Bacteria, AnaerobicBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacteria, AerobicAnaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Peptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Prevotella melaninogenica: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium has been isolated from the mouth, urine, feces, and infections of the mouth, soft tissue, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and intestinal tract. It is pathogenic, but usually in association with other kinds of organisms.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Cefotetan: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.EsculinAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods: A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Actinomycetaceae: A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Veillonellaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fusobacterium necrophorum: A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Propionibacteriaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found in dairy products or in the intestinal tracts of animals.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Propionibacterium acnes: A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.ValeratesGerm-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods: A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods: Rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS and CLOSTRIDIUM.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Bites, Human: Bites inflicted by humans.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Peritonsillar Abscess: An accumulation of purulent material in the area between the PALATINE TONSIL and its capsule.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: The type species of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria of the genus DESULFOVIBRIO. It is found in FRESHWATER; SOIL, and in marine or brackish water.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Fusobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Cefmetazole: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Chloroflexi: Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Gardnerella vaginalis: A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Corrinoids: Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Periapical Abscess: Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
nov: an obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium. FEMS Microbiol Lett 120:263-6. Sissons, C. H., K ... It is the type species, and more thoroughly studied member of its genus. Rainey, F. A., A. M. Donnison, P. H. Janssen, D. Saul ... Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is a species of thermophilic, anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. It was isolated from a ... Isolation of cellulolytic anaerobic extreme thermophiles from new zealand thermal sites. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:832-8. Type ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria. Bacteroides species are nonendospore-forming bacilli, and ... A recent report found temperature plays a major role in the amount of time the bacteria will persist in the environment, the ... "A new study has found that there is a three-way relationship between a type of gut bacteria, cortisol, and brain metabolites. ... "Gut bacteria influence the brain indirectly, study shows". Medical News Today. Retrieved 2018-01-07. Slonczewski, Joan L.; ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Pasteurella species are nonmotile and pleomorphic, ... The genus is named after the French chemist and microbiologist, Louis Pasteur, who first identified the bacteria now known as ... The common occurrence of the bacteria is a reason to be medically proactive and defensive (antibacterial treatments are often ... Identification of Pasteurella species and morphologically similar bacteria (.pdf). National Standard Method BSOP ID 13 Issue ...
... facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria. S. dysenteriae, spread by contaminated water and food, causes the most severe ... Germani, Y.; Sansonetti, P.J. (2006). "Chapter 3.3.6: The Genus Shigella". In Dworkin, M. (editor-in-chief). The Prokaryotes: ... Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella.[page needed] Shigella species can cause ... Contamination is often caused by bacteria on unwashed hands during food preparation, or soiled hands reaching the mouth.[ ...
... is a genus in the Firmicutes phylum of bacteria that has most commonly been found in the guts of animals. The ... nov., a novel anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52: 1263- ... "Genus VIII. Turicibacter Bosshard, Zbinden and Altwegg 2002, 1266VP". In De Vos P, Garrity GM, Jones D, Krieg NR, Ludwig W, ... genus is named after the city in which it was first isolated, Zurich (Latin = Turicum), Switzerland. The position of ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Gemmiger. LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of Gemmiger formicilis UniProt ... Gemmiger formicilis, n.gen., n.sp., an Anaerobic Budding Bacterium from Intestines [1]. ...
... is a species of bacteria, the type species of its genus. It is a halophilic, anaerobic, ... nov., a Halophilic, Anaerobic, Chitinolytic Bacterium from a Solar Saltern". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 58 (1): ... 4: Bacteria: Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria. Vol. 4. Springer, 2006. Oren, Aharon. Halophilic microorganisms and their environments ... chitinolytic bacterium. Its cells are long, gram-negative, motile, flexible rods. H. J. Liaw & R. A. Mah (January 1992). " ...
nov., a new chemoorganotrophic, anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium. Archives of Microbiology Volume 128, Number 4 (1981), 365- ... Transfer of the Type Species of the Genus Thermobacteroides to the Genus Thermoanaerobacter as Thermoanaerobacter ... non-spore-forming bacteria. T. acetoethylicus was first isolated from Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The bacteria ... In 1993, based on further study, the species was moved into the genus Thermoanaerobacter. Parte, A.C. "Thermoanaerobacter". www ...
