Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Plants. "Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Braya Sternb. & Hoppe". Natural Resources Conservation Service. USDA ... Braya is a genus in the Brassicaceae family. Braya alpina Sternb. & Hoppe Braya fernaldii Abbe Braya forrestii W.W.Sm. Braya ... The Plant List. "Species in Braya". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2012-04-22. Media ...
... , also known as goatsbeard or salsify, is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family. It includes the ... National Plant Data Center. "PLANTS Profile for Tragopogon (goatsbeard)". PLANTS. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service ... "Species in GRIN for genus Tragopogon". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA ... "oyster plant" for some species in this genus), but more insipid with a touch of sweetness. The young shoots of purple salsify ...
Revision of the genus Cryptocoryne Fischer. Studie CSAV, c.3.Praha. Rataj, K. & Horeman, T.J., 1977. Aquarium Plants. TFH Publ ... Cryptocoryne auriculata is a plant species belonging to the Aroid genus Cryptocoryne. Borneo (Sarawak) and Philippines ?[ ... Cryptocoryne auriculata Rataj Dr Karel and Horeman T. J., Aquarium Plants, TFH Publications (1977) Jacobsen, N., 1985. The ...
... is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bonnetiaceae. Most of the roughly 30 species are shrubs. The remaining ... The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 9. Springer. pp. 36-39. ISBN 9783540322191. O. Huber & P. García (2011). "The ... "Bonnetia". The Plant List. Retrieved November 5, 2014. Media related to Bonnetia at Wikimedia Commons. ... Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., ...
... is a large genus of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the family Rubiaceae, occurring in the temperate zones of ... USDA PLANTS. Galium. Flora of China. "WCSP". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved 2010-04-05. Galium. The ... Asperula is also a closely related genus; some species of Galium (such as woodruff, G. odoratum) are occasionally placed ...
The genus name Polygala comes from the ancient Greek "much milk", as the plant was thought to increase milk yields in cattle. ... Polygala is a large genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Polygalaceae. They are commonly known as milkworts or ... Coombes, A. J. (2012). The A to Z of Plant Names. USA: Timber Press. p. 312. ISBN 9781604691962. "RHS Plant Selector - Polygala ... 2013). The genus Polygala L.(Polygalaceae) in Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 40(1), 1-50. (Portuguese) Pastore, J. F. B. and T. B. ...
The tribe Indigofereae is a subdivision of the plant family Fabaceae. It is consistently recovered as a monophyletic clade in ... Indigofereae comprises the following genera: Cyamopsis DC. Indigastrum Jaub. & Spach Indigofera L. Microcharis Benth. ... Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: "Tribe Indigofereae (Benth.) Hutch". Global Plants. JSTOR. ...
... is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Mackinlayoideae, with about 18 species. It is native ... ISBN 0-19-910207-4. Blombery, Alec (1965). "The genus Actinotus". Australian Plants. ASGAP. 3 (22): 63-65. ISSN 0005-0008. ... "Actinotus". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, ... 2009) The Demise of Subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the Re-Alignment of Its Genera across the Entire Order Apiales." ...
Joachim W. Kadereit; Charles Jeffrey, Flowering Plants·Eudicots·Asterales, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, 8, doi: ... 10.1007/978-3-540-31051-8 "Cuttsia". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research ... The genus and species were first formally described by botanist Ferdinand von Mueller in 1865 in Fragmenta Phytographiae ... "Genus Cuttsia". PlantNET - New South Wales Flora Online. Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney Australia. Retrieved 2008 ...
Wilson, Paul G. (2002). "Xerochrysum the correct name for the genus Bracteantha". Australian Plants. 21 (173): 398. " ... X. bracteatum can be grown in large pots or window boxes, and is a good pioneer plant in the garden until other plants become ... Queensland-based company Aussie Winners has a range of compact plants ranging from orange to white known as Sundaze. Plants of ... superfl". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. ...
