A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The largest ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the domains which catalyze formation of the peptide bond and translocation of the ribosome along the MESSENGER RNA during GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Infections with nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A genus of trichuroid nematodes parasitic in the liver and intestines of many mammals and birds. Two species, C. hepatica and C. philippinensis, produce often fatal infections in man.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.

Nitric oxide production in the CA1 field of the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia : effects of 7-nitroindazole and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. (1/1552)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study was designed to examine the time course of nitric oxide (NO) production and the source of NO in the CA1 field of the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. METHODS: The production of NO in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after transient ischemia was monitored consecutively by measuring total NO metabolites (NOx-, NO2- plus NO3-) with the use of brain microdialysis. 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were used to dissect the relative contributions of neuronal NO synthase and endothelial NO synthase to the NO production. The histological outcomes of 7-NI in 5- and 10-minute global ischemia were also evaluated. RESULTS: The production of NO in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after ischemia was dependent on the severity of ischemia. Ischemia for 2 or 5 minutes did not induce a significant increase in NOx- levels in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after reperfusion, whereas the 10- and 15-minute ischemias produced significant and persistent increases in NOx- levels. 7-NI did not inhibit the basal NOx- levels and showed no effects on NOx- levels after 5 minutes of ischemia. However, it completely inhibited the increased NOx- levels after 10 or 15 minutes of ischemia. 7-NI provided minor neuroprotection in 5 minutes but not in 10 minutes of global ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: The increased NO level in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after ischemia is produced mostly by neuronal NO synthase, whereas the basal NO level mainly originates from endothelial NO synthase. The observed neuroprotective effect of 7-NI in 5-minute global ischemia in gerbils may not be due to neuronal NO synthase inhibition by this drug.  (+info)

Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (2/1552)

The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested.  (+info)

Chronic administration of adenosine A3 receptor agonist and cerebral ischemia: neuronal and glial effects. (3/1552)

We have previously shown that chronic administration of the selective A3 receptor agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-5'-N-methylcarboxoamidoadenosine (IB-MECA) leads to a significant improvement of postocclusive cerebral blood flow, and protects against neuronal damage and mortality induced by severe forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Using immunocytochemical methods we now show that chronic with IB-MECA results in a significant preservation of ischemia-sensitive microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2), enhancement of the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and a very intense depression of nitric oxide synthase in the brain of postischemic gerbils. These changes demonstrate that the cerebroprotective actions of chronically administered IB-MECA involve both neurons and glial cells, and indicate the possibility of distinct mechanisms that are affected in the course of chronic administration of the drug.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic active gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric ulcer in Mongolian gerbils. (4/1552)

The establishment of persisting Helicobacter pylori infection in laboratory animals has been difficult, but in 1996 Hirayama reported the development of a successful Mongolian gerbil model. The present study was undertaken with two aims: to better characterize the normal histological structure and histochemical properties of the gastric mucosa of the Mongolian gerbil; and to evaluate the progression of the histopathological features of H. pylori-induced gastritis in this animal model for one year after the experimental infection. Seventy-five Mongolian gerbils were used. Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, 38, and 52 weeks after H. pylori inoculation. Sections prepared from stomachs immediately fixed in Carnoy's solution were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue at pH 2.5/periodic acid-Schiff, a dual staining consisting of the galactose oxidase-cold thionin Schiff reaction and paradoxical Concanavalin A staining, and with immunostaining for H. pylori and BrdU. H. pylori infection induced in the Mongolian gerbil a chronic active gastritis, in which a marked mucosal infiltration of neutrophils on a background of chronic inflammation became detectable 4 weeks after inoculation and continued up to 52 weeks. Intestinal metaplasia and gastric ulcers appeared after 26 weeks in some of the animals, whereas others developed multiple hyperplastic polyps. The Mongolian gerbil represents a novel and useful model for the study of H. pylori-induced chronic active gastritis and may lend itself to the investigation of the epithelial alterations that lead to intestinal metaplasia and gastric neoplasia.  (+info)

Development of acetylcholine-induced responses in neonatal gerbil outer hair cells. (5/1552)

Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) are dominantly innervated by efferents, with acetylcholine (ACh) being their principal neurotransmitter. ACh activation of the cholinergic receptors on isolated OHCs induces calcium influx through the ionotropic receptors, followed by a large outward K+ current through nearby Ca2+-activated K+ channels. The outward K+ current hyperpolarizes the cell, resulting in the fast inhibitory effects of efferent action. Although the ACh receptors (AChRs) in adult OHCs have been identified and the ACh-induced current responses have been characterized, it is unclear when the ACh-induced current responses occur during development. In this study we attempt to address this question by determining the time of onset of the ACh-induced currents in neonatal gerbil OHCs, using whole cell patch-clamp techniques. Developing gerbils ranging in age from 4 to 12 days were used in these experiments, because efferent synaptogenesis and functional maturation of OHCs occur after birth. Results show that the first detectable ACh-induced current occurred at 6 days after birth (DAB) in 12% of the basal turn cells with a small outward current. The fraction of responsive cells and the size of outward currents increased as development progressed. By 11 DAB, the fraction of responsive cells and the current size were comparable with those of adult OHCs. The results indicate that the maturation of the ACh-induced response begins around 6 DAB. It appears that the development of ACh-induced responses occur during the same time period when OHCs develop motility but before the onset of auditory function, which is around 12 DAB when cochlear microphonic potentials can first be evoked with acoustic stimulation in gerbils.  (+info)

Optical detection of synaptically induced glutamate transport in hippocampal slices. (6/1552)

Although it has long been believed that glial cells play a major role in transmitter uptake at synapses in the CNS, the relative contribution of glial and neuronal cells to reuptake of synaptically released glutamate has been unclear. Recent identification of the diverse glutamate transporter subtypes provides an opportunity to examine this issue. To monitor glutamate transporter activity, we optically detected synaptically induced changes of membrane potential from hippocampal CA1 field in slice preparations using a voltage-sensitive dye, RH155. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate-receptor blockers, synaptic inputs gave rise to a slow depolarizing response (SDR) in the dendritic field. The amplitude of SDR correlated well with presynaptic activities, suggesting that it was related to transmitter release. The SDR was found to be caused by the activities of glutamate transporters because it was not affected by blockers for GABAA, nACh, 5-HT3, P2X, or metabotropic glutamate receptors but was greatly reduced by dihydrokainate (DHK), a specific blocker for GLT-1 transporter, and by D, L-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA), a blocker for EAAC, GLAST, and GLT-1 transporters. When SDR was detected with RH482 dye, which stains both glial and neuronal cells, 1 mM DHK and 1 mM THA were equally effective in suppressing SDR. The SDR was very small in GLT-1 knockout mice but was maintained in gerbil hippocampi in which postsynaptic neurons were absent because of ischemia. Because GLT-1 transporters are exclusively expressed in astrocytes, our results provide direct evidence that astrocytes play the dominant role in sequestering synaptically released glutamate.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of rodent glutathione and its role in peroxynitrite-induced neocortical synaptosomal membrane protein damage. (7/1552)

