genetic information to the next generation, germ cells are without doubt critical cells for any species that multiplies through sexual reproduction. (
  • The term "germ plasm" was first coined by August Weismann in a 1893 book of the same title, although in Weismann's view germ plasm was the carrier of hereditary information, reminiscent of our current understanding of genetic information (Weismann, 1893 ). (
  • Some tumors arise in children with extra genetic material or more than the normal number of chromosomes in all body cells. (
  • We describe our analysis of protein and genetic markers of germ cell neoplasia, using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, in four testicular carcinoid tumors. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors are related to developmental problems that occur prior to birth. (
  • In young children, extragonadal germ cell tumors tend to occur primarily in the presacral area. (
  • Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors occur with equal frequency in boys and girls. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors occur with equal frequency in members of all races and ethnic groups. (
  • Almost all pineal germ cell tumors occur in people under the age of 40. (
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors usually occur in teenage girls or young women. (
  • Since the germ cell lineage is not established right away by induction, there is a higher chance for mutation to occur before the cells are specified. (
  • Mixed germ cell tumors occur in many forms. (
  • Germ cell tumors occur where these cells start to grow in abnormal or uncontrolled way. (
  • Mediastinal teratomata are rare, extragonadal germ cell tumors, which can occur at any age and are often asymptomatic. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors occur much more commonly in males than in females and are usually seen in young adults. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors, particularly those arising in mediastinal and pineal sites, represent a malignant transformation of germinal elements distributed to these sites and can occur in the absence of a primary focus in the gonad. (
  • The great majority of mediastinal malignant germ cell tumors occur in patients between 20 and 35 years of age. (
  • To the editor: A report by Garnick and colleagues (1) has described three cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenia associated with extragonadal germ-cell tumors. (
  • Boys born with undescended testicles (cryptorchidism) are believed to have a higher risk of germ cell tumors in the testicles. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors form in parts of the body other than the gonads (testicles or ovaries). (
  • Germ cell tumors are rare. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and account for only a small percentage of all germ cell tumors. (
  • Germ cell tumors are rare, as only about 2.4 children in one million will develop one of these tumors in a given year. (
  • There are also methods for PCR-based cloning, differentiating embryonic stem cells into embryonic bodies, live imaging of mammalian embryos using multiphoton microscopy, and the cloning of pig, cattle, rabbit, and mouse oocytes. (
  • Under special conditions in vitro germ cells can acquire properties similar to those of embryonic stem cells (ES). (
  • Embryonic stem cells are derived from fetal tissue--typically, from a 5-day-old blastocyst, a clump of perhaps 100 cells about the size of the period at the end of this sentence. (
  • At such an early stage of development, embryonic stem cells can be converted to any other kind of human cell and thus can be used to treat a variety of ailments, including diabetes, Alzheimer's and Huntington's, as well as, potentially, spinal cord injuries. (
  • Epigenetic control of mouse Oct-4 gene expression in embryonic stem cells and trophoblast stem cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 279, no. 17, pp. 17063-17069, 2004. (
  • Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago. (
  • These figures, most of which are derived from retrospective series reported between 1950 and 1975, may underestimate the true occurance of mediastinal germ cell tumors. (
  • Although there is no doubt that mediastinal germ cell tumors are uncommon, increasing familiarity with the tumors by both clinicians and pathologists will probably result in their increased recognition. (
  • In the rare occurrences reported in females, mediastinal malignant germ cell tumors have appeared histologically and biologically identical to those occurring in males. (
  • In a recent review of 229 malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors seen between 1960 and 1994 at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, pure seminoma was the most common histology, accounting for 52% of cases. (
  • The biology and clinical characteristics of mediastinal germ cell tumors have been defined during the last 30 years. (
  • Mediastinal germ cell tumors present as an anterior mediastinal mass, often resulting in chest symptoms. (
  • Ariz M, Mainpal R, Subramaniam K (2009) C. elegans RNA-binding proteins PUF-8 and MEX-3 function redundantly to promote germline stem cell mitosis. (
  • indeed, it's about to go further--rolling over President Bush on the issue of stem cell research. (
  • In it, Milly emerges as a tragic symbol, a symbol to galvanize support for the next round of research, which Kondracke and most other experts believe will require the expanded use of embryonic stem cell tissue. (
  • No wonder so many high-profile victims of disease and accidents, including Michael J. Fox, Muhammad Ali and Christopher Reeve, have made common cause on the stem cell issue. (