... /ˌɛksoʊˈkɔːrdə/ is a small genus of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, native to China and central Asia ( ... www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/plants/plant_finder/plant_pages/310.shtml BBC Gardening Plant Finder Leaves E. × macrantha 'The bride ... Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1-2): 5-43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"] Gao Fangyou. 1998. ... Lindley wrote in the original description of the genus "The free placentary chords external to the carpels have suggested the ...
Willis, J.L. (1959). "The genus Telopea". Australian Plants. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1 (1): 7-10. Crisp, ... Bred by the Reverend Colin Burgess, parent plant stock was selected from cold areas with the aim of breeding a hardy plant. The ... The plant grows to around 4 m (13 ft) tall and has flower heads 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) in diameter. They appear to tolerate frosts ... This plant may be seen between Fitzroy Falls in the north, and Monga National Park to the south. Its habitat is on the margins ...
USDA PLANTS. Watson, L. and M. J. Dallwitz. 1992 onwards. Isachne. The Grass Genera of the World. Version: 18 December 2012. ... Isachne is a widespread genus of tropical and subtropical plants in the grass family, found in Asia, Africa, Australia, the ... Poaceae (Gramineae). Flora of Ethiopia 7: i-xx, 1-420 The Plant List search for Isachne Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. ... A new species of Isachne (Poaceae, Micrairoideae) from Brazil and a synopsis of the Brazilian species of the genus. Systematic ...
ISBN 0-19-910207-4. Blombery, Alec (1965). "The genus Actinotus". Australian Plants. ASGAP. 3 (22): 63-65. ISSN 0005-0008. ... while its specific epithet is derived from its resemblance to the genus Helianthus. An iconic Sydney plant, its floral display ... Plants may be propagated by seed or cutting and grow in a well-drained sunny position, and are suitable for use in a rockery or ... The stem, branches and leaves of the plant are a pale grey in colour, covered in downy hair (rather like flannel in texture). ...
family UMBELLIFERAE]". African Plants. Ithaka Harbors, Inc. doi:10.5555/AL.AP.COMPILATION.PLANT-NAME-SPECIES.HYDROCOTYLE. ... "genus Hydrocotyle". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 2008-04-25. Aluka. "Hydrocotyle ... Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Hydrocotyle bonariensis". The PLANTS Database. United States ... record n° 27212". African Plants Database. South African National Biodiversity Institute, the Conservatoire et Jardin ...
"Genera for Family = Empetraceae". USDA PLANTS. "Ericaceae". Flora of China. Data related to Empetrum at Wikispecies Cookbook: ... The genus and related ones such as Ceratiola and Corema were for most of the 20th century classified in their own family ... Empetrum is a genus of three species of dwarf evergreen shrubs in the heath family Ericaceae. They are commonly known as ... The berries are usually collected in the fall of the year but if not picked they may persist on the plant and can be picked in ...
... , commonly known as mountain mahogany, is a small genus of five or six species of nitrogen-fixing flowering plants ... The genus has been placed in the subfamily Rosoideae, but is now placed in subfamily Dryadoideae. Members of the genus are ... "Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Cercocarpus Kunth". PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. ... Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1-2): 5-43. Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. I: A-C. CRC ...
... is a genus of moss in family Orthotrichaceae. It is distributed throughout the world. There are about 125 species ... USDA PLANTS. Orthotrichum - Britain's bristle-mosses.. ... 1998). A cladistic analysis of the moss genus Orthotrichum. The ... in the genus. Species include: Orthotrichum affine Orthotrichum alpestre Orthotrichum anomalum Orthotrichum bartramii - ...
Bracteantha) is a genus of flowering plants native to Australia. It was defined by Russian botanist Nikolai Tzvelev in 1990, ... Wilson, Paul G. (2002). "Xerochrysum the correct name for the genus Bracteantha". Australian Plants. 21 (173): 398. Randall J. ... This genus and its species names were formerly included in Bracteantha and before that in Helichrysum. As of January 2014[ ... A 2002 molecular study of the tribe Gnaphalieae has indicated the genus is probably polyphyletic, with X. bracteatum and X. ...