Peroxynitrite, formed by the reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide, leads to the oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, and nitrates thiols such as cysteine and glutathione, and amino acids like tyrosine. Previous in vitro studies have shown glutathione to be an efficient scavenger of peroxynitrite, protecting synaptosomal membranes from protein oxidation, the enzyme glutamine synthetase from inactivation, and preventing the death of hippocampal neurons in culture. The current study was undertaken to see if in vivo modulation of glutathione levels would affect brain cortical synaptosomal membrane proteins and their subsequent reaction with peroxynitrite. Glutathione levels were depleted, in vivo, by injecting animals with 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX, 100 mg/kg body weight), and levels of glutathione were enhanced by injecting animals with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg body weight), which gets metabolized to cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. Changes in membrane protein conformation and structure in synaptosomes subsequently isolated from these animals were examined using electron paramagnetic resonance, before and after in vitro addition of peroxynitrite. The animals injected with the glutathione depletant CHX showed greater damage to the membrane proteins both before and after peroxynitrite treatment, compared to the non-injected controls. The membrane proteins from animals injected with NAC were comparable to controls before peroxynitrite treatment and were partially protected against peroxynitrite-induced damage. This study showed that modulation of endogenous glutathione levels can affect the degree of peroxynitrite-induced brain membrane damage and may have potential therapeutic significance for oxidative stress-associated neurodegenerative disorders.  (+info)

Interaction between genetic and dietary factors determines beta-cell function in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. (8/1552)

The gerbil Psammomys obesus develops nutrition-dependent diabetes. We studied the interaction between diet and diabetic predisposition for beta-cell function. A 4-day high-energy (HE) diet induced a 3-, 4-, and 1.5-fold increase in serum glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, respectively, in diabetes-prone (DP) but not diabetes-resistant (DR) P. obesus. Hyperglycemia and concurrent 90% depletion of islet immunoreactive insulin stores were partially corrected by an 18-h fast. In vitro early insulin response to glucose was blunted in both DR and DP perifused islets. The HE diet augmented early and late insulin response in DR islets, whereas in DP islets, secretion progressively declined. Dose-response studies showed a species-related increase in islet glucose sensitivity, further augmented in DP P. obesus by a HE diet, concomitant with a decreased threshold for glucose and a 55% reduction in maximal response. These changes were associated with a fourfold increase in glucose phosphorylation capacity in DP islets. There were no differences in islet glucokinase (GK) and hexokinase (HK) Km; however, GK Vmax was 3.7- to 4.6-fold higher in DP islets, and HK Vmax was augmented 3.7-fold by the HE diet in DP islets. We conclude that the insulin-resistant P. obesus has an inherent deficiency in insulin release. In the genetically predisposed P. obesus (DP), augmented islet glucose phosphorylation ability and diet-induced reduction of the glucose threshold for secretion may lead to inadequate insulin secretion and depletion of insulin stores in the presence of caloric abundance. Thus, genetic predisposition and beta-cell maladaptation to nutritional load seem to determine together the progression to overt diabetes in this species. It is hypothesized that similar events may occur in obese type 2 diabetic patients.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of Transient Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Deficits on Various Learning and Memory Tasks in Male Mongolian Gerbils. AU - Amano, Manabu. AU - Hasegawa, Masaya. AU - Hasegawa, Takaaki. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We examined the characteristics of 5-min cerebral ischemia-induced behavioral deficits in spontaneous locomotor activity and their effects on the performance of habituation (HAB), passive avoidance (PA) and 8-arm radial maze (RM) tasks in Mongolian gerbils. Performances in HAB, PA and RM were impaired within 2 days after occlusion, and gerbils showed hyperlocomotion during this period. Ten days after ischemia, the hyperlocomotion disappeared and performance in the HAB and PA was the same as that in the sham-operated group. Retention in the RM was impaired at that period, but this impairment was overcome, and retention recovered easily to the sham-operated level with a few additional trials. When the acquisition trial in the RM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory action of the pineal gland on the nuclear volume of thyroid follicular cells in male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). AU - Lewinski, A.. AU - Vaughan, M. K.. AU - Champney, T. H.. AU - Reiter, Russel J. AU - Smith, N. K.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Karyometric investigations of thyroid follicular cells were performed in four groups of adult male gerbils [I. sham-operated (Sham PX) + short photoperiod (SPP)-exposed; II. Sham PX + long photoperiod (LPP)-exposed; III. pinealectomized (PX) + SPP-exposed; IV. PX + LPP-exposed]. The mean nuclear volume (MNV) of thyroid cells was significantly higher in both PX groups (III and IV) when compared to Sham PX controls (I and II). In Sham PX gerbils the maintenance of animals in SPP (10 h light : 14 h darkness) for 13 weeks resulted in significant decrease of MNV of thyroid follicular cells in comparison to that in Sham PX animals kept in LPP (14 h light : 10 h darkness). Lighting conditions did not significantly affect the MNV of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term high-dose proton pump inhibitor administration to Helicobacter pylori-infected mongolian gerbils enhances neuroendocrine tumor development in the glandular Stomach. AU - Tsukamoto, Hironobu. AU - Mizoshita, Tsutomu. AU - Sasaki, Makoto. AU - Mizushima, Takashi. AU - Tanida, Satoshi. AU - Ozeki, Keiji. AU - Hirata, Yoshikazu. AU - Shimura, Takaya. AU - Kataoka, Hiromi. AU - Kamiya, Takeshi. AU - Nojiri, Shunsuke. AU - Tsukamoto, Tetsuya. AU - Tatematsu, Masae. AU - Joh, Takashi. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are routinely used for control of upper gastrointestinal disorders, often with long-term application. However, there has been some concern about the long-term safety and the possibility of cancer induction and development of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in the stomach. We therefore analyzed the influence of PPI use on tumor development histologically, immunohistochemically, and serologically in the glandular stomachs of Helicobacter pylori ...
By using the combination of reverse-transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods, a cDNA encoding mast cell tryptase was successfully cloned from the small intestine of Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The cDNA was 1219 bp long including 810 bp of an open reading frame. Based on the deduced amino acid sequences of known mast cell tryptases of other species, the gerbil mast cell tryptase (gMCT) was highly similar to mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-7, and seems to be translated as a prepro-enzyme with 25 amino acids of signal and activation peptides and 245 amino acids of mature enzyme. The gMCT mRNA was preferentially transcribed in the intestinal mucosa and to a far lesser extent in the connective tissue such as skin and tongue. Moreover, kinetic study after infection revealed that the amount of gMCT mRNA in the small intestine correlated well with the degree of intestinal mastocytosis. Throughout the course of infection, ...
