A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
A family of nocturnal rodents, similar in appearance to SQUIRRELS, but smaller. There are 28 species, half of which are found in Africa.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Orthopox: smallpox virus (variola), vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus, rabbitpox virus; Parapox: orf virus, ... Better estimates of mutation rates in these viruses are needed. The following subfamilies and genera are recognized (-virinae ... Within the Othopoxvirus genus Cowpox virus strain Brighton Red, Ectromelia virus and Monkeypox virus do not group closely with ... Vaccinia virus is most closely related to CPV-GRI-90. The prototypical poxvirus is vaccinia virus, known for its role in the ...
... virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia ... Orthopoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Vertebrates, including mammals and ... Currently, 13 species are in this genus, including the type species Vaccinia virus. Diseases associated with this genus include ... Others, such as ectromelia and camelpox viruses, are highly host-specific. Vaccinia virus, maintained in vaccine institutes and ...
It is one of the human orthopoxviruses that includes variola (VARV), cowpox (CPX), and vaccinia (VACV) viruses. But it is not a ... Monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA, zoonotic virus and a species of the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family ... Monkeypox virus Virology.net Picturebook: Monkeypox Viralzone: Orthopoxvirus Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource ( ... "Gene expression profiling of monkeypox virus-infected cells reveals novel interfaces for host-virus interactions". Virology ...
Unlike the HA of other vaccinia-like viruses, the HA of RCN did not cross-react with monkeypox virus HA. Though RPV is a close ... There are large regions within the RCN virus genome that cross hybridize between members of the genus. Differences between ... The sera partially cross-reacted with a vaccinia virus HA preparation, suggesting a close relation between the viruses. ... DNA sequences encoding the HA's of RCN and VV (vaccinia virus) strain WR (western reserve) as well as HA's of VV, RCN, VPX ( ...
The virus, part of the genus Orthopoxvirus, is closely related to the vaccinia virus. The virus is zoonotic, meaning that it is ... such as the cowpox virus (CPXV) in Europe, vaccinia in Brazil, and monkeypox virus in Central and West Africa. Naturally ... This makes cowpox one of the most complicated viruses known. Some 100 of these genes give instructions for key parts of the ... The vaccinia virus now used for smallpox vaccination is sufficiently different from the cowpox virus found in the wild as to be ...
Over 100 of these genes are conserved in other viruses from the poxvirus family, such as Variola virus and Vaccinia virus. The ... Other commonly known viruses that reside in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae are variola virus (cause of smallpox) and monkeypox ... Molluscum contagiosum virus is the only species in the genus Molluscipoxvirus. MCV is a member of the subfamily ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). February 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019 ...
Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus ... Nile crocodilepox virus Genus: Leporipoxvirus Hare fibroma virus Myxoma virus Rabbit fibroma virus Squirrel fibroma virus Genus ... taterapox and variola viruses arose 3,500 years ago and horsepox virus ~3,000. These viruses may have arise in these viruses ... Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Pigeonpox virus Psittacinepox virus Quailpox virus Sparrowpox virus ...
Vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses can infect both humans and other animals in nature. The life cycle of poxviruses is ... The agent of variola virus (VARV) belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in ... During the 19th century, the cowpox virus used for smallpox vaccination was replaced by vaccinia virus. Vaccinia is in the same ... It contains live vaccinia virus, cloned from the same strain used in an earlier vaccine, Dryvax. While the Dryvax virus was ...
... virus is an Orthopoxvirus, a genus of the family Poxviridae that contains other viral species that target mammals. ... "Clonal vaccinia virus grown in cell culture fully protects monkeys from lethal monkeypox challenge". Vaccine. 26 (4): 581-8. ... because they are closely related viruses and the vaccine protects animals from experimental lethal monkeypox challenge. This ... CDC - Monkeypox Fact Sheet WHO - Monkeypox Fact Sheet Virology.net Picturebook: Monkeypox Could Monkeypox Take Over Where ...
The T12 virus itself has not been placed into a taxon by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. It has a double- ... Billroth also coined the genus name Streptococcus. The organism was first cultured in 1883 by the German surgeon Friedrich ... Monkeypox. *CPXV *Cowpox. *VV *Vaccinia. *Generalized vaccinia. *Eczema vaccinatum. *Progressive vaccinia. *Buffalopox ...
Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. Buist, J.B. (1887 ... "Independent evolution of monkeypox and variola viruses". Journal of Virology. 66 (12): 7565-7. PMC 240470. PMID 1331540.. ... The importance of tobacco mosaic virus in the history of viruses cannot be overstated. It was the first virus to be discovered ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus.[55] ...
While no other human tumor virus possesses these same genes, other tumor viruses target the same cellular pathways illustrating ... Genus: Rhadinovirus. Species: Human herpesvirus 8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human ... Monkeypox. *CPXV *Cowpox. *VV *Vaccinia. *Generalized vaccinia. *Eczema vaccinatum. *Progressive vaccinia. *Buffalopox ... Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Since emery paper and brush were analyzed together at the lab, it is not known if the emery paper collected viruses or loosened ... "Genus β human papillomaviruses and incidence of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of skin: population based case-control ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
A majority of occupational laboratory Orthopoxvirus infections reported in the United States are caused by Vaccinia virus. ... Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to ... Poxvirus Genera and Strains. A majority of occupational laboratory Orthopoxvirus infections reported in the United States are ... caused by Vaccinia virus. However, many other wild-type orthopoxviruses (e.g., camelpox, cowpox, monkeypox) can cause ...
Dairy farmers had high rates of orthopoxvirus seropositivity and substantial illness associated with vaccinia-like lesions. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae. Other notable viruses in this ... use of immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of monkeypox infection during the 2003 North American ... Leite JA, Drumond BP, Trindade GS, Lobato ZI, da Fonseca FG, dos SJ, et al. Passatempo virus, a vaccinia virus strain, Brazil. ...
Orthopox: smallpox virus (variola), vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus, rabbitpox virus; Parapox: orf virus, ... Better estimates of mutation rates in these viruses are needed. The following subfamilies and genera are recognized (-virinae ... Within the Othopoxvirus genus Cowpox virus strain Brighton Red, Ectromelia virus and Monkeypox virus do not group closely with ... Vaccinia virus is most closely related to CPV-GRI-90. The prototypical poxvirus is vaccinia virus, known for its role in the ...
... virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia ... Orthopoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Vertebrates, including mammals and ... Currently, 13 species are in this genus, including the type species Vaccinia virus. Diseases associated with this genus include ... Others, such as ectromelia and camelpox viruses, are highly host-specific. Vaccinia virus, maintained in vaccine institutes and ...
... genus Orthopoxvirus. Other members of this genus that can infect humans are vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus, and cowpox virus. ... Vaccinia and Cowpox. Human infections with vaccinia, wild vaccinialike viruses, cowpox, and cowpoxlike viruses are most often ... Vaccinia virus is the live-virus component of contemporary smallpox vaccines. Rarely, infection can occur from touching the ... Human monkeypox. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun;58(2):260-7.. *Petersen BW, Harms TJ, Reynolds MG, Harrison LH. Use of vaccinia ...
Vaccinia virus, Camelpox virus and Monkeypox virus) and four chordopoxviruses from other genera: Tanapox virus (from the ... Experiments using mutated viruses revealed that representatives of this family, Myxoma virus Serp2 and Ectromelia virus Spi-2, ... Monkeypox virus (AY603973.1), Camelpox virus (AY009089.1), Cotia virus (HQ647181.2), Yoka virus (NC_015960.1), Tanapox virus ( ... Cowpox virus CrmA, Vaccinia virus B13R, Cotia virus COTV-165 and the negative control Bcl-xL were expressed at similar levels ...
Monkeypox virus is antigenically related to the variola and vaccinia viruses(6). ... CHARACTERISTICS: Virus belongs to family Poxviridae, sub-family Chordopoxvirinae and genus Orthopoxvirus(1,4,5). MPXV is a 200 ... IMMUNIZATION: Vaccination with vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine) protects against monkeypox with greater than 85% efficacy(4,17 ... EPIDEMIOLOGY: Monkeypox affects all age groups; however, children under age of 16 have constituted the greatest proportion of ...
Vaccinia virus (VACV; genus Orthopoxvirus [OPV]) is used as a lyophilized live virus vaccine against smallpox, variola virus (1 ... vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine), and cowpox virus.". What Is Monkeypox? ... It will discuss other technical matters such as pandemic influenza preparedness framework for the sharing of influenza viruses ... The Orthopoxvirus genus also includes variola virus (the cause of smallpox), ...
... monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the relatively large (~ 200 kb) vaccinia ... The family Poxviridae consists of large double-stranded DNA containing viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of ... Members of the orthopox genus include variola, the causative agent of human small pox, ... Microbiology, Issue 26, Vaccinia, virus, infection, HeLa, Microarray, amplified RNA, amino allyl, RNA, Ambion Amino Allyl ...
... monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non- ... monkeypox and vaccinia virus infection. We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or ... monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species. ... vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable ... Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected ...
Vaccinia virus, the prototypical member of the Orthopoxvirus genus and a close relative of smallpox (variola) virus, was the ... human immunodeficiency virus, and now vaccinia virus, we know very little about how these and other viruses actually cross the ... The recent decision to begin vaccinating civilian health care workers against smallpox and the outbreak of monkeypox in the ... Vaccinia Virus Infection during Murine Pregnancy: a New Pathogenesis Model for Vaccinia Fetalis. Nicola Benning, Daniel E. ...
... another poxvirus sialyltransferase is present in myxoma and fibroma viruses of the Leporipoxvirus genus (47, 48). The ... with literature reports describing outbreaks of monkeypox (6), cowpox (7), buffalopox (8), volepox (9), and vaccinia (10). ... Vaccinia virus is a large, complex virus that replicates entirely in the cytoplasm and carries a linear double-stranded DNA, ... Vaccinia virus, also in the Orthopoxvirus genus, was used for mass vaccination against smallpox by the World Health ...
Monkeypox virus is antigenically related to the variola and vaccinia viruses(Footnote 6 ). ... CHARACTERISTICS: Virus belongs to family Poxviridae, sub-family Chordopoxvirinae and genus Orthopoxvirus(Footnote 1 ,Footnote 4 ... IMMUNIZATION: Vaccination with vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine) protects against monkeypox with greater than 85% efficacy( ... Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Monkeypox virus. PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. ...
... but monkeypox is endemic in West and Central Africa. If smallpox is suspected, the patient should be isolated immediately and ... genus Orthopoxvirus ) that can naturally infect humans and mammals include variola virus (smallpox), monkeypox virus, vaccinia ... Smallpox is prevented by vaccination, and is only recommended for laboratory staff working with orthopox viruses, and public ... virus, cowpox virus, buffalopox virus, camelpox virus, and cantagalo virus. This topic focuses on human disease associated with ...
Members of the Orthopoxvirus genus are well studied, and include variola virus, vaccinia virus (VACV), monkeypox virus, cowpox ... Virus activation of the NF-κB pathway could serve several roles. For instance, viruses that lack anti-apoptotic mechanisms may ... Vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen (VACV), and ectromelia virus strain Moscow (ECTV) were propagated in BGMK cells and harvested ... For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and ...
... monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the relatively large (~ 200 kb) vaccinia ... Members of the orthopox genus include variola, the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the ... Poxviruses are a family of double stranded DNA viruses that include active human pathogens such as monkeypox, molluscum ... monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the relatively large (~ 200 kb) vaccinia ...
The zoonotic poxviruses include members of the genera Orthopoxvirus (monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and the vaccinia virus ... and papulosa stomatitis viruses), and Yatapoxvirus (tanapox virus [TPV], Yaba monkey tumor virus [YMTV], and Yaba-like disease ... The genus Escherichia is not as genetically diverse as once thought and contains only three named species: E. albertii, E. ... The taxonomy of Aspergillus has been in flux, and this genus has now been subdivided into subgenera and sections. In practice, ...
Mutations in six vaccinia virus I7L temperature sensitive mutants fall into two groups: changes at three positions at the N- ... As an approach to initiating a structure-function analysis of the vaccinia virus I7L core protein proteinase, a collection of ... a genus of large, double-stranded DNA viruses which includes the human pathogens variola virus and monkeypox virus. VV has a ... Lee P, Hruby DE: trans processing of vaccinia virus core proteins. J Virol 1993, 67: 4252-4263.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle ...
... armored virus explanation free. What is armored virus? Meaning of armored virus medical term. What does armored virus mean? ... Looking for online definition of armored virus in the Medical Dictionary? ... vaccinia virus. A double-stranded DNA virus, the causative agent of cowpox and a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus. Vaccines ... measles-like viruses Morbillivirus. monkeypox virus an orthopoxvirus that produces mild exanthematous disease in monkeys and a ...
... viruses are classified into eight genera, namely: Orthopoxvirus (including camelpox virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and ... vaccinia virus); Parapoxvirus (including bovine papular stomatitis virus, orf virus, parapox virus of red deer, pseudocowpox ... fowlpox virus, ectromelia virus, monkeypox virus and the now eradicated human smallpox virus (variola virus). Economically ... cowpox virus and vaccinia virus, whilst others are zoonotic pathogens, for example pseudocowpox virus and the rare tanapox ...
... genetically distinct from other viruses in this group - including variola virus (the cause of smallpox) and vaccinia virus (the ... Monkeypox virus represents a double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus, ... Monkeypox virus represents a double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus, genetically distinct from other viruses in ... and vaccinia virus (the virus used for the smallpox vaccine).. Human monkeypox was initially identified in the Democratic ...
Pox viruses are the largest and the most complex of all viruses, belongs to the family poxviridae and causes a number of ... POX VIRUSES. ⇒ Poxviridae consists of 3 genera as - *Orthopoxvirus - *Variola & Vaccinia ( in human) ... morphology of pox viruses, morphology of vaccinia virus, morphology of variola virus, pox virus, poxviruses, vaccinia virus, ... Posted By: SAHIL BATRA 0 Comment causative agent of smallpox, cultivation of pox viruses, cultivation of vaccinia virus, ...
Virus. Monkeypox, vaccinia, cowpox, buffalopox, cantagalo, and aracatuba viruses. Non-human primates, swine, cattle, horses, ... Dogs, cats Nematodes of the Toxocara genus (T. canis, T. felis ). Visceral Larval Migrans (VLM). ... Viral Hemorrhagic Virus Fever*. 2-21 days (5 - 50-90% fatality rate for Ebola virus; 25% 12 days in most cases) mortality rate ... Virus. Infected mice excrete virus Rodents (hamsters, in saliva, urine and feces; mice, guinea pigs), monkeys and humans man ...
Furthermore, the platform was able to distinguish MPXV and vaccinia viruses that were spiked into macaque blood samples at ... a member of the family Poxviridae and genus Orthopoxvirus, causes a smallpox-like disease in humans. A previously described pan ... Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus. J Virol 79: 7845-7851.[ ... Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the family Poxviridae and genus Orthopoxvirus, causes a smallpox-like disease in humans. A ...
The zoonotic poxviruses include members of the genera Orthopoxvirus (monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and the vaccinia virus ... and papulosa stomatitis viruses), and Yatapoxvirus (tanapox virus [TPV], Yaba monkey tumor virus [YMTV], and Yaba-like disease ... Perinuclear basophilic or B-type cytoplasmic inclusions (virus factories or viroplasm) are observed with cells infected with ... the virus neutralization test (NT), Western blotting, and hemagglutination inhibition. In the current state of bioterrorism ...
... virus. Monkeypox, smallpox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses all belong to the same family of viruses, the Poxviridae. Monkeypox ... belongs to same genus (Orthopoxvirus) as smallpox. The disease is different from smallpox. Monkeypox may be transferred from ... What causes monkeypox? How is monkeypox transmitted?. Monkeypox is caused by an Orthopoxvirus named monkeypox. The viruses are ... What causes monkeypox?, What is monkeypox?, What is the history of monkeypox?, What is the prognosis of monkeypox?, What is the ...
... monkeypoxvirus, and the vaccine species vaccinia virus (VACV). Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an OPV of the laboratory mouse. ECTV ... The genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) includes viruses important to human health such as variola virus (the agent of smallpox), ... Ectromelia virus. GzB. granzyme B. ND-LN. non-D-LN. OPV. Orthopoxvirus. VACV. vaccinia virus. ... Treatment of lethal vaccinia virus respiratory infections in mice with cidofovir. Antivir. Chem. Chemother. 12:71-76 [PubMed] ...
  • A majority of occupational laboratory Orthopoxvirus infections reported in the United States are caused by Vaccinia virus . (cdc.gov)
  • The ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was next to diverge from the other clades at 0.3 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthopoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Chitovirales Family: Poxviridae Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Orthopoxvirus Abatino macacapox virus Akhmeta virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus Variola virus Volepox virus Among the path of evolution of the Orthopoxvirus species, many genes are truncated (but still functional), fragmented, or lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the eradication of variola virus, camelpox has become one of the most economically important Orthopoxvirus infections due to the dependence of many subsistence-level nomadic communities on camels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the eradication of the human-specific variola virus (smallpox), all human Orthopoxvirus infections are zoonoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosols of concentrated virus may result in Orthopoxvirus infection, especially in unimmunized individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smallpox is caused by variola virus, genus Orthopoxvirus . (cdc.gov)
  • PCR testing or virus isolation confirms orthopoxvirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Inger Damon] Vaccinia viruses are a part of the orthopoxvirus genus, the same genus as variola virus, which causes smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • CHARACTERISTICS: Virus belongs to family Poxviridae, sub-family Chordopoxvirinae and genus Orthopoxvirus(1,4,5). (msdsonline.com)
  • genus Orthopoxvirus [OPV]) is used as a lyophilized live virus vaccine against smallpox, variola virus (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Orthopoxvirus genus also includes variola virus (the cause of smallpox), vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine), and cowpox virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vaccinia virus , the prototypical member of the Orthopoxvirus genus and a close relative of smallpox (variola) virus, was the live viral vaccine used in the global variola eradication campaign ( 8 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Smallpox is a highly contagious disease caused by variola virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of the Poxviridae family. (asm.org)
  • Vaccinia virus, also in the Orthopoxvirus genus, was used for mass vaccination against smallpox by the World Health Organization (WHO) and is considered the model vaccine, as its efficacy led to the eradication of smallpox ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Some of the members of the Orthopoxvirus genus are zoonotic and have recently caused poxvirus infections in humans, with literature reports describing outbreaks of monkeypox ( 6 ), cowpox ( 7 ), buffalopox ( 8 ), volepox ( 9 ), and vaccinia ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or specific to certain orthopoxvirus species, allowing a more detailed description of differences in virus-host cell interactions between individual orthopoxviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Out of these, especially the genus orthopoxvirus (OPV) contains several important pathogens of humans and animals, including some zoonotic members [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses belonging to the Poxvirus family (genus Orthopoxvirus ) that can naturally infect humans and mammals include variola virus (smallpox), monkeypox virus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, buffalopox virus, camelpox virus, and cantagalo virus. (bmj.com)
  • https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/smallpox-and-other-orthopoxvirus-associated-infections The monkeypox virus can be transmitted to humans from different wild animals, such as non-human primates and rodents, although its natural host reservoir is unknown. (bmj.com)
  • The Orthopoxvirus genus of Poxviridae family is comprised of several human pathogens, including cowpox (CPXV), Vaccinia (VACV), monkeypox (MPV) and Variola (VARV) viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monkeypox virus represents a double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus , genetically distinct from other viruses in this group - including variola virus (the cause of smallpox) and vaccinia virus (the virus used for the smallpox vaccine). (news-medical.net)
  • Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the family Poxviridae and genus Orthopoxvirus , causes a smallpox-like disease in humans. (ajtmh.org)
  • Monkeypox belongs to same genus (Orthopoxvirus) as smallpox. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Monkeypox is now the major Orthopoxvirus that infects humans and fortunately, not frequently. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • The genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) includes viruses important to human health such as variola virus (the agent of smallpox), monkeypoxvirus, and the vaccine species vaccinia virus (VACV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Introduction Vaccinia virus (VV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, including smallpox (variola) virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and mousepox (ectromelia) virus. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Tests of lesion material with the use of a quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay for non-variola virus orthopoxviruses were positive, and DNA sequence analysis implicated a novel orthopoxvirus species. (cdc.gov)
  • Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • It is a member of the family Poxviridae, genus orthopoxvirus. (health.gov.au)
  • Orthopoxvirus is a genus of poxviruses that includes many species isolated from non-human mammals, such as Buffalopox virus , Camelpox virus , Cowpox virus , Monkeypox virus , Rabbitpox virus , Sealpox virus , Volepox virus and Ectromelia virus , which causes mousepox. (bionity.com)
  • It was wiped out using another orthopoxvirus, the Vaccinia virus. (bionity.com)
  • Members of the genus Orthopoxvirus are members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, which is a division of the dsDNA viral family Poxviridae . (bionity.com)
  • It contains vaccinia virus, which belongs to the poxvirus family, genus Orthopoxvirus . (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox viruses are in the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes smallpox (variola) and vaccinia, the virus used in smallpox vaccines. (umn.edu)
  • The lab employee worked with a type of poxvirus that is not in the Orthopoxvirus genus (a "non-Orthopoxvirus Chordopoxvirus") and does not infect humans. (umn.edu)
  • In the environmental investigation, 3 of 20 samples, including one from the handle of the virus stock freezer, tested positive for Orthopoxvirus DNA. (umn.edu)
  • Identification of the orthopoxvirus p4c gene, which encodes a structural protein that directs intracellular mature virus particles into A-type inclusions. (duke.edu)
  • The orthopoxvirus gene p4c has been identified in the genome of the vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. (duke.edu)
  • The p4c gene is highly conserved among most members of the orthopoxvirus genus, including viruses that produce ATIs, such as cowpox, ectromelia, and raccoonpox viruses, as well as those such as variola, monkeypox, vaccinia, and camelpox viruses, which do not. (duke.edu)
  • Four genera in this subfamily contain species that infect humans: Molluscipoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus and Yatapoxvirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines were produced from the vaccinia virus, a closely related orthopoxvirus to variola. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Monkeypox virus (MPXV), which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus , is zoonotic and endemic to western and central Africa. (blogspot.com)
  • Human monkeypox: a newly emerged orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forests of Africa. (sciepub.com)
  • Dosage comparison of Congo Basin and West African strains of monkeypox virus using a prairie dog animal model of systemic orthopoxvirus disease. (sciepub.com)
  • In the absence of a known natural host, vaccinia has been considered to be a laboratory virus that may have originated from mutational or recombinational events involving cowpox virus, variola viruses or some unknown ancestral Orthopoxvirus. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Many poxviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus (e.g., vaccinia virus [VACV]) and Parapoxvirus (e.g., pseudocowpox virus [PCPV]), are considered zoonotic viruses because their infections usually arise from human contact with infected domestic or sylvatic animal species ( 2 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Poxviridae is a family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poxviridae viral particles (virions) are generally enveloped (external enveloped virion), though the intracellular mature virion form of the virus, which contains different envelope, is also infectious. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the genome organisation and DNA replication mechanism it seems that phylogenetic relationships may exist between the rudiviruses (Rudiviridae) and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: the African swine fever virus (Asfarviridae), Chlorella viruses (Phycodnaviridae) and poxviruses (Poxviridae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses of the family Poxviridae are characterized by their large and complex virions, a double-stranded DNA genome of 130-375 kbp and the cytosol as the place of replication [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The family Poxviridae consists of large double-stranded DNA containing viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. (jove.com)
  • Pox viruses are the largest and the most complex of all viruses, belongs to the family poxviridae and causes a number of diseases, are large enough to be seen under the light microscope. (paramedicsworld.com)
  • Genus Parapoxvirus of Family Poxviridae. (humanitarian.net)
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) is a member of the Poxviridae, which constitute a large family of enveloped DNA viruses and replicate entirely in the cytoplasm of the infected cells with a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 130-300 kilo base pairs. (datexis.com)
  • The Poxviridae family comprises large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, including humans ( 1 ). (blogspot.com)
  • It was eradicated globally by 1977, through the use of Vaccinia virus as a vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia virus, maintained in vaccine institutes and research laboratories, has a very wide host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine-derived vaccinia has been found replicating in the wild in Brazil, where it has caused infections in rodents, cattle, and even humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless, the recognition of vaccinia virus as an animal and human pathogen in Brazil and other parts of the world is important as we consider the possibility of renewed widespread use of smallpox vaccine, which could be needed in the future as the result of bioterrorism. (cdc.gov)
  • The potential for vaccine-associated complications has led the U.S. advisory committee on immunization practices to recommend that infants under 1 year of age and adults with weakened immune systems or those with preexisting skin conditions such as eczema or atopic dermatitis not be routinely vaccinated in the absence of clear exposure to either smallpox or monkeypox ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The smallpox vaccine using vaccinia virus has been highly successful, but it is still unclear why the vaccine is so effective. (asm.org)
  • Since the smallpox vaccine contains live vaccinia virus, it can cause secondary effects. (asm.org)
  • TB is the principal investigator on an MRC/Wellcome/Newton Fund grant to make a Zika vaccine based on recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara. (bmj.com)
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV), the live vaccine used in the eradication of smallpox, is particularly amenable to fluorescent live-cell microscopy owing to its large virion size and the ease with which it can be engineered at the genome level. (jove.com)
  • Treatment may consist of immediate vaccination with smallpox vaccine because monkeypox is so closely related to smallpox. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • There is no commercially available vaccine specifically for monkeypox. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Vaccination against smallpox is assumed to provide protection against human monkeypox infection considering they are closely related viruses and the vaccine protects animals from experimental lethal monkeypox challenge. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • Given that human diseases caused by poxviruses can be as lethal as smallpox or as benign as Molluscum contagiosum, and that vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of the pox family, persists as a mainstay of vaccine design and has potential as an oncolytic virus for tumor therapy, further research in this area remains important. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vaccinia virus was used as the vaccine successfully to eradicate variola virus and remains under investigation as a general vaccine vector as well as an oncolytic virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • The only product currently available for treatment of complications of Orthopox infection is Vaccinia Immunoglobulin (VIG), which is an isotonic sterile solution of the immunoglobulin fraction of plasma from persons vaccinated with vaccinia vaccine. (bionity.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has licensed ACAM2000® external icon , (Smallpox [Vaccinia] Vaccine, Live), a replication-competent vaccine, for active immunization against smallpox disease in persons determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine does not contain variola virus and cannot cause smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Replication-competent smallpox vaccine consists of a live, infectious vaccinia virus that can be transmitted from the vaccine recipient to unvaccinated persons who have close contact with the inoculation site, or with exudate from the site. (cdc.gov)
  • The FDA has licensed JYNNEOS TM (also known by the brand names Imvamune and Imvanex), a replication-deficient smallpox vaccine, for the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike ACAM2000® and APSV, JYNNEOS TM is an attenuated live virus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Historically, the vaccine was prepared from virus grown on the skin of animals, and in some cases, the vaccine was contaminated with animal proteins, bacteria, and other viruses. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The vaccine site should be loosely covered to prevent the spread of virus to others. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vaccinia is a live virus vaccine that was last routinely used in the United States in 1972. (netce.com)
  • The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus called vaccinia. (medicinenet.com)
  • The vaccine has uncommon side effects that may be fatal, including infection of the heart and brain with the vaccinia strain. (medicinenet.com)
  • The vaccine is currently only given to selected military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the smallpox virus. (medicinenet.com)
  • After a time, a virus similar to cowpox, called vaccinia, was substituted in the vaccine. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although smallpox vaccination can provide some protection against infection, this vaccination is not used in MPXV-endemic areas because of cost considerations and safety concerns about using a vaccine that contains live vaccinia virus. (blogspot.com)
  • For almost 150 years after Edward Jenner had published the "Inquiry" in 1798, it was generally assumed that the cowpox virus was the vaccine against smallpox. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • It was not until 1939 when it was shown that vaccinia, the smallpox vaccine virus, was serologically related but different from the cowpox virus. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Variola virus caused a deadly human disease smallpox until its global eradication in 1977, in which VV was used as a vaccine. (datexis.com)
  • Replication-deficient poxvirus strains and vectors do not produce infectious virus in humans and therefore do not cause clinical infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Replication-competent poxvirus strains are capable of causing clinical infection in humans as well as producing infectious virus that can be transmitted to other people. (cdc.gov)
  • Other members of this genus that can infect humans are vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus, and cowpox virus. (cdc.gov)
  • African rodents and primates may harbor the virus and infect humans, but the reservoir host is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • One explanation is that the vaccinia viruses used as human smallpox vaccines have managed to establish themselves in the domestic and wild animal populations in regions of Brazil, are now infecting humans, and are more severely affecting humans that didn't receive smallpox vaccines before the program ended. (cdc.gov)
  • So now you're studying this in Brazil to see if there are indeed new vaccinia viruses that are infecting humans? (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the cessation of smallpox vaccination appears to have increased the susceptibility of humans to severe monkeypox. (msdsonline.com)
  • Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Poxviruses are a large family of complex, highly epitheliotropic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that cause cutaneous and systemic diseases in humans, birds and both free-ranging and domestic mammals. (scielo.org.za)
  • This virus caused outbreaks of cutaneous disease in monkey colonies and associated humans during 1965 and 1966 in the United States (Downie & Espana 1972). (scielo.org.za)
  • Therefore all health-care providers, veterinarians and public health officials who suspect monkeypox in animals or humans are obliged to report such cases to their state or local health departments. (news-medical.net)
  • Monkeypox is a relatively rare disease that was first detected in monkeys in Africa in 1958 and resembles smallpox in terms of the skin lesions (pox) seen in humans as part of the physical findings and also because the cause is a virus that is closely related to the smallpox (variola) virus. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Since then monkeypox has been reported in humans in other central and western African countries. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • In humans, monkeypox is similar to smallpox, although it is often milder. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • Monkeypox in humans is rarely fatal. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • Variola virus has a host range strictly limited to humans. (health.gov.au)
  • Three of the many other animal orthopoxviruses (vaccinia, monkeypox, and cowpox) may also infect humans. (health.gov.au)
  • A much lesser known poxvirus that infects only humans is Molluscum contagiosum that resides in a genus of its own and for the most part it causes only a very localized and mild infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (tabers.com)
  • Whereas some poxviruses have only one host species, such as variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, which is restricted to humans, others, such as cowpox and monkeypox viruses, can infect many different species and thus display very broad host ranges ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Since the eradication of smallpox, the only poxvirus that naturally infects humans is molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). (naturopathix.com)
  • Viruses in the orthopox genus include cowpox, monkeypox, vaccina, and variola (smallpox), all of which can infect humans. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Variola virus is highly transmissible and causes severe disease in humans resulting in high mortality rates (Henderson et al. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • The present invention relates to methods and products useful in restricting the growth, spread and survivability of viruses in animals, especially humans. (justia.com)
  • The Coronaviridae are a family of viruses that cause disease in humans ranging from mild respiratory infection to potentially lethal acute respiratory distress syndrome. (stanford.edu)
  • 2004. The detection of monkeypox in humans in the Western Hemisphere. (sciepub.com)
  • The double-stranded (ds)RNA viruses represent a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, plants, fungi , and bacteria ), genome segment number (one to twelve), and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers, or turrets). (wikidoc.org)
  • Notably, variola and monkeypox viruses are transmitted to humans by respiratory route, whereas molluscum contagiosum virus is mainly transmitted through the skin. (datexis.com)
  • Monkeypox occurs naturally only in Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refugees and immigrants leaving the Democratic Republic of the Congo may be infected with monkeypox virus, but reports of this are rare. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1970, the first human case of monkeypox was identified in a 9 month old child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) in a region where smallpox had been eradicated in 1968(6,8,8,11). (msdsonline.com)
  • VACV is the prototype member of the OPV genus and the best-studied one. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection assays with human HeLa PKR knock-down cells, which were stably transfected with human or rabbit PKR, revealed that only human but not rabbit PKR was able to restrict MYXV infection, whereas both PKRs were able to restrict replication of a vaccinia virus (VACV) strain that lacks the PKR inhibitors E3 and K3. (pnas.org)
  • Inactivation of M156R led to MYXV virus attenuation in rabbit cells, which was rescued by the ectopic expression of VACV E3 and K3. (pnas.org)
  • VACV has also emerged as a zoonotic virus in India ( 5 ). (blogspot.com)
  • The replication of poxvirus is unusual for a virus with double-stranded DNA genome because it occurs in the cytoplasm, although this is typical of other large DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent decision to begin vaccinating civilian health care workers against smallpox and the outbreak of monkeypox in the American Midwest have renewed interest in the pathogenesis of acute poxvirus infections. (asm.org)
  • In a mouse model of infection with vaccinia virus (VV), the most studied member of the poxvirus family, we identified that the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88) pathway was critical for the activation of NK cells and the control of VV infection in vivo. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Detection of a poxvirus resembling variola virus by electron microscopy from clinical material. (health.gov.au)
  • The attenuation of myxoma virus, a rabbit-specific poxvirus, after its deliberate release to control European rabbit populations, and the increased resistance of the rabbits, is one of the best-known examples for host-virus coevolution on the population level. (pnas.org)
  • Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a rabbit-specific poxvirus, which is highly virulent in European rabbits. (pnas.org)
  • Some of the vials of cowpox viruses were stored in boxes with other poxvirus species. (umn.edu)
  • Because other poxvirus samples were contaminated with cowpox virus in the lab, the authors became concerned that the patient's infection might involve a novel recombinant virus. (umn.edu)
  • those in the genera Caiman poxvirus and Crocodylipoxvirus both infect crocidylians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molluscum contagiosum is caused by a virus that is a member of the poxvirus family. (naturopathix.com)
  • 26 Poxvirus promoter detection Distinct promoters for each phase of gene expression Two conserved regions (core and initiator) separated by variable spacing Sequence conservation generally within each genus. (slideplayer.com)
  • The genome replication of the the poxvirus is believed to involve self-priming, leading to the formation of high m.w. concatemers that are isolated from infected cells which are subsequently cleaved and repaired to make virus genomes. (kenyon.edu)
  • Poxviruses of vertebrates are divided into ten genera [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Poxviruses are large dsDNA viruses that are renowned for regulating cellular pathways and manipulating the host immune response, including the NF-κB pathway. (prolekare.cz)
  • NF-κB inhibition by poxviruses is a growing area of interest and this family of viruses has developed multiple mechanisms to manipulate the pathway. (prolekare.cz)
  • Severe systemic disease may be caused by some poxviruses including sheeppox virus, fowlpox virus, ectromelia virus, monkeypox virus and the now eradicated human smallpox virus (variola virus). (scielo.org.za)
  • Perinuclear basophilic or B-type cytoplasmic inclusions (virus factories or viroplasm) are observed with cells infected with any of the poxviruses and represent sites of virus replication. (asmscience.org)
  • While the role of NK cells during herpes virus infection has been well established and dissected, poxviruses also present an interesting family of viruses to consider in the context of the NK cell response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Poxviruses that infect mammals are further divided into a number of subgroups including the well-studied orthopox genus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Poxviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that exclusively replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, the binding and entry of poxviruses into cells is largely independent of host species after which virus replication is initiated. (pnas.org)
  • DNA viruses, like poxviruses, possess a highly stable genome, suggesting that adaptation of virus particles to specific cell types is not restricted to genomic changes. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Cowpox viruses are zoonotic poxviruses with an extraordinarily broad host range, demonstrating their adaptive potential in vivo. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • To elucidate adaptation mechanisms of poxviruses, we isolated cowpox virus particles from a rat and passaged them five times in a human and a rat cell line. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of Herpesviridae and Mimiviridae, but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Like other poxviruses, the central core of the genomes encode factors for virus transcription and replication, and structural proteins, whereas the terminal regions encode accessory factors that give the parapoxvirus group many of its unique features. (springer.com)
  • There are many genes of parapoxviruses which do not encode polypeptides with significant matches with protein sequences in public databases, separating this genus from most other mammalian poxviruses. (springer.com)
  • Parapoxviruses in common with Molluscum contagiosum virus lack a number of genes that are highly conserved in other poxviruses, including factors for nucleotide metabolism, serine protease inhibitors and kelch-like proteins. (springer.com)
  • Poxviruses are the largest viruses known. (kenyon.edu)
  • The gene expression of poxviruses has been studied in detail because of the interest in the use of Vaccinia virus as a vector for the expression of heterologous genes. (kenyon.edu)
  • Other poxviruses causing human diseases are molluscum contagiosum virus and the zoonotic monkeypox virus. (datexis.com)
  • There are currently 38 species in this subfamily, divided among 10 genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases associated with this subfamily include: Variola virus: smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nine genera in this subfamily are recognised. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other genera in this subfamily infect mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Orthopox genus (Orthopoxyiridae) is a member of the Poxyiridae family and the Choropoxivirinae subfamily. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Serologic methods currently used to detect antibodies against human orthopoxviruses include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the virus neutralization test (NT), Western blotting, and hemagglutination inhibition. (asmscience.org)
  • Recent concerns over the use of smallpox virus as a biological weapon has underscored the necessity of developing small molecule therapeutics that target orthopoxviruses. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Orthopoxviruses (OPXVs) gained considerable attention in the past because variola (smallpox) virus fatally infected millions of persons worldwide for centuries. (blogspot.com)
  • There are currently 83 species in this family, divided among 22 genera, which are divided into two subfamilies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, 13 species are in this genus, including the type species Vaccinia virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most recently described species is the Alaskapox virus, first isolated in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ted Pestorius] So besides cows, what other species can be infected with vaccinia viruses? (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccinia viruses and close relatives seem to have a broad host range within various species of mammals and can infect a spectrum of mammalian species running from rodents to cows. (cdc.gov)
  • It may be speculated that these differences at the cellular level contribute to the individual characteristics of cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Species of this virus genus cause human diseases with various severities and outcome ranging from mild conditions to death in fulminating cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Introduction of exotic species (such as rodents from Africa) still represents a significant public health threat because of the potential infection with monkeypox virus, but also with other nonindigenous pathogens. (news-medical.net)
  • Fortunately, this was not the case because monkeypox was found to be a different species of pox virus, and smallpox was eradicated from the human population by vaccinations in 1979 (currently, only a few research labs have access to smallpox viruses). (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Human monkeypox was first detected in the Western hemisphere in May 2003, when a total of 71 cases of suspected or confirmed monkeypox were reported in the Midwestern United States in patients ages 1-51 years old, with a history of exposure to infected native prairie dogs (Cynomys species) from a distributor of exotic animals. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • ABBR: BAV The type species of the southeast Asian genus Seadornavirus (family Reoviridae). (tabers.com)
  • Oliveros virus (OLI) A serologically distinct species of the Tacaribe complex of the family Arenaviridae, isolated in 1990 in Oliveros, a village in Argentina from a trapped rodent, Bolomys obscurus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV) A tick-borne species in the genus Flavivirus, member of the Mammalian tick-borne encephalitis serogroup. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • O'Nyong-Nyong virus (ONNV) A species in the genus Alphavirus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • There are also a number of species that have not yet been assigned to a genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The designed molecular system for detection of bioterrorism agents was tested on each of these agents (except Monkeypox virus, Smallpox virus and 2 Burkholderia species for which no native DNA was available) and a collection of 50 isolates of C. burnetii using constructed plasmids as positive controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The compositions are derived from Fomitopsis, Piptoporus, Ganoderma resinaceum and blends of medicinal mushroom species and are useful in preventing and treating viruses including Pox and HIV viruses. (justia.com)
  • Usutu virus, Italy, West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes in Spain, - Emergence and establishment of Usutu virus infection in wild and captive avian species in and around Zurich, Switzerland-genomic and pathologic comparison to other central European outbreaks. (quoniamdolcesuono.eu)
  • Before 1982, it was thought that viruses could not be made to fit Ernst Mayr 's reproductive concept of species, and so were not amenable to such treatment. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In 1991, the more specific principle that a virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche was adopted. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In July 2013, the ICTV definition of species changed to state: "A species is a monophyletic group of viruses whose properties can be distinguished from those of other species by multiple criteria. (jakearchibald.com)
  • [3] Viruses are real physical entities produced by biological evolution and genetics, whereas virus species and higher taxa are abstract concepts produced by rational thought and logic. (jakearchibald.com)
  • The virus/species relationship thus represents the front line of the interface between biology and logic. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Unlike the system of binomial nomenclature adopted in cellular species, there is currently no standardized form for virus species names. (jakearchibald.com)
  • At present, the ICTV mandates that a species name must contain as few words as possible while remaining distinct, and must not only contain the word virus and the host name. (jakearchibald.com)
  • [8] Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus , particularly for higher plants and animals. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In 2019, the ICTV published a proposal to adopt a more formalized system of binomial nomenclature for virus species names, to be voted on in 2020. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Most double-stranded DNA viruses require the host cell's DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to perform transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • These host polymerases are found in the nucleus, and therefore most double-stranded DNA viruses carry out a part of their infection cycle within the host cell's nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a large and complex, double-stranded DNA genome, measuring about 200 Kb, that encodes most of the genes required for cytoplasmic replication of the virus [1]. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Variola or smallpox virus is a double stranded DNA virus. (health.gov.au)
  • The DNA of DNA viruses is usually double-stranded (dsDNA), but may also be single-stranded (ssDNA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herpes viruses are double stranded DNA viruses assigned to Group I . The Herpesviridae Study Group has proposed that herpes viruses be assigned to a newly defined order, Herpesvirales. (wikidoc.org)
  • Reverse transcriptase , a viral enzyme that comes from the virus itself after it is uncoated, converts the viral RNA into a complementary strand of DNA, which is copied to produce a double stranded molecule of viral DNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which mediate cellular endocytosis of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spi-2 proteins, including Cowpox virus CrmA, suppress anti-viral immune responses and contribute to poxviral pathogenesis and lethality. (portlandpress.com)
  • Viral evolutionary success not only requires the virus to enter a host cell and hijack its cellular machinery to enable viral replication: the infected cell must also be kept alive until infective viral particles can be produced and released, to spread the infection to other cells within that host and to other individuals. (portlandpress.com)
  • Of particular interest to both the clinician and researcher would be the pathways that the virus uses to cross the placenta and the in vivo targets of viral replication within maternal reproductive tissue and in the fetus. (asm.org)
  • Importantly, mice infected with ectromelia virus lacking EVM005 had a robust immune response, leading to viral clearance during infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • For instance, viruses that lack anti-apoptotic mechanisms may activate NF-κB to prolong the life of the infected cell in order to complete the viral replication cycle. (prolekare.cz)
  • Tagging of viral proteins with fluorescent proteins has proven an indispensable approach to furthering our understanding of virus-host interactions. (jove.com)
  • These results emphasis the essential role of A6R gene in viral replication, and demonstrate the potential of RNAi as a therapeutic approach for developing oligonucleotide-based drug therapy for MPV and other orthopox viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we developed siRNAs to target several monkeypox viral proteins, and demonstrated the application of this approach in identifying new drug targets and inhibiting viral replication in cell culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monkeypox is a viral disease that produces pox lesions on the skin and is closely related to smallpox but is not nearly as deadly as smallpox was. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • The press and bloggers have occasionally tried to link monkeypox to other diseases such as mad cow disease, Ebola, leprosy, yellow fever, and other viral and immunological diseases, but there is no scientific evidence. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Much of the work to date on resistance to viral disease during aging has compared immunological fitness of the young and aged by looking at their immune responses to vaccination, by challenging vaccinated mice with viruses, or by comparing susceptibility to suboptimal viral doses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Not only do we realize viruses have many immune-evasion strategies to escape NK cell responses, but that stimulation of NK cell subsets during an antiviral response occurs through receptors seemingly geared directly at viral products and that NK cells can provide a memory response to viral pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tremendous knowledge has been gained in this area through the study of herpes viruses, but appreciation for the significance of NK cells in the response to other types of viral infections is growing. (frontiersin.org)
  • NK cells can limit viral replication directly by lysing virus-infected cells, and are also stimulated during a viral infection through cytokines to produce antiviral cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (tabers.com)
  • The virulence and host range of viruses is controlled by the interaction of the host innate immune system with viral molecules. (pnas.org)
  • In general, viral oncogenes are transduced genetic sequences found in the genome of acutely transforming viruses which have cellular homologs (proto-oncogenes) from which they were derived. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Evolutionary changes in the virus genome have led in some cases to considerable differences between the products of the viral oncogenes and their cellular homologs, but their relationship can be clearly seen at the genetic level. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • About the time the patient's infection began, some mice that the patient handled exhibited lesions, and it was eventually learned that they had been injected with a viral line contaminated with coxpox virus, the report says. (umn.edu)
  • In this way, the P4c protein may affect both viral morphogenesis and processes of virus dissemination. (duke.edu)
  • The virus exits the host cell by microtubular outwards viral transport, and existing in occlusion bodies after cell death and remaining infectious until finding another host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human monkeypox is an emerging viral zoonotic disease, which is caused by monkey pox virus. (sciepub.com)
  • AGMs inoculated by all three transmission routes exhibited viremia and viral shedding followed by strong virus neutralizing antibody responses, in the absence of clinical illness. (bvsalud.org)
  • Notably, vRNA and infectious virus were detected in vaginal swabs collected from the infected female AGM (peak viral load: 7.5 log10 copies/mL, peak titer: 3.8 log10 PFU/mL, range of detection: 5-21 days post infection). (bvsalud.org)
  • In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in determining, at atomic and subnanometeric levels, the structures of a number of key viral proteins and of the virion capsids of several dsRNA viruses, highlighting the significant parallels in the structure and replicative processes of many of these viruses. (wikidoc.org)
  • Positive-sense viruses have their genome directly utilized as if it were mRNA, producing a single protein which is modified by host and viral proteins to form the various proteins needed for replication. (wikidoc.org)
  • Virology is a twentieth-century science that deals with viruses and viral diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has been suggested that similarity in virion assembly and structure observed for certain viral groups infecting hosts from different domains of life (e.g., bacterial tectiviruses and eukaryotic adenoviruses or prokaryotic Caudovirales and eukaryotic herpesviruses) reflects an evolutionary relationship between these viruses. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Vaccinia virus strains commonly used in laboratories include Western Reserve, Copenhagen, NYCBOH, Lister, and Temple of Heaven. (cdc.gov)
  • Predicting the phylogeny by sequence or by gene content produces somewhat different results: Some of the differences in the two trees are attributed to the procedure of passage in producing vaccinia strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse strains, known as naturally resistant to mousepox, also become infected but are able to control spread to and replication in the liver by rapidly mounting effective innate and adaptive immune responses that, together, control the virus ( Esteban and Buller, 2005 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, while variola virus caused only a mild and localized disease in some individuals, many succumbed to severe disease with very high mortality rates especially for some strains of the virus (reviewed in Bray and Buller, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Even vaccinated individuals may no longer be fully protected, especially against highly virulent or recombinant strains of virus (Downie and McCarthy. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Although a parapoxvirus outbreak in imported goats was reported in Colombia in 1983 ( 8 ), only Brazil and the United States have formal evidence of endemic and zoonotic transmission of these viruses ( 9 , 10 ). (blogspot.com)
  • In fact, live vaccinia virus was used in vaccinations for smallpox, which the World Health Organization declared in 1980 had been eradicated. (cdc.gov)
  • The late genes are expressed after the genome has been replicated and encode the structural proteins to make the virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole genome sequencing of Brazilian vaccinia virus is ongoing at CDC, and we hope it'll help clarify the relationship between these viruses and their hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • To this end, we analysed changes in host cell gene expression of HeLa cells in response to infection with cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non-infected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the relatively large (~ 200 kb) vaccinia genome, three classes of genes are encoded: early, intermediate, and late. (jove.com)
  • In order to understand regulation of both host and virus gene expression, we have utilized genome-wide approaches to analyze transcript abundance from both virus and host cells. (jove.com)
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (tabers.com)
  • Due to the problems caused by the uncertainty in alignment, existing tools for phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment could not be directly applied to the whole-genome comparison and phylogenomic studies of viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, the DL method is used to analyze the whole-proteome phylogeny of 124 large dsDNA viruses and 30 parvoviruses, two data sets with large difference in genome size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In comparison, some alignment-free methods such as the CV Tree method can be used for recovering the phylogeny of large dsDNA viruses, but they are not suitable for resolving the phylogeny of parvoviruses with a much smaller genome size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study represents another effort of applying an alignment-free method in analysing complete genome data to elucidate the phylogeny of two virus groups of different genome size, the large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome sizes of dsDNA viruses are usually larger than 10 kb except those in the families Polyomaviridae (5 kb) and Papillomaviridae (7-8 kb). (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, the genome sizes of ssDNA viruses are smaller than 10 kb. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene is disrupted in the genome of cowpox virus Brighton Red (BR), demonstrating that although the P4c protein may be advantageous for virus replication in vivo, it is not essential for virus replication in vitro. (duke.edu)
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (wikidoc.org)
  • The virus is suficiently complex and has acquired all the functions necessary for genome replication. (kenyon.edu)
  • Negative-sense viruses must have their genome copied by an RNA polymerase or transcriptase to form positive-sense RNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • Others, such as ectromelia and camelpox viruses, are highly host-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we focus on regulation of the NF-κB pathway by ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox. (prolekare.cz)
  • We demonstrate that ectromelia virus is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway. (prolekare.cz)
  • Previously, we identified a family of four ectromelia virus genes that contain N-terminal ankyrin repeats and a C-terminal F-box domain that interacts with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase. (prolekare.cz)
  • Ectromelia virus devoid of EVM005 still inhibited NF-κB, indicating that multiple gene products contribute to NF-κB inhibition. (prolekare.cz)
  • Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an OPV of the laboratory mouse. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We report here an optimized protocol for generating recombinant viruses. (jove.com)
  • By streamlining the generation of fluorescent recombinant viruses, we are able to facilitate downstream applications such as advanced imaging analysis of many aspects of the virus-host interplay that occurs during virus replication. (jove.com)
  • Over the next couple of weeks, outbreaks of monkeypox were identified in Wisconsin, Indiana and Illinois, i.e. in the countries where the Texas distributor has sent prairie dogs to pet dealers. (news-medical.net)
  • However, vigilance is warranted as there have been several outbreaks of monkeypox since the 1970s. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Variola virus was the cause of smallpox, a severe disease eradicated globally by vaccination in 1979. (health.gov.au)
  • Considering the fact that this virus is large and complex, replication is relatively quick taking approximately 12 hours until the host cell dies by the release of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial sites of virus replication in the placenta were in cells lining large maternal blood vessels in the placental trophospongium. (asm.org)
  • The minimal requirements for targeted homologous recombination during vaccinia replication were determined, which allows the simplification of construct generation. (jove.com)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Combinational use of these host-based antiviral agents with virus-based antivirals to target different processes of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle should be evaluated in animal models and/or clinical trials. (bvsalud.org)
  • The B/Shanghai/PD114/2018 virus was able to infect alveolar epithelial cells (A549) cells, with good potential for replication. (bvsalud.org)
  • We show that the myxoma virus protein M156 specifically inhibited the antiviral protein kinase R (PKR) from rabbits but not PKR from other mammals, that PKR inhibition correlated with virus replication during infection, and that M156 contains a loss-of-function mutation in Australian field isolates. (pnas.org)
  • The successful completion of virus replication, however, depends on the effective subversion of the host cell's innate immune responses ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • More recently, derivatives of the Gypsy mushroom, Rozites caperata , were found by Piraino & Brandt (1999) to have significant inhibition against the replication and spread of varicella zoster (the 'shingles' and 'chickenpox' virus), influenza A, and the respiratory syncytial virus but not against HIV and other viruses. (justia.com)
  • Research by Dr. Byong Kak Kim showed that extracts of Reishi ( Ganoderma lucidum ) prevented the death of lymphocytes infected with HIV and inhibited the replication of the virus within the mother and daughter cells (Kim et al. (justia.com)
  • These genes appear to be involved in inhibiting apoptosis, manipulating cell cycle progression and degradation of cellular proteins that may be involved in the stress response, thus allowing the virus to subvert intracellular antiviral mechanisms and enhance the availability of cellular molecules required for replication. (springer.com)
  • Thymidine kinase and many other virus-encoded enzymes involved in replication offer potential targets for chemotheraputic agents. (kenyon.edu)
  • Animal RNA viruses can be placed into about four different groups depending on their mode of replication. (wikidoc.org)
  • Viruses are mainly classified by phenotypic characteristics, such as morphology , nucleic acid type, mode of replication, host organisms , and the type of disease they cause. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In this study, we focused on the differences in virus replication and host immune responses between lethal and non-lethal respiratory infections with VV. (datexis.com)
  • The most infamous member of the genus is Variola virus, which causes smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most famous member of the genus is Variola vera , which causes smallpox. (bionity.com)
  • With the exception of monkeypox infection, one lesion is the norm, although satellite lesions may be produced by accidental autoinoculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human infections with vaccinia, wild vaccinialike viruses, cowpox, and cowpoxlike viruses are most often self-limited, characterized by localized vesicular-pustular (and in cowpox, occasionally ulcerative) lesions. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of monkeypox is often made presumptively in Africa by the patient's history and the exam that shows the pox lesions, however, a definitive diagnosis is made by PCR, ELISA, or Western blotting tests that are usually done by the CDC or some state labs. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • The disease, and eventually the causative virus, was named monkeypox because the lesions (pox) seen in monkeys developed like other known pox-forming diseases (pustules that eventually break open, ulcerate, crust over, and some pox form scars in the skin). (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • It was not until 1970 in Africa (Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo), when a 9-year-old boy (who developed smallpox-like lesions) was the first person to eventually be diagnosed with monkeypox. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • In the original case series of 11 patients with suspected or confirmed monkeypox infection from Wisconsin, patients typically presented with fevers, headache and skin lesions. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Disseminated monkeypox lesions in the index case for the US monkeypox outbreak. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Panel C shows active lesions (arrows) on the right hand of a woman who received a retrospective diagnosis of infection with the novel virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on progression of lesions, histopathology and virus isolation. (humanitarian.net)
  • In more recent times we recognise that these proliferative pustular lesions are likely to be caused by a group of zoonotic viruses that are classified as parapoxviruses. (springer.com)
  • Among these viruses, bovine papular stomatitis virus, orf virus, and PCPV are known to cause cutaneous lesions ( 2 ). (blogspot.com)
  • A biological event provides for the presence of at least two actors: one or more pathogens (bacteria, viruses, or toxins) and a vehicle for their dissemination. (torvergata.it)
  • The invention relates to the methods and kits comprising modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) to provide immediate protection against pathogens. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This ancient system, established about 1000 million years ago ( Nonaka and Kimura, 2006 ), has the ability to recognize and eliminate varied invading pathogens including viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rodents imported from West Africa were the source of a human monkeypox outbreak in the United States in 2003. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk factors for monkeypox include close association with African animals (usually rodents) that have the disease or caring for a patient who has monkeypox. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Later studies showed the "monkeypox" virus was actually sustained endemically in African rodents. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • This apparently happened when an animal distributor either housed or transported monkeypox-infected African rodents (Gambian rats) with prairie dogs that were later purchased as pets, became "sick," and transmitted the disease to their owners. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • The prairie dogs were housed with several rodents from Africa, including an ill Gambian giant-pouched rat, which were later found to have monkeypox. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • In Africa human infections have been documented through the handling of infected monkeys, Gambian giant rats and squirrels, with rodents being the major reservoir of the virus. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • The primer pair flanked a region exhibiting distinct and specific DNA deletions in the corresponding sequences of vaccinia, mousepox, monkeypox and camelpox virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Marked lymphadenopathy is a distinguishing feature of monkeypox. (cdc.gov)
  • Lymphadenopathy is thus considered a key distinguishing feature of monkeypox(5,9,10). (msdsonline.com)
  • There is one distinctive feature of monkeypox, which is marked lymphadenopathy. (bmj.com)
  • Monkeypox is endemic to the tropical forested regions of West and Central Africa, notably the Congo Basin. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term travelers to monkeypox-endemic areas would not generally be at risk of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Human smallpox has been eradicated since 1977, but monkeypox is endemic in West and Central Africa. (bmj.com)
  • Monkeypox virus is endemic in rodent populations in Africa. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • Monkeypox is a rare disease that is caused by infection with monkeypox virus. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in mid-2018, it is currently the only antiviral for treating variola virus infection approved in the United States, noted Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pathogenicity of monkeypox is similar to that of smallpox except for the pronounced lymphadenopathy associated with monkeypox and generally milder symptoms(6,9). (msdsonline.com)
  • We're discussing an article in the July 2007 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases about the history and extent of vaccinia virus infection in Brazil. (cdc.gov)
  • Our discussion with Dr. Damon was prompted by an article on Brazilian vaccinia viruses and their origins, published in the July 2007 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases . (cdc.gov)
  • Orthopox viruses cause a wide range of diseases and even a single type of virus will have a range of clinical course in different individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (tabers.com)
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (tabers.com)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis . (bionity.com)
  • HTLV-I is an abbreviation for the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 , also called the Adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1 , a virus that has been seriously implicated in several kinds of diseases including HTLV-I-associated myelopathy , Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection, and a virus cancer link for leukemia (see adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma ). (bionity.com)
  • Individuals infected with HTLV-1 are at risk for opportunistic infections, diseases not caused by the virus itself, but by alterations in the host's immune functions. (bionity.com)
  • The infectious agents now known as viruses originally attracted attention because of the diseases they produce in their animal and plant hosts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The trees from our analyses are in good agreement to the latest classification of large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present method provides a new way for recovering the phylogeny of large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses, and also some insights on the affiliation of a number of unclassified viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [ 20 ], the dsDNA viruses can be classified into certain families or unassigned genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vaccinia fetalis, the vertical transfer of vaccinia virus from mother to fetus, is a relatively rare but often fatal complication of primary vaccinia virus vaccination during pregnancy. (asm.org)
  • An estimated 15 to 50 people/million who receive primary vaccinia virus vaccinations will experience potentially life-threatening side effects including allergic reactions at the site of vaccination, spread of the virus to other parts of the body, and infection of the central nervous system ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Smallpox is prevented by vaccination, and is only recommended for laboratory staff working with orthopox viruses, and public health and health care response team members. (bmj.com)
  • Currently, vaccination is the only protective measure against infection with these viruses and no licensed antiviral drug therapy is available. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is no specific treatment for smallpox, but smallpox vaccination (vaccinia virus) is highly protective, even after exposure. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Therefore, the vaccination site requires special care to prevent the virus from spreading. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination with vaccinia virus is protective in both man and nonhuman primates. (humanitarian.net)
  • The discontinuation of general vaccination in the 1980s has given rise to increasing susceptibility to monkey pox virus infection in the human population. (sciepub.com)
  • Vaccinia virus was detected, and the case met criteria for progressive vaccinia acquired by zoonotic transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) publishes a report on the virus taxonomy system every five years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2004-06-15). (wikipedia.org)
  • ICTVdb Index of Viruses: Virus Taxonomy, 8th Reports of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: Listing in Taxonomic Order. (wikidoc.org)
  • Second report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (springer.com)
  • Virus Taxonomy. (springer.com)
  • Taxonomy of the virus family Flaviviridae. (quoniamdolcesuono.eu)
  • The formal taxonomic classification of viruses is the responsibility of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system, although the Baltimore classification system can be used to place viruses into one of seven groups based on their manner of mRNA synthesis. (jakearchibald.com)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses began to devise and implement rules for the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1970s, an effort that continues to the present. (jakearchibald.com)
  • The ICTV is the only body charged by the International Union of Microbiological Societies with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Cowpox virus has also infected a variety of animals in European zoos, such as elephants, resulting in human infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human contact with animals infected with vaccinialike viruses has resulted in zoonotic infections in Colombia, Brazil, and India. (cdc.gov)
  • Human infections with cowpox and cowpoxlike viruses have been reported in Europe and the Caucasus (cowpox and Akhmeta virus in Georgia). (cdc.gov)
  • Other viruses in this genus, including vaccinia, but also monkeypox and cowpox, continue to cause outbreaks of human illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Inger Damon] These viruses are causing both human and animal disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Inger Damon] Well, during the smallpox eradication campaign, it was not a pressing concern that the vaccinia virus used in human vaccines could establish itself in nature. (cdc.gov)
  • Over the next year, six further cases human of monkeypox infection were reported in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria(12). (msdsonline.com)
  • From 1970 to 1979, 47 human cases of monkeypox were identified, 38 of which were from Zaire, and the majority were in close proximity to the tropical rainforest(4,5). (msdsonline.com)
  • It can also be transferred from human-to-human via the respiratory tract, by direct contact with body fluids of an infected person, or with virus-contaminated objects(5,7,10,17). (msdsonline.com)
  • This topic focuses on human disease associated with smallpox and monkeypox infection. (bmj.com)
  • For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activate the NF-κB signalling pathway [4] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Members of the orthopox genus include variola, the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. (jove.com)
  • The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. (scielo.org.za)
  • Tanapox virus is a mild, human cutaneous disease reported from Kenya, for which free-ranging monkeys are thought to be the reservoir of the disease (Downie & Espana 1972). (scielo.org.za)
  • Human monkeypox was initially identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire) in 1970, near the end of smallpox eradication efforts in Africa. (news-medical.net)
  • The outbreak of monkeypox in the US Midwest during June 2003 was identified as the first documented human infection in the Western Hemisphere. (news-medical.net)
  • Of 72 reported cases, 37 human cases were laboratory confirmed as human monkeypox during 2003 US outbreak. (news-medical.net)
  • Fenner F. Human Monkeypox, A Newly Discovered Human Virus Disease. (news-medical.net)
  • The history of monkeypox is new (1958), and the first human cases were diagnosed and differentiated from smallpox in the early 1970s. (nigeriaplatform.com)
  • The first cases of human monkeypox were reported in Zaire (currently Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1970. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Human monkeypox infection continues to occur in the same region of Africa, typically affecting children younger than 10 years old and individuals in direct contact with infected animals. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Human monkeypox was originally described in Africa, where it is typically characterized by initial fever, chills, headache, marked lymphadenopathy and back pain, followed by a monomorphic eruption consisting of macules and papules in a centrifugal distribution with subsequent vesicles, pustules and crusting. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of an intensified effort to eliminate smallpox. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • 12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the virus is selected from Influenza virus, Flavivirus, Paramyxovirus, Hepatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and viruses causing hemorrhagic fever. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The genus consists of numerous viruses that cause significant disease in human and animal populations. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Therefore, mortality rates would be high if variola virus were reintroduced into the human population either deliberately or accidentally. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • For instance, a novel agent or treatment that kills the virus but also harms the human host is neither medically practicable nor commercially attractive. (justia.com)
  • Flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), cause severe human disease. (stanford.edu)
  • Although the protein products of these viruses have been studied in depth, how the RNA genomes operate inside human cells is poorly understood. (stanford.edu)
  • [1] Notable human pathogenic RNA viruses include SARS , Influenza and Hepatitis C . (wikidoc.org)
  • First human case of Usutu virus neuroinvasive infection, Italy, August-September Usutu virus infection in a patient who underwent orthotropic liver transplantation, Italy, August-September Usutu virus in Italy: An emergence or a silent infection? (quoniamdolcesuono.eu)
  • Indeed, a majority of reported exposures to Vaccinia virus and subsequent infections involve a TK gene knockout strain. (cdc.gov)
  • The MVA (Ankara) strain in this regard has a lot of gene loss related to in vitro passage, and horsepox being a vaccinia strain found in a natural outbreak has less. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report that infection of gestating BALB/c mice by either intravenous or intraperitoneal routes with the Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus results in the rapid colonization of the placenta and vertical transfer of virus to the developing fetus. (asm.org)
  • In this study we examined the ability of a common laboratory strain of vaccinia virus to successfully infect the murine placenta and spread vertically to the fetus prior to birth. (asm.org)
  • We show that both intraperitoneal and intravenous delivery of the Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus (VVWR) can lead first to placental infection and later to infection of the fetus. (asm.org)
  • Adult T-lymphotropic virus (ATLV) is a strain of this disease that affects primarily adults. (bionity.com)
  • The B4 strain of Coxsackie viruses has been discovered to be a possible cause of Diabetes mellitus type 1 . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Western Reserve (WR) strain was generated by intracerebral mouse passages, and an intranasal inoculation results in an acute infection of the lung followed by dissemination of the virus to various organs. (datexis.com)
  • Although BALB/c mice are frequently used for intranasal challenge of vaccinia virus, we used the C57BL6/J strain of mouse in these experiments for two reasons. (datexis.com)
  • The WR strain replicated and produced higher titers of virus in the lung and the brain compared to the Wyeth strain. (datexis.com)
  • There was, however, no difference between the virus titers in brains of mice infected with the high or low dose of WR strain. (datexis.com)
  • Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected cells, which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, a surprising natural, incidental or deliberate release of virulent monkeypox or other orthopox viruses poses a serious threat to public health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This virus particle matures into the brick-shaped intracellular mature virion, which can be released upon cell lysis, or can acquire a second membrane from the Golgi apparatus and bud as extracellular enveloped virions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus occurs naturally in Western and Central Africa in the vicinity of tropical jungles(4). (msdsonline.com)
  • The virus is believed to have been circulating for a long time in numerous animal hosts, including squirrels, in central and western Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are significant differences in mode of transmission, symptoms and lesional morphology between monkeypox infection in Africa and the US. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Overall, patients with monkeypox infection during the US outbreak had less severe clinical presentations compared to patients with infections in Central Africa. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • These viruses may have arise in these viruses first emerged in the region of the Horn of Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the virus is a distinct member of the Tacaribe complex of New World arenaviruses, most closely related to Latino virus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • A closely related virus is bovine leukemia virus BLV. (bionity.com)
  • According to present medical standards, vaccinia virus has a relatively poor safety profile and has the capacity to cause severe complications in pregnant women, very young children, and other immunocompromised individuals. (asm.org)
  • Needle sticks, especially with concentrated virus, may result in severe local infection of the skin even in immunized individuals. (bionity.com)
  • VIG is recommended for severe generalized vaccinia if the patient is extremely ill or has a serious underlying disease. (bionity.com)
  • In certain groups of people, particularly those who are immunocompromised, complications from the vaccinia virus can be severe. (cdc.gov)
  • MPXV is a close relative of the variola virus, and monkeypox illness resembles a smallpox-like infection but is less severe than smallpox. (blogspot.com)
  • The Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee of the FDA is scheduled to meet on May 1 to discuss new drug application 208627 for tecovirimat, sponsored by SIGA Technologies for the proposed indication of the treatment of smallpox disease caused by variola virus in adults and pediatric patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The disease caused by each virus differs in terms of symptoms and severity, but little is yet know about the reasons for these varying phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Smallpox was a serious, contagious, and often fatal infectious disease caused by the variola virus. (bmj.com)
  • Monkeypox is a rare disease that is clinically nearly identical to smallpox, although usually less serious. (bmj.com)
  • Monkeypox was first discovered in 1958 when two outbreaks of a pox-like disease occurred in colonies of monkeys kept for research, hence the name 'monkeypox. (healthsaveblog.com)
  • When viruses enter a cell, they may immediately trigger a disease process or may remain quiescent for years. (tabers.com)
  • The variola virus causes the disease, which only spreads from person to person. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although the disease has been wiped out, samples of the virus still exist in high-security laboratories in the United States and Russia. (medicinenet.com)
  • Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor . (archive.li)
  • Coxsackie B viruses are cytolytic , and Coxsackie B2 and B5 viruses have been implicated in hand, foot and mouth disease as well as respiratory infection. (thefullwiki.org)
  • To understand how smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, it is necessary to consider both the characteristics of the virus that causes the disease and the evolution of methods used to prevent it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Molluscipox: molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common are vaccinia (seen on Indian subcontinent) and molluscum contagiosum, but monkeypox infections are rising (seen in west and central African rainforest countries). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthopox viruses are distributed universally. (bionity.com)
  • The orthopox viruses diverged from the other pox viruses about 10,000 yeara ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPXV is a 200 to 250 nm brick- shaped enveloped virus with characteristic surface tubules and a dumbbell-shaped core component(4). (msdsonline.com)
  • DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Cidofovir is considered as a potential therapeutic agent for MPXV infections, as it has been shown to have activity against many DNA viruses in vitro , including MPXV(19). (msdsonline.com)
  • Furthermore, the platform was able to distinguish MPXV and vaccinia viruses that were spiked into macaque blood samples at various concentrations. (ajtmh.org)
  • among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, and 10 (9.6%) tested negative for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. (blogspot.com)
  • It is effective for treatment of eczema vaccinatum and certain cases of progressive vaccinia. (bionity.com)
  • Influenza B virus (IBV) belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family and generally causes sporadic epidemics but is occasionally deadly to individuals. (bvsalud.org)
  • ABBR: AAV A genus in the parvovirus family whose members cannot replicate without the presence of another virus. (tabers.com)
  • oncogenic RNA virus Old name for group of RNA tumor viruses, now included in the family Retroviridae. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Sufferers of chest pain should see a doctor immediately - in some cases, viruses in the Coxsackie B family progress to myocarditis or pericarditis, which can result in permanent heart damage or death. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Introduction The genus Flavivirus of family Flaviviridae is composed of more than 70 viruses. (quoniamdolcesuono.eu)
  • Monkeypox was initially identified as an infectious agent in captive primates in Denmark in 1959. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Research into this new virus will be facilitated by the availability of clearly described and effective procedures that enable the propagation and quantification of infectious virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • 11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the infectious agent is selected from viruses, fungi, pathogenic unicellular eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and parasitic organisms. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Our research focuses on the identification of host genes that play critical roles in the pathogenesis of infectious agents including viruses. (stanford.edu)
  • All four of the subcutaneously inoculated AGMs became infected (mean peak viremia: 2.9 log10 PFU/mL, mean duration: 4.3 days) and vRNA was detected in their oral swabs, with infectious virus being detected in a subset of these specimens. (bvsalud.org)
  • These three AGMs also had vRNA and infectious virus detected in both oral and vaginal swabs. (bvsalud.org)
  • vRNA was detected in oral swabs collected from both of these infected AGMs, and infectious virus was detected in an oral swab from one of these AGMs. (bvsalud.org)
  • As such, purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus particle. (wikidoc.org)
  • Purified RNA of a negative-sense virus is not infectious by itself as it needs to be transcribed into positive-sense RNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • At the beginning of the twentieth century, the term "virus" referred to infectious agents that could not be seen under the microscope, trapped by filters, or grown in laboratory cultures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After the establishment of germ theory in the late nineteenth century, virus generally referred to unidentifiable entities with infectious properties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Apr 27, 2012 (CIDRAP News) - A US laboratory worker contracted a painful, slow-healing cowpox virus infection on the job in 2010, marking the first such case reported in the United States, though the virus, a relative of smallpox, is known in Europe and Russia, according to a study published yesterday. (umn.edu)
  • Although it was not clear exactly how the worker was infected, the authors write, "Overall, the data suggest that the patient was likely infected by handling laboratory stock virus reagents or contact with environmental surfaces which were contaminated with cowpox virus. (umn.edu)
  • The virus was first isolated by Drs. Bernard Poiesz and Francis Ruscetti and their co-workers in the laboratory of Robert C. Gallo at the NCI. (bionity.com)
  • Instead, the primary reason for the loss of resistance results from a decreased number of total and mature natural killer (NK) cells in the blood and an intrinsic impairment in their ability to migrate to the lymph node draining the site of infection, which is essential to curb systemic virus spread. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Variola and monkeypox viruses cause systemic infections with high levels of lethality, but the details of their pathogenesis are not well-understood. (datexis.com)
  • This was followed by the ancestor of the genus Yatapoxvirus. (wikipedia.org)