  • On Aug. 9, 2001, Bush went on national television to offer a compromise: Although no additional stem cell "lines" could be federally funded, research could continue on existing lines. (
  • In fact, the commission was a model of fairness and balance--which might explain why it barely agreed with the Bush position, endorsing a four-year moratorium on stem cell research by a 10-7 vote. (
  • This has become our standard salvage regimen for patients in whom second line cisplatin-ifosfamide combinations fail and/or who are not candidates for HDC stem-cell therapy. (
  • FROM early development to later life, tissues are formed from and maintained by stem cell populations. (
  • The injected trans-differentiated cells were closely interacting with the native germ cells, which shows that they definitely do not have any bad effect on the germ cells," says Yossi Buganim, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab and first author of the Cell Stem Cell paper. (
  • Cell Stem Cell, September 7, 2012 print issue. (
  • It may seem from the realms of science fiction, but scientists at Dubai's Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) are turning fiction into fact through the use of primordial germ cells -- a type of stem cell stacked with sexual material. (
  • Children with malignant tumors may have surgery to remove as many of the cancerous cells as possible. (
  • Germ cell tumors may or may not be cancerous. (
  • Stage 1: Cancerous cells are detected in one or both of the ovaries. (
  • Stage IA: Cancerous cells are found in only one of the ovaries. (
  • Stage IB: Cancerous cells are found in both ovaries. (
  • Stage IC: Cancerous cells are detected in one or both of the ovaries as well as on the ovary's outside surface. (
  • Stage II: Cancerous cells are found in one or both of the ovaries and has spread into various areas of the pelvis. (
  • Stage IIA: Cancerous cells have spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes (the long narrow tubes where eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus). (
  • Stage IIC: Cancerous cells have spread and all of the above are true. (
  • Stage III: Cancerous cells are detected in one or both ovaries and has spread to various parts of the abdomen as well as the liver's surface. (
  • Stage IIIB: Cancerous cells have begun to spread or have already spread to the peritoneum, but appear to be less than 1 inch in diameter. (
  • Stage IIIC: Cancerous cells have begun to spread or have already spread to the peritoneum and appear to be more than 1 inch in diameter, and has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen as well. (
  • Stage IV: Cancerous cells are found in one or both ovaries and has begun to spread or has already spread farther than the abdomen to the liver. (
  • Cancerous, or malignant, cells divide and multiply in an abnormal fashion. (
  • Germ cells are the cells that give rise to the reproductive cells of sexually reproducing organisms - known as gametes - through a process called gametogenesis. (
  • Here, the authors show that germ cells, compared to other cell types in the reproductive tract, are most susceptible to ZIKV and produce high levels of progeny virus, which coincides with decreased expression of the interferon-stimulated gene Ifi44l . (
  • Germ cells are the reproductive cells in an unborn baby. (
  • Before they settle into the reproductive organs, germ cells develop along the baby's "midline. (
  • Because the germ cells travel along the midline to reach the reproductive organs as a fetus grows, they can sometimes settle in other places. (
  • These cells normally develop along what's called the "midline" of a fetus (usually where the stomach and other internal organs will lie) before finally settling into place in the reproductive organs. (
  • Sometimes, though, because germ cells can settle in other places along their way to the reproductive organs, tumors can form in other areas. (
  • The most common sites for germ cell tumors outside of the reproductive tract are the mediastinum (part of the chest between the breastplate and spine), tailbone, abdomen, and pelvis. (
  • The dependence of male reproductive toxicity on germ cell stage. (
  • A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of male reproductive toxicity on germ cell stage in rats. (
  • The authors conclude that overt chemical induced male reproductive toxicity may be dependent on germ cell stage but potency is markedly altered by biochemical influences. (
  • And when the researchers blocked nanos expression in planarians that had had their bodies and reproductive organs detached from their brains, the planarians regenerated new bodies, but with no reproductive cells. (
  • In younger women, they are more common, thus in patients under the age of 21, 60% of ovarian tumors are of the germ-cell type, and up to one-third are malignant. (
  • A nomogram for predicting survival and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection treatment in patients with resected testicular germ cell tumors. (
  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is an important component of the multimodal treatment which cures most patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors. (
  • Pathological examinations of the testicular biopsy specimens revealed hypospermatogenesis, maturation arrest and germ cell aplasia in 34.4%, 31.2% and 34.4% of patients, respectively. (
  • The prognostic classification, shown below, was agreed on in early 1997 by all major clinical trial groups worldwide and should be used for the reporting of clinical trials' results of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • Ovarian and extragonadal malignant germ-cell tumors in females: a single-institution experience with 43 patients. (
  • Other patients volunteer for clinical trials because they know these studies are a way to contribute to the progress in treating germ cell tumors. (