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt for male worms occurred between 4 and 7 days
The role of the renin-angiotensin system in gastric physiology and disease has as yet been sparsely explored. The first aim of the study was to investigate the baseline presence and location of angiotensin II receptors (AT1R and AT2R) in the stomach of the Mongolian gerbil. A second aim was to elucidate whether the presence of H. pylori infection is associated with changes in the expression of these receptors. H. pylori-negative and H. pylori-infected (strain SS1 or TN2GF4) male Mongolian gerbils were investigated. The stomachs were examined at six or 12 months after inoculation by the use of immunohistochemistry, western blot and microscopic morphometry. AT1R and AT2R were located in a variety of cells in the gerbil gastric wall, including a subpopulation of endocrine cells in the antral mucosa and inflammatory cells infiltrating H. pylori-infected stomachs. Gerbils infected with the SS1 strain showed a significantly increased antral AT1R protein expression and an increased number of infiltrating
The role of the renin-angiotensin system in gastric physiology and disease has as yet been sparsely explored. The first aim of the study was to investigate the baseline presence and location of angiotensin II receptors (AT1R and AT2R) in the stomach of the Mongolian gerbil. A second aim was to elucidate whether the presence of H. pylori infection is associated with changes in the expression of these receptors. H. pylori-negative and H. pylori-infected (strain SS1 or TN2GF4) male Mongolian gerbils were investigated. The stomachs were examined at six or 12 months after inoculation by the use of immunohistochemistry, western blot and microscopic morphometry. AT1R and AT2R were located in a variety of cells in the gerbil gastric wall, including a subpopulation of endocrine cells in the antral mucosa and inflammatory cells infiltrating H. pylori-infected stomachs. Gerbils infected with the SS1 strain showed a significantly increased antral AT1R protein expression and an increased number of infiltrating
Meriones albipes, Meriones auziensis, Meriones isis, Gerbillus richardii, Gerbillus savii, Gerbillus sellysii, Meriones trouessarti, Meriones shawi crassibulla, Meriones shawi laticeps, Meriones shawi longiceps ...
Auditory information transfer to afferent neurons relies on precise triggering of neurotransmitter release at the inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses by Ca2+ entry through CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels. Despite the crucial role of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels in governing synaptic vesicle fusion, their elementary properties in adult mammals remain unknown. Using near-physiological recording conditions we investigated Ca2+ channel activity in adult gerbil IHCs. We found that Ca2+ channels are partially active at the IHC resting membrane potential (-60 mV). At -20 mV, the large majority (,70%) of Ca2+ channel first openings occurred with an estimated delay of about 50 μs in physiological conditions, with a mean open time of 0.5 ms. Similar to other ribbon synapses, Ca2+ channels in IHCs showed a low mean open probability (0.21at -20 mV), but this increased significantly (up to 0.91) when Ca2+ channel activity switched to a bursting modality. We propose that IHC Ca2+ channels are sufficiently rapid to transmit ...
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (CP), which is characterized by expansion of functionally normal myeloid cells, followed by an accelerated phase (AP) and finally a more aggressive blast phase (BP), with loss of terminal differentiation capacity. On the cellular level, CML is associated with a specific chromosome abnormality, the t(9; 22) reciprocal translocation that forms the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The Ph chromosome is the result of a molecular rearrangement between the c-ABL proto-oncogene on chromosome 9 and the BCR (breakpoint cluster region) gene on chromosome 22. The BCR/ABL fusion gene encodes p210 BCR/ABL, an oncoprotein, which, unlike the normal p145 c-Abl, has constitutive tyrosine kinase activity and is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. While fusion of c-ABL and BCR is believed to be the primary cause of the ...
Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause the vast majority of peptic ulcers and their complications. However, their interaction remains extremely controversial. The study of Yoshida et al in this issue of Gut1 aimed to address this issue by investigating the influence of experimental H pylori infection on gastric mucosal injury induced by aspirin in male Mongolian gerbils [see page 594].. The study found that aspirin caused more extensive haemorrhagic erosions associated with greater myeloperoxidase activity (an index of neutrophil accumulation), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations (an index of lipid peroxidation), and KC/GRO concentrations (a chemoattractive cytokine in rodents) in infected than in uninfected gerbils.. Furthermore, the authors repeated the experiments in gerbils pretreated with antineutrophil serum which reduced circulating neutrophils by 77%. Erosion index, myeloperoxidase activity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive ...
A gerbil is a small mammal of the order Rodentia. Once known as desert rats, the gerbil subfamily includes about 110 species of African, Indian, and Asian rodents, including sand rats and jirds, all of which are adapted to arid habitats. Most are primarily active during the day, making them diurnal (some species, including the common household pet, exhibit crepuscular behavior), and almost all are omnivorous. One Mongolian species, Meriones unguiculatus, also known as the clawed jird, is a gentle and hardy animal that has become a popular pet. It was first brought from China to Paris in the 19th century, and became a popular house pet. It was then brought to the United States in 1954 by Dr. Victor Schwentker for use in research. The gerbil got its name as a diminutive form of jerboa, an unrelated group of rodents occupying a similar ecological niche. Gerbils are typically between six and twelve inches (150 and 300 mm) long, including the tail, which makes up about one-half of their total ...
Animal Four Interior Mammalian Mouse Pup Shut Vertebrate: 1 assigned downloads, like Mongolian Jirds or Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) young, 2 weeks from stock-photos
Abstract: The prostate is not an exclusive male organism, because it is also present in adults females of several rodents species and even in women. The female prostate has been considered homologous to the male ventral prostate, it is composed by sma1l clusters of glands and ducts intermixed to a musculofibrous matrix. It is known nowadays the fundamental importance of the better understanding of the physiological process that maintaÍfi this gland functiona1ly active in the female organism, once that it suffers the same diseases that compromises the male prostate during the climacteric. By this way, the goal of this study was to characterize histologica1ly, cytochemica1ly and ultrasttucturally the tissues components of normal and experimentally treated with testosterone female prostate of gerbil Meriones unguiculatus, during 21 days. In order to do this work, the collected prostates were fixed and embedded for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Cytochemical tests were ...
Plague, a rodent-associated, flea-borne zoonosis, is one of the most notorious diseases in history. Rates of plague transmission can increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas commonly desiccate and die when reared under dry conditions in laboratories, suggesting fleas will be suppressed during droughts in the wild, thus reducing the rate at which plague spreads among hosts. In contrast, fleas might increase in abundance when precipitation is plentiful, producing epizootic outbreaks during wet years. We tested these hypotheses using a 27-yr data set from two rodents in Inner Mongolia, China: Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). For both species of rodents, fleas were most abundant during years preceded by dry growing seasons. For gerbils, the prevalence of plague increased during wet years preceded by dry growing seasons. If precipitation is scarce during the primary growing season, succulent plants decline in abundance and, consequently, ...
