One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria
Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Colony Count, Microbial
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Amino Acid Sequence
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Bacterial Typing Techniques
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Eye Infections, Bacterial
Drug Resistance, Microbial
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium has been isolated from the mouth, urine, feces, and infections of the mouth, soft tissue, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and intestinal tract. It is pathogenic, but usually in association with other kinds of organisms.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Evaluation Studies as Topic
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods
Fatty Acids, Volatile
... is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. It grows under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and is nonmotile. The cells are ... nov., a toluene-producing bacterium from anoxic sediments of a freshwater lake". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 46 (1): 183-8. doi: ...
... is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria that belong to the Eubacteriaceae family. The type species of ... They should not be confused with acetic acid bacteria which are aerobic, Gram-negative Alphaproteobacteria. Other acetogens use ... predominantly making acetic acid as a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism. Most of the species reported in this genus are ... Anaerobic Bacteria". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 27 (4): 355. doi:10.1099/00207713-27-4-355. Schiel- ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. The species are motile with amphitrichous flagella and ... They are obligately aerobic, but some can undergo anaerobic respiration if nitrate is present. They tend to be colorless. They ... It is a genus of non-fermenting bacteria (in the family Alcaligenaceae). Additionally, some strains of Alcaligenes are capable ... Gram-negative aerobe of the family Alcaligenaceae. This species is most commonly found in the alimentary tract as a harmless ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, chitinolytic, rod-shaped bacteria which have flagella from the family of ... Species of this genus are found to be both aerobic and anaerobic. Chitinimonas is optimally grown and cultured at 25 °C to 37 ° ... nov., a novel chitinolytic bacterium isolated from a freshwater pond for shrimp culture". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. ...
... is a Gram-negative, aerobic, facultative anaerobic and motile genus of bacteria within the family of ... Ferragut, C.; Izard, D.; Gavini, F.; Lefebvre, B.; Leclerc, H. (June 1981). "Buttiauxella, a new genus of the family ... Cowan, Samuel Tertius; Steel, Kenneth John (2004). Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. ... Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. pp. 1-16. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.gbm01139. ISBN 9781118960608. ...
... genera, but not enterococci. Anaerobic, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, including some Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and ... Most aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (such as Pseudomonas, Legionella, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella) are resistant to ... Clindamycin is used primarily to treat anaerobic infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria, including dental ... It is most effective against infections involving the following types of organisms: Aerobic Gram-positive cocci, including some ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, pleomorphic, coccobacilli bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae. While ... All members are either aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. This genus has been found to be part of the salivary microbiome. ... Members of the genus Haemophilus will not grow on blood agar plates, as all species require at least one of these blood factors ... The genus includes commensal organisms along with some significant pathogenic species such as H. influenzae-a cause of sepsis ...
... endospore-forming aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria; in some species cultures may turn Gram-negative ... aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Like other genera associated with the early history of microbiology, such as ... Bacillus (Latin "stick") is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, a member of the phylum Firmicutes, with 266 named ... bacteria. He had seven years earlier named the genus Bacterium. Bacillus was later amended by Ferdinand Cohn to further ...
... is a species of mesophilic, motile, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped ... bacteria with one polar flagellum, first isolated from human urine, riverside urban soil and anaerobic digester. 12-3T (=CCUG ... nov., isolated from diverse environments, and emended descriptions of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas Finkmann et al. 2000 and of ...
... , formerly known as Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, is a gram-negative purple non-sulfur bacteria. The ... All strains can grow either under anaerobic conditions in the light or under microaerophilic to aerobic conditions in the dark ... Imhoff JF (September 2001). "Transfer of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila to the new genus Rhodoblastus as Rhodoblastus acidophilus ... n., a new species of the budding purple nonsulfur bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 99 (2): 597-602. PMC 250060. PMID 5821103 ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and non-spore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites ... The bacteria are facultatively anaerobic or aerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates (without production of gas), and of ... A. actinomycetemcomitans occurs in the human oral microflora, and together with anaerobic or capnophilic organisms (HACEK group ... and it was proposed that they be reclassified as a new genus, Aggregatibacter (from the Latin, "aggregare", meaning "to come ...
Elizabeth O. King
Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Gram-Negative Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, ... The genera Kingella and Elizabethkingia and the species Kingella kingae are named to honor her for her pioneering work. Born on ... Elizabeth Osborne King (October 12, 1912 - April 8, 1966) was an American microbiologist who discovered and described bacteria ...
Metabolisms found in the different genera are very different; there are both aerobic and anaerobic (obligate or facultative) ... It is composed by all Gram-negative microbes and is the most phylogenetically and physiologically diverse class of ... there are numerous genera of obligate and generalist hydrocarbonclastic bacteria. The obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria ( ... Purple sulfur bacteria are anoxygenic phototrophic iron‐oxidizers and they are part of the genus Acidithiobacillus but, there ...
... /ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə/ is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the ... Escherichia are facultative aerobes, with both aerobic and anaerobic growth, and an optimum temperature of 37 °C. Escherichia ... "Gram-negative bacteria associated with brewery yeasts: reclassification of Obesumbacterium proteus biogroup 2 as Shimwellia ... E. coli O157:H7 List of bacterial genera named after personal names Castellani, Aldo; Chalmers, Albert J. (1919). "Genus ...
Gram-positive facultatively anaerobic and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Aeromicrobium Chryseobacterium flavum, Gram- ... Gram-positive and aerobic bacterium from the genus of Microbacterium Punctulum flavum, species of minute sea snail, a marine ... Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, yellow-pigmented, and oxalotrophic bacterium from the genus Oxalicibacterium ... negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacteria from the genus of Chryseobacterium Etheostoma flavum, (saffron darter) a fish ...
... often mixed with other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. P. melaninogenica is an anaerobic, Gram-negative rod, named for its ... a New Genus to Include Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Related Species Formerly Classified in the Genus Bacteroides". ... P. melaninogenica are Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria. They cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. They are not motile, ... Brook, I.: "Anaerobic Infections Diagnosis and Management". A Textbook. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. New York. 2007. ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule. ... The species are aerobic but facultatively anaerobic. Their ideal growth temperature is 35° to 37 °C, while their ideal pH level ... The species of Klebsiella are all gram-negative and usually non-motile. They tend to be shorter and thicker when compared to ... and the second-most frequent cause of Gram-negative bacteraemia and urinary tract infections . Drug-resistant isolates remain ...
... catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, denitrifying, nonmotile bacterium from the genus Castellaniella, isolated from the ... Castellaniella caeni is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, ... sludge of the aerobic treatment tanks of a municipal leachate ... nov., a denitrifying bacterium isolated from sludge of a leachate treatment plant". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 58 (9): 2141-6. ...
It is a Gram-negative bacterium able to grow by both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The second cultured species was ... 2003 Genus Gemmatirosa DeBruyn et al. 2013 Species Gemmatirosa kalamazoonesis DeBruyn et al. 2013 Genus Gemmatimonas Zhang et ... nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new ... bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacterium Gemmatimonas phototrophica sp. nov., and emended descriptions of the genus ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Bosea. B. lupini is an aerobic and gram-negative bacterium capable of ... The species were isolated from hospital water supplies, anaerobic digester sludge, and agricultural soil. For B. lupini in ... The bacteria is gram-negative, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Bosea lupini colonies tend to be round, smooth, and white. ... The genus Bosea was named for the founder of Bose Institute (J.C. Bose), which is where Bosea thiooxidans was isolated. The ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, strictly aerobic non-spore-forming motile bacteria ... nov., a strictly aerobic bacterium isolated from an anaerobic digester". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... from the genus of Bosea which was isolated from industrial waste water in Mexico. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de Straininfo of Bosea ...
... a genus of Gram-negative bacteria Azotobacter, a genus of Gram-negative bacteria Rhizobium, a plant root-associated and plant ... anaerobic bacteria seem to mainly use glycolysis while aerobic and facultative anaerobes are more likely to have the ED pathway ... genus of Gram-negative bacteria, also of biotechnologic use Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, ... Genera in which the pathway is prominent include Gram-negative, as listed below, Gram-positive bacteria such ...
... is a gram-negative, coccus, non-motile, denitrifying (nitrate-reducing) bacterium. It is typically a rod-shaped bacterium but ... Metabolically Paracoccus denitrificans is very flexible and has been recorded in soil in both aerobic or anaerobic environments ... van Verseveld, H.W. and Stouthamer, A.H. (1999). The Genus Paracoccus. The Prokaryotes. 3rd edition, release 3.0. Springer- ... Like all gram-negative bacteria, it has a double membrane with a cell wall. Formerly known as Micrococcus denitrificans, it was ...
... is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in ... E. coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe (that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of ... Bacterium coli was the type species of the now invalid genus Bacterium when it was revealed that the former type species (" ... E. coli stains Gram-negative because its cell wall is composed of a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane. During the ...
... is a species of gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing, rod-shaped bacteria. They can be free-living or symbionts ... Free-living bacteria become housed inside specialized root cells in root nodules, which creates anaerobic microhabitat in which ... The genus is sometimes referred to as Ensifer (the older term) instead of Sinorhizobium. Two major subgroups include S.medicae ... Some strains of S.medicae, like WSM419, are aerobic. They are chemoorganotrophic mesophiles that prefer temperatures around 28 ...
Altered Schaedler flora
They vastly outnumber facultative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. All four fusiform belong to the low G+C content, Gram- ... Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Recently, many of Bacteroides species are being recognized as actually belonging ... one spiral bacteria of the Flexistipes genus, and four extremely oxygen sensitive (EOS) Fusobacterium species. The bacteria are ... Aerobic and less oxygen-sensitive anaerobic bacteria are easy to culture. Fusiform and EOS bacteria are difficult to culture, ...
Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria
Research suggests that all currently known AAPB contain Gram-negative cell walls. The majority, have shapes that resemble ... these aerobic BChl-containing bacteria represent an evolutionary transient phase from anaerobic phototrophs to aerobic non- ... genera, which phylogenetically belong to the -1, -3, and -4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Phylogenetically, they are ... for anaerobic growth. The only photosynthetic pigment that exists in AAPB is BChl a. Anaerobic phototrophic bacteria, on the ...
This bacterium has gram-negative type cell walls and can be found in a variety of environments including soils, groundwater, ... favoring aerobic growth but also capable of using nitrate as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. It has a gram- ... Polyprosthecobacterium is a genus of bacteria from the family of Hyphomicrobiaceae with one known species ( ... The family Hyphomicrobiaceae, which consist of several gram-negative bacteria, was discovered due to the phylogenetic analysis ...
Coliform procedures are performed in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Typical genera include: Citrobacter Enterobacter Hafnia ... Coliform bacteria are defined as Rod shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment ... This plate is partially inhibitory to Gram (+) bacteria, and will produce a color change in the Gram (-) bacterial colonies ... Due to the limited ability of certain coliform bacteria to ferment lactose, the definition has changed to bacteria containing ...
Gram-negative, nonsporeforming that exhibit either anaerobic or aerobic growth. They are ubiquitous in marine sediments and ... Desulfuromusa genus includes bacteria obligately anaerobic that use sulfur as an electron acceptor and short-chain fatty acids ... Firmicutes are mostly Gram-positive bacteria with some Gram-negative exceptions. These bacteria are Gram-negative, extremely ... Nautilia abyssi is gram-negative sulfur reducing bacteria, that lives in anaerobic conditions at great depths (like ...
Tolumonas - Wikipedia
Acetobacterium - Wikipedia
Acetobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria that belong to the Eubacteriaceae family. The type species of ... They should not be confused with acetic acid bacteria which are aerobic, Gram-negative Alphaproteobacteria. Other acetogens use ... predominantly making acetic acid as a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism. Most of the species reported in this genus are ... Anaerobic Bacteria". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 27 (4): 355. doi:10.1099/00207713-27-4-355. Schiel- ...
Neisseria | definition of Neisseria by Medical dictionary
genus of aerobic or facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Neis·se·ri·a. (nī-sērē-ă) A genus of aerobic to ... a genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the family Neisseriaceae. The gram-negative cocci, which appear in ... A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative cocci that occur in pairs with the adjacent ... a genus of gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic cocci, which are a part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, ...
Proteus | definition of Proteus by Medical dictionary
A genus of motile, peritrichous, non-spore-forming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative rods. ... a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms are found in fecal material, ... aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing gram-negative rods; coccoid forms, large ... Any of various gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria of the genus Proteus, certain species of which are associated with human ...
Bacteria. - Dr. Sayeed Ahmad
... aerobic; include Bdellovibrio, predatory on other bacteria. Spirochete. Spiral-shaped, gram-negative, mostly anaerobic; common ... Rod-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic; convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonium in soil; include Azotobacter, a common genus. ... Bacteria in which alcohol washes away Gram s stain are called gram-negative, while bacteria in which alcohol causes the ... aerobic). Enteric. Rod-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic but can live in certain anaerobic conditions; produce nitrite from ...
Larval Therapy: A Review of Clinical
Human medicine has shown that larvae can cleanse a wound of Gram positive, Gram negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. ... One problem is that open wounds are frequently infected with multiple bacteria genera, partly due to contamination with fecal ... Anecdotal and scientific studies have shown that larvae can cleanse a wound of many genera of bacteria, including antibiotic- ... An average application of larvae can consume 10 to 15 grams of necrotic tissue each day.  Larvae can be used in conjunction ...
Frontiers | Microbial Community Profiling in Intensive Care Units Expose Limitations in Current Sanitary Standards | Public...
... including bacteria able to form multi-genera biofilms. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of concurrent cleaning over the ICU ... including bacteria able to form multi-genera biofilms. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of concurrent cleaning over the ICU ... ICU and NICU reservoirs of potentially pathogenic bacteria and provided evidence for the presence of a set of biomarkers genera ... The results showed that, although some bacterial populations decreased after cleaning, various HAI-related genera were quite ...
Salmonella - Volume 26, Number 12-December 2020 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
... gram-negative bacillus, nonspore-forming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In 1880 ... With a complicated taxonomy, the genus Salmonella is currently classified into 2 species (S. enterica and S. bongori), ... bacteria showing numerous flagella. Taken from Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (AR Threats Report); ... bacteria showing numerous flagella. Taken from Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (AR Threats Report); ...
Alphabetical Browse | Britannica
... or rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Yersinia are gram-negative bacteria and are described as facultative ... which means that they are capable of surviving in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Though several ... Yersinia (bacteria). Yersinia, (genus Yersinia), any of a group of ovoid- ... tularemia: …agent is the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. The disease is primarily one of animals; human ...
Sulfur in agriculture
Paracoccus, which is a Gram-negative, spherical, facultative chemolithotrophic, aerobic bacterium, but capable of reducing ... Although mostly isolated from anaerobic digesters and activated sludge, representatives of this genus have been isolated from ... genera of bacteria capable of oxidizing reduced forms of S in the soil, including genera before associated with S oxidation. El ... In the domain Bacteria, the obligate chemolithotrophic genera most commonly observed in soil belong to Betaproteobacteria ( ...
Enrichment Cultures: Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Microbes on Selective and Differential Medias | Protocol
Gram negative bacteria typically cannot survive, but the gram positive Staphylococcus genus are able to thrive. In addition, ... The outer membrane of gram negative bacteria prevents these toxic dyes from entering the cells, meaning they are able to grow. ... In this experiment, this meant that the gram negative E. coli and P. vulgaris did not grow due to the high salt concentrations ... The EMB medium on the other hand is selective for gram negative organisms because the eosin and methylene blue dyes are toxic ...
Distribution of endotoxins in full scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants and its relationship with microbial...
... while it declined in the aerobic treatment system. In all bioreactors, the relative abundance of Gram-negative bacteria ... Among the 26 major genera, there were eight genera with an average abundance ,1% in all seven samples. Five genera (,1%) such ... The treatment processes of Plant A are a combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment (Figure 1(a)). Plant B, with a ... Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 50.0-94.6% of all bacteria. Especially in the CASS, the abundance of Gram-negative ...
Process for producing NADH oxidase - Patent # 5416012 - PatentGenius
... facultative anaerobic NADH oxidase-producing bacteria having the optimum growth pH in an alkaline region in medium and ... the strain shared certain characteristics with many alkalophilic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus, gram-negative rods, ... f) It produces xylanase during anaerobic and aerobic culture.. The foregoing properties were surveyed in Bergeys Manual of ... e) Gram staining: positive in the very early stages of growth. (f) Acid-fast: negative. (2) Growth in various media. (a) ...
Direct Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures by Amplification and Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene: Evaluation...
17 species of gram-negative aerobic bacteria and 3 species of gram-positive and 4 species of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. ... unambiguous identification of all 72 isolates to genus level and 97.9% of nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria and 84.0% of ... Results for all 37 (100%) aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative isolates agreed with results obtained by conventional ... The other group (n = 20) were "instrument true negatives"; the instrument signaled negative, the Gram stain was negative, and ...
The pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis - microbewiki
... immobile and capsulated bacteria. It is a gram positive bacteria but in some cultures may turn gram negative with age (4). ... Bacillus anthracis is an endospore forming aerobic or facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, ... They look like bamboo canes in tissue (13). The diverse abilities of many species of its genus allows them to survive in ... Aerobic antigen and Anaerobic antigen) and Russian antigen (6). Special therapy can also be provided to treat anthrax if it is ...
Local oestrogen: Underutilised and misunderstood - Medical Independent
A healthy, oestrogenised vaginal flora is composed of both aerobic and an-aerobic, gram positive and gram negative bacteria. In ... an oestrogenised vagina, lactobacillus is the predominant bacterial genus and metabolises glucose into lactic acid and acetic ... Alternatively, estrace contains 0.1mg estradiol per gram of cream and it is recommended that 2-4g is used daily for one-to-two ... Vaginal symptoms of menopause have a significant negative impact on sexual pleasure (59 per cent), sleep (24 per cent), and ...
Editing Heterotroph - The Free Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Encyclopedia Anyone Can Edit - The Aquarium Wiki
Heterotroph bacteria can be either gram positive or the gram negative type. Some are strictly [[aerobic]], many species are ... facultative anaerobic ,ref>[[w:Facultative aerobic,Definition on Wikipedia]],/ref> (they can switch mode from zero-low to high ... That is, they breakdown the [[mulm]]. They are mostly from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. == References == ,references ... bacteria (few heterotroph species can convert nitrites into nitrates. But only in zero levels of oxygen). Also in low-zero ...
Isolation and Characterization of Strains CVO and FWKO B, Two Novel Nitrate-Reducing, Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from...
1991) The genus Desulfuromonas and other Gram-negative sulfur-reducing eubacteria. in The prokaryotes, eds Balows A., Truper H ... Gram-negative aerobic and microaerobic denitrifiers reported to produce nitrous oxide as an end product in the absence of ... 1997) Anaerobic sulfide-oxidation in marine colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Mar. Biotechnol. 5:172-177. ... SRB, denitrifying bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and spore-forming bacteria have all been previously detected in this brine ( ...
Laboratory Bacteria Testing Service in Toronto and Vancouver
Air samples for bacteria testing can be taken with either an RCS sampler or Andersen sampler. Air is impacted on agar media ... bacteria will stain as either Gram positive or Gram negative. Grams Stain is a widely used method of staining bacteria as an ... Tests can be performed for Total Plate (Aerobic/Anaerobic) Counts, Total Coliform, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonads, ... Bacteria in this genus are pathogenic for humans. They can cause typhoid fever, enteric infections and sepsis. ...
The spoilage microorganisms in seafood with the existed quorum sensing phenomenon
... anaerobic facultative and psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, whose growth is possible at 0 and optimal at around 25. The ... All aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria require iron for growth and only LAB do not depend on supplementation of this ... The same bacterial genus can be found in tropical marine seafood, but Cram-positive bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrio ... in Gram-negative bacteria, oligopeptide in Gram-positive bacteria, and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) used in both Gram-negative and ...
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal...
Fungi of the genus Fusarium infect cereal crops during the growing season and cause head blight and other diseases. Their toxic ... Anaerobic bacteria [71,72] and aerobic bacteria  decompose DON by de-epoxidation to DOM-1 (Table 2). Soil from arable ... and Blautia coccoides, the aerobic species of Stenotrophomonas (Gram-negative), was highly effective in de-epoxidizing eleven ... Bacteria of the genera Nocardioides and Devosia can degrade DON to 3-epi-DON and 3-keto DON . After seven days of ...
Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine
Bilophila wadsworthia: a unique gram-negative anaerobic rod International Congress on Anaerobic Bacteria and Anaerobic ... An average number of 3.1 aerobic or facultative bacteria species and 8.5 anaerobic species were isolated from each specimen. ... Twenty-eight different genera and more than 55 species were encountered, including a previously undescribed fastidious gram- ... having typical gram-negative rod plate morphology, defined as good growth on gram-negative rod-selective media. An algorithm ...
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Azithromycin safely and effectively. See full prescribing...
Gram-Negative Bacteria Bordetella pertussis Anaerobic Bacteria Peptostreptococcus species Prevotella bivia Other Bacteria ... less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for azithromycin against isolates of similar genus or organism group. However ... Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacteria Streptococci (Groups C, F, G) Viridans group streptococci ... If anaerobic microorganisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, an antimicrobial agent with anaerobic activity ...
Frontiers | The Clinical Importance of Campylobacter concisus and Other Human Hosted Campylobacter Species | Cellular and...
Flagellin from various Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are capable of triggering nuclear factor kappa light chain ... higher proportions of Gram-negative and anaerobic bacterial species are present in the oral cavity as compared to healthy ... Gram-positive aerobic microbiome) was mainly associated with normal esophagus (11/12, 91.7%), while type II microbiome (Gram- ... Campylobacter, along with Arcobacter and Sulfurospirillum, are the three genera that belong to the family, Campylobacteraceae. ...
Aerobic and Anaerobic Toluene Degradation by a Newly Isolated Denitrifying Bacterium, Thauera sp. Strain DNT-1 | Applied and...
The bacterial cells were short rods, 2 to 2.5 μm in length and 1.5 μm in diameter, and were gram negative, catalase negative, ... 16S rDNA sequencing and taxonomic analyses revealed that this strain belongs to the genus Thauera and is closely related to T. ... Aerobic and Anaerobic Toluene Degradation by a Newly Isolated Denitrifying Bacterium, Thauera sp. Strain DNT-1. Yoshifumi ... Aerobic and Anaerobic Toluene Degradation by a Newly Isolated Denitrifying Bacterium, Thauera sp. Strain DNT-1 ...
ASMscience | Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
The aerobic catalase-negative gram-positive cocci included in this chapter form a taxonomically diverse group of bacteria that ... Most of the genera described here are catalase-negative facultative anaerobes, but Aerococcus viridans are classified as a ... Many media contain selective components that inhibit the growth of nontarget bacteria. Some pathogens are anaerobic, and ... Aerococcus, Abiotrophia, and Other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci * Author: Kathryn L. Ruoff ...
Pseudomonas spp. | HARTMANN Academie
View source for Pseudomonas aeruginosa - wikidoc
Bacterium#Morphology,Rod shaped]] * [[Gram-negative]] * One or more polar [[flagella]], providing [[motility]] * [[aerobic ... negative, [[methyl red]] negative, [[Voges Proskauer]] test negative, citrate positive. The genus demonstrates a great deal of ... organism,Aerobic]], although some species have been found to be [[Facultative anaerobic organism,facultative anaerobes]] (e.g ... created for these organisms was defined in rather vague terms in 1894 as a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped and polar- ...
Salmonella Choleraesuis in Swine - eXtension
Salmonella are a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that contains more than 2,000 serovars, sometimes referred to as species or ... Salmonella are quite hardy and able to survive for months in cool organic substrates in either aerobic or anaerobic ... Salmonella was among the first bacteria discovered, and it was first observed microscopically in 1880 in tissues from humans ... Pigs with acute diarrhea due to S. choleraesuis excrete several million organisms per gram of feces, theoretically sufficient ...
BacillusOrganismsBacilliClostridiumEnterobacteriaceaeCocciRodsBacterialStaphylococcusSalmonellaMicroorganismsEscherichiaStainOxygenPseudomonasArchaeaEither aerobic or anaerobicProteobacteriaBacteroidesPathogenic bacteriaActivated sludgePathogensPhylumEndosporeTypes of bacteriaCatalaseMicrobiologyThermophilicCulturesAntibioticsOxidase-negativeInfectionsCellsIsolatesPositive and Gram negativeMesophilicArcobacterMicroaerophilic bacteriaSpiral-shapedYeastsFungiInfectionCharacteristicsFermentationAeromonasStrains of aerobicRespirationGrow aerobically or anaerobicallyRRNAAntibioticDifferent generaFacultatively aerobicAcetobacterConditionsAcetic acidEnvironmentsColiformSoilsSpecies of bacteriaIdentification of bacteriaMicrobialAbscessPurple nonsulfurIntestinalHumansVibrioSusceptible
- Named in honor of Daniel Elmer Salmon, an American veterinary pathologist, Salmonella ( Figure ) is a genus of motile, gram-negative bacillus, nonspore-forming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae . (cdc.gov)
- They are mostly from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. (theaquariumwiki.com)
- From the family Bacillaceae, Anthrax is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacteria named Bacillus anthracis. (kenyon.edu)
- Bacillus anthracis is an obligate bacillus bacteria pathogen as other Bacillus species are nontoxic saprophytes. (kenyon.edu)
- Bacillus anthracis is an endospore forming aerobic or facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, immobile and capsulated bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
- Describing a bacterium as a coccus, or sphere, distinguishes it from bacillus, or rod. (ndcd.dk)
- For example, bacillus-shaped bacteria that have an inactivated MreB gene become coccoid shaped, and coccus-shaped bacteria naturally lack the MreB gene. (ndcd.dk)
- 4. Learn about the features and types of Bacillus bacteria in this article. (ndcd.dk)
- Bacillus, any of a genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive, aerobic or (under some conditions) anaerobic bacteria widely found in soil and water. (ndcd.dk)
- In 1892 and later, Welch, Nuttall, and other scientists isolated a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus from gangrenous wounds. (medscape.com)
- Gas gangrene is caused by an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus of the genus Clostridium . (medscape.com)
- After 7 days of incubation, the blood culture (BACTEC FX system, Nippon BD, Tokyo, Japan) yielded Gram-negative, long spiral-shaped bacillus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. (remnant.one)
- A genus of small, aerobic, GRAM NEGATIVE micro-organisms occurring in pairs (diplococci) that includes Neisseria gonorrhoea , the cause of GONORRHOEA and Neisseria meningitidis the cause of epidemic cerebrospinal MENINGITIS . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Bacteria are simple organisms that consist of one cell. (homeoint.org)
- These bacteria help in digestion and in destroying harmful organisms. (homeoint.org)
- Many bacteria help decompose (break down) dead organisms and animal wastes into chemical elements. (homeoint.org)
- Bacterial cells resemble the cells of other living things in many ways, and so scientists study bacteria to learn about more complex organisms. (homeoint.org)
- Another common enrichment medium, Eosin Methylene Blue, contains eosin and methylene blue dyes, which are toxic to gram positive organisms. (jove.com)
- In this lab, you will grow four different test organisms across three different media conditions and then under aerobic versus anaerobic conditions before observing their development. (jove.com)
- This include bacterial contamination by Gram-positive Bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus and non Escherichia coli Gram-negative organisms. (moldbacteria.com)
- The generic name ''Pseudomonas'' created for these organisms was defined in rather vague terms in 1894 as a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped and polar-flagella bacteria. (wikidoc.org)
- Scientists can tell these organisms apart by the shape of the bacteria or by the way they join together. (ndcd.dk)
- A chemical substance, produced by microorganisms, plants, marine organisms, and synthetically, that has the capacity in dilute solutions to inhibit the growth of bacteria or destroy bacteria. (accessscience.com)
- These organisms are oxidase-positive and facultatively anaerobic. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
- Other bacteria are also capable of producing gas, and nonclostridial organisms have been isolated in 60-85% cases of gas gangrene. (medscape.com)
- Escherichia coli (/ ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), also known as E . coli (/ ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). (yahoo.com)
- The methods of obtaining specimens for anaerobic culture and the culturing procedure are performed to ensure that the organisms are protected from oxygen. (scribd.com)
- In aerobes, doripenem appears to have the advantages of both imipenem (in its activity against gram-positive cocci) and meropenem (in its activity against gram-negative organisms) ( 12 ). (asm.org)
- It is most effective against infections involving the following types of organisms: Aerobic gram-positive cocci, including some members of the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus (eg. (medicinamexico.com)
- These drugs are also effective against anaerobic organisms. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Penicillin G and its oral congeners (eg, penicillin V) are active against both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive bacteria and, with a few exceptions ( Haemophilus and Neisseria spp and strains of Bacteroides other than B fragilis ), are inactive against gram-negative organisms at usual concentrations. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Mecillinam is less active than ampicillin against gram-positive bacteria but is highly active against many intestinal organisms (except Proteus spp) that do not produce β-lactamases. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Bacteria, singular bacterium, any of a group of microscopic single-celled organisms that live in enormous numbers in almost every environment on the surface of Earth, from deep-sea vents to the digestive tracts of humans. (academicroom.com)
- Some bacteria convert nitrogen gas into complex compounds that can be used by other organisms and …Bacteria help ruminant animals, such as cattle, digest organic materials.Bacteria lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other internal structures and are therefore ranked among the unicellular life-forms called prokaryotes. (academicroom.com)
- In the late 1970s American microbiologist Carl Woese pioneered a major change in classification by placing all organisms into three domains-Eukarya, Bacteria (originally called Eubacteria), and Archaea (originally called Archaebacteria)-to reflect the three ancient lines of evolution. (academicroom.com)
- The prokaryotic organisms that were formerly known as bacteria were then divided into two of these domains, Bacteria and Archaea. (academicroom.com)
- Pseudomonads represent one of the largest assemblies of the denitrifying bacteria within a single genus, favoring their use as model organisms. (asm.org)
- The blood and abscess isolates did not grow aerobically, although anaerobic growth on brucella blood agar media (PML Microbiologicals, Wilsonville, OR) showed identical-looking, nonhemolytic, motile organisms, with colonial and microscopic morphologic features typical of Clostridium spp. (cdc.gov)
- However, endospores were not visualized initially, and the organisms persistently stained gram negative. (cdc.gov)
- Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans occurs in the human oral microflora, and together with anaerobic or capnophilic organisms may cause endocarditis and suppurative lesions in the upper alimentary tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Bacteria is often found in tissue of other organisms, soils, or water surfaces. (wikibooks.org)
- However, there are exceptions that make this method fallible, as there are some organisms that are Gram indeterminate or Gram variable. (wikibooks.org)
- a genus of motile, gram-negative bacilli often associated with nosocomial infections, normally found in feces, water, and soil. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2012). The signs and symptoms of enteric fever are: Microscopic examination of Gram staining smear shows Gram-negative bacilli arranged mainly in single. (rio-negocios.com)
- Species of the genus Acinetobacter are strictly aerobic, non fermentative, Gram-negative bacilli. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
- Gram-negative bacilli growth both-aerobic-and-anaerobic catalase-positive oxidase-negative ( Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
- A recent clinical series on gas gangrene demonstrated a predominance (83.3%) of aerobic gram-negative bacilli in wound cultures compared with anaerobic gram-positive bacilli, with Clostridium species accounting for 4.5% of the isolates. (medscape.com)
- Anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, including some members of the Bacteroides and Fusobacterium genera. (medicinamexico.com)
- With regard to pathogenicity, however, that of certain Clostridium species, which are gram-positive endosporeforming bacilli, has long been recognized and is best understood. (hochichu.info)
- E. coli serotype O157:H7 is a mesophilic, Gram-negative rod-shaped (Bacilli) bacterium, which possesses adhesive fimbriae and a cell wall that consists of an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides, a periplasmic space with a peptidoglycan â ¦ They are bacteria which come under family Enterobacteriaceae. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- The genus Clostridium is a phylogenetically heteroge- tazobactam therapy. (cdc.gov)
- Clostridium strains are widely distributed in the environ- showed heavy neutrophils and gram-negative rods. (cdc.gov)
- The genus Clostridium consists of bacteria that are obligate anaerobes, Gram-positive, rod shaped, sporeformers, and catalase negative. (edu.au)
- Bacteria that can directly convert sugars to acetic acid in an anaerobic fermentation include Clostridium and Acetobacterium but they can not tolerate the acetic acid concentrations greater than a few percent. (ipl.org)
- Gram positive: Actinomyces and Clostridium. (studystack.com)
- We describe a 27-year-old man with acute cholecystitis, hepatic abscess, and bacteremia caused by Clostridium hathewayi , a newly described gram-negative, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. (cdc.gov)
- Buttiauxella is a Gram-negative, aerobic, facultative anaerobic and motile genus of bacteria within the family of Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
- a genus of gram-negative, motile bacteria, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae , usually found in fecal and other putrefying matter. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We assessed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En) and analyzed the resistance mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Of 316 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 37 patients with bacteremia caused by CTXNS-En were matched to 74 patients who had bacteremia caused by cefotaxime-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXS-En). (biomedcentral.com)
- When gram-negative bacteria is grown in blood culture, the type of positive blood culture bottle (aerobic or anaerobic) and the gram stain findings help us to estimate if the bacteria belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family or are non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
- We conducted this study to determine the risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En). (biomedcentral.com)
- The recent clearance of a second, expanded claim now adds 170 species and species groups, representing 180 clinically-relevant species of aerobic Gram positive, fastidious Gram negatives, Enterobacteriaceae, anaerobic bacteria and yeasts. (bruker.com)
- APEC is a Gram-negative, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming, short to medium rod-shaped bacterium, which belongs to the Escherichia genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
- The test can also be used to differentiate genera of gelatinase-producing bacteria such Serratia and Proteus from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (microbesinfo.com)
- a genus of gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic cocci, which are a part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A genus of aerobic bacteria (family Neisseriaceae) containing gram-negative cocci that occur in pairs with the adjacent sides flattened. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The gram-negative cocci, which appear in pairs with adjacent sides flattened, are among the normal flora of genitourinary and upper respiratory tracts. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative cocci that occur in pairs with the adjacent sides flattened. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Even among genera with the suffix 'cocci', which are the focus of this review, different shapes exist. (ndcd.dk)
- Haemophilus species: The cocci are spherical or oval bacteria having one of several distinct arrangements (see Fig. Dr. Juan Merayo-Rodriguez answered. (ndcd.dk)
- Question 8 (1.5 points) Consider two bacteria of equal surface area but different shape, one rod and one cocci (see below). (ndcd.dk)
- There are many types of cocci bacteria that can be found in animals. (ndcd.dk)
- Cocci bacteria are spherical in shape and include Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae, according to Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. (ndcd.dk)
- They are aerobic, Gram(+) but sometimes Gram (-) rods (sometimes cocci or cocobacilli). (foodelphi.com)
- What's the genus of Gram positive, catalase positive cocci? (studystack.com)
- What are the two genera of catalase negative, Gram + cocci? (studystack.com)
- What are the 2 relevant Gram negative cocci and how you differentiate them based on morphology? (studystack.com)
- Gram-positive cocci mainly staphylococci and streptococci. (buyviagraestonline.com)
- Histopathologic examination demonstrated an epidermal inclusion cyst and cultures grew anaerobic gram-positive cocci. (healio.com)
- We report an unusual case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of bilateral upper eyelid epidermal inclusion cysts of greater than 7 years' duration who presented with acute infection with abscess formation caused by anaerobic gram-positive cocci within a preexisting epidermal inclusion cyst of the left upper eyelid. (healio.com)
- Cells were Gram-negative, motile, non-sporulating, straight to curved rods with one polar flagellum. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- A bacterial genus in the family Vibrionaceae comprising oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, monotrichously flagellated Gram-negative rods. (accessscience.com)
- The cells are Gram-negative straight rods and are motile by using one to 20 peritrichous agella. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
- Members of this genus are Gram (+), aerobic or facultative anaerobic, spore-forming rods. (foodelphi.com)
- A family of aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing gram-negative rods. (stopsprayingcalifornia.com)
- Acetobacter bacteria are aerobic gram-negative rods. (ipl.org)
- What are the Gram + anaerobic rods (2 genera) and which one is branched? (studystack.com)
- Gram negative, oxidase negative, urease positive rods that spread all over the petri dish where they were cultured. (studystack.com)
- Gram negative, oxidase negative, non motile rods that form colorless colonies on EMB. (studystack.com)
- Cells of the novel isolate were found to be Gram-negative, motile, budding rods. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Cells were Gram-negative, non-motile rods. (pdfdrugs.com)
- Gram stain of abscess fluid showed heavy neutrophils and gram-negative rods. (cdc.gov)
- The results showed that, although some bacterial populations decreased after cleaning, various HAI-related genera were quite stable following sanitization, suggesting being well-adapted to the ICU environment. (frontiersin.org)
- Food samples can be tested for bacteria to monitor, detect and/or identify bacterial contamination. (moldbacteria.com)
- We speculate that this multi-modal distribution is a consequence of loss of biodiversity during major extinction events, leading to the concept that a bacterial genus corresponds to a set of species that diversified since the Permian extinction. (cdc.gov)
- Purpose Anaerobic bacterial cultures are performed to identify bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen and which may cause human infection. (scribd.com)
- The presence of bacteria in these samples was assessed by bacterial culture, light microscopy, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (asm.org)
- Erythromycin is used extensively in treating gram-positive bacterial infections. (buyviagraestonline.com)
- against multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacterial pathogens by. (buyviagraestonline.com)
- As a result of the latest 510(k) clearance, the MALDI Biotyper CA System can now in total identify 210 species or species groups, covering 280 clinically relevant bacteria and yeast species, and representing more than 98% of the typical bacterial identification workflow of clinical microbiology laboratories. (bruker.com)
- Although bacterial resistance is widespread, the combination of β-lactamase inhibitors and broad-spectrum penicillins markedly enhances the spectrum and efficacy against both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Microbial community metabolic abilities assessed with Biolog™ Gram negative, Gram positive and anaerobic plates also showed differences over time for Shannon's diversity index, kinetics of average well colour development, and the intensely used substrates by bacterial community in each plate. (environmental-expert.com)
- Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups: gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria.The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Although Gram-negative bacterial cells have very thin peptidoglycan, they have an extra layer called the outer membrane. (wikibooks.org)
- The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial infection rate of livestock hydatid cysts in Hamedan, Iran, and test the isolated bacteria effects on viable protoscoleces, in vitro . (jjmicrobiol.com)
- Larvae are also effective in eliminating all types of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (worldwidewounds.com)
- Gram negative bacteria typically cannot survive, but the gram positive Staphylococcus genus are able to thrive. (jove.com)
- These growth-deficient variants are formed by a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (asm.org)
- one of the species of this genus that is best known is Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that produces various types of infections in humans, for example, skin infections, such as acne, boils or impetigo, and other more serious ones such as endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia or septic shock. (hochichu.info)
- Later, Joseph Lignières, a French bacteriologist, proposed the genus name Salmonella in recognition of Salmon's efforts. (cdc.gov)
- With a complicated taxonomy, the genus Salmonella is currently classified into 2 species ( S. enterica and S. bongori ), encompassing 2,659 serotypes based on somatic O and H flagellar antigens as specified in the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme. (cdc.gov)
- Salmonella was among the first bacteria discovered, and it was first observed microscopically in 1880 in tissues from humans dying from typhoid fever. (extension.org)
- Salmonella are a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that contains more than 2,000 serovars, sometimes referred to as species or serotypes. (extension.org)
- Salmonella are quite hardy and able to survive for months in cool organic substrates in either aerobic or anaerobic environments. (extension.org)
- In this lesson, we will look at Salmonella, a bacterium often found in the dough's raw eggs, which can cause a serious case of foodborne illness. (great-home-decorations.com)
- I was doing some background research for this lesson and happened on a website article discussing foodborne illness caused by the bacteria Salmonella . (great-home-decorations.com)
- So keep this in mind as we take a closer look at the bacteria Salmonella . (great-home-decorations.com)
- Salmonella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the gut of animals. (great-home-decorations.com)
- Gram-negative refers to Salmonella having a cell wall with a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane, making these cells appear red in the classic Gram stain. (great-home-decorations.com)
- In fact, Salmonella normally lives in the anaerobic small and large intestines of animals, including mammals, birds and reptiles. (great-home-decorations.com)
- Salmonellosis is the term used to describe any symptoms caused by a foodborne infection by the bacteria Salmonella . (great-home-decorations.com)
- The Salmonella bacteria inject a cocktail of proteins and toxins into the intestinal cells, which forces the cell to engulf the bacteria.Once inside, the Salmonella cells release more toxins that cause a rush of fluid into the intestines and stimulates inflammation and a host immune response. (great-home-decorations.com)
- One of the toxins released by growing and dying Salmonella is endotoxin, which consists of lipopolysaccharides, a major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. (great-home-decorations.com)
- The cause is the bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
- enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica , the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. (yahoo.com)
- Salmonella bacteria were first discovered by an American scientist, Dr. Daniel E. Salmon in 1884. (yahoo.com)
- Dr. Salmon isolated the bacteria from the intestines of a pig and called it Salmonella choleraesui. (yahoo.com)
- The genus Salmonella is divided into two species, S. enterica and S. bongori. (yahoo.com)
- Salmonella enterica are rod shaped Gram-negative bacteria. (yahoo.com)
- Acabo de modificar 1 ligazóns externas en Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
- Salmonella" actually refers to a species of bacteria that inhabit the intestines of people and animals, along with a large variety of other bacteria. (remnant.one)
- Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is a rod shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. (remnant.one)
- Salmonella bongori was previously considered a subspecies of S. enterica, but it is now the other species in the genus Salmonella. (remnant.one)
- The diversity of S 0 -oxidizing microorganisms in soils, in particular the genus Thiobacillus , and the biochemical mechanisms of S 0 oxidation in bacteria were also addressed. (scielo.br)
- Cosmetics may also get contaminated with bacteria and other microorganisms. (moldbacteria.com)
- If anaerobic microorganisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, an antimicrobial agent with anaerobic activity should be administered in combination with Azithromycin. (nih.gov)
- Some microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria used as starter culture, provide desirable changes in taste, odor or structure of food. (foodelphi.com)
- Joshua Miller 12/18/17 Fermentation Lab report Introduction The term fermentation refers to the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat (wikipedia). (ipl.org)
- Milk is often pasteurized to destroy pathogenic microorganisms and to eliminate spoilage and effects induced by bacteria. (1000sciencefairprojects.com)
- The fermenting microorganisms carry out the anaerobic conversion of lactose to lactic. (1000sciencefairprojects.com)
- Gram-positive bacteria accumulate about 100 times more erythromycin than do gram-negative microorganisms. (buyviagraestonline.com)
- This second clinical trial is intended to expand our current US clinical microbiology offer with additional rare gram negative bacteria, as well as with aerobic gram positive bacteria, yeasts, and anaerobic microorganisms cultured from human specimens. (bruker.com)
- Bruker's proprietary MALDI Biotyper product family enables molecular identification, taxonomical classification, or de-replication of microorganisms like bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. (bruker.com)
- Many anaerobic bacteria are the cause of infection in various organs and tissues and are usually more difficult to treat than aerobic infections since by being able to live without oxygen, anaerobic bacteria can infect places where other types of microorganisms do not reach. (hochichu.info)
- The most frequently identified aerobic gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli , Proteus species , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . (medscape.com)
- The most common CTXNS-En was Escherichia coli (43%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (biomedcentral.com)
- Morphology and Staining of Escherichia Coli: E. coli is Gram-negative straight rod, 1-3 µ x 0.4-0.7 µ, arranged singly or in pairs (Fig. Gram staining technique, magnification ×1000. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Escherichia coli , E. blattae , Klebsiella pnoumoniae , Proteus mirabilis , Enterobacter aerogenes , coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Edwardsiella tarda . (jjmicrobiol.com)
- samples of the liver abscess were submitted for species may stain gram variable or gram negative (1,2). (cdc.gov)
- That is, the BACTEC system signaled that a bottle (BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle or BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle) culture was positive but a Gram stain was negative and there was no growth of bacteria or yeasts on subculture to chocolate agar. (asm.org)
- the instrument signaled negative, the Gram stain was negative, and subcultures on chocolate agar and from the Isolator tube on fungal media showed no growth. (asm.org)
- In bacteriology, gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their type of cell wall. (ndcd.dk)
- Gram-positive bacteria take up the crystal violet stain used in the test, and then appear to be purple-coloured when seen through an optical microscope. (ndcd.dk)
- they are usually gram positive, but some species may stain gram variable or gram negative ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- One of the most well-known differential stains is Gram stain, which differentiates gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria based on the difference in their cell wall structure. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Counterstain in gram stain. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Since two different color dyes are used, the Gram stain is considered a differential stain, (i.e. 27.02.2015 - MicrobeWorld explores the world of microbes with vivid images and descriptions. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Differential stains- Gram stain. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- A. Gram Stain B. Acid-fast Stain A. Gram Stain The previous lab introduced simple staining techniques that enable microbiologists to observe the morphological characteristics of bacteria. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Alright, now E. Coli is gram-negative because its cell wall has a thin peptidoglycan layer so it cannot retain the crystal violet stain, but instead, it stains pink with Safranin dye used during Gram staining. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Doctor insights on: E Coli Gram Stain Share Share Follow @HealthTap Embed Dr. Larry Lutwick Dr. Lutwick 1 1 Does penicillin inhibit e. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- 1885) Demonstrated that particular strains were responsible for infant diarrhea and gastroenteritis Normal flora of the mouth and intestine Protects the â ¦ Introduction of E. coli E. coli in Gram stain as shown above picture. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- 1. GRAM STAIN TECHNIQUE Page 3 of 6 Gram Kleuring.doc November 7,,, 2001 Mollleculll ar Celll lll Physiiiolll ogy Protocolll Staining procedure 1. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Whereas oral antibiotics and phagocytic cells require an adequate blood supply to reach the affected area, maggots only require the oxygen in an open wound in order to debride a necrotic wound and cleanse it of bacteria. (worldwidewounds.com)
- however, during oxygen-limiting conditions, the bacterium preferentially consumed fructose. (kenyon.edu)
- The majority of clostridial species do not grow under aerobic conditions, and the vegetative cells are killed upon exposure to oxygen. (edu.au)
- Acetobacter is a genus of acetic acid bacteria characterized by the ability to convert alcohol (ethanol) to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. (foodelphi.com)
- Factors that affect the growth of bacteria of the acetic acid include ethanol , oxygen, temperature, nutrients, and acetic acid. (ipl.org)
- Obligate anaerobes are bacteria that can live only in the absence of oxygen. (scribd.com)
- If overlooked or killed by exposure to oxygen, anaerobic infections result in serious consequences such as amputation, organ failure, sepsis, meningitis, and death. (scribd.com)
- Aerobic growth at full atmospheric oxygen tension and anaerobic denitrifying growth in darkness were also possible. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- These 'Epsilonproteobacteria' dominate various deep-sea hydro- bacteria are mesophiles adapted to environments that are thermal habitats such as microbial mats of Loihi Seamount low in oxygen. (pdfdrugs.com)
- hydrogeniphilus are strictly anaerobic hydrogen-oxidizers able to grow chemolithoautotrophically with sulfur as tested on BM medium, with oxygen added to the H2/CO2 electron acceptor (Miroshnichenko et al. (pdfdrugs.com)
- The aero-tolerant ones perform aerobic respiration if there is oxygen, and if there is no oxygen they perform fermentation or anaerobic respiration, according to each specific species. (hochichu.info)
- An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. (hochichu.info)
- Boogerd, F. C., P. Bos, J. G. Kuenen, J. J. Heijnen, and R. G. J. M. van der Lans (1990) "Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Mass Transfer and the Aerobic, Autotrophic Cultivation of Moderate and Extreme Thermophiles: A Case Study Related to the Microbial Desulfurization of Coal," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 35, 1111-1119. (nchu.edu.tw)
- Several facultative anaerobes or obligate anaerobes HAI-related genera were classified as biomarkers for the NICU, whereas Pseudomonas was the main biomarker for ICU. (frontiersin.org)
- Both E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are gram-negative, rod-shaped â ¦ Some strains, however, can cause severe foodborne disease. (ots-eu.co.uk)
- Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. (lookformedical.com)
- They are very diverse and include all the Bacteria and archaea and almost all the protozoa. (1000sciencefairprojects.com)
- Bacteria and Archaea) are fundamentally different from the eukaryotic cells that constitute other forms of life. (academicroom.com)
- Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. (hochichu.info)
- Due to the important roles of archaea in wastewater treatment processes, archaeal communities have been studied extensively in various anaerobic reactors, but the knowledge of archaeal communities in full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) remains quite poor. (environmental-expert.com)
- Peptidoglycan is unique to the cell walls of bacteria, as eukaryotic cell walls are generally made of chiten or cellulose, and archaea bacteria have cell walls composed of other polysaccharides and proteins. (wikibooks.org)
Either aerobic or anaerobic1
- The strains described above are able to degrade toluene under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, but not both. (asm.org)
- The present 16s rRNA analysis suggests that both strains are members of the epsilon subdivision of the division Proteobacteria , with CVO most closely related to Thiomicrospira denitrifcans and FWKO B most closely related to members of the genus Arcobacter . (asm.org)
- Acinetobacter (a-sin-NEET-to-bak-ter) is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the wider class of Gamma proteobacteria. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
- Deltaproteobacteria 0 questions A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. (lookformedical.com)
- Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant fungal genera in the phylum level of community composition. (hindawi.com)
- 2003). All the above-mentioned genera, except for nized line of descent within the Proteobacteria that encom- Thiovulum and Sulfurospirillum, which thrive in aquatic pass two families within the single order 'Campylobacterales' habitats, have been found associated with animals. (pdfdrugs.com)
- Bacteria with high lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in LAL assay were found at the genus level of Bacteroides , Enterococcus , Desulfovibrio , and Megasphaera . (iwaponline.com)
- Bacteroidetes 0 questions A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. (lookformedical.com)
- The Bacteroides genus is an example of anaerobic bacteria that are both beneficial and harmful. (hochichu.info)
- Die meisten bauen dabei Traubenzucker oder Other species only appear in specific areas of the body, such as some bacteria that we only find in the colon, for example, the genus Bacteroides, very common in human feces and that can cause tissue destruction if they infect wounds of the intestinal mucosa. (hochichu.info)
- Overall, these results enabled identification of discrete ICU and NICU reservoirs of potentially pathogenic bacteria and provided evidence for the presence of a set of biomarkers genera that distinguish these units. (frontiersin.org)
- Fortunately, Alicyclobacillus are not pathogenic bacteria, but they are troublesome, not only for consumers but also for beverage producers, because no effective control methods have yet been developed. (foodelphi.com)
- Although the consumption of probiotic products cannot be considered a risk factor in the development of diseases caused by usually non-pathogenic bacteria, specific individual clinical histories should be taken into account. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the lecture portion of the course, each genus of pathogenic bacteria is studied according to its classification, structure, virulence, epidemiology, clinical syndrome(s) and treatment. (umaryland.edu)
- The laboratory portion of the course supports the lectures by providing practical experience in the identification of pathogenic bacteria by conventional techniques. (umaryland.edu)
- During the anaerobic treatment and the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) in the three WWTPs, the endotoxin activity increased, while it declined in the aerobic treatment system. (iwaponline.com)
- Antagonistic bacteria and fungi can affect pathogens of the genus Fusarium via different modes of action: direct (mycoparasitism or hyperparasitism), mixed-path (antibiotic secretion, production of lytic enzymes) and indirect (induction of host defense responses). (mdpi.com)
- In temperate climates, pathogens of the genus Fusarium are the most dangerous producers of toxic metabolites in cereal grains. (mdpi.com)
- A genus of Gram-negative, immotile and nonspore-forming, oval to rod-shaped, often pleomorphic bacteria that occur as parasites or pathogens in mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles. (accessscience.com)
- Culture is required to correctly identify anaerobic pathogens and institute effective antibiotic treatment. (scribd.com)
- The Karius test for infectious diseases detects microbial cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma from more than a thousand pathogens from a single blood draw in one day using NGS, including bacteria, DNA viruses, fungi and protozoa. (rapidmicromethods.com)
- Acute hathewayi , a newly described gram-negative, endospore- cholecystitis and hepatic abscess were diagnosed. (cdc.gov)
Types of bacteria8
- Most types of bacteria reproduce quickly. (homeoint.org)
- Numbers and types of bacteria that should be a cause for concern depends upon several factors, including the type of bacteria present and the type of samples. (moldbacteria.com)
- This test reveals if the air is contaminated with types of bacteria that are of healthy concern. (moldbacteria.com)
- Both quantification and identification of the types of bacteria present in the sample are possible. (moldbacteria.com)
- Water can also be analysed for other types of bacteria such as iron, sulfur or slime bacteria that cause blockage of plumbing systems, bad odors, discolorations and diseases. (moldbacteria.com)
- Impurities in the coolant encourage microbial growth including various types of bacteria. (moldbacteria.com)
- The specific types of bacteria that we routinely test for from air, surface, and water samples are listed below. (moldbacteria.com)
- Gram staining uses the structure of the cell wall to differentiate two main types of bacteria: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. (wikibooks.org)
- What's a Gram +, catalase +, coagulase - coccus that is sensitive to novobiocin and produces a biofilm? (studystack.com)
- What's a Gram + catalase +, coagulase - coccus that is resistant to novobiocin? (studystack.com)
- What's a Gram +, catalase -, beta hemolytic coccus that is sensitive to bacitracin? (studystack.com)
- What's a Gram + coccus that is catalase negative and turns escualin agar black? (studystack.com)
- Coccus, in microbiology, a spherical-shaped bacterium. (ndcd.dk)
- Many of the taxa identified in this study either cannot be or are not routinely cultivated by clinical microbiology laboratories (hereinafter called uncultivated bacteria). (asm.org)
- Techniques in Anaerobic Microbiology. (hochichu.info)
- Angelidaki, I. and B. K. Ahring (1992) "Effects of Free Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion," Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 37 (6), 808-812. (nchu.edu.tw)
- Becker, P., D. Koster, M. N. Popov, S. Markosslan, G. Antraniklan, and H. Maerkl (1999) "The Biodegradation of Olive Oil and the Treatment of Lipid-rich Wool Scouring Wastewater under Aerobic Thermophilic Conditions," Water Research, 33(3), 653-660. (nchu.edu.tw)
- More than 150 species (bioMerieux, Inc.), the anaerobic bottles from both sets of have been described to date, but most are believed to be blood cultures were positive for similar, gram-negative, harmless saprophytes (1). (cdc.gov)
- Furthermore, from the same sample of blood, cultures for fungi using the Isolator blood culture system (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) were negative for growth. (asm.org)
- It is a gram positive bacteria but in some cultures may turn gram negative with age (4). (kenyon.edu)
- The blood is normally a sterile environment, so the detection of bacteria in the blood (most commonly with blood cultures) is always abnormal. (foodelphi.com)
- Gram staining and results from abscess cultures were negative. (biomedcentral.com)
- Two sets of blood cultures were drawn, and empirical antibiotic therapy was started with intravenous vancomycin targeting only aerobic streptococci and staphylococci. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the results from abscess cultures were negative. (biomedcentral.com)
- Two sets of BacT/Alert FAN (bioMerieux Inc., Durham, NC) aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were drawn, after which the patient received empiric intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam therapy. (cdc.gov)
- After 48 hours of incubation in the BacT/Alert 3D system (bioMerieux, Inc.), the anaerobic bottles from both sets of blood cultures were positive for similar, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- Antibiotics can kill or weaken disease-causing bacteria. (homeoint.org)
- However, extensive use of antibiotics may encourage the spread of bacteria resistant to the drugs. (homeoint.org)
- Anaerobic infections are most likely to be found in persons who are immunosuppressed, those treated recently with broadspectrum antibiotics, and persons who have a necrotic, discolored injury on or near a mucus membrane, especially if the site is foul-smelling. (scribd.com)
- Vaccines & Antibiotics kill good bacteria in the intestines leaving room for yeast overgrowth. (vaccineresistancemovement.org)
- 1999) The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals: antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals and humans. (anotherdayatwork.co.uk)
- For other common urinary disorders, including overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, and a spectrum of pain disorders, e.g., painful bladder syndrome and interstitial cystitis, the clinical urine culture is negative and antibiotics are not given for clinical treatment. (asm.org)
- Some bacteria are widely used in the preparation of foods, chemicals, and antibiotics. (academicroom.com)
- Acinetobacter species are not motile and oxidase-negative, and occur in pairs under magnification. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
- Any of various gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria of the genus Proteus, certain species of which are associated with human enteritis and urinary tract infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A genus of GRAM NEGATIVE , rod-shaped bacteria that frequently cause urinary infections or ENTERITIS . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Bacteria that usually live harmlessly in the body may cause infections when a person's resistance to disease is low. (homeoint.org)
- The blood and abscess isolates did not may be involved in a wide variety of human infections or grow aerobically, although anaerobic growth on brucella illnesses. (cdc.gov)
- To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of azithromycin and other antibacterial drugs, azithromycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. (nih.gov)
- The clinical significance of Lactobacillus bacteraemia in immunocompetent patients is not clear, but considering the wide distribution of Lactobacillus and the relatively few infections they cause, these bacteria can be considered to have very little virulence in healthy humans. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bacteria were clinical isolates collected from a wide range of infections throughout the United States or worldwide and identified at the Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- It is used primarily to treat infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. (medicinamexico.com)
- In penicillin allergic patients clindamycin may be used to treat susceptible aerobic infections as well. (medicinamexico.com)
- Anaerobic infections in the skin and soft tissue can be caused by the cutaneous anaerobic flora, mainly Peptostreptococcus, but are most often caused by contamination with the flora from adjacent mucosal surfaces. (hochichu.info)
- Harmful bacteria prevent the body from functioning properly by destroying healthy cells. (homeoint.org)
- When harmful bacteria do enter the body, white blood cells surround and attack them. (homeoint.org)
- Larvae work continually to remove the dead tissue and cleanse it of bacteria while leaving the viable cells alone. (worldwidewounds.com)
- Considerable variation is seen in the actual shapes of bacteria, and cells can be stretched or compressed in one dimension. (ndcd.dk)
- Some monococci are usually present in any species of bacteria with this shape, but it is quite common for them to form groups of two or more cells. (ndcd.dk)
- They form endospores, thick-walled bodies formed within the vegetative cells of certain bacteria, able to withstand adverse environmental conditions for prolonged periods. (lookformedical.com)
- Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells are represented, and spore-forming Bacteria are also commonly isolated, although the abundance of spore-forming Bacteria varies widely between geographically separated permafrost samples. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
- The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity. (lookformedical.com)
- Traditionally, all prokaryotic cells were called bacteria and were classified in the prokaryotic kingdom Monera. (academicroom.com)
- In fact, many more bacteria cells exist than human cells in the body, especially on the skin and digestive tract. (wikibooks.org)
- PCR-negative, culture-positive isolates were recognized during verification studies of the Xpert GBS assay in 12 laboratories between 2012 and 2018. (stanford.edu)
- CTXNS-En isolates exhibited multidrug resistance but remained highly susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. (biomedcentral.com)
- CTXNS-En isolates harboring ESBL and AmpC caused delays in appropriate therapy among bacteremic patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- The in vitro activities of doripenem against 364 anaerobic isolates were measured and compared to those of ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin. (asm.org)
- The purpose of this study was to measure the efficacy of doripenem against a wide range of clinical anaerobic isolates and to compare its in vitro activities to those of other antimicrobial agents. (asm.org)
- Cultured isolates recovered from permafrost are capable of a wide range of metabolic processes including aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophy, chemolithoautotrophy, sulfate-reduction, methanotrophy, methanogenesis (Gilichinsky et al. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
- For example, spore-forming genera dominated the culturable community from 2 to 9 m (69% and 100% of isolates, respectively) Canadian high Arctic permafrost samples (Steven et al. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
- These include a variety of anaerobic and aerobic, spore-less and spore-forming bacteria (Table 5.2), with a Psychrobacter-related isolate accounting for 53% of all isolates, suggesting this organism was a dominant community member (Bakermans et al. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
- Recovered isolates related to the genera Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium (Rivkina et al. (climate-policy-watcher.org)
- This was supplemented by protein gene sequencing, which showed that 98.9% of the isolates tested have resulted in correct identifications to the genus or species level, with only 0.9% of isolates unable to be identified. (bruker.com)
- Results generated by the MALDI Biotyper CA System were compared to 16s molecular sequencing and showed 99.78% of the isolates tested produced correct identifications to the genus or species level with only 0.09% of isolates unable to be identified. (bruker.com)
Positive and Gram negative6
- The antihistamine compound promethazine (Pz) showed significant antibacterial action when tested against 124 strains of aerobic and 13 strains of anaerobic bacteria belonging to both Gram positive and Gram negative genera. (who.int)
- Many strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic, facultative and anaerobic. (buyviagraestonline.com)
- Penicillins in this class are derived semisynthetically and are active against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (merckvetmanual.com)
- There are two different types of cell walls - gram positive and gram negative. (wikibooks.org)
- The cell wall of bacteria falls into two categories, Gram-positive and Gram-negative, named after the gram strain test that initially separated the two categories. (wikibooks.org)
- This dye stains the surface of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative blue. (wikibooks.org)
- A strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, strain AMX 51 T , was isolated from anaerobic digester sludge. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Campylobacter , along with Arcobacter and Sulfurospirillum , are the three genera that belong to the family, Campylobacteraceae. (frontiersin.org)
- Arcobacter genus has Campylobacter-like bacteria and firstly identified as aerotolerant campylobacters. (foodelphi.com)
- Arcobacter 0 questions A genus of gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria isolated from water and associated with diarrhea in humans and animals. (lookformedical.com)
- The family Campylobacteraceaecontains the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Sulfurospir- Assessment of microbial diversity using molecular phylo- illum and Thiovulum, whereas the family 'Helicobacteraceae' genetic approaches has revealed that members of the is formed by the genera Helicobacter and Wolinella. (pdfdrugs.com)
- Results generated by the MALDI Biotyper CA System were compared to 16s rRNA molecular sequencing for bacteria and ITS sequencing for yeasts. (bruker.com)
- The most recent 510(k) clearance for the MALDI Biotyper CA System further expands its clinical utility by offering the largest FDA-cleared library for expedited, high-accuracy identification of bacteria and yeasts. (bruker.com)
- For the present study, we evaluated 76 instrument false-positive samples for the presence of 16S ribosomal DNA using the MicroSeq 500 kit (PE Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.). These samples also were negative for fungi by the Isolator method. (asm.org)
- Fungi of the genus Fusarium infect cereal crops during the growing season and cause head blight and other diseases. (mdpi.com)
- Fungi of the genus Fusarium are not always effectively controlled with fungicides because FHB epidemics develop rapidly and involve at least several fungal species [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
- In a food infection, the symptoms are caused by actively growing bacteria in the body. (great-home-decorations.com)
- Injury to these tissues (i.e., cuts, puncture wounds, or trauma) especially at or adjacent to the mucus membranes allows anaerobes entry into otherwise sterile areas of the body and is the primary cause of anaerobic infection. (scribd.com)
- A second source of anaerobic infection occurs from the introduction of spores into a normally sterile site. (scribd.com)
- 22%). Independent risk factors for CTXNS-En bacteremia included previous infection or colonization of CTXNS-En, cardiac disease, the presence of intravascular catheter and prior surgery within 30 days. (biomedcentral.com)
- H. cinaedi infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subdural empyema cases for which Gram staining and abscess culture results are negative. (biomedcentral.com)
- For example, the study of bacteria has helped researchers understand how certain characteristics are inherited. (homeoint.org)
- Cultural characteristics It is aerobic and facultatively anaerobic. (rio-negocios.com)
- Cultural characteristics of Shigella: Aerobic and facultative anaerobes. (rio-negocios.com)
- Major emphasis is placed on learning the basic identification characteristics of each of the genera studied and the differentiation of the various species within each genus. (umaryland.edu)
- A chemical process called fermentation, used in making alcoholic beverages and cheese and many other foods, is caused by various bacteria. (homeoint.org)
- Anaerobically, the bacterium uses fermentation or photosynthesis in order to produce energy as well as photoautotrophic growth (DOE). (kenyon.edu)
- The fermentation is usually done by acetic acid bacteria of the genus Acetobacter, alcohol in a variety of sources (eg, apple cider, wine, potatoes, fermented cereals). (ipl.org)
- The bacteria form a film on the surface, called mother of vinegar, and can be used as a fermentation starter culture in liquid acetic fresh alcohol. (ipl.org)
- The product made from these bacteria should be focused while oxidative fermentation by Acetobacter can produce up to 20% acetic acid. (ipl.org)
- Lactobacillus is a genus of bacteria which can convert sugars into lactic acid by means of fermentation. (1000sciencefairprojects.com)
- the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. (hindawi.com)
- Using fermentation, these bacteria are able to meet their energy requirement. (hochichu.info)
- Aeromonas hydrophila is a species of gram-negative bacteria. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
Strains of aerobic1
- Of these contaminants, toluene is degraded by many strains of aerobic bacteria, and five different aerobic toluene degradation pathways have been identified. (asm.org)
- A deficiency in aerobic respiration is indicated by auxotrophy for hemin, thiamine, or menadione. (asm.org)
Grow aerobically or anaerobically1
- Description and Significance== ''Rhodospirillum rubrum'' is a purple nonsulfur bacterium that can grow aerobically or anaerobically. (kenyon.edu)
- DNA sequencing of conserved regions within phylogenetically informative genetic targets, such as the small-subunit (16S) rRNA gene, is promising as a means for identifying bacteria ( 5 , 9 , 22 , 27 ). (asm.org)
- Based upon the results of culture-independent 16S rRNA sequencing of samples obtained by voided urine, Nelson and coworkers ( 26 ) reported that diverse bacteria colonize the adult male urogenital tract. (asm.org)
- Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces see antibiotic. (buyviagraestonline.com)
- Cure: Resolution of clinically significant signs and symptoms* associated with the infected wound present at the time of study entry and no additional gram-positive antibiotic therapy is needed until the end of treatment visit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- or additional gram-positive antibiotic therapy is needed until the end of treatment visit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Bacteria are also important in the fields of biotechnology and gene therapy due to their possession of circular DNA called plasmids, which contain the genes that encode antibiotic resistance. (wikibooks.org)
- The way an antibiotic like penicillin is able to kill bacteria is to inhibit a step in the peptidoglycan synthesis. (wikibooks.org)
- Many of the different genera, including gram-positive, gram-negative, aerobic, and anaerobic bacteria, carried both tet(Q) and erm(F) in addition to an open reading frame (ORF) upstream of the erm(F) gene and two genes, rteA and rteB, downstream from the tet(Q) gene ( 45, 46). (anotherdayatwork.co.uk)
- They are facultatively aerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates (without production of gas) and of reducing nitrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Acetobacter aceti is a Gram negative bacterium that moves using its peritrichous flagella. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
- It grows under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and is nonmotile. (wikipedia.org)
- They can grown under many different types of conditions including aerobic or anaerobic environments. (kenyon.edu)
- strain DNT-1, grew on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (asm.org)
- Biochemical observations indicated that initial degradation of toluene occurred through a dioxygenase-mediated pathway and the benzylsuccinate pathway under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, respectively. (asm.org)
- In addition, the tod genes were induced under aerobic conditions, whereas the bss genes were induced under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (asm.org)
- A few studies have reported the identification of denitrifying strains that can grow on toluene under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions ( 9 , 18 , 25 , 47 ), but details of the pathways used are not known. (asm.org)
- Pseudomonads are aerobic, although some species also grow under anaerobic conditions. (hartmann-academie.nl)
- They can grow under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and do not produce enterotoxins Footnote 1. (yahoo.com)
- The ripening of cheese is influenced by the interaction of bacteria, enzymes, and physical conditions in the curing room. (1000sciencefairprojects.com)
- Bioconversion of toxic selenite to non-toxic Se (0) nanoparticles under aerobic conditions in general may be useful for detoxification of agricultural soil, since elemental Se may not be taken up by the roots of plants and thus allow non-dangerous fodder and food production on Se-containing soil. (biomedcentral.com)
- It remains unclear if these bacteria are viable and/or if their presence is relevant to idiopathic urinary tract conditions. (asm.org)
- Denitrification is a distinct means of energy conservation, making use of N oxides as terminal electron acceptors for cellular bioenergetics under anaerobic, microaerophilic, and occasionally aerobic conditions. (asm.org)
- Though some members of domain bacteria live in extreme environments, many more favors moderate conditions. (wikibooks.org)
- The bacteria is used in production of vinegar and in production of acetic acid. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
- 2003) ==Ecology== ''Rhodospirillum'' bacteria can generally be found in marine environments or in some types of mud and soil where light is available for photosynthesis. (kenyon.edu)
- Koch applied the suspended drop culture method to understand the life cycle of the bacteria and found that the spores formed could survive for long period in harsh environments (3). (kenyon.edu)
- Coliforms are common environmental bacteria and may be found in soil, on hands, on equipment surfaces, in water and other environments. (moldbacteria.com)
- The catalog of viable Bacteria recovered from permafrost and associated environments, currently includes at least 70 genera (Table 5.2). (climate-policy-watcher.org)
- Contamination can be determined by testing for coliform bacteria that are indicators of sewage contamination. (moldbacteria.com)
- These anaerobes are ancient bacteria that colonize and thrive in nearly all of the natural anaerobic habitats where organic compounds are present such as soils, aquatic sediments, and the intestinal tracts of animals. (edu.au)
- They are strictly aerobic and are found in water (fresh and marine) and soils. (deskuenvis.nic.in)
Species of bacteria3
- Some species of bacteria cause diseases in human beings. (homeoint.org)
- Dead or weakened bacteria are used in making drugs called vaccines, which can prevent the diseases caused by those species of bacteria. (homeoint.org)
- Many species of bacteria have characteristic arrangements that are useful in identification. (ndcd.dk)
Identification of bacteria1
- This kit has a PCR module and sequencing module for the amplification and sequencing of the 16S RNA gene and provides a database for sequence alignment and identification of bacteria. (asm.org)
- A mixed microbial culture enriched from the arable soil of Punjab could reduce 230 mg/l of water soluble selenite to spherical Se (0) nanoparticles during aerobic growth as confirmed by SEM-EDX. (biomedcentral.com)
- samples of the liver abscess were submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture. (cdc.gov)
- Isolation and characterization of phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacteria from Chloroflexus and cyanobacterial mats in hot springs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Intestinal bacteria also produce some vitamins needed by the body. (homeoint.org)
- Some bacteria can cause diseases in humans, animals, or plants, but most are harmless and are beneficial ecological agents whose metabolic activities sustain higher life-forms. (academicroom.com)
- Students are introduced to bacteria, which may cause disease or may reside as normal flora in humans. (umaryland.edu)
- Scanning electron microscope image of Vibrio cholerae bacteria, which infect the digestive system. (wikibooks.org)
- Several studies have shown that oral bacteria are susceptible to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). (spiedigitallibrary.org)