A suborder of ciliate protozoa. Most organisms are free-living in fresh water and many species are used extensively for experimental studies.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.
A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
A picolinic acid derivative that is used as a herbicide.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Antibacterial used topically in burn therapy.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Chantangsi, C.; Lynn, D.H. (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Tetrahymena inferred from the cytochrome c ... Revision of the genera Colpidium and Dexiostoma, and establishment of a new genus, Paracolpidium nov. gen". Hydrobiologia. 182 ... which also includes the well-studied Tetrahymena and Glaucoma genera. Previous work suggests that Colpidium seems to be more ... a comprehensive study of 75 isolates of the genus Tetrahymena". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
Most are free-living in freshwater, such as the commonly studied genus Tetrahymena, but some are parasitic on fish or aquatic ...
... such as the ciliate Tetrahymena genera), plants (such as Pisum sativum, Triticum durum, Zea mays, or Quercus suber), yeast ( ...
... is a genus of unicellular ciliates with at least ten accepted species. All are free-living carnivores. Most are found ... Tetrahymena pyriformis, Coleps hirtus and Lacrymaria olor. Moreover, strains of Didinium raised on a Colpidium campylum will ... Much of what has been published about this genus is based on numerous studies of a single species, Didinium nasutum. A ... In 1859, Samuel Friedrich Stein moved the species to the newly created genus Didinium, which he placed within the order ...
... , a unicellular eukaryote, is a genus of free-living ciliates that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic ... Tetrahymena Stock Center at Cornell University ASSET: Advancing Secondary Science Education thru Tetrahymena Tetrahymena Genome ... and Biodiversity of Tetrahymena Tetrahymena thermophila Genome Project at The Institute for Genomic Research Tetrahymena ... Because Tetrahymena can be grown in a large quantity in the laboratory with ease, it has been a great source for biochemical ...
... is a genus of unicellular ciliates, belonging to the class Heterotrichea. The genus has one well-described ... "Climacostol inhibits Tetrahymena motility and mitochondrial respiration". Central European Journal of Biology. 6: 99-104. doi: ... However, the genus was retained by other researchers, including Alfred Kahl. In a detailed study of its physical ... In 1859, Samuel Friedrich von Stein moved Spirostomum virens to a new genus, which he called Climacostomum. In his Manual of ...
Populus is a genus used as a model in forest genetics and woody plant studies. It has a small genome size, grows very rapidly, ... Tetrahymena thermophila - a free living freshwater ciliate protozoan. Emiliania huxleyi - a unicellular marine coccolithophore ... The genus Mimulus contains c. 120 species and is in the family Phrymaceae. Several genetic resources have been designed for the ... The genus includes species with the rare trait of apomixis at the diploid level. (Evolutionary ecology, Population genetics, ...
Pine, Leo; Clarence J. Boone (October 1967). "Comparative Cell Wall Analyses of Morphological Forms Within the Genus ... "Serratia liquefaciens swarm cells exhibit enhanced resistance to predation by Tetrahymena sp". Microbiology Letters. 164 (1): ...
Positive and negative phototaxis can be found in several species of jellyfish such as those from the genus Polyorchis. ... Phototactic responses are observed in many organisms such as Serratia marcescens, Tetrahymena, and Euglena. Each organism has ...
... is a gammacerane-type membrane lipid first found in the marine ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. It was later found ... The gene for tetrahymanol synthase was found in the genomes of many genera of alpha-, delta-, and gammaproteobacteria, ... "Cholesterol inhibition of pentacyclic triterpenoid biosynthesis in Tetrahymena pyriformis". The Journal of Protozoology. 15 (3 ...
Halophiles, grow optimally in high salt concentrations between 0.2 M and 5.2 M NaCl, including the genera Haloarcula, Haloferax ... Examples of such ciliates are Paramecium and Tetrahymena that likely employ meiotic recombination for repairing DNA damage ... Alkaliphiles, optimum growth pH of greater than 8, including the genus Natronomonas. Acidophiles, optimum growth pH of less ... Psychrophiles, optimum growth temperature of less than 15 °C, including the genera Methanogenium and Halorubrum. ...
The genus Daucus includes around 25 species. D. carota has nine chromosome pairs (2n = 2x = 18). D. capillifolius, D. ... Tetrahymena thermophila) 10 (in micronucleus) 50x = 12,500 (in macronucleus, except minichromosomes) 10,000x = 10,000 ( ... Chromosome number of the genus Citrus, which including lemons, oranges, grapefruit, pomelo and limes, is 2n = 18.[29] [30] ... Among 50 species in the genus Gossypium, 45 are diploid (2n = 2x = 26) and 5 are allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 52).[79] [79] ...
... is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all ... or other protozoa such as Tetrahymena pyriformis. Upon inhalation, the bacteria can infect alveolar macrophages, where the ...