Espesye sa mangungutkut ang Meriones tristrami[2][3][4]. Una ning gihulagway ni Thomas ni adtong 1892. Ang Meriones tristrami sakop sa kahenera nga Meriones sa kabanay nga ilaga.[5][6] Giklaseklase sa IUCN ang espesye sa kinaminosang kalabotan.[1] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[5]. ...
Psammomys is in some respects different. The tail is shorter than in Gerbillus; its length in an individual of 165 mm. was 130 mm. As in Gerbillus there are four pairs of teats, two pectoral and two inguinal. This genus is exclusively Palaearctic in range. Meriones has a range co-extensive with that of Gerbillus.. Pachyuromys is an Ethiopian genus with a short tail. As the generic name denotes, the tail is not only short but thick and fleshy.. Sub-Fam. 5. Otomyinae.-The allied genera, Otomys and Oreinomys, are Ethiopian. Otomys unisulcatus has a tail shorter than the body, the measurements of a female of this species being 137 mm. with a tail of 87 mm. The ear is long, whence the name; it measured in this specimen 20 mm.. Sub-Fam. 6. Dendromyinae.-The genus Deomys is an African form, consisting of only one species from the Congo region. D. ferrugineus has a reddish colour as its name implies; the soles are quite naked and the tail is long and slender. It is considerably longer than the body, ...
Breeding Database for Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Horse Data Base is a pedigree database for horse owners. comes from the most prestigious and trusted gaming pedigree online - InterCasino.
Results: The SST yielded 1600 positive clones, which were screened for differential expression. A total of 91 (B6%) clones were identified by microarray to be differentially expressed between NGT, IGT and T2D P. obesus. These clones were sequenced to identify 51 genes, of which only 27 were previously known to encode secreted proteins. Three candidate genes not previously associated with obesity or type 2 diabetes, sushi domain containing 2, collagen and calcium-binding EGF domains 1 and periostin (Postn), as well as one gene known to be associated, complement component 1, were shown by RT-PCR to be differentially expressed in skeletal muscle of P. obesus. Further characterization of the secreted protein Postn revealed it to be predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, with higher expression in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose depots ...
HEV antigen detecetion in the liver of a gerbil at 7 days post-infection. HEV antigen-positive signals (black arrow) were observed in the cytoplasm (A), but no
This body of work focussed on the central regulation of energy balance in a polygenic animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, the Israeli Sand Rat. These studies investigated the role of a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides in the development of obesity, and highlighted the complex nature of this disease ...
Paper: SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF BOREOSTRONGYLUS SEURATI (NEMATODA: HELIGMOSOMIDAE) FROM THE EGYPTIAN DESERT GERBIL GERBILLUS GERBILLUS WITH NOTES ON ITS PHYLOGENY , Author: M.I. SOLIMAN I, S.E. AHMEDI A.A. ASHOURt AND M.S. YOUNIS2 , Year: 1999 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
researchmap is an information sharing platform for the researchers. researchmap is provided by Japan Science and Technology Agency.
There are no known conservation measures in place for this species. It may be present in protected areas. Further studies are needed into the abundance, natural history and threats to this species. In China, it has been regionally Red Listed as Least Concern (Wang and Xie 2004 ...
Some DNA sequencing technologies arent very good at sequencing and assembling DNA thats rich in GC base pairs. What this means is that some sequenced genomes could be missing stretches of GC-rich DNA if they rely exclusively on those techniques. This difficult-to-sequence DNA was called dark DNA in a paper published last summer (July 2017).. The paper looked at some missing genes in the genome of the sand rat Psammomys obesus. The authors initially used a standard shotgun strategy in order to sequence the sand rat genome. They combined millions of short reads (<200 bp) to assemble a complete genome. A large block of genes seemed to be missing-genes that were conserved and present in the genomes of related species (Hargraves et al., 2017). They knew the genes were present because they could detect the mRNAs corresponding to those genes ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDC2-like protein kinase (CLK) family. This protein kinase can interact with and phosphorylate the serine- and arginine-rich (SR) proteins, which are known to play an important role in the formation of spliceosomes, and thus may be involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. Studies in the Israeli sand rat Psammomys obesus suggested that the ubiquitin-like 5 (UBL5/BEACON), a highly conserved ubiquitin-like protein, may interact with and regulate the activity of this kinase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed, but the full-length natures of which have not yet been determined ...
Gerbils are omnivores. In the wild the diet consists of grasses and seeds with small amounts of insects. A captive diet consists of a high-quality pellet supplemented with...
Buy Forti-Diet Pro Health Hamster/Gerbil 5lb from your local Pet Food N More location in Vancouver, Richmond, Coquitlam, North Vancouver, Maple Ridge and Surrey. Learn more now!
Nutritious, fun-to-eat, culinary adventure for your hamster or gerbil with fruits, vegetables, nuts, pellets, and specialty seeds
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt
Background. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the stool antigen test and the optimal time point for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in a Mongolian gerbil model. Methods. We inoculated 8-week-old Mongolian gerbils with H. pylori (Vac A (+)/CagA(+)). The gerbil-infected model was developed as follows: H. pylori was put into broth (about 109 CFU/ml), and 50 gerbils were then fed with 1 ml intragastrically twice within a 3-day interval. Another ten gerbils were fed broth only. Twenty-six weeks after the inoculation, the gerbils were killed. The gastric mucosa was sampled for a series of examinations including culture, histology, rapid urease test, and polymerase chain reaction. Stool samples for a stool antigen test, H. pylori-specific stool antigen assay (HpSA), were collected during weeks 4, 6, 8, 12, and 26 after inoculation. Of the 50 gerbils inoculated with H. pylori, the inoculation was successful in 88%. Severe active gastritis, ulceration, and intestinal metaplasia were obvious.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of felbamate on brain polyamine changes following transient cerebral ischemia in the Mongolian gerbil. AU - Bramanti, P.. AU - Arcadi, F. A.. AU - Di Bella, P.. AU - Sessa, E.. AU - DAleo, G.. AU - Trimarchi, G. R.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - We sought to determine whether treatment with felbamate was capable to reduce the accumulation of putrescine induced by transient forebrain ischemia in the Mongolian gerbil. Gerbils underwent 10 min ligation of common carotid arteries followed by recirculation. Immediately after the release of the arterial occlusion, felbamate (75 and 150 mg kg-1 i.p.) was administered. Putrescine and polyamine levels were measured in hippocampus and striatum at 1, 8, 24 and 48 h after recirculation. Putrescine levels appeared enhanced already 8 h after the release of the arterial occlusion and kept increasing up to 48 h in the hippocampus and striatum. No significant changes in spermidine levels during recirculation were detected. Conversely, ...
Looking for online definition of female prostate in the Medical Dictionary? female prostate explanation free. What is female prostate? Meaning of female prostate medical term. What does female prostate mean?