The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 12. Springer. Menzies, Barbara P.; Mckee, H.S. (1959). "Root parasitism in ... Ferdinand von Mueller described the plant in 1861, thus finally providing the plant with a name. When he was able to see the ... Atkinsonia was named after Louisa Atkinson, a plant collector who found many new plants in the Blue Mountains, including the ... It is a monotypic genus, the only species being A. ligustrina, and is assigned to the showy mistletoe family. It is sometimes ...
... is a genus of flowering plants in the Amaranthaceae family of the Caryophyllales order. The genus was named in honor ... USDA PLANTS. Sohmer, S. H. A Revision of Chamissoa (Amaranthaceae) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 104, No. 2 (Apr ... This genus is sometimes included in the Chenopodiaceae family. Species include: Chamissoa acuminata Chamissoa altissima (Jacq ...
Young plants have a much more erect habit than other members of the genus Telopea and their stems have a distinct reddish tinge ... Plants can be hard-pruned-lopping old stems and branches can rejuvenate mature plants. Plants can benefit from low-phosphorus ... Willis, J.L. (1959). "The genus Telopea". Australian Plants. Chipping Norton, New South Wales: Surrey Beatty & Sons. 1 (1): 7- ... Furthermore, planted specimens are frequently stolen from bush regeneration sites as they are desirable garden plants. ...
"The Genus Hydnora". Parasitic Plants. Missing or empty ,url= (help); ,access-date= requires ,url= (help). ... These plants do not have chlorophyll and do not perform photosynthesis. They obtain their nutrients from a host plant, such as ... The plant grows underground, except for a fleshy flower that emerges above ground and emits an odor of feces to attract its ... The genus name comes from the Greek word hydnon, which translates to "truffle," and the specific epithet africana means to be ...
... is the only genus of plants in the family Corynocarpaceae and includes five species. It is native to New Guinea, ... an isolated genus". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 95 (1): 9-18. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1987.tb01832.x. ... Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". ... doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. KEw World Checklist of Selected Plant Families John Sawyer, Bruce McFadgen and Paul Hughes. " ...
The Grass Genera of the World. DELTA - DEscription Language for TAxonomy. Urochloa. USDA PLANTS. Flora of China Vol. 22 Page ... Urochloa (common name signalgrass) is a genus of plants in the grass family, native to Eurasia, Africa, Australia, Mexico, and ... Flora of Pakistan Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Media related to Urochloa at Wikimedia Commons Data related to ... "Genus: Urochloa P. Beauv". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-03-09. ...
Familia Filoviridae: genera, species, vira. (nomina ex Anglica accommodata) Nomen generis Nomen speciei Imminutio Anglica ... US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "National Select ... Duo notissima familiae genera sunt Ebolavirus et Marburgvirus. Ambo vira, et nonnulla ex eorum cognatis minus notis, morbos ... genera Cuevavirus, Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus), et in ordine Mononegaviralium comprehenditur.[8] Sodales familiae Anglice ...
... plants that are supported by other plants and have aerial roots exposed to the humid atmosphere) of the pineapple family ( ... Aechmea, genus of epiphytes (plants that are supported by other plants and have aerial roots exposed to the humid atmosphere) ... Urn plant (Aechmea fasciata).. Sven Samelius. This article was most recently revised and updated by William L. Hosch, Associate ...
Plants of the genus Tulbaghia also are popular ornamentals. Society garlic, or pink agapanthus (Tulbaghia violacea), has a ... Plants of the genus Tulbaghia also are popular ornamentals. Society garlic, or pink agapanthus (Tulbaghia violacea), has a ...
... plant genus translation, English dictionary definition of plant genus. Noun 1. plant genus - a genus of plants genus - ... taxonomic group containing one or more species kingdom Plantae, plant kingdom, Plantae - the taxonomic... ... Define plant genus. plant genus synonyms, plant genus pronunciation, ... genus Sedum - large genus of rock plants having thick fleshy leaves. Aeonium, genus Aeonium - a genus of plants of the family ...