"Two new species of anaerobic oxalate-fermenting bacteria, Oxalobacter vibrioformis sp. nov. and Clostridium oxalicum sp. nov., ... O. vibrioformis is a Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, motile, vibrioid rod which belongs to the genus Oxalobacter. O. ... "Two new species of anaerobic oxalate-fermenting bacteria, Oxalobacter vibrioformis sp. nov. and Clostridium oxalicum sp. nov., ... Oxalobacter vibrioformis is an oxalate-degrading anaerobic bacterium which was isolated from anoxic freshwater sediments. ...
... is a genus of Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic soil bacteria. A type of sulfate-reducing bacteria, ... "Bacteria that use radiated water for food discovered two miles down". Phys.org. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 6 September 2016. ... The bacteria uses radiolytically-produced H2, which is generated in that environment by the energy released by radioisotopes, ... They are endospore-forming bacteria.[citation needed] A new strain of Desulfotomaculum, called Desulforudis audaxviator, was ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. While this species possesses a cell wall with ... structural similarity to other Gram-positive cell walls, upon Gram stain, these bacteria may be stained either Gram-negative or ...
... is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and heterotroph bacteria genus. It is in the family of ...
... is an anaerobic bacterium from the genus of Tepidanaerobacter. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity ... nov., an anaerobic, syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from two ammonium-enriched mesophilic methanogenic ...
... is an anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium. It disproportionates elemental sulfur. It is the type ... species of its genus. Janssen, P. H.; Schuhmann, Alexandra; Bak, F.; Liesack, Werner (1996). "Disproportionation of inorganic ... Tonolla M, Demarta A, Peduzzi S, Hahn D, Peduzzi R (2000). "In situ analysis of sulfate-reducing bacteria related to ... sulfur compounds by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes gen. nov., sp. nov". Archives of Microbiology. ...
nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic, syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and ... syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacterium, the type species of its genus. The type strain is strain SI(T) (= DSM 13744T = JCM ... LPSN Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum at the Encyclopedia of Life Bacteria cooperate to survive: Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum ... "The genome of Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum reveals niche-associated evolution in anaerobic microbiota". Genome Research. 18 ...
nov., a new strictly anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacterium. Bernhard Schink and Norbert Pfennig, Archives of Microbiology, ... Norbert Pfennig described with Bernhard Schink Pelobacter acidigallici, a bacterial species in the genus Pelobacter. P. ...
... is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria that belong to the Eubacteriaceae family. The type species of ... predominantly making acetic acid as a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism. Most of the species reported in this genus are ... Anaerobic Bacteria". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 27 (4): 355. doi:10.1099/00207713-27-4-355. Schiel- ... By using the ethanol that is produced by the bacterium researchers aim to create a sustainable way to create energy. Balch, W. ...
The primary colonizing bacteria of a healthy individual are of the genus Lactobacillus, such as L. crispatus, and the lactic ... Some of the obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria are associated with BV. The effect of tampon use on vaginal flora is ... The primary colonizing bacteria of a healthy individual are of the genus Lactobacillus. Since the first description of ... However, harmful bacteria or an imbalance in bacteria can lead to infection.[medical citation needed] Bacterial vaginosis is ...
... is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria. The cells are small, spherical, and can ... of anaerobic isolates of osteomyelitis caused by anaerobic bacteria and 20% of anaerobic isolates of arthritis caused by ... Most often Anaerobic gram-positive cocci are usually recovered mixed in with other anaerobic or aerobic bacteria from various ... Of all anaerobic bacteria recovered at hospitals from 1973-1985, anaerobic gram-positive cocci accounted for 26% of it. The ...
... are a genus of anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family Haloanaerobiaceae. The organisms are spore-forming ... Ollivier B, Caumette P, Garcia J, Mah R (1994). "Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments". Microbiol Rev. 58 (1): 27- ... Oren A, Gurevich P, Henis Y (1991). "Reduction of nitrosubstituted aromatic compounds by the halophilic anaerobic eubacteria ...
... is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria. They are ubiquitous inhabitants of ... Bifidobacteria are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the colon flora in mammals. Some bifidobacteria are used as ... The sensitivity of members of the genus Bifidobacterium to O2 generally limits probiotic activity to anaerobic habitats. Recent ... "oral administration of cultures of fermentative bacteria would implant the beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract". The ...
... is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Like other species in the genus Clostridium, C. ... In subsequent years, these bacteria were shown to form spores, causing them to be reclassified in the genus Clostridium. ... first identified in the 1950s in human and animal feces and assigned to the genus of gram-negative non-spore-forming bacteria ... While Clostridium species have cell walls that resemble gram-positive bacteria, C. clostridioforme often appears negative by ...