Fourteen male Mongolian gerbils were used in this experiment. The animals were randomly assigned to a group receiving nitrous oxide (nitrous oxide group, n = 7) or a group receiving nitrogen (nitrogen group, n = 7). Concentrations of oxygen, nitrous oxide or nitrogen, and halothane were the same as those in the first experiment. The preparative surgery until head placement was also the same as that in the first experiment. After making a bar hole in the right temporal bone, a microdialysis probe (membrane length of 1.5 mm, molecular weight cutoff of 50,000, OD of 220 μm; A-I-015, Eicom, Kyoto, Japan) was inserted instead of the borosilicate glass electrode in the area that mostly reflected the right hippocampal CA1 region (2 mm posterior to the bregma, 1.5 mm lateral from the sagittal line, and 2 mm below the cortical surface). Before the experiment, the relative recovery rate of each probe was determined by performing microdialysis in a glutamate standard solution (100 μm). The probes were ...
Abstract: Properties of monoamine oxidase (MAO) were investigated in mongolian gerbils brain mitochondria isolated from cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus during cerebral ischemia. 5 min of ischemia caused inhibition of MAO activity (kynuramine as a substrate), alterations in substrate specificity and in kinetic curves form deflexion from hyperbolic type in all the brain structures investigated. Alterations in properties of MAO were observed in hippocampus already after I min of ischemia ...
Lapi, D.; Marchiafava, P.L.; Colantuoni, A., 2007: Pial microvascular responses to transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion: effects of hypertonic glycerol
TY - JOUR. T1 - The preventive effect of cyclosporin A, an immunosuppressant, on the late onset reduction of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. AU - Ogawa, Norio. AU - Tanaka, Ken ichi. AU - Kondo, Yoichi. AU - Asanuma, Masato. AU - Mizukawa, Kiminao. AU - Mori, Akitane. PY - 1993/4/2. Y1 - 1993/4/2. N2 - We previously reported that a late onset reduction of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (LORMAR) occurs in the gerbil hippocampus after 5 min of transient ischemia. This reduction begins as late as 7 days post-ischemia and accompanies the accumulation of glia, but is subsequent to completion of the disappearance of CA1 pyramidal cells. In the present study, we showed that this LORMAR was prevented by daily post-ischemic administration of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA). The effectiveness of CsA against the LORMAR indicates that an immune mechanism may be involved in the progressive brain damage occurring after transient ...
Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133Xe inhalation technique in patients with unilateral carotid occlusion, unilateral carotid occlusion and contralateral carotid stenosis, bilateral carotid occlusion, or normal arteriograms. After adjusting for age, sex, and history of stroke, hemisp...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Postischemic hypothermia and IL-10 treatment provide long-lasting neuroprotection of CA1 hippocampus following transient global ischemia in rats. AU - Dietrich, W. Dalton. AU - Busto, Raul. AU - Bethea, John R.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by U.S. PHS Grants NS05820 and NS27127, grants from the Paralyzed Veterans of America (1890-01), the American Paralysis Association (BA1-9802-2), and The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis. We gratefully appreciate Dr. Narula and Schering-Plough Pharmaceuticals for supplying the IL-10 for these studies. The authors thank Isabel Saul and Susan Kraydieh for technical support and Charlaine Rowlette for word processing and editorial assistance.. PY - 1999/8. Y1 - 1999/8. N2 - Experimental studies have demonstrated that postischemic therapeutic interventions may delay rather than provide long-lasting neuroprotection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mild hypothermia (33-34°C) combined with the anti-inflammatory ...
We examined the biochemical pathways whereby oral uridine-5-monophosphate (UMP) increases membrane phosphatide synthesis in brains of gerbils. We previously showed that supplementing PC12 cells with uridine caused concentration-related increases in CDP-choline levels, and that this effect was mediated by elevations in intracellular uridine triphosphate (UTP) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP). In the present study, adult gerbils received UMP (1 mmol/kg), a constituent of human breast milk and infant formulas, by gavage, and plasma samples and brains were collected for assay between 5 min and 8 h thereafter. Thirty minutes after gavage, plasma uridine levels were increased from 6.6 +/- 0.58 to 32.7 +/- 1.85 microM (P , 0.001), and brain uridine from 22.6 +/- 2.9 to 89.1 +/- 8.82 pmol/mg tissue (P , 0.001). UMP also significantly increased plasma and brain cytidine levels; however, both basally and following UMP, these levels were much lower than those of uridine. Brain UTP, CTP, and CDP-choline ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anomaly in aortic arch alters pathological outcome of transient global ischemia in Rhesus macaques. AU - Hara, Koichi. AU - Yasuhara, Takao. AU - Maki, Mina. AU - Matsukawa, Noriyuki. AU - Yu, Guolong. AU - Xu, Lin. AU - Tambrallo, Laura. AU - Rodriguez, Nancy A.. AU - Stern, David M.. AU - Yamashima, Tetsumori. AU - Buccafusco, Jerry J.. AU - Kawase, Takeshi. AU - Hess, David C.. AU - Borlongan, Cesario V.. PY - 2009/8/25. Y1 - 2009/8/25. N2 - We investigated a non-human primate (NHP) transient global ischemia (TGI) model which was induced by clipping the arteries originating from the aortic arch. Previously we demonstrated that our TGI model in adult Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) results in marked neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal region, specifically the cornu Ammonis (CA1) region. However, we observed varying degrees of hippocampal cell loss among animals. Here, we report for the first time an anomaly of the aortic arch in some Rhesus macaques that appears as a key ...
Vol 8: The relative contributions of MNTB and LNTB neurons to inhibition in the medial superior olive assessed through single and paired recordings.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis are common findings in humans with hemochromatosis. In this study we investigated the molecular pathways of iron-induced hepatic fibrosis and evaluated the anti-fibrogenic effect of vitamin E. Male gerbils were treated with iron-dextran and fed a standard diet or a alpha-tocopherol enriched diet (250 mg/Kg diet). In gerbils on the standard diet at 6 wk after dosing with iron, in situ hybridization analysis documented a dramatic increase of signal for collagen mRNA around iron foci onto liver fat storing cells (FSC), as identified by immunocytochemistry with desmin antibody. After 4 mo, micronodular cirrhosis developed in these animals, with nonparenchymal cells surrounding hepatocyte nodules and expressing high level of TGF beta mRNA. In this group, in vivo labeling with [3H]-thymidine showed a marked proliferation of nonparenchymal cells, including FSC. In iron-dosed gerbils on the vitamin E-enriched diet for 4 mo, in spite of a severe liver iron burden, a normal ...
female prostate. Soy isoflavones and prostate cancer: A review of molecular .... Prostacet provides a comprehensive blend of Vitamins, minerals and standardized herbal extracts designed to support healthy prostate function.