Below is a list of Canadian plants by genus. Due to the vastness of Canadas biodiversity, this page is divided. Many of the ... Those plants whose status is unknown are marked with a ?. A , B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I J K , L , M , N , O , P Q , R , S ... trail-plant Adiantum N Adiantum aleuticum - western maidenhair fern N Adiantum capillus-veneris - southern maidenhair fern N ... plants seen in Canada are introduced by either intentionally or accidentally. N indicated native and X indicated exotic. ...
Below is a list of Canadian plants by genus. Due to the vastness of Canadas biodiversity, this page is divided. This is a ( ... Many of the plants seen in Canada are introduced, either intentionally or accidentally. For these plants, see List of ... partial) list of the plant species considered native to Canada. ...
A combination of two bacteria genera improves plants health Researchers of the University of Malaga (UMA) evidence the ... A Combination or Two Bacteria Genera Improves Plants Health (IMAGE) view more ... A Combination or Two Bacteria Genera Improves Plants Health (VIDEO) view more ... Plants are another priority line of research, particularly, the Cucurbitaceae, a plant family which comprises melon and ...
The aim of this study was to develop an efficient methodology to rescue embryos following interspecific crosses in the genus ... Embryo rescue and plant regeneration following interspecific crosses in the genus Hylocereus (Cactaceae). ... George EF (2009) Plant tissue culture procedure-background. In: George EF, Hall MA, De Klerk G-J (eds) Plant propagation by ... Doležel J, Binarova P, Lucretti S (1989) Analysis of nuclear DNA content in plant cells by flow cytometry. Biol Plant 31:113- ...
A new genus of plants has been named after UW botany Professor Greg Brown. Gregbrownia, a member of the Bromeliaceae family, is ... University of Wyoming botany Professor Greg Brown has added a new honor to his list of achievements: A new genus of plants has ... New Genus of Plants Named After UW Botany Professor. July 10, 2017 ... "This recognition and honor become a permanent part of plant taxonomy and plant nomenclature." ...
Plants,Establishes,U.S.,Biofuels,Facility,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device ... Company Accelerates Next Generation Cellulosic Feedstock Program...KINGSTON ON June 18 / Performance Plants Inc. (PPI) has... ... SOURCE Performance Plants Inc. Copyright©2008 PR Newswire.. All rights reserved. 0. GOOD ... Performance Plants Establishes U.S. Biofuels Facility. ... Company Accelerates Next Generation Cellulosic Feedstock Program... ...
International Advances in Plant Virology, Joint meeting of Association of Applied Biologists & Dutch Circle of Plant ...
The Boechera genus currently includes 110 species (of which 38 are reported to be triploid and thus apomictic), which are ... The Boechera genus currently includes 110 species (of which 38 are reported to be triploid and thus apomictic), which are ... In this review, we discuss the advantages of the Boechera genus to study apomixis, consider its modes of reproduction as well ... In this review, we discuss the advantages of the Boechera genus to study apomixis, consider its modes of reproduction as well ...
... genus Carex: Slender Tufted-Sedge - Acute Sedge (Carex acuta), Lesser Pond-Sedge (Carex acutiformis), Fibrous Tussock-Sedge ( ... Genus Carex. Carex acuta. Carex acutiformis. Carex appropinquata. Carex aquatilis. Carex arctogena. Carex arenaria. Carex ... We now have more than 100.000 photos online, covering more than 10.000 plant/fungi/animal etc. species. Steen has found a ...
... genus Brassica: Brassica oleracea (Azur Star), Brassica oleracea (Romanescu), Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala, Brassica ... Genus Brassica. Brassica oleracea (Azur Star). Brassica oleracea (Romanescu). Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala. Brassica ... We now have more than 100.000 photos online, covering more than 10.000 plant/fungi/animal etc. species. Steen has found a ...
The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and ... However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other ... However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/ ... and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. ...
The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic ... A voucher may be a record of a plants occurrence in a particular area, or a specific example of a plant used in a scientific ... Genus Synonyms. Synonym. Full Citation. Basionym. Type. Acanthambrosia Acanthambrosia Rydberg, in Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 33: 22 ... Usually, the last letter (or two) of a given genus, a space, and the first few correct letters of the specific epithet will ...
The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic ... A voucher may be a record of a plants occurrence in a particular area, or a specific example of a plant used in a scientific ... Genus Synonyms. Synonym. Full Citation. Basionym. Type. Aristopsis Aristopsis Catasús Guerra, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 16: 439. ... Usually, the last letter (or two) of a given genus, a space, and the first few correct letters of the specific epithet will ...
Plectranthus is a large genus of plants native to areas in the Southern Hemisphere. Plectranthus makes an attractive addition ... Plants in the Plectranthus genus can commonly be found growing outdoors as ornamental plants in containers or gardens, as well ... Plectranthus Plant Profile. Learn how to grow plants in the Plectranthus genus indoors and outdoors. ... While Plectranthus is not a frost-tolerant genus, plants in this genus do well in colder temperatures and even flower during ...
Genus: Alstroemeria. We are pleased to be flower bulb suppliers, garden writers, photographers, lecturers, consultants and ... Live Plant Shipping Information: Live plants require special shipping status to make it from us to you in good condition. Click ... Live Plant Shipping Information: Live plants require special shipping status to make it from us to you in good condition. All ... CA; count the quantity of plants you are ordering, ie, 4; the additional shipping charge for 4 plants being shipped to CA would ...
... Download Ginseng, The Genus Panax (Medicinal And Aromatic ... In Unable 2008, often before changing download Ginseng, the Genus Panax (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, President-Elect Obama ... the Genus Panax (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants neuronal repercussions are located in a new loosing in both Sweden and London. ... Mail Us On [email protected] The download Ginseng, the Genus Panax (Medicinal and not hated her trainer on Dorie ...
Plant Species of the genus Myagrum Information about this genus. Name: Myagrum. Specie. Vernacular. Zone. ... Plant Families Plant families and you can also drill into the genus ...
Plant Species of the genus Darwinia Information about this genus. Name: Darwinia. Cultivation: CULTIVATION: They require a ... Plant Families Plant families and you can also drill into the genus ... Description: This genus consists of around 45 species, all endemic to Australia, with a large number confined to southern ... A number of the highly ornamental, but often unreliable, Western Australian darwinias are available as grafted plants. They are ...
... ... Analysis of the full length sequence revealed that the virus could not be placed in any known plant virus genus. The new virus ... 11th International Plant Virus Epidemiology Symposium and 3rd Workshop of the Plant Virus Ecology Network, Ithaca, USA, 2010-06 ... 11th International Plant Virus Epidemiology Symposium and 3rd Workshop of the Plant Virus Ecology Network, Cornell University, ...
The families of flowering plants II. 2nd edition. London, Clarendon Press.. Johnson PN, Campbell DJ 1975. Vascular plants of ... Mabberleys Plant Book. 3rd edition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.. Meurk CD, Given DR (unpublished). The vascular ... Families of flowering plants of Australia: an interactive identification guide. Canberra, CSIRO. ... Neotropikey - interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. www.kew.org/neotropikey ( ...
Limosellais a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar ... Ito Y, Tanaka N, García-Murillo P, Muasya AM (2016) A new delimitation of the Afro-Eurasian plant genus Althenia to include its ... Molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant genus Limosella (Scrophulariaceae) with a particular focus on the origin ... 1). Given the species richness of the genus and the distribution patterns of the related genera, such as Jamesbrittenia Kuntze ...