  • 7] We routinely use granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis during salvage treatment for patients with germ cell tumors. (
  • Other patients with "poorly differentiated carcinoma" of the mediastinum have clinical characteristics and treatment responses typical of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • Optimal management of patients with germ cell tumors requires effective multidisciplinary management with medical oncology, urology, and in some instances, radiation oncology, working as a team. (
  • The Lung Center at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) uses the most current diagnostic methods and offers proven treatments for patients with germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, including minimally invasive surgical techniques aided by video and robotic technology. (
  • Eighty-two patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCT) treated with two-drug therapy consisting of etoposide and cisplatin were evaluated for late relapse. (
  • To recognize the emerging and evolving understanding of the molecular biology, epidemiology, genetics, neurosurgical management, radiation oncology management and medical oncology management of patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumors, as well as the late effects of these tumors and their treatment. (
  • Develop basic, translational and clinical collaborations with other physicians and scientists participating in the symposium in order to accelerate progress in the management of patients with central nervous system germ cell tumors. (
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Germ Cell Tumors? (
  • The symptoms of germ cell tumors may resemble other conditions or medical problems. (
  • The symptoms of germ cell tumors can be like other health conditions. (
  • Signs and symptoms of extragonadal germ cell tumors include breathing problems and chest pain. (
  • Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors may cause signs and symptoms as they grow into nearby areas. (
  • Germ cell tumors may cause symptoms in children and young adults. (
  • A number of inherited defects have also been associated with an increased risk for developing germ cell tumors including the central nervous system and genitourinary tract malformations and major malformations of the lower spine. (
  • Imaging and blood tests are used to detect (find) and diagnose extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • International Germ Cell Consensus Classification: a prognostic factor-based staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers. (
  • Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest population of germ cells established during embryonic development and constitute the beginning of the totipotent state. (
  • The second way is found in mammals, where germ cells are not specified by such determinants but by signals controlled by zygotic genes. (
  • Epigenetic regulation of Nanog gene in embryonic stem and trophoblast stem cells," Genes to Cells , vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 387-396, 2007. (
  • Assess differential patterns of selected five genes' promoter methylation among testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) subtypes. (
  • Of the eight genes necessary for germ cell formation at the posterior, only three, oskar, vasa and tudor, are essential at an ectopic site. (
  • Because of the exquisite specificity of Vasa expression (confined to the germ cell lineage in invertebrate and vertebrate species), we hypothesized that a Vasa promoter-driven transgenic Cre line would prove useful for the germ cell lineage-specific inactivation of genes. (
  • Overall, the injected cells behaved like endogenous embryonic Sertoli cells, despite expressing a few genes differently. (
  • Immature teratomas contain cells resembling embryonic cells of connective tissues, respiratory passages or the brain. (
  • Teratomas contain cells from the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (
  • The remaining 5-10% of germ cell tumors arise outside of the gonads: these are the extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • In some instances, these cells fail to move to the gonads and end up in the midchest area between the lungs (mediastinum), the lowest part of the back (presacral area), or near the pea-sized gland between the two hemispheres of the brain ( pineal gland ). (
  • After transport, involving passive movements and active migration, germ cells arrive at the developing gonads. (
  • After splitting into two populations, the germ cells continue migrating laterally and in parallel until they reach the gonads. (
  • Homozygotes for loss of function alleles of D14-3-3ε contain significantly fewer germ line cells (pole cells) in their gonads, a phenotype not shared by mutants in the other 14-3-3 gene leo. (
  • An overview of many of the preclinical and clinical developments in germ cell tumors over the past year is presented. (
  • Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors are subdivided into seminoma and nonseminoma. (
  • They are broadly divided in two classes: The germinomatous or seminomatous germ-cell tumors (GGCT, SGCT) include only germinoma and its synonyms dysgerminoma and seminoma. (
  • Histologically , Germ cell tumors can be classified as germinomatous/ undifferentiated germ cell tumors which include, dysgerminoma and seminoma . (
  • Estimates show that only approximately 10% of men with metastatic Stage III germ cell tumors are not cured. (
  • There are two peaks in the incidence of germ cell tumors: the first peak is immediately after birth until about age 4 years, suggesting that perinatal exposures are likely important in terms of cause. (

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