Transient cerebral ischemia is defined as a temporary loss of blood flow to an area in the brain. In ICD-9-CM, codes for transient cerebral ischemia a...
Glucose is the main physiological regulator of insulin secretion. In addition to this acute effect, glucose also regulates the long-term adaptation of insulin production by affecting β-cell turnover. Indeed, short-term exposure of β-cells to increasing glucose concentrations induces proliferation (1-3). However, in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, and in humans, the proliferative capacity of the β-cell is suppressed after a prolonged exposure to increased glucose concentrations (2,3). Moreover, elevated glucose concentrations induce β-cell apoptosis in cultured islets from diabetes-prone Psammomys obesus (2) and from humans (3,4).. Interleukin (IL)-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine acting during the autoimmune process of type 1 diabetes (5). IL-1β inhibits β-cell function and promotes Fas-triggered apoptosis in part by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. We tested the hypothesis that IL-1β may mediate the deleterious effects of high glucose ...
The website for everything gerbil! A comprehensive guide that covers all aspects of the care and management of the Mongolian gerbil and other gerbil species.
The present study, using data obtained from Han and Mongolian adults from Inner Mongolia, China showed that BF% performed differently for discriminating CVD risk factors in sex and ethnicity. The optimal BF% cut-off points for men and women were approximately 24.0% and 34.0% in Han adults, and 25.0% and 35.0% in Mongolian population, respectively. Compared with WHO criteria, the optimal BF% cut-offs in this study were a little lower in Han adults, but similar in Mongolian, which were taken account of validity to detect CVD risk factors and clustering two or more CVD risk factors.. BMI is the most widely used measure to diagnose obesity. However, the accuracy of BMI in detecting excess body adiposity in the general adult population is limited, because it cannot measure BF% directly and poorly distinguishes among total body fat, total body lean and bone mass.12 13 To overcome misclassifications, direct measurements of BF% would be a better tool for diagnosing obesity. Moreover, BF% has been found ...
Mongolian History Timeline: From then to now, Mongolia was one of the ancient strong Empires of the World and up and down through the thousands of years history.
Mongolian History Timeline: From then to now, Mongolia was one of the ancient strong Empires of the World and up and down through the thousands of years history.
Principal Investigator:YANASE Hisato, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
Author: Frisch, Stefan et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2017-12; Title: Apathy and cognitive deficits in patients with transient global ischemia after cardiac arrest
A healthy ball may be tricked into eating in a couple of different ways:. Provide a dark hidebox for it - an inverted flower pot with a hole in it, a cardboard box, half log, hollow log section, ceramic cave - whatever works. It is okay if the snakes body touches all the sides when it is inside - they feel more secure this way. Dangle killed prey (use forceps) in front of it.. Feed at night, not during the day. These are nocturnal snakes and may be uncomfortable feeding during the day.. If it takes the prey but wont eat, or wont take it, drop the mouse inside, and swathe the enclosure with towels to block the snake from seeing anybody or anything and leave it alone for 24 hours.. If gerbils are legal in your state, try feeding stunned, then killed gerbils. If it takes them, start rubbing killed mice on gerbils to scent them, and offer the mice (a killed gerbil can be used repeatedly if kept frozen and defrosted when needed for scenting). Try hamsters if you cant get gerbils.. Try ...
Bilateral carotid occlusion coupled with systemic hypotension produces global brain ischemia in the rat, resulting in damage to the...
PubMed journal article: Neuroprotection by progesterone after transient cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Few things are more inviting than our Mongolian Lamb Pillow Covers. Their softness and warmth offer pure comfort. Arrange a few together to create the most sought-after seating in the house. • 12w x 16l. • Mongolian lamb fur; co…
Few things are more inviting than our Mongolian Lamb Pillow Covers. Their softness and warmth offer pure comfort. Arrange a few together to create the most sought-after seating in the house. • 14l x 36w. • Mongolian lamb fur; co…
Women NeoSize Plus - online are open for your favorite herbal products. Order the best herbal nutritional supplements. Full mongolian womenMongolian woman sentenced to death in China.
The Inner Mongolian steppe is located to the north of China proper, also known as the Central Plains. This magical and captivating land provided the historical setting for the development of numerous nomadic peoples. At the dawn of the Neolithic Age some 8,000 years ago, the Hsing-lung-wa Culture emerged in the eastern part of this landlocked region, where people based their livelihood chiefly on primitive agriculture, fishing and hunting. Approximately 3,500 years ago, however, the climate began to change, gradually turning Inner Mongolia into an area of vast grasslands and thus forging the emergence of a number of tribes with a lifestyle that was nomadic in nature.. The early nomadic tribes active on the steppe were truly complex and diverse. They were identified by dwellers of the agricultural culture in the south with such names as Kuei-fang, Hsien-yun, Jung-ti and Hsiung-nu. Excavated ornaments with patterns of fierce birds and animals suggest the nature of these northern tribes. After the ...
Little Sheep Mongolian Hot Pot - Find, compare & actually reserve the best parking rates near 136-33 37th ave. Book prepaid parking online and save!
ONEILL, M,CALDWELL, M,EARLEY, B,CANNEY, M,OHALLORAN, A,KELLY, J,LEONARD, BE,JUNIEN, JL (1995) THE SIGMA-RECEPTOR LIGAND JO-1784 (IGMESINE-HYDROCHLORIDE) IS NEUROPROTECTIVE IN THE GERBIL MODEL OF GLOBAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA. European Journal Of Pharmacology, 283 :217-225 [Details] ...
The sounds your gerbil makes could mean a number of things. We breakdown the 5 gerbil sounds and what they might be trying to tell you.
Burrowing is vital for a gerbil, so make sure they have plenty of room to dig. A wire cage is useless and boring to a gerbil and a plastic one would not take them long to chew through and escape. To this end, a glass tank is the best environment for them, especially if you make sure you have cardboard tubes or boxes that they can use to support their tunnels. A wire cage/tank topper can be used on top of the aquarium as this will give you an easy place to attach wheel and have a sand bath without them getting buried.. For reasons why you should not choose a modular system such as Rotastak or Habitrail see this external article on Why modular systems are bad for your pets. Alternate layers of hay and substrate help support their tunnels - whilst also giving them something to chew.They are cleaner than hamsters or mice, and need cleaning out every 2-3 weeks. Sawdust can aggravate their eyes so it is advisable to get an alternative burrowing substance such as Megazorb, Ectobed, or ...
my gerbil (Squirt) is missing a finger on its left hand. She also has a mouth problem. The mouth problem was caused by a fight by my other gerbil (R.I.P. didnt die by injuries, but by choking) the finger was missing LONG after the fight. Does anybody have any ideas on what I can do?
How to Know if a Gerbil Is Ill. Its important to keep an eye on any pet and know when you need to take them to the vet. Like any animal, a gerbil will sometimes need veterinary treatment. Pay attention to physical signs of illness, like a...