1998 The evolution of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in plants of the genus Leavenworthia (Brassicaceae): loss of ... The Effect of Mating System Differences on Nucleotide Diversity at the Phosphoglucose Isomerase Locus in the Plant Genus ... The Effect of Mating System Differences on Nucleotide Diversity at the Phosphoglucose Isomerase Locus in the Plant Genus ... The Effect of Mating System Differences on Nucleotide Diversity at the Phosphoglucose Isomerase Locus in the Plant Genus ...
  • However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. (cornell.edu)
  • The ORF2 product is significantly similar to movement proteins of the genus Tombusviridae , and phylogenetic analysis supported this evolutionary relationship. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The sequence of the ORF3 protein showed limited but significant similarity to capsid proteins of several plant and animal viruses, although phylogenetic analysis failed to reveal its most likely origin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A strong phylogenetic framework for this large genus is essential to understand the interesting ecological, morphological and molecular phenomena that occur within these parasites in an evolutionary context. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, our case study highlights the importance of using plastomes to examine species boundaries and establish an independent phylogeny to infer the speciation history of plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Hoare, Robert J. B., Nieukerken, Erik J. van (2013): Phylogeny and host-plant relationships of the Australian Myrtaceae leafmining moth genus Pectinivalva (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae), with new subgenera and species. (gbif.org)
  • Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2 , rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeny of 45 species using the variation observed on nucleotide sequences in internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8 S of nuclear ribosomal DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Classification and phylogeny of the plant genus Dianella Lam. (edu.au)
  • A cpDNA phylogeny by Wurdack & Dorr (2009) found Dianella to be monophyletic and sister to the monotypic genus Eccremis from South America. (edu.au)
  • Systematics includes the identification, naming, and classification of plants, as well as the investigation of evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) and of evolutionary processes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This genus consists of around 45 species, all endemic to Australia, with a large number confined to southern Western Australia, growing in moist peat or sandy soil. (ontariogardening.com)
  • Limosella is a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar regions, two in southern circumpolar regions, two in the Americas, one endemic to Australia, and six in tropical or southern Africa or both. (springer.com)
  • Diškus, A., Stonis, J.R. & Cumbicus Torres, N. (2014) First discovery of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera) associated with the Chilean endemic genus Podanthus Lag. (mapress.com)
  • Dubautia is an endemic Hawaiian genus of 26 perennial species occurring on the major islands of the archipelago. (hawaii.edu)
  • Analysis of the full length sequence revealed that the virus could not be placed in any known plant virus genus. (wur.nl)
  • University of Wyoming botany Professor Greg Brown has added a new honor to his list of achievements: A new genus of plants has been named after him. (uwyo.edu)
  • Two of Brown's colleagues, Walter Till, a professor of botany at the University of Vienna, and Michael Barfuss, a research scientist at the University of Vienna, established the new genus out of an existing genus ( Mezobromelia ) based on new molecular (DNA sequence) and morphological (form and structure) data. (uwyo.edu)
  • This entire quantity offers studies at the botany, ethnobotany, and chemical materials of the genus Stevia and examines the chemical synthesis of such compounds as steviol and stevioside. (monstersofrockcruise.com)
  • Established in 1995, Performance Plants Inc. (PPI) is a leader in biofuel and food crop biotechnology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The release of CO 2 is catalyzed by Gly decarboxylase ( GDC ) in the mitochondria of plant cells ( Oliver and Raman, 1995 ). (plantcell.org)
  • We used Illumina sequencing technology via a reference-guided assembly to construct complete plastomes of 17 individuals from six putatively assumed species in the genus. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are about fifty species in the genus, with considerable variation. (flickr.com)
  • When a researcher finds a new, well-supported monophyletic group (clade) within an already-recognized genus, the group has to receive a new name at the appropriate taxonomic rank. (uwyo.edu)
  • The new virus was named Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), and placed in the newly created, and recently ICTV ratified, genus Torradovirus. (wur.nl)
  • One year later a second species of the genus Torradovirus was identified in tomato crops in Mexico and named Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV) (marchitez means withered). (wur.nl)
  • Very recently a third torradovirus species was identified from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. (wur.nl)
  • Pollen morphology and exine ornamentation of 26 plants of Sect. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The dramatic reduction of the vegetative body in Balanophoraceae, which may lack all vegetative organs typically found in green land plants, has promoted studies in the field of developmental morphology. (nhbs.com)
  • A voucher specimen is a pressed and thoroughly dried plant sample deposited in a herbarium, and is intended to be a permanent record supporting research purposes. (usf.edu)
  • involves the collection, pressing, and identification of plant specimens , herbarium management, and archiving type specimens (the actual plant specimen upon which the name of a species is based). (encyclopedia.com)
  • A specimen planted in 1997 at Rimbun Dahan fruited sparsely in Sept 2009. (rimbundahan.org)
  • Due to these challenges, we argue for the application of an alternative reference-free method for the comparative analysis of such genomes, provide an overview of genomic sequencing data in the genus Boechera suitable for such analysis, and provide examples of its application. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some species of Genlisea possess ultrasmall nuclear genomes, the smallest known among angiosperms, and some have been found to have chromosomes of diminutive size, which may explain why chromosome numbers and karyotypes are not known for the majority of species of the genus. (jcvi.org)
  • Ranunculus is Latin for little frog, a name given by the Roman Pliny because of the wet conditions in which these plants are often found. (abc.net.au)
  • As they prefer to have their roots kept cool and moist, plant Ranunculus species in a sunny or partly shaded position with moist well-drained soil. (abc.net.au)
  • To test the theoretical prediction that highly inbreeding populations should have low neutral genetic diversity relative to closely related outcrossing populations, we sequenced portions of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase ( PgiC ) gene in the plant genus Leavenworthia, which includes both self-incompatible and inbreeding taxa. (genetics.org)
  • not only provides an overview of the diversity of the plant groups treated therein, but also points to the interesting biological peculiarities that have evolved in connection with their singular lifestyle. (nhbs.com)
  • The population of this genus is declining rapidly due to overexploitation and if such declination continues then it will lead to decrease in diversity and result into its extinction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It occurs throughout Australia (excluding the central arid region), where there is the greatest diversity of 42 taxa (19 species and 23 varieties) (Australian Plant Census 2016). (edu.au)
  • Over 1,000 living plant species in cell culture, representing plant diversity worldwide. (umass.edu)
  • Thus, students and researchers in the area of systematics (termed systematists) study the diversity of all life, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, with several major goals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The genus Sansevieria is closely related, and has recently been synonymized under Dracaena in the Kubitzki system . (wikipedia.org)
  • These help to distinguish them from the similar (and closely related) genera Alonsoa and Nemesia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Closely associated with this aspect of systematics is developing and refining methods of identifying plants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Caldicellulosiruptor bescii grows optimally at 78°C and is able to decompose high concentrations of lignocellulosic plant biomass without the need for thermochemical pretreatment. (asm.org)
  • Thermophilic bacteria of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor are currently under intense investigation due to their ability to decompose lignocellulosic plant biomass anaerobically at high temperature, thereby potentially mitigating costly thermochemical pretreatment steps ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Generally, plant shoot systems consist of stems bearing leaves, with floral buds and axillary shoots developing only in leaf axils ( Figure 1A ). (plantcell.org)
  • Hera is easy to maintain, will grow side buds from the bottom, spring and autumn season, try to give enough light, full light, Hera form can be more compact and beautiful, the color is more beautiful, the light is not enough, the plant is easy to grow, the leaf color turns green even The red edge disappears. (ebay.ca)
  • As plants that span many different orders and families of plants, trees show a wide variety of growth form, leaf type and shape, bark characteristics, reproductive structures, and so forth. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Above ground, the trunk gives height to the leaf-bearing branches, aiding in competition with other plant species for sunlight. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2016). Plants are characterised by two leaf forms: basal strap-like leaves and cauline leaves on aerial stems (+/- extravaginal branching units). (edu.au)
  • Despite their tree-like appearance, banana plants are scientifically classified as herbs. (ehow.com)