... is the type species in the bacteria genus Pelobacter. P. acidigallici is able to degrade ... nov., a new strictly anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacterium. Bernhard Schink and Norbert Pfennig, Archives of Microbiology, ...
... is a species of bacteria, the type species of its genus. It is anaerobic, syntrophic, propionate-oxidizing ... "Characterization of the anaerobic propionate-degrading syntrophs Smithella propionica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Syntrophobacter ... bacteria, with type strain LYPT (= OCM 661T). Liu, Y.; Balkwill, D. L.; Aldrich, H. C.; Drake, G. R.; Boone, D. R. (1999). " ...
... is a genus of anaerobic and thermophilic bacteria from the family Nautiliaceae. Giovannelli, Donato; Ferriera, ... by James W.B. (2011). Nitrogen cycling in bacteria : molecular analysis. Norfolk: Caister Academic Press. ISBN 1-904455-86-7. ...
... is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria. The cells are small, spherical, and can occur in short chains, in pairs or individually. They typically move using cilia. Peptostreptococcus are slow-growing bacteria with increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Peptostreptococcus is a normal inhabitant of the healthy lower reproductive tract of women. Peptostreptococcus species are commensal organisms in humans, living predominantly in the mouth, skin, gastrointestinal, vagina and urinary tracts, and compose a portion of the bacterial gut flora. Under immunosuppressed or traumatic conditions these organisms can become pathogenic, as well as septicemic, harming their host. Peptostreptococcus can cause brain, liver, breast, and lung abscesses, as well as generalized necrotizing soft tissue infections. They participate in mixed ...
... (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class clostridia. It is ubiquitous, being found in the soil and faeces. It is pathogenic, causing a wide variety of diseases in man and animals. It comes in three types, labelled A, B, and a non-pathogenic type C distinguished by the range of toxins they produce. Some authors include Clostridium haemolyticum as Clostridium novyi type D. C novyi is closely related to Clostridium botulinum types C and D as Yoshimasa Sasaki et al. have demonstrated by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Growth in culture proceeds through 3 stages: Initial growth wherein no toxin is produced; vigorous growth wherein toxin is produced; and spore formation wherein endospores are formed and toxin production decreases. It is suggested that type C may be type B that forms spores more readily so does not go through the toxin-production stage. Isolating and identifying C novyi is ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. While this species possesses a cell wall with structural similarity to other Gram-positive cell walls, upon Gram stain, these bacteria may be stained either Gram-negative or Gram-variable. These organisms are found in the human vagina, particularly in association with Gardnerella vaginalis in cases of bacterial vaginosis. Medical Microbiology 5th Edition, Patrick R. Murray, PhD Clark, Natalie; Tal, Reshef; Sharma, Harsha; Segars, James (2014). "Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease". Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 32 (01): 043-049. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1361822. ISSN 1526-8004. PMC 4148456 . PMID 24390920. Schwebke JR, Lawing LF (April 2001). "Prevalence of Mobiluncus spp among women with and without bacterial vaginosis as detected by polymerase chain ...
... is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria; they are anaerobic cocci of the class Clostridia, with Finegoldia magna being the type species. F. magna was formerly known, along with several other Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs), as Peptostreptococcus magnus, but was moved into its own genus in 1999. The name is in honor of Sydney M. Finegold, an American microbiologist, while magna is Latin for large. It is an opportunistic human pathogen that normally colonizes skin and mucous membranes. It is often seen in biofilms on chronic ulcers such as in diabetic foot or decubitus ulcers. Most surveys have found it to be susceptible to penicillins, carbapenems and metronidazole, though resistant strains have been identified. Resistance to clindamycin is common and has been seen in over 10% of isolates in the US. One review stated that "the combination of diminished antimicrobial ...
... (CLOIN) is an anaerobic, non-motile, gram-positive bacterium that reproduces by sporulation. While there are over 130 species of Clostridia, C. innocuum is the third most commonly isolated. Although it is not normally considered an aggressive human pathogen, it has been isolated in some disease processes. C. innocuum and other Clostrida line the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, and are considered normal gut flora. Anaerobic gram-positive bacilli affecting human beings are generally divided into two distinct groups, those that form spores (Clostridium spp) and those that do not form spores. Within the spore-forming group of Clostridium species, some are very pathogenic or toxigenic (C. perfringens) while others are rarely pathogenic. Identification and differentiation between anaerobic gram-positive bacteria in a clinical laboratory can be a very difficult task. C. ...