Fortified to ensure a well balance blend, supreme utilizes natual seeds, grains and pellets. Offer quality, nutritious ingredients in a mix that small animals love. Clean, wholesome ingredients offer proteins, fiber, and other nutrients to help small anim Supreme Hamster and Gerbil Food 20 lbs 20 lb. SUPREME Rodent Products Supreme Hamster and Ger
Buy Fiesta Food - Hamster & Gerbil - 2.5 lb. at the lowest prices, free shipping deal every day and expert service. Call 1-888-THAT-PET to order!
allRefer Reference provides detailed information on this topic. Browse through this article and follow related links for complete research.
For several letters, the ISO&nbsp;9 standard transliteration of Cyrillic is not widely used and there is no consensus either in Mongolia nor in Wikitravel. Specially, the same Cyrillic letter "х" is transliterated "h" or "kh", the letter "ө" is transliterated "ô", "ö", "o" or "u", but Latin "o" is also the transliteration of the Cyrillic "о", and Latin "u" is also the transliteration of Cyrillic "у" and "ү" (the latter should be transliterated "ù" according to ISO&nbsp;9, but this is rarely done). So, if you cant find a name as you wrote it, try other spellings. {{seealso|Mongolian phrasebook}}
"ADW: Gerbillinae: INFORMATION". Animal Diversity Web. "Great Grey Slug Archive". Animal Facts For Kids - Wild Facts. "Good ...
Tchabovsky, A. V.; Krasnov, B. R. (2002). "Spatial distribution of Psammomys obesus (Rodentia, Gerbillinae) in relation to ... Daly, Martin; Daly, Sandra (1975). "Behavior of Psammomys obesus (Rodents: Gerbillinae) in the Algerian Sahara". Zeitschrift ...
... bipedal species such as Notomys and possibly some Gerbillinae. The East African maned rat (Lophiomys imhausi), an arboreal, ...
Gerbillinae, Rodentia-Mammalia) from the Early Pliocene/ Ruscinian fauna of Iğdeli (Turkey)". 9th International ...
Gerbillinae) in Western Anatolia" (PDF). Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry. 39 (1): 51-56.. ...
The shape of a Gerbillus pyramidum (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) isocline: an experimental field study. Oikos 69:318-326. 1992 ...
Gerbillinae): Implications for systematics, taxonomy and chromosomal evolution. "Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution" (PDF). ...
Gerbillinae): Implications for systematics, taxonomy and chromosomal evolution. "Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution". ...
... is a genus of rodent in the subfamily Gerbillinae (gerbils) of the family Muridae. It contains the following ...
They placed it in the family Muridae due to its potential connection to either the Gerbillinae or Deomyinae, but emphasized ... generated a phylogeny that suggested, with limited support, Leimacomys is a sister taxon to the Gerbillinae. Musser and ...
... (Gerbilus cheesmani) is a small rodent in the subfamily Gerbillinae of the family Muridae. It is distributed ...
The Mongolian gerbil or Mongolian jird (Meriones unguiculatus) is a small rodent belonging to the subfamily Gerbillinae. Body ... Gerbillinae)". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 242 (3): 249-266. doi:10.1078/0044-5231-00102. Zorio, Diego A.R.; Monsma, Scott; Sanes, ... Gerbillinae)". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 242 (3): 249-266. doi:10.1078/0044-5231-00102. Abbas, Leila; Rivolta, Marcelo N. (July ...
Subfamilia Gerbillinae. *Subfamilia Leimacomyinae. *Subfamilia Murinae. *Subfamilia Otomyinae. Notas[editar , editar a fonte]. ...
Norris, R. W.; Zhou, K. Y.; Zhou, C. Q.; Yang, G.; Kilpatrick, C. W.; Honeycutt, R. L. (2004), "The phylogenetic position of the zokors (Myospalacinae) and comments on the families of muroids (Rodentia)", 》Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution》 31 (3): 972-978, PMID 15120394, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.10.020 ...
The bushy-tailed jird is a large mouse-like rodent with a bushy tail in the subfamily Gerbillinae. It has a length of between ...
The fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi), also called the duprasi gerbil, is a rodent belonging to subfamily Gerbillinae. It ...
Christiane Denys; Thalassa Matthews (2017). "A new Desmodillus (Gerbillinae, Rodentia) species from the early Pliocene site of ...
Gerbillinae) Than to True Mice (Murinae)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 90 ...
Karraskarien barruko Gerbillinae azpifamilia eta Muridae familian sailkatuta dago.. Erreferentziak[aldatu , aldatu iturburu ...
Notes on the distribution and phylogeography of two rare small Gerbillinae (Rodentia, Muridae) in Morocco: Gerbillus simoni and ...
Molecular evidence that the spiny mouse (Acomys) is more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to the true mice ( ...
Gerbillinae), reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 6 (4): 301-308. doi:10.1016 ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Gerbillus Wagner's gerbil, G. dasyurus LC Balochistan gerbil, G. nanus LC Lagomorphs comprise rabbits, hares ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Tatera Kemp's gerbil, Tatera gambiana LC Guinean gerbil, Tatera guineae LC Genus: Taterillus Slender gerbil ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Brachiones Przewalski's gerbil, Brachiones przewalskii Genus: Meriones Cheng's jird, Meriones chengi CR ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Dipodillus North African gerbil, Dipodillus campestris LC Genus: Gerbillus Lesser Egyptian gerbil, Gerbillus ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Tatera Boehm's gerbil, Tatera boehmi LC Kemp's gerbil, Tatera kempi LC Savanna gerbil, Tatera valida LC ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Gerbillus Cheesman's gerbil, Gerbillus cheesmani LC Wagner's gerbil, Gerbillus dasyurus LC Pygmy gerbil, ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Gerbillus Harwood's gerbil, Gerbillus harwoodi LC Least gerbil, Gerbillus pusillus LC Genus: Tatera Boehm's ...
Gerbillinae Genus: Desmodillus Cape short-eared gerbil, Desmodillus auricularis LC Genus: Gerbillurus Hairy-footed gerbil, ...
Gerbillinae is one of the subfamilies of the rodent family Muridae, it includes the gerbils, jirds and sand rats. Once known as ... SUBFAMILY GERBILLINAE Tribe Ammodillini Genus Ammodillus Ammodile, Ammodillus imbellis Tribe Desmodilliscini Genus ... "Gerbillinae (gerbils, jirds, and relatives)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 3 June 2018. CMDC C111 "Normative Biology ...
Subfamilia: Gerbillinae Genera (13): Ammodillus - Brachiones - Desmodilliscus - Gerbilliscus - Gerbillus - Meriones - ... Gerbillinae in Mammal Species of the World. Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World - A ... Gerbillinae Gray, 1825 Selected references[edit]. *Pavlinov, I.Ya. 2008: A review of phylogeny and classification of ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gerbillinae&oldid=3796407" ...