In turn, this genus is named after John Hope, the first Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Since their ... In eukaryotes like Tetrahymena, tetrahymanol is instead synthesized directly from squalene by a cyclase with no homology to the ... their name actually comes from the abundance of hopanoid compounds in the resin of plants from the genus Hopea. ...
In some genera, such as Paramecium, these have a distinctive star shape, with each point being a collecting tube. Body cilia ... Tetrahymena has about 6,000 IESs and about 15% of micronuclear DNA is eliminated during this process. The process is guided by ... In Tetrahymena, the micronucleus has 10 chromosomes (five per haploid genome), while the macronucleus has over 20,000 ... a term which can also refer to a genus of fish). In the taxonomic scheme endorsed by the International Society of ...
In ciliates such as Tetrahymena and Paramecium, genetically identical cells show heritable differences in the patterns of ... Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera. In Firmicutes such as Clostridioides difficile, adenine methylation regulates ...
The highest concentrations are found in the leaves and bean pods of plants of the genus Mucuna, especially in Mucuna pruriens ( ... but it has been detected in some types of bacteria and in the protozoan called Tetrahymena. Perhaps more importantly, there are ...
The genus Eimeria with ~1500 species is the largest genus in this suborder. ... Oligohymenophorea (Ichthyophthirius, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Vorticella). *Phyllopharyngea (Chilodonella, Tokophrya). * ... Erroneous identifications of species is a major problem in coccidian systematics and it is likely that some of the genera and ... There are 12 families, 2 subfamilies and 50 genera recognised in this suborder. ...
One genus is placed in this family - Ophryocystis - with at least 10 species. This is the type family of the order ... Oligohymenophorea (Ichthyophthirius, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Vorticella). *Phyllopharyngea (Chilodonella, Tokophrya). * ...
The biliary Eimeria-like coccidia of reptiles are classified into the genus Choleoeimeria and form a sister clade to the family ... Oligohymenophorea (Ichthyophthirius, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Vorticella). *Phyllopharyngea (Chilodonella, Tokophrya). * ... Eimeriidae is a family of Apicomplexa.[1] It contains the following genera:[2] ...
The body cilia are sparse, and often arise from dikinetids, with cirrus-like polykinetids occurring in the marine genus ... Oligohymenophorea (Ichthyophthirius, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Vorticella). *Parablepharismea (Parablepharisma). * ...
Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera.[117]. Medicine[edit]. Epigenetics has many and varied potential medical ... In ciliates such as Tetrahymena and Paramecium, genetically identical cells show heritable differences in the patterns of ...
DNA sequence comparisons suggest that the closest relative of the genus Noctiluca is Spatulodinium. Spatulodinium ... Oligohymenophorea (Ichthyophthirius, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Vorticella). *Phyllopharyngea (Chilodonella, Tokophrya). * ...
Taxon: Genus Cryptosporidium. Universal Taxonomic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.. *. Roos, David. "Biology of ... Oligohymenophorea (Tetrahymena, Ichthyophthirius, Vorticella, Paramecium). *Plagiopylea (Plagiopyla). *Prostomatea (Coleps). ...
... the members of genus Shigella (dysenteriae, flexneri, boydii, sonnei) are actually E. coli strains "in disguise" (i.e. E. coli ... is paraphyletic to the genus).[2] History[edit]. In 1885, Theodor Escherich, a German pediatrician, first discovered this ... coli commune because it is found in the colon and early classifications of Prokaryotes placed these in a handful of genera ...
... (also Paramoecium /ˌpærəˈmiːʃ(i)əm/ PARR-ə-MEE-sh(ee-)əm, /-siəm/, -⁠see-əm)[1] is a genus of unicellular ciliates, ... Oligohymenophorea (Ichthyophthirius, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Vorticella). *Phyllopharyngea (Chilodonella, Tokophrya). * ... C. G. Ehrenberg, in a major study of the infusoria published in 1838, restored Hill's original spelling for the genus name, and ... Genus of unicellular ciliates, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group ...
The known vectors belong to the genus Anopheles, subgenus Cellia, series Neomyzomyia and group Leucosphyrus.[4] Mosquitoes of ... Oligohymenophorea (Ichthyophthirius, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Vorticella). *Phyllopharyngea (Chilodonella, Tokophrya). * ...
In 1842, the German botanist Gustav Heynhold erected the new genus Arabidopsis and placed the plant in that genus. The genus ... but that title is now considered to belong to plants in the genus Genlisea, order Lamiales, with Genlisea tuberosa, a ... name, Arabidopsis, comes from Greek, meaning "resembling Arabis" (the genus in which Linnaeus had initially placed it). ... "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ...
Under optimal growth conditions at 25 °C (77 °F), the D. melanogaster lifespan is about 50 days from egg to death.[10] The developmental period for D. melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. The shortest development time (egg to adult), 7 days, is achieved at 28 °C (82 °F).[11][12] Development times increase at higher temperatures (11 days at 30 °C or 86 °F) due to heat stress. Under ideal conditions, the development time at 25 °C (77 °F) is 8.5 days,[11][12][13] at 18 °C (64 °F) it takes 19 days[11][12] and at 12 °C (54 °F) it takes over 50 days.[11][12] Under crowded conditions, development time increases,[14] while the emerging flies are smaller.[14][15] Females lay some 400 eggs (embryos), about five at a time, into rotting fruit or other suitable material such as decaying mushrooms and sap fluxes. Drosophila melanogaster is a holometabolous insect, so it undergoes a full metamorphosis. Their life cycle is broken down into 4 stages: embryo, larva, ...
ಸಾಂಪ್ರದಾಯಿಕವಾಗಿ ಅಮೆರಿಕಾದ ಸ್ಥಳೀಯರು ಬೆಳೆಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದ ಮೆಕ್ಕೆ ಜೋಳವನ್ನು ಇತರ ಕೆಲವರು ಬೆಳೆಯಲು ಆರಂಭಿಸಿದಾಗ, ಅದರ ಉತ್ಪಾದಕತೆಯಿಂದಾಗಿ ಅದು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಉತ್ಸಾಹದ ಸ್ವಾಗತವನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯಿತು. ಆದರೆ ಮೆಕ್ಕೆ ಜೋಳವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಆಹಾರವಾಗಿ ಬಳಸಿದೆಡೆಗಳಲ್ಲೆಲ್ಲಾ ವ್ಯಾಪಕವಾದ ಅಪೌಷ್ಟಿಕತೆಯ ಸಮಸ್ಯೆ ಎದುರಾಯಿತು. ಈ ರೀತಿಯ ಅಪೌಷ್ಟಿಕತೆಯು ಮೆಕ್ಕೆ ಜೋಳವು ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಆಹಾರವಾಗಿದ್ದ ಅಮೆರಿಕಾದ ಸ್ಥಳೀಯರಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಕಂಡುಬರದಿದ್ದುದು ಒಂದು ನಿಗೂಢ ...
A Study of Macronuclear Chromatin Extrusion in Species of the Genus Tetrahymena, With A Review of This and Related Phenomena ... A Study of Macronuclear Chromatin Extrusion in Species of the Genus Tetrahymena, With A Review of This and Related Phenomena ... A Study of Macronuclear Chromatin Extrusion in Species of the Genus Tetrahymena, With A Review of This and Related Phenomena ...
Tetrahymena. Thermotolerant bacteria. Trypanosoma brucei (blood stream and procyclic forms) Other Applications. ... Leishmania, all species within the genus. Marine organisms. Photosynthetic bacteria. Primary chicken oviduct. Sea urchin egg. ...
Tetrahymena, a unicellular eukaryote, is a genus of free-living ciliates that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic ... Tetrahymena Stock Center at Cornell University ASSET: Advancing Secondary Science Education thru Tetrahymena Tetrahymena Genome ... and Biodiversity of Tetrahymena Tetrahymena thermophila Genome Project at The Institute for Genomic Research Tetrahymena ... Because Tetrahymena can be grown in a large quantity in the laboratory with ease, it has been a great source for biochemical ...
... for which the genus is named. Bar, 10 μm. ... Tetrahymena Biology. *Why Use Tetrahymena as a Genetic Model ... 2006 Tetrahymena Genome Database (TGD): a new genomic resource for Tetrahymena thermophila research. Nucleic Acids Res. 34: ... Tetrahymena have the advantages of a "do-it-all" model system; this is especially true as a genetic model system. Tetrahymena ... Tetrahymena Biology. Tetrahymena are unicellular, ciliated eukaryotes that live in fresh water over a wide range of conditions ...
But, while mentions of Neurospora crassa and Tetrahymena thermophila declined substantially, mentions of Saccharomyces did not ... this genus is mentioned by a majority of papers that study any single-cellular organism in the past decade. ...
Chantangsi, C.; Lynn, D.H. (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Tetrahymena inferred from the cytochrome c ... Revision of the genera Colpidium and Dexiostoma, and establishment of a new genus, Paracolpidium nov. gen". Hydrobiologia. 182 ... which also includes the well-studied Tetrahymena and Glaucoma genera. Previous work suggests that Colpidium seems to be more ... a comprehensive study of 75 isolates of the genus Tetrahymena". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Tetrahymena inferred from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the small subunit ...
Furgasons most significant scientific contribution was his establishment of the protozoan ciliate genus Tetrahymena. This ... In recent years, Tetrahymena has probably been investigated more thoroughly than any other ciliate. From the yearbook Southern ... resulted from his clarification of a group of similar genera and was based on a critical study of the morphological pattern of ...
Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Their ... Our results enlarge the epiplasmin multigenic family organization to another ciliate genus, Tetrahymena. The distinctive ... In Figure 4, we show structural comparison of EpiT 5, the smallest Tetrahymena protein, with Epi 51, one of the smallest group ... As seen in figure 1, sequence information alone is not sufficient to infer with success relationships between Tetrahymena and ...
... such as the ciliate Tetrahymena genera), plants (such as Pisum sativum, Triticum durum, Zea mays, or Quercus suber), yeast ( ...
Myxosporean parasites of the genus Myxobolus from Mugil cephalus in Ichkeul lagoon, Tunisia:description of two new species. DAO ... Systemic infection of freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by hymenostome ciliates of the Tetrahymena pyriformis complex ... Cryptosporidiosis in the gourami Trichogaster leeri:description of a new species and a proposal for a new genus, ...
... members of the genus Tetrahymena are considered a morphospecies. We explored the hidden genomic evolution within this genus by ... Conclusion(s): 1. The circumscription and relationships of Codonopsis and allied genera should be revised; 2. Three new genera ... Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they might belong to a recently classified genus of Wenrivirus and two unclassified genera ... verified 1928 valid genera and provided an outline for these genera in Basidiomycota. The outline includes 1928 currently used ...
Parallel evolution of histophagy in ciliates of the genus Tetrahymena. BMC Evol Biol, 1:5. Cerca con Google. ... 120] Piccinni E., Irato P., Guidolin L. (1990). Cadmium-thionein in Tetrahymena thermophila and Tetrahymena pyriformis. Eur J ... before the speciation event that separated the Tetrahymena borealis group and the Tetrahymena australis group. The mutation ... Cloning and sequencing of four new metallothionein genes from Tetrahymena thermophila and Tetrahymena pigmentosa: evolutionary ...
paramecia, paramecium - any member of the genus Paramecium. tetrahymena - relative of the paramecium; often used in genetics ... The species of genus Ablerus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Azotidae) from China, with description of a new species ... stentor - any of several trumpet-shaped ciliate protozoans that are members of the genus Stentor ...
paramecia, paramecium - any member of the genus Paramecium. tetrahymena - relative of the paramecium; often used in genetics ... stentor - any of several trumpet-shaped ciliate protozoans that are members of the genus Stentor ...
And of all ciliates, perhaps none have been more extensively studied than species of the genus Tetrahymena such as T. ... But Tetrahymena is just one genus of larger group of ciliates, the Tetrahymenida.. ... Tetrahymena thermophila, from Robinson 2006.. In general, tetrahymenidans are more or less typical-looking ciliates with an ... Under the name Morio crassipes; confusion about whether this genus should be called Morion or Morio lingered for a long time ...
Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya6 ... Microarray analyses of gene expression during the Tetrahymena thermophila life cycle. Wei Miao, Jie Xiong, Josephine Bowen, Wei ... The model eukaryote, Tetrahymena thermophila, is the first ciliated protozoan whose genome has been sequenced, enabling genome- ... and has thus far only been found in this genus15,16. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is ...
We resurrect the genus Urospinula, and give an emended diagnosis for both genera. The species now included within the genus ... Similar antigens are present in free-living ciliates and are GPI-anchored in both Paramecium and Tetrahymena. Although ... seven to the genus Spumella Cienkowski, four to the genus Pteridomonas Penard and three to the genus Cafeteria Fenchel and ... the genus Psilotricha became confused with other hypotrich genera, especially Urospinula Corliss, 1960. Here we provide a full ...
The is fairly well researched among plant families, in part due to the large diversity of the genus , and also due to members ... Comparison of lectin induced chemotactic selection and chemical imprinting in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Acta Protozoologica 42: ... A note on the additional host range for the genus Korthasella van Tiegh. family Loranthaceae, from Nilgiris, southern India. ... Revision of the Afrotropical Ennominae of the Drepanogynis group IV: the genus Drepanogynis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). ...
Species in the genus Caulerpa exhibit flattened fern-like foliage and can reach lengths of 3 meters (Figure). Caulerpa species ... The ciliates, which include Paramecium and Tetrahymena, are a group of protists 10 to 3,000 micrometers in length that are ... The genus Paramecium includes protists that have organized their cilia into a plate-like primitive mouth, called an oral groove ... One representative genus of the cellular slime molds is Dictyostelium, which commonly exists in the damp soil of forests. ...
We would like to acknowledge the Tetrahymena research community and the members of our Tetrahymena Scientific Advisory Board ... Representative genera are shown for which whole genome sequence data are either in progress (marked with asterisks *) or ... Allen SL, Gibson I (1973) Genetics of Tetrahymena. In: Elliott AM Biology of Tetrahymena Stroudsburg (Pennsylvania): Dowden, ... Macronuclear Genome Sequence of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a Model Eukaryote. Jonathan A. Eisen1¤a*, Robert S. Coyne1 ...
Keywords: Chlorella; genus definition; rRNA structure Strain(s): 4032, 4033, 4034 DOI: 10.1111/pre.12194 ... Keywords: Micractinium tetrahymenae; Tetrahymena; Utricularia; facultative endosymbiosis; ciliate-algae symbiosis Strain(s): ...
In so-called pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, bifunctional glands inside the pitfall-trap on the one hand secrete the ... we use the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena ribozyme to illustrate RNA sample preparation and the determination of a Mg(II)- ... gambiae genome has been placed to precise chromosome positions 2,3 . Two other mosquito genera, Aedes and Culex, have poorly ... Among the three mosquito genera, namely Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex, a well-established chromosome-based mapping technique has ...
These comprise dozens of genera and species of fish-infecting species in fresh and salt water, each kind with distinctive ... Tetrahymena, as well as other infectious dinoflagellates. ... such as those caused by microorganisms of the genera ...
A genus of ciliated protozoans, members of which are used in studies of ciliary axonemes, self‐splicing RNA, and telomere ... Tetrahymena telomerase ribonucleoprotein RNA-protein interactions Tetrahymena genome database Wiki: a community-maintained ... The guanosine binding mechanism of the Tetrahymena group I intron Tetrahymena phagocytic vesicles as ecological micro-niches of ... Tetrahymena Functional Genomics Database (TetraFGD): an integrated resource for Tetrahymena functional genomics ...
In nature, Tetrahymena uses phagocytosis to feed on bacteria and other microorganisms, but in the laboratory it can be grown on ... Ciliated protozoa, including members of the genus Euplotes, are unusual in that they employ alternative genetic codes to ... Phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila. Phagocytosis refers to the process by which cells are able to ingest large particles ... The Tetrahymena thermophila phagosome proteome. Jacobs, Mary Ellen; DeSouza, Leroi V; Samaranayake, Haresha; Pearlman, Ronald E ...
... the piroplasm genera Theileria and Babesia form the sister group to the Plasmodium; the coccidian genera Eimeria and Toxoplasma ... and Cryptosporidium forms the sister group to the above-mentioned with the ciliate Tetrahymena as the outgroup. The level of ...
Dmitrieva E.Ju.Bacterium of the genus Legionella and microbiological safety of water bodies. p.51-62. The article presents the ... Survival of Legionella pneumophila in the cold-water ciliate Tetrahymena vorax. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 57, p.2742-2749 (in ... Dictyostelium discoideum: a new host model system for intracellular pathogens of the genus Legionella. Cell Microbiol., 2, p. ... Packaging of live Legionella pneumophila into pellets expelled by Tetrahymena spp. does not require bacterial replication and ...
Anggota kelompok Ciliophora antara lain genera Didinium, Tetrahymena, Paramaecium, dan Stentor. Contoh protozoa kel ompok ... Genera Metchnikovella termasuk kelompok Micro spora. Genera Myxidium dan Kudoa adalah contoh anggota kelompok Myxospora. 3. Fi ... Misalnya strain mutan algae genus Chlamydomon as yang tidak erklorofil, dapat dikelaskan se agai protozoa genus Polytoma. Hal ... Be erapa genera mem entuk filamen (pseudomiselium). Cara hidupnya se agai saprofit dan parasit. Hidup di dalam tanah atau de u ...
Of the 42 Enterobacteriaceae isolates found, 39 belonged to the genus Edwardsiella. All isolates were susceptible to the 17 ... Tetrahymena pyriformis), one stramenopile (Dinobryon sertularia), one eugoenozoa (Euglena gracilis) and one heterolobosea ( ... Of the 42 Enterobacteriaceae isolates found, 39 belonged to the genus Edwardsiella. All isolates were susceptible to the 17 ... The genus Bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria adapted to mammals, including previously recognized and ...
  • Tetrahymena species used as model organisms in biomedical research are T. thermophila and T. pyriformis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila exhibits nuclear dimorphism: two types of cell nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetrahymena thermophila exists in 7 different sexes (mating types) that can reproduce in 21 different combinations, and a single tetrahymena cannot reproduce sexually with itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetrahymena thermophila is a ciliate model organism whose study has led to important discoveries and insights into both conserved and divergent biological processes. (genetics.org)
  • The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model system that combines the power of forward and reverse genetics with a suite of useful biochemical and cell biological attributes. (genetics.org)
  • Within the same taxonomic family as C. colpoda is the microbial model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, has long served as a model for basic research. (unipd.it)
  • The model eukaryote, Tetrahymena thermophila, is the first ciliated protozoan whose genome has been sequenced, enabling genome-wide analysis of gene expression. (jove.com)
  • 2006) Macronuclear Genome Sequence of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a Model Eukaryote. (blogspot.com)
  • The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. (blogspot.com)
  • Some Tetrahymena species exhibit life-cycle traits that distinguish them from other members of the genus (Table I). For instance, as recounted by Nanney and McCoy (1976), the species T. pyriformis syngens 6 and 8 were established on the basis of mating tests done in distilled water, a procedure that works well with T. thermophila. (venuesconnect.com)
  • To resolve controversies concerning SMYD's substrates and functions, we studied SMYD1 (TTHERM_00578660), the only homologue of SMYD in the unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila . (ouc.edu.cn)
  • The researchers predict that increased duration of bouts of selection within aquatic reservoirs will result in the spread of non-invasive Shigella while the presence of Tetrahymena thermophila predation in these reservoirs will result in increased Shiga toxin production. (k-state.edu)
  • The MAT locus also does not necessarily only encode two mating types, in fact it has been shown to encode seven mating types in Tetrahymena thermophila through the interaction of two alleles [7]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Although no structures of TERT with all four domains have yet been reported for any species, structures of the TEN and TRBD domains from Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase ( 33 , 35 ) and the full-length Tribolium castaneum TERT that lacks the TEN domain have been reported ( 36 , 37 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ichthyophthirius multifilis and Tetrahymena thermophila tolerate glyphosate but not a commercial herbicidal formulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Allen, R. D.: The morphogenesis of basal bodies and accessory structures of the cortex of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis . (springer.com)
  • The Biochemistry and Physiology of Tetrahymena presents a review of the literature covering the physiology and biochemistry of the ciliate genus Tetrahymena, of which Tetrahymena pyriformis is the most studied species. (gob.ar)
  • Moreover, a wide variety of Enterobacteriaceae have increased resistance to chlorination when ingested by Tetrahymena pyriformis ( 32 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • Corliss JR and Daggett P‐M (1983) 'Paramecium aurelia' and 'Tetrahymena pyriformis': current status of the taxonomy and nomenclature of these popularly known and widely used ciliates. (els.net)
  • Tetrahymena pyriformis - causes popeye, whirling disease, white muscle disease. (tripod.com)
  • Tetrahymena, a unicellular eukaryote, is a genus of free-living ciliates that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10. The Tetrahymena species may be quite informative regarding species evolution in ciliates. (venuesconnect.com)
  • Forty percent of the UTs had significant similarity to ciliates from the genera Tetrahymena and Paramecium. (elsevier.com)
  • These genomes are rather similar because the ciliates analysed ( Tetrahymena spp . (biomedcentral.com)
  • These ciliates are only distantly related to Tetrahymena spp . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The linear mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of several Tetrahymena species, Paramecium aurelia and the partially sequenced mitochondrial genome of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • No mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced in the order of hypotrichous ciliates that contain intensively studied species such as Oxytricha and Stylonichia as well as Euplotes , a genus widely distributed in freshwater and seawater environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through surveys of expressed sequence tags (EST) and genome data from a broad range of eukaryotes, the genes similar to the tetrahymanol-synthesizing (squalene-tetrahymanol cyclase: STC) genes of the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium were identified from Piromyces sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The species constituting the genus Paramecium are members of the family Parameciidae in the order Peniculida (class Oligohymenophorea, phylum Ciliophora). (diosuniversal.com)
  • Paramecium aurelia are unicellular organisms belonging to the genus Paramecium of the phylum Ciliophora. (diosuniversal.com)
  • Genus Paramecium 6. (diosuniversal.com)
  • Although the Euplotes mitochondrial gene content is almost identical to that of Paramecium and Tetrahymena , the order of the genes is completely different. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A third smaller block, containing the split mitochondrial ribosomal rnl gene, is duplicated in Tetrahymena but not in Paramecium . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although most of the sequenced mitochondrial genomes are circular mapping, the mitochondrial genomes of Paramecium and Tetrahymena are monomeric linear and capped with telomeres. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Secondly, because Euplotes contains two morphologically different types of mitochondria, which might possess different genomes [ 5 , 6 ] and thirdly, because we assumed that Euplotes is more closely related to Nyctotherus ovalis than Tetrahymena or Paramecium . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paramecium and Tetrahymena are two other well-studied species in gerontology ( Nanney, 1974 ). (senescence.info)
  • 90535647 - Paramecium caudatum is a genus of unicellular ciliated protozoan. (123rf.com)
  • St.Petersburg State University, Eukaryotic acquires heat-shock resistance in ciliary movement by infection with the herein has the greatest advantage, the differences between it and some other The plural of phylum (Paramecium putrinum) Chemical Toxicity Studies, [Processes Document Recovery Definition and Much More From Answers.com [57] The shape of this organism gives it reason to be associated with the Paramecium Genus. (customgaming.co.za)
  • Members of the genus Paramecium (from the classical Greek, παραμηκησ, oblong or oval‐shaped) are ciliated protozoa with an elongated shape (length approximately three to four times the width), a uniform distribution of cilia over the cell surface and a ciliated oral groove leading from the anterior of the cell to a midventral deep oral cavity. (els.net)
  • Diagram of Paramecium caudatum , showing many cellular structures displayed by members of the genus. (els.net)
  • In this review, we describe the tools for the use of Tetrahymena as a model eukaryote, including an overview of its life cycle, orientation to its evolutionary roots, and methodological approaches to forward and reverse genetics. (genetics.org)
  • It is mostly found in a freshwater Strong evidence for the eukaryote belonging to kingdom Protista and is a well-known genus of ciliate leads to the food vacuole. (pttk.pl)
  • Numerous parasites of mosquito larvae have been tested for mosquito control, including Nematode (mermithid worms) and parasitic protozoa (Microsporidia, Tetrahymena, Lambonella and Helicosporidium) but none has proven suitable for operational use. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • a genus of protozoa of the order Holotricha comprising the one species {Ichthyophthirius multifil-iis) . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Initial medicinal bath experiments suggested that the photoactive dye phloxine b could be used to treat protozoa infestations including Tetrahymena and Ichthyophthirius without harm to the treated fish. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dr. Furgason's most significant scientific contribution was his establishment of the protozoan ciliate genus Tetrahymena. (ucla.edu)
  • These results have substantially contributed to demonstrate the suitability of free-living protozoan in studies of cell tolerance to heavy metals, and they have validated the use of Tetrahymena as a model system to determine ecotoxicological risk. (unipd.it)
  • This unique versatility allows scientists to use Tetrahymena to identify several key factors regarding gene expression and genome integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent sequencing of the macronucleus genome should ensure that Tetrahymena will be continuously used as a model system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here is my Tetrahymena genome paper published in PLoS Biology with many others as Eisen JA, Coyne RS, Wu M, Wu D, Thiagarajan M, et al. (blogspot.com)
  • We investigated the mitochondrial genome organization of Euplotes for three reasons: firstly, because Euplotes is only distantly related to P. aurelia and the various Tetrahymena species, the only species from which mitochondrial genomes have been studied so far (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In that post, I mentioned how Will (2003) had questioned the monophyly of this genus, owing to its lack of derived features in comparison with closely related genera. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Marsh made the claim that Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus were separate but closely related genera. (gregladen.com)
  • Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, transgenic Tetrahymena expressing Ichthyophthirius multifiliis i-antigen protein on their surface are effective vehicles for vaccination of freshwater fish against infection by I. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis performed with all Tetrahymena MT protein and nucleotidic sequences revealed that MTT-5 is closely related to Cd-induced isoforms and quite separate from Cu-induced ones. (unipd.it)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all microsporidian sequence data available for this region of the gene (20 species) and for partial small subunit sequences (51 species of 21 genera) revealed these species to be distinct from the family Pleistophoridae Doflein, 1901 and closely related them to the genus Spraguea Weissenberg, 1976. (bioone.org)
  • Several recent phylogenetic studies have shown Schefflera is clearly polyphyletic, and that the Asian species belong to a single, well supported, morphologically coherent clade, which might have to be transferred to some other genera. (stuartxchange.org)
  • Colpidium falls within the ciliate taxonomic order Hymenostomatida, which also includes the well-studied Tetrahymena and Glaucoma genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Booth, T., Miller, C. E.: Comparative morphologic and taxonomic studies in the genus Thraustochytrium . (springer.com)
  • Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this proposal is to use bacteria of the genus Legionella as model pathogens to characterize host defense mechanisms applicable to EZIDs. (k-state.edu)
  • The genus Legionella was established in 1977, following the isolation of Legionella pneumophila from patients with a form of pneumonia now known as Legionnaires' disease ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The phylum Microsporidia is subdivided into a variety of families and genera, which includes the genus Encephalitozoon which in turn includes the important species Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rhizobium a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live as symbionts in the root nodules of leguminous plants. (damasgate.com)
  • Only minor differences between the mitochondrial genomes of the Tetrahymena species were found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent genomic tools have expanded Tetrahymena 's utility as a genetic model system. (genetics.org)
  • As such, Tetrahymena 's utility as a genetic model organism is revealed by its short life cycle, easy and cost-effective laboratory handling, and its accessibility to both forward and reverse genetics. (genetics.org)
  • Despite its affectionate reference as "pond scum" ( Blackburn 2010 ), the beauty of Tetrahymena as a genetic model organism is displayed in many lights. (genetics.org)
  • Not et al.2009) to plasmodium-forming slime mold taxa and marine green algae in the genus Caulerpa that form the largest single celled organisms on the planet and several meters large multicellular brown algae (kelps). (deepdyve.com)
  • Members of the genus Symbiodinium occur often in widespread symbioses with metazoans in the phylum Cnidaria as well as with many other animals and protists 12 . (nature.com)
  • Here we report analyses of RNA-Seq data from the rhizarian net-like amoeba Corallomyxa tenera , the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata and a recently-described genus representing a novel major clade of eukaryotes, Subulatomonas tetraspora . (degruyter.com)
  • These fundamental discoveries in Tetrahymena have helped usher in the modern era of molecular and cellular biology. (genetics.org)
  • However, more recent analyses have found the opposite - that Colpidium is, in fact, more closely related to Tetrahymena than to Glaucoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of this MRE sequences in Tetrahymena, quite different from those previously identified in mammalians, represents the first step to characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the expression of Tetrahymena MT isoforms. (unipd.it)
  • In addition, Tetrahymena possess hundreds of cilia and has complicated microtubule structures, making it an optimal model to illustrate the diversity and functions of microtubule arrays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. (jove.com)
  • With the unique advantages that Tetrahymena provide, we argue that it will continue to be a model organism of choice. (genetics.org)
  • Here we highlight the advantages of Tetrahymena as a model system, such as its unique and easily manipulated life cycle, that have contributed to important discoveries. (genetics.org)
  • It begins with the general biology of Tetrahymena and its unique advantages as an experimental model system. (genetics.org)
  • A proteomics approach to cloning fenestrin from the nuclear exchange junction of tetrahymena. (nih.gov)
  • Tetrahymena cell image, illustrating its crystal-like organization of ciliary units. (genetics.org)
  • Note that basal bodies are packed together in the four ciliary "membranelles" of the oral apparatus, for which the genus is named. (genetics.org)
  • A genus of ciliated protozoans, members of which are used in studies of ciliary axonemes, self‐splicing RNA, and telomere reproduction. (oup.com)
  • Sequence identities in excess of 98% indicated that these three species almost certainly are members of the same genus. (bioone.org)
  • In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. (jove.com)
  • Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. (nature.com)
  • Organized into 10 parts, this book first provides basic information about Tetrahymena, which is found in almost any body of water and is so unusual that one can debate quite rationally as to whether it is an animal or a plant. (gob.ar)
  • In 1877, paleontologist O. C. Marsh published a skeletally brief description of a new genus of dinosaur found in the "Jurassic Formation" (properly called the Morrison Formation) in Colorado. (gregladen.com)
  • Moreover, Tetrahymena are evolutionarily divergent from the commonly studied organisms in the opisthokont lineage, permitting examination of both unique and universally conserved biological processes. (genetics.org)
  • Basic features of this approach are unranked classification (eliminating ranked categories such as order, family, and genus) and definition of taxon names strictly on the basis of phylogeny. (apsnet.org)
  • An enigmatic frog of the genus Atelopus (Family Bufonidae) from Parque Nacional Chirripó, Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. (nih.gov)
  • Tetrahymena has a long and distinguished history in the discovery of broad biological paradigms ( Figure 2 ), beginning with the discovery of the first microtubule motor, dynein ( Gibbons and Rowe 1965 ). (genetics.org)
  • Moore (1965), in a review of Australian genera of Pterostichinae, describes Morion as having an aedeagus with an orifice on the dorsum, with no mention of a covering lamella, again also suggesting a resemblance to New World rather than Old World species (unfortunately, Moore did not specify exactly which species his description of the genitalia was based on). (fieldofscience.com)
  • A review of the genus Alulatettix Liang (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea: Tetrigidae). (statescale.cf)
  • Studies on Tetrahymena have contributed to several scientific milestones including: First cell which showed synchronized division, which led to the first insights into the existence of mechanisms which control the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In single-cell cultures the periodicity of cell division is maintained over a number of genera-tions. (loof-wieringerwaard.nl)
  • Many of the reasons why Tetrahymena was an advantageous system for these groundbreaking discoveries are the same that make Tetrahymena useful today and in the future, augmented by the ever-expanding toolkit available to Tetrahymena researchers. (genetics.org)
  • Decades after the initial discoveries of these extinct dinosaurs, Elmer Riggs of the Field Museum had a closer look at the accumulated material and, contributing to an emerging pattern of "lumping" species previously generated by the earlier generation of paleontological "splitters" (including Marsh), he sank Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus into one genus. (gregladen.com)
  • The first name applied to a specimen is, under the rule of priority, chosen when it is discovered that more than one name is being used to describe the same genus or species. (gregladen.com)
  • Because Tetrahymena can be grown in a large quantity in the laboratory with ease, it has been a great source for biochemical analysis for years, specifically for enzymatic activities and purification of sub-cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brontosaurus is a genus name for a large dinosaur, known to watchers of "Land Before Time" as "Long-Necks. (gregladen.com)