... are a genus of anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family Haloanaerobiaceae. The organisms are spore-forming bacteria that grow in hypersaline environments. Oren A, Gurevich P, Henis Y (1991). "Reduction of nitrosubstituted aromatic compounds by the halophilic anaerobic eubacteria Haloanaerobium praevalens and Sporohalobacter marismortui". Appl Environ Microbiol. 57 (11): 3367-70. PMC 183973 . PMID 1669931. Ollivier B, Caumette P, Garcia J, Mah R (1994). "Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments". Microbiol Rev. 58 (1): 27-38. PMC 372951 . PMID 8177169 ...
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. In contrast, an anaerobic organism (anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. Obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow. In a process known as cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) and generate energy. Facultative anaerobes use oxygen if it is available, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production. Microaerophiles require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (21% O2). Aerotolerant anaerobes do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it. When an organism is able to survive in both oxygen and anaerobic environments, the use of the Pasteur effect can distinguish between facultative anaerobes and aerotolerant ...
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium. For example, a throat culture is taken by scraping the lining of tissue in the back of the throat and blotting the sample into a medium to be able to screen for harmful microorganisms, such as Streptococcus pyogenes, the causative agent of strep throat.[1] Furthermore, the term culture is more generally used informally to refer to "selectively growing" a specific kind of microorganism in the ...
... is a Gram-positive and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the family of Eremococcus which has been isolated from the reproductive tract of horses in England. Parte, A.C. "Eremococcus". www.bacterio.net. "Eremococcus coleocola". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Osier, Nicole Danielle; Garrity, George M. "Nomenclature Abstract for Eremococcus coleocola Collins et al. 1999". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.5474. "Details: DSM-15696". www.dsmz.de. Collins, M. D.; Jovita, M. R.; Lawson, P. A.; Falsen, E.; Foster, G. (1 October 1999). "Characterization of a novel Gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus from horses: description of Eremococcus coleocola gen. nov. sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 49 (4): 1381-1385. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-4-1381. PMID 10555316 ...
Ata hai pouco, non se coñecían marcadores bioquímicos ou moleculares que servisen para distinguir as especies do filo Thermotogae do resto das bacterias.[1] Porén, un estudo xenómico comparativo recente identificou unha gran cantidade de indeis sinatura consevados en importantes proteínas, que son específicos de todas as especies de Thermotogae ou dalgúns dos subgrupos.[19] Dezaoito destes indeis conservados en importantes proteínas como Pol1, RecA, TrpRS e as proteínas ribosómicas L4, L7/L12, S8, S9 etc. só están presentes en especies de Thermotogae secuenciadas, o que proporciona novos marcadores moleculares para este filo. Ademais, estes estudos identificaron 14 indeis conservados que son específicos do clado formado polos xéneros Fervidobacterium e Thermosipho, 12 indeis conservados específicos do xénero Thermotoga (excepto na especie Thermotoga lettingae), e 8 indeis conservados que serven de marcadores moleculares para especies do xénero Thermosipho.[19] O clado ...
ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਛੜੀ ਦੇ ਸਰੂਪ ਦਾ ਬੀਟਾ ਹੀਮੋਲਿਟਿਕ ਗਰਾਮ ਪਾਜਿਟਿਵ ਜੀਵਾਣੁ ਜੀਨਸ ਹੈ, ਫਰਮੀਕਿਊਟਸ ਉਪਜਾਤੀ ਦਾ ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਇੱਕ ਮੈਂਬਰ ਹੈ। ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਜਾਂ ਤਾਂ ਬਾਧਯ ਪ੍ਰਜਾਤੀ ਦੇ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਐੱਛਿਕ aerobe s, ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰੀਖਿਆ ਲਈ ਸਕਾਰਾਤਮਕ ਏੰਜਾਇਮ catalase।. ...
Baktearjen (wittenskiplike namme: Bacteria, iental Bacterium) binne (iensellige) mikro-organismen, dy't sa lyts binne dat se allinnich ûnder in mikroskoop te sjen binne. In wichtige eigenskip fan baktearjen is, dat se har hurd fermearderje kinne. In baktearje is in prokaryoat en hat dus gjin selkearn. It erflike materiaal sweeft om yn it sytoplasma. It DNA bestiet meastal út mar ien ringfoarmich gromosoam, faak beselskippe troch ien of mear plasmiden, dy't ek genetyske ynformaasje befetsje. Baktearjen kinne ûnderling plasmiden útwikselje (konjugaasje), wêrtroch't se rekombinearje. Sa ûntsteane allegeduerigen nije bacterievariëteiten. De Bakteria waarden eartiids Eubakteria neamd. Yn it algemiene spraakgebrûk wurdt meastal gjin ûnderskied makke tusken Bacteria ("gewoane" baktearjen) en Archaea (oerbaktearjen), dy't tegearre de groep prokaryoaten foarmje. Yn de taksonomy foarmje de Bakteria lykwols in ôfsûnderlik Ryk of Domein. Blaualgen of ...
Baktearjen (wittenskiplike namme: Bacteria, iental Bacterium) binne (iensellige) mikro-organismen, dy't sa lyts binne dat se allinnich ûnder in mikroskoop te sjen binne. In wichtige eigenskip fan baktearjen is, dat se har hurd fermearderje kinne. In baktearje is in prokaryoat en hat dus gjin selkearn. It erflike materiaal sweeft om yn it sytoplasma. It DNA bestiet meastal út mar ien ringfoarmich gromosoam, faak beselskippe troch ien of mear plasmiden, dy't ek genetyske ynformaasje befetsje. Baktearjen kinne ûnderling plasmiden útwikselje (konjugaasje), wêrtroch't se rekombinearje. Sa ûntsteane allegeduerigen nije bacterievariëteiten. De Bakteria waarden eartiids Eubakteria neamd. Yn it algemiene spraakgebrûk wurdt meastal gjin ûnderskied makke tusken Bacteria ("gewoane" baktearjen) en Archaea (oerbaktearjen), dy't tegearre de groep prokaryoaten foarmje. Yn de taksonomy foarmje de Bakteria lykwols in ôfsûnderlik Ryk of Domein. Blaualgen of ...
Propionibacterium is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped genus of bacteria named for their unique metabolism: They are able ... Members of the genus Propionibacterium are widely used in the production of vitamin B12, tetrapyrrole compounds, and propionic ... One study found the Propionibacterium was the most prevalent human skin-associated genus of microorganisms.[6] ... "UC Berkeley Bacteria Study: Research Shows Humans A Major Source Of Germs". Huffington Post. San Francisco. Retrieved 2012-04- ...
Nonlactic acid bacteria that were influenced by increased dietary ZnO included the strict anaerobic species, Sarcina ventriculi ... "Caloramator, Sarcina and Clostridium genera were the highest in autism children. " [2013] ...
Appoximately one third of all bacteria living in the intestine belong to the genera Bacteroides. These bacteria are anaerobic ( ... The bacteria living in the gut play a number of vital roles. Ruminants including goats and cows need bacteria to help them ... How bacteria come to live in the intestine is a very interesting question. We are all born essentially sterile, with no ... Microbial colonization begins at birth as we come in contact with bacteria in the air, on all surfaces, in milk and foodstuffs ...
nov., obligately anaerobic bacteria from the human oral cavity, and emended description of the genus Oribacterium.. ... Adult, Bacteria, Anaerobic, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Base Composition, Dental Plaque, Diaminopimelic Acid, DNA, Bacterial, ... Three strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains ACB1(T), ACB7(T) ... formed two separate branches within the genus Oribacterium, with 98.1-98.6% sequence similarity to the type strain of the type ...
Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and ...
Two anaerobic genera, viz. Bacteroides and Peptostreptococcus, were detected in ALA pus samples, and this observation is ... Re-examination of the ameba-bacterium relationship in amebiasis is suggested. ... healthy volunteers and pus samples from ALA patients were tested for the presence of various bacterial genera using 16S rRNA- ... f CHANGES IN BACTERIAL PROFILE DURING AMEBIASIS: DEMONSTRATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN ALA PUS SAMPLES * REKHA RANI1, R.S. ...
The ratio of methanogenic to acetogenic bacteria in... ... worked out that allows the detection and isolation of bacteria ... Balch, W. E., Schoberth, S., Tanner, R. S., Wolfe, R. S.: Acetobacterium, a new genus of hydrogen-oxidizing, carbon-dioxide- ... Wieringa, K. T.: The formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria. Antonie van ... Enumeration of bacteria forming acetate from H2 and CO2 in anaerobic habitats. ...
Chromobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria; application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing into ... Bajaj A, Kumar A, Yadav S, Kaur G, Bala M, Singh NK, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel Gram-negative bacterium ... nov., an insecticidal bacterium isolated from Sphagnum bogs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:3417-22. DOIPubMed ... Of note, Chromobacterium accounted for only a small portion of the bacteria found in our metagenomics analysis of the river ...
Salmonella is a genus of facultative anaerobic intracellular bacteria. Even though many species of this genus can be found in ... Bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that mainly resides in the wet squamous ... There are several inflammatory processes triggered by the presence of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Since bacteria ... Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract at birth (69), and it is the most ...
Butyrate synthesis from 2 acetyl-CoA in members of the genus Clostridium. ... The Etfs from anaerobic bacteria and from mammals both interact with acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, but they have different functions ... Some considerations of the energy metabolism of anaerobic bacteria, p. 39-62. In N. O. Kaplan and E. P. Kennedy (ed.), Current ... B) In anaerobic bacteria Etf transfers the electrons from NADH to the cytosolic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which reduces ...
... saprophytic bacteria of the genus Sarcina, having a cuboidal cell arrangement. See more. ... A genus of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria including both saprophytic and facultatively parasitic species. ... any of several spherical, saprophytic bacteria of the genus Sarcina, having a cuboidal cell arrangement. ... Sarcina, sar-sī′na, n. a genus of schizomycetous fungi, in which the cocci divide in three planes forming cubical clumps:-pl.. ...
Bacteriodes are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, ... Anaerobic bacteria Is the Subject Area "Anaerobic bacteria" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Caldicellulosiruptor is a genus of anaerobic, extreme thermophilic bacteria [41]. C. kristjanssonii 177R1B (Accession NC_014721 ... A. prevotii is an anaerobic, mesophilic, non-motile, non-sporulating bacterium. It is an opportunistic pathogen found in the ...
Streptococcus (plural, streptococci)- A genus of spherical-shaped anaerobic bacteria occurring in pairs or chains. Sydenhams ... In general, streptococci are sphericalshaped anaerobic bacteria that occur in pairs or chains. GAS bacteria belong to a ... In general, streptococci are sphericalshaped anaerobic bacteria that occur in pairs or chains. GAS bacteria belong to a ... GAS bacteria can also be transmitted through contaminated food, most commonly eggs, milk, or milk products. The bacteria then ...
Anaerobic genera of medical importance include Actinomyces, Arachnia, Rothia, and Bifidobacterium.. Nocardia typically appear ... Actinomycetes are a group of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the order Actinomycetales. These organisms are phylogenetically ... Phylogeny of the genus Nocardia based on reassessed 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals underspeciation and division of strains ... Nocardiosis is an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes in the genus Nocardia. Nocardia ...
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are found in the human vagina, particularly in ... A genus of bacteria found in the human genital and urinary tract. It is considered to be a major cause of bacterial vaginosis ( ... The only species in the genus GARDNERELLA, and previously classed as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from ... Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms ...
... genus Salmonella), group of rod-shaped, gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Their ... Salmonella, (genus Salmonella), group of rod-shaped, gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family ... bacteria, which commonly are found in the intestines of mammals, reptiles, and birds and usually are spread to humans through ... 1952), they revealed that certain bacteriophages (bacteria-infecting viruses) were capable of carrying a bacterial gene from ...
Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, new genus new species a new, extreme thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium. Arch. Microbiol. 128: ... Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, new genus new species a new, extreme thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium. Arch. Microbiol. 128: ... Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, new genus new species a new, extreme thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium. Arch. Microbiol. 128: ... Anaerobic thermophilic culture system. US Patent 4,292,406 dated Sep 29 1981 Wiegel J, Ljungdahl LG. ...
Noun 1. clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon ... clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon. ... genus Clostridium - anaerobic or micro-aerophilic rod-shaped or spindle-shaped saprophytes; nearly cosmopolitan in soil, animal ... eubacteria, eubacterium, true bacteria - a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella ...
The vagina houses a complex microbial ecosystem that, in most women, is dominated by bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus. These ... Bacterial vaginosis occurs when something disrupts this ecosystem, and anaerobic bacteria take over. These nasty invaders emit ... Lactobacillus crispatus bacteria are part of the vaginas normal flora, which are disrupted by bacterial vaginosis. Credit: ... "The value of VMT over inoculation of a single bacterium or small microbial consortium is that you have the potential to ...
nov., an anaerobic, psychrophilic bacterium isolated from subseafloor sediment, and emended description of the genus ... Anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate in hypersaline groundwater of the Dead Sea aquifer ...
... especially of the genus Clostridium, that produce gas in infected tissue. See more. ... An anaerobic, gram-negative, motile bacterium of the genus Clostridium that causes gas gangrene in humans. ... any of several pathogenic bacilli, especially of the genus Clostridium, that produce gas in infected tissue. ...
a genus of gram-negative facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.. Pasteurella aerogenes. found in pigs. A cause of wound ... a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria. P. multoci´da is the etiologic ... A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria containing small, gram-negative, cocci or ellipsoid to ... A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria (family Brucellaceae) containing small, gram-negative cocci ...
Veillonella - a genus of nonmotile, non--spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria.. subsp.Veillonella alcalescensalcalescens - a ... Veillonellaceae - a family of nonmotile, non--spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative cocci. ... it is the type species of the genus Veillonella. ...
Acetobacterium, a new genus of hydrogen-oxidizing, carbon dioxide-reducing, anaerobic bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 27:355-361 ... nov., an anaerobic bacterium that produces ethanol from carbon monoxide. Arch Microbiol 161:345-351. doi:10.1007/BF00303591. ... A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria. Environ Microbiol 17:670-677. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12493. ... Ethanol and acetate production from synthesis gas via fermentation processes using anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium ljungdahlii ...
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Desulfovibrionaceae. It was originally recovered from infections in ...
  • Based on distinct genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, strains ACB1(T) and ACB8, and strain ACB7(T) are considered to represent two distinct species of the genus Oribacterium, for which the names Oribacterium parvum sp. (broadinstitute.org)
  • it is the type species of the genus Veillonella . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, S31T showed marked distinctions from its closest relatives of the family Staphylococcaceae and is proposed to represent a novel genus Auricoccus with Auricoccus indicus as type species of the genus. (bireme.br)
  • Microbial colonization begins at birth as we come in contact with bacteria in the air, on all surfaces, in milk and foodstuffs. (madsci.org)
  • The vagina houses a complex microbial ecosystem that, in most women, is dominated by bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus . (scientificamerican.com)
  • The presence of the members of Ignavibacteriae, Betaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi and other microbial lineages reflected the complexity of the microbial processes in the studied bioreactor performed by anammox Planctomycetes, fermentative bacteria, and denitrifiers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Over the past decade, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been used to detect the presence of various microbial pathogens through the amplification of specific DNA sequences without culturing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, anammox bacteria were shown to be of high interest with regard to their unusual metabolism and significance in the fields of wastewater application and microbial ecology. (asm.org)
  • Impurities in the coolant encourage microbial growth including various types of bacteria. (moldbacteria.com)
  • The majority of the endogenous bacteria in healthy adults are representatively two phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which account for approximately 90% of the microbial system . (deepdyve.com)
  • His research makes it possible for doctors to quickly identify bacteria that cause microbial infections or diseases, expediting the treatment of seriously ill patients. (vt.edu)
  • The microbial diversity was higher in the no-tillage system at order, family, genus and species level. (mdpi.com)
  • The microbial etiology of nonlactating breast infections, particularly those which are chronic or recurrent, is more variable, often polymicrobial, and predominantly anaerobic ( 5 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. (asm.org)
  • FLICKR, GREENFLAMES09 For years, researchers characterized the microbial community of women's vaginas as being dominated by Lactobacillus bacteria, which ferment carbohydrates to lactic acid, yielding a low pH that is toxic to many pathogenic microbes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Fecal samples from ALA patients, from healthy E. histolytica negative and positive (asymptomatic) individuals, and from pre- and post-metronidazole-treated healthy volunteers and pus samples from ALA patients were tested for the presence of various bacterial genera using 16S rRNA-based primers. (ajtmh.org)
  • Classic nitrification-denitrification theory begins with the bacterial genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter performing ammonia and nitrite oxidation, respectively. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Gram-positive bacterial genera occurred more frequently during the summer than winter seasons. (cdc.gov)
  • Dysbiosis of gut microbiota in promoting the development of colorectal cancer Zou, Shaomin;Fang, Lekun;Lee, Mong-Hong 2018-02-01 00:00:00 Abstract Gastrointestinal microbiome, containing at least 100 trillion bacteria, resides in the mucosal surface of human intestine. (deepdyve.com)
  • Most types of bacteria reproduce quickly. (homeoint.org)
  • Numbers and types of bacteria that should be a cause for concern depends upon several factors, including the type of bacteria present and the type of samples. (moldbacteria.com)
  • This test reveals if the air is contaminated with types of bacteria that are of healthy concern. (moldbacteria.com)
  • Both quantification and identification of the types of bacteria present in the sample are possible. (moldbacteria.com)
  • Water can also be analysed for other types of bacteria such as iron, sulfur or slime bacteria that cause blockage of plumbing systems, bad odors, discolorations and diseases. (moldbacteria.com)
  • The specific types of bacteria that we routinely test for from air, surface, and water samples are listed below. (moldbacteria.com)
  • Innovative Technology Improves Our Understanding of Bacterial Cell Signaling Cyclic di-GMP (Guanine Monophosphate) is found in nearly all types of bacteria and interacts with cell signaling networks that control many basic cellular functions. (doe.gov)
  • Larvae are also effective in eliminating all types of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (worldwidewounds.com)
  • Results provide immediate, actionable clinical information for the management of detectable parasites, bacteria, and yeast, as well as providing valuable assessment of gut microbiota via 24 Commensal Bacteria targets. (directlabs.com)
  • Commensal Bacteria demonstrate the gut microbiomes composition and relative abundance. (directlabs.com)
  • 400 species of commensal bacteria, the gut immune system has developed highly sophisticated and efficient defensive as well as symbiotic mechanisms ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • This raises questions about the role of the commensal bacteria and risk of preterm labor , which has been linked to BV-and to low levels of Lactobacillus in particular-and is one-and-a-half times more common among African American women than Caucasian women. (the-scientist.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate is represented as an independent lineage distinctive from the Microbacteriaceae genera. (go.jp)
  • Only a few years later, the bacteria responsible for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) were enriched and identified as a new planctomycete ( 86 , 92 ). (asm.org)
  • Factors controlling the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrate and nitrite were explored in a marine sediment from the Skagerrak in the Baltic-North Sea transition. (asm.org)
  • Attempts to find other anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing processes in this sediment failed. (asm.org)
  • In continental shelf sediments, up to 67% of the N 2 formation was due to anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrate (or possibly nitrite) and only 33% of the N 2 formation was due to denitrification ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The contribution of anaerobic ammonium oxidation to N 2 formation was observed to be greatest in sediment with low organic loading at a water depth of 695 m. (asm.org)
  • It was therefore concluded that anaerobic ammonium oxidation was quantitatively most important in sediments with moderate organic loading, as is found on continental shelves. (asm.org)
  • Here we report the results of further investigations of the factors controlling anaerobic ammonium oxidation in marine sediments and its relation to the anammox process. (asm.org)
  • We explored the involvement of nitrite in anaerobic ammonium oxidation, quantified the kinetics of nitrite consumption, assessed the biological nature of the process, and further investigated its competitive relationship to denitrification. (asm.org)
  • The commensal group form part of gut microbiota and is used as indicator bacteria for fecal contamination. (intechopen.com)
  • These data demonstrate associations between the depletion of Ruminococcaceae , Lachnospiraceae , and butyrogenic bacteria in the gut microbiota and nosocomial diarrhea, including C. difficile infection. (asm.org)
  • Bifidobacteria are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the gut flora, the. (ecplaza.net)
  • The blooded animals were separated into five major genera: the viviparous quadrupeds (our placental mammals), the oviparous quadrupeds (egg-laying creatures such as lizards and reptiles), birds, fish, and whales (along with dolphins and porpoises). (cabinetmagazine.org)
  • Acetogenic bacteria could not be detected in rumen samples. (springer.com)
  • In contrast to autotrophic growth, which is hardly competitive, metabolic flexibility is seen as a key ability of acetogens to compete in ecosystems and might explain the almost-ubiquitous distribution of acetogenic bacteria in anoxic environments. (asm.org)
  • The famous tropical forests (African and South American jungles) as well as the World's ocean do not play an important role in this process due to the presence of vast numbers of heterotrophic bacteria that absorb that very oxygen that is produced by photosynthetic organ- isms. (slideshare.net)
  • However, what no one could have predicted was that in addition to being the missing link in the nitrogen cycle, these anammox bacteria would also defy other microbiological concepts. (asm.org)