"Gerbillinae" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gerbillinae" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Gerbillinae" by people in Profiles. ... and whether "Gerbillinae" was a major or minor topic of these publication. ...
Gerbillinae Cell Type. secretory cell Cellular Component. secretory granule lysosome Golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulum ... Don W. Fawcett, Atsuchi Ichikawa (2011) CIL:35999, Gerbillinae, secretory cell. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/ ...
Atsushi Ichikawa (2011) CIL:11118, Gerbillinae, epithelial cell. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/W9CIL11118 ...
Subfamily Gerbillinae gerbils, jirds, and relatives Gerbillinae: information (1) Gerbillinae: pictures (1) Gerbillinae: ... Gerbillinae, otherwise known as the gerbils, jirds, and relatives, is a large Old World murid subfamily. This subfamily is one ... "Gerbillinae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 17, 2018 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Gerbillinae/ ...
Gerbillinae » Tatera « ...
"ADW: Gerbillinae: INFORMATION". Animal Diversity Web. "Great Grey Slug Archive". Animal Facts For Kids - Wild Facts. "Good ...
4. Gerbillinae.-The Gerbilles form another sub-family, Gerbillinae, of the Muridae, or a family, according to some. The best- ...
Gerbillinae * Male * Neurons / cytology * Neurons / physiology* * Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology * Proto-Oncogene ...
Gerbillinae * Humans * Molecular Sequence Data * Organic Anion Transporters / chemistry * Organic Anion Transporters / genetics ...
Subfamilia: Gerbillinae Genus: Gerbilliscus. Species: Gerbilliscus validus Name[edit]. Gerbilliscus validus (Bocage, 1890) ...
Gerbillinae. Hipotermia. Isquemia cerebral. Resumé en portugais. Introdução: Muitos estudos veem sendo realizados com a ...
Subfamilia Gerbillinae. *Subfamilia Leimacomyinae. *Subfamilia Murinae. *Subfamilia Otomyinae. Notas[editar , editar a fonte]. ...
Gerbillinae / metabolism. Helicobacter Infections / microbiology. Helicobacter pylori / growth & development, metabolism, ...
Norris, R. W.; Zhou, K. Y.; Zhou, C. Q.; Yang, G.; Kilpatrick, C. W.; Honeycutt, R. L. (2004), "The phylogenetic position of the zokors (Myospalacinae) and comments on the families of muroids (Rodentia)", 》Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution》 31 (3): 972-978, PMID 15120394, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.10.020 ...
Karraskarien barruko Gerbillinae azpifamilia eta Muridae familian sailkatuta dago.. Erreferentziak[aldatu , aldatu iturburu ...
Gerbillinae Gray, 1825 Genus. Taterillus Thomas, 1910 - Small Naked-soled Gerbils. Species. Taterillus gracilis (Thomas, 1892 ...
Gerbillinae. *Hantaan virus (immunology, isolation & purification) *Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (immunology, ...
Gerbillinae. *Male. *Neuroprotective Agents (pharmacology) *Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (antagonists & inhibitors) ...
Unusually extensive karyotype reorganization in four congeneric Gerbillus species (Muridae: Gerbillinae). Cytogenet Genome Res ...
Noun 1. Gerbillus - type genus of the Gerbillinae: typical gerbils genus Gerbillus mammal genus - a genus of mammals ... Gerbillinae, subfamily Gerbillinae -... ... Gerbillus - type genus of the Gerbillinae: typical gerbils. ...
Impact of inhibition on the temporal precision of output spikes in the SBC model. (A-C) Responses of a model SBC to simulated sound stimulation at CF (1.2 kHz
Gerbillinae. *Group IV Phospholipases A2/metabolism. *Humans. *Islets of Langerhans/drug effects/metabolism/secretion ...
The detection among the rodents was as follows: Saccostomus campestris (2/2), Gerbillinae sp. (4/7) and Mastomys natalensis (3/ ... Gerbillinae sp.: n = 7; Saccostomus campestris: n = 2) and one shrew trapped from Nyimba (n = 9) and Namwala (n = 12) Districts ...
n. by the Arabian saw scaled viber, Echiscoloratus to rodents of the sub family Gerbillinae. Journal of Parasitology, 81, 626- ...
Abiadh A (2012) Statut taxonomique du genre Gerbillus (Rongeurs, Gerbillinae) en Tunisie. Approches morphologique, ... Gerbillinae): implication for systematics, taxonomy and chromosomal evolution. Mol Phylogenet Evol 56:513-518. https://doi.org/ ...
Spatial distribution of Psammomys obesus (Rodentia, Gerbillinae) in relation to vegetation in the Negev desert of Israel By: A ...
Gerbillinae. MESH. Noise. MESH. Presbycusis/physiopathology. MESH. Dewey Decimal Classification:. 500 Science , 570 Life ...
Sexual size dimorphism of group-living Mongolian gerbils Meriones ungulcutalus (Muridae: Gerbillinae). The European Zoological ...
  • 2008: A review of phylogeny and classification of Gerbillinae (Mammalia: Rodentia). (wikimedia.org)
  • Abiadh A, Chetoui M, Cheniti TL, Capanna E, Colangelo P (2010) Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Gerbillus (Rodentia, Gerbillinae): implication for systematics, taxonomy and chromosomal evolution. (springer.com)
  • Mitochondrial phylogeny reveals differential modes of chromosomal evolution in the genus Tatera (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in Africa // Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. (msu.ru)
  • Gerbillinae is one of the subfamilies of the rodent family Muridae, it includes the gerbils, jirds and sand rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Karraskarien barruko Gerbillinae azpifamilia eta Muridae familian sailkatuta dago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual size dimorphism of group-living Mongolian gerbils Meriones ungulcutalus (Muridae: Gerbillinae). (msstate.edu)
  • 1993. Molecular evidence that the spiny mouse ( Acomys ) is more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to the true mice (Murinae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y experimental, a partir de la inducción de un trauma isquémico cerebral permanente, mediante sección de la carótida derecha, en 24 gerbils de Mongolia, procedentes del Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio, con vistas a identificar los posibles cambios en las poblaciones de neuronas de la fascia dentada del hipocampo durante la isquemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abiadh A (2012) Statut taxonomique du genre Gerbillus (Rongeurs, Gerbillinae) en Tunisie. (springer.com)
  • Statut taxonomique du genre Gerbillus (Rongeurs, Gerbillinae) en Tunisie: Approches morphologique, cytogenetique et moleculaire. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gerbillinae" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gerbillinae" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Gerbillinae" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • The fat-tailed gerbil ( Pachyuromys duprasi ), also called the duprasi gerbil , is a rodent belonging to subfamily Gerbillinae. (magellanexplorer.jp)
  • The Mongolian gerbil or Mongolian jird, scientific name Meriones unguiculatus is a small rodent belonging to the subfamily Gerbillinae. (mammalage.com)