The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The data suggest that at least 998 genes are responsible for some of the measurable variation found, including candidate genes ... Recently published data indicates that the interaction between a fly's genome and its environment plays a substantial role in ... Researchers have also uncovered a genotype by diet interaction that drives phenotypic variation. ... "Genotype-by-Diet Interactions Drive Metabolic Phenotype Variation in Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 185 (3): 1009-1019. ...
"No support for historic candidate gene or candidate gene-by-interaction hypotheses for major depression across multiple large ... Candidate genes studies frequently possess a number of flaws, including frequent genotyping errors and being statistically ... A 2003 study proposed that a gene-environment interaction (GxE) may explain why life stress is a predictor for depressive ... "No support for historic candidate gene or candidate gene-by-interaction hypotheses for major depression across multiple large ...
"A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction research in psychiatry". The American ... "Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype contributing to the ... Other genes that have been linked to a gene-environment interaction include CRHR1, FKBP5 and BDNF, the first two of which are ... Munafò MR, Durrant C, Lewis G, Flint J (February 2009). "Gene X environment interactions at the serotonin transporter locus". ...
Duncan LE, Keller MC (October 2011). "A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction ... January 2018). "Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype ... Other genes that have been linked to a gene-environment interaction include CRHR1, FKBP5 and BDNF, the first two of which are ... "Association between polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene and depression: evidence for a gene-environment interaction ...
Hewitt, John K. (2011). "Editorial Policy on Candidate Gene Association and Candidate Gene-by-Environment Interaction Studies ... "Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype contributing to the ... and the general approach of candidate gene, or candidate gene by environment interaction research in single small studies is no ... Duncan LE, Keller MC (October 2011). "A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction ...
... (or genotype-environment interaction or GxE or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to ... The often used method to detect gene-environment interactions is by studying the effect a single gene variation (candidate gene ... a causal interaction is enough to confirm gene-environment interactions. The history of defining gene-environment interaction ... proving that gene-environment interactions exist. In plants: One very interesting approach about genotype by environment ...
The risk of obesity is determined by not only specific genotypes but also gene-gene interactions. However, there are still ... Many candidate genes are highly expressed in the central nervous system. Several additional loci have been identified. Also, ... more than 41 sites on the human genome have been linked to the development of obesity when a favorable environment is present. ... challenges associated with detecting gene-gene interactions for obesity. The term "non-syndromic obesity" is sometimes used to ...
Hewitt, John K. (2011). "Editorial Policy on Candidate Gene Association and Candidate Gene-by-Environment Interaction Studies ... "Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype contributing to the ... Duncan LE, Keller MC (October 2011). "A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction ... Gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: joining forces with neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci. Jul 2006;7(7):583-590 (PDF[ ...
... (or genotype-environment interaction or GxE or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to ... The often used method to detect gene-environment interactions is by studying the effect a single gene variation (candidate gene ... proving that gene-environment interactions exist.[25]. *In plants: One very interesting approach about genotype by environment ... "Inclusion of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions unlikely to dramatically improve risk prediction for complex diseases" ...
The role of gene-gene interaction in the prediction of criminal behavior. Ficks CA, Waldman ID (September 2014). "Candidate ... an experimental test of a gene-environment interaction". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 12 (1): 140-5. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X. ... Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ, Miller A, Kennedy MA (February 2012). "Moderating role of the MAOA genotype in antisocial ... even in the absence of other interaction factors. The MAO-A gene was the first candidate gene for antisocial behavior and was ...
... is the effect of the environment, and ( g × ϵ ) {\displaystyle (g\times \epsilon )} is a gene by environment interaction. The g ... Candidate Genes. One popular approach has been to test for association candidate genes with behavioural phenotypes, where the ... The Human Genome Project has allowed scientists to directly genotype the sequence of human DNA nucleotides. Once genotyped, ... Dropping the gene by environment interaction for simplicity (typical in twin studies) and fully decomposing the g {\ ...
Duncan LE, Keller MC (October 2011). "A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction ... Newer studies examining the effects of genotype may compare the LA/LA genotype against all other genotypes. The allele ... Munafò MR, Durrant C, Lewis G, Flint J (February 2009). "Gene X environment interactions at the serotonin transporter locus". ... While often discussed as an example of gene-environment interaction, this contention is contested. The polymorphism occurs in ...
Gerlai, R; Csányi, V (1990). "Genotype-environment interaction and the correlation structure of behavioral elements in paradise ... Phene has emerged as a candidate building block for the phenome. Genes give rise to phenes. Genes are the biochemical ... The term 'phene' was evidently coined as an obvious parallel construct to 'gene'. Phene is to Phenotype as Gene is to Genotype ... Both phenes and genes are subject to evolution. However, if one defines "genes" as "DNA sequences encoding polypeptides", they ...
There may be significant interactions among mutations in several genes, or between the environment and mutated genes. By ... However, for most of the candidate genes, the actual mutations that increase the likelihood for autism have not been identified ... Alleles linked so far strongly support the assertion that there is a large number of genotypes that are manifested as the ... Identification of significant association and gene-gene interaction of GABA receptor subunit genes in autism. Am J Hum Genet. ...
Main mode of nonallelic genes interaction in corresponding gene series is addition of mainly small particular allele ... allowing researchers to locate candidate genes for the trait. In the case that such a gene is identified, it is referred to as ... as it is often difficult to characterise the effect of an individual gene from the effects of other genes and the environment ... relatively small and interchangeable which results that identical phenotype may be displayed by a great variety of genotypes. ...
Recessive resistance genes are disease-susceptibility candidates. For example, a mutation disabled an Arabidopsis gene encoding ... or by horizontal gene transfer. Native populations are often characterized by substantial genotype diversity and dispersed ... suggesting a receptor/ligand interaction for Avr and R genes. Alternatively, an effector can modify its host cellular target ( ... Monocrop agricultural systems provide an ideal environment for pathogen evolution, because they offer a high density of target ...
Application to Gene × Environment Interactions". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 5 (5): 527-45. doi:10.1177/ ... Mendelian randomization is dependent on prior genetic association studies having provided good candidate genes for response to ... the genotype must only affect the disease status indirectly via its effect on the exposure of interest. Because genotypes are ... if we assume that mate choice is not associated with genotype (panmixia), then the population genotype distribution should be ...
The more genes involved in the cross, the more the distribution of the genotypes will resemble a normal, or Gaussian ... Multifactorial inheritance refers to polygenic inheritance that also includes interactions with the environment. Unlike ... Another use of QTLs is to identify candidate genes underlying a trait. Once a region of DNA is identified as contributing to a ... Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin color, so modifying only one of those genes can change skin color ...
"Editorial Policy on Candidate Gene Association and Candidate Gene-by-Environment Interaction Studies of Complex traits" Arango ... "Impact of diagnostic misclassification on estimation of genetic correlations using genome-wide genotypes" Lee et al 2013a, " ... "A Critical Review of the First 10 Years of Candidate Gene-by-Environment Interaction Research in Psychiatry" Chabris, CF; ... only 1 candidate-gene hit replicated, the top 25 schizophrenia candidate genes were no more associated with schizophrenia than ...
Chaste P, Leboyer M (2012). "Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions". Dialogues in Clinical ... Numerous candidate genes have been located, with only small effects attributable to any particular gene. Most loci individually ... A genotype-first model of diagnosis has been proposed, which would routinely assess the genome's copy number variations. As new ... Chaste P, Leboyer M (September 2012). "Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions". Dialogues ...
The discovery was made using a "gene chip," which allows researchers to monitor the complex interactions of thousands of ... The inclusion of phenotypic data in these databases will enhance discovery of candidate genes, while the addition of ... The causes of perturbed immune responses run the gamut of genome-environment interactions due to diet, supplements, sun ... Genomics, by associating genotypes with the phenotypes on which these practices were based, could provide key tools to advance ...
In water fleas, the ability of the spore to successfully attach during the infection process is related to the genotype of the ... Candidate species and their hosts include: P. usage: parasite of the sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus P. aldrichii: ... The likelihood of infections is related to the spore density in the environment and can be affected by temperature. After ... Stackebrandt, Erko (2014). "The Family Pasteuriaceae". In Rosenberg, Eugene; DeLong, Edward F.; Lory, Stephen; Stackebrandt, ...
If enough of the genome sequence is known, that region is searched for candidate genes. Coding regions of these genes are then ... Disease gene identification is a process by which scientists identify the mutant genotypes responsible for an inherited genetic ... This is generally done in prokaryotes or in a tissue culture environment due to the massive number of knockdowns that must be ... "A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies multiple synthetic lethal interactions with the Ras oncogene". Cell. 137 (5): 835-48. doi: ...
... and a gene-environment interaction between turnout and the serotonin transporter (5HTT) gene among those who frequently ... 2012). Candidate Genes and Political Behavior. American Political Science Review 106(1):1-34. Hatemi, P. K.; et al. (January ... Alford, John R.; Funk, Carolyn L.; Hibbing, John R. (June 2008). "Beyond Liberals and Conservatives to Political Genotypes and ... both genes and environment contributed significantly to variation in political behavior. Additional studies showed that genes ...
However, a large body of research has developed on candidates and their interaction with the PrPC.[16] ... "Localization of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in ... A test of healthy young humans showed increased long-term memory ability associated with an MM or MV genotype when compared to ... it is possibly involved in the transport of ionic copper to cells from the surrounding environment. Researchers have also ...
The mate which is doing the selecting must know their own genotype as well as the genotypes of potential mates in order to ... The Good Genes Hypothesis, also referred to as the sexy son hypothesis, suggests that the females will choose a male that ... Not only does it include the study of the interactions between species, but it also focuses on ecological concepts such as ... Also, the D1-D3 region may be a better candidate for sequencing with Illumina sequencing technologies. Porras-Alfaro et al. ...
It has been suggested that apart from gene-environment interactions, environment-environment interactions also be taken into ... Together, these candidate genes pointed to an importance of neurotransmission and immunology as important factors in the ... Also, in mothers with schizophrenia, an increased risk has been identified via a complex interaction between maternal genotype ... and is thought to develop from complex gene-environment interactions with involved vulnerability factors. The interactions of ...
Another gene, the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III polymorphism, had been the subject of studies in both shyness and ... However, there is also evidence that suggests the environment in which a person is raised can also be responsible for their ... Brune, CW; Kim, SJ; Salt, J; Leventhal, BL; Lord, C; Cook Jr, EH (2006). "5-HTTLPR Genotype-Specific Phenotype in Children and ... Self-expression and assertiveness in social interactions are related to shyness and inhibition in that when one is shy or ...
Candidate gene-environment interaction research: reflections and recommendations. Perspect Psychol Sci 2015;10:37-59.doi: ... ethnicities and other factors including gene-gene or gene-environment interactions.6 A non-linear association between salt ... Measurements and explanations of candidate gene-environment interaction (cG×E) in populations have long been explored,11 ... A partially linear tree-based regression model for assessing complex joint gene-gene and gene-environment effects. Genet ...
... gene-disease associations, and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions include the analytical validity of genotyping, ... Asymptotic bias and efficiency in case-control studies of candidate genes and gene-environment interactions: basic family ... So far, few gene-disease associations, gene-environment or gene-gene interactions have been replicated. This may in part be due ... In studies of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, many hypotheses of interaction can potentially be tested. The ...
Asymptotic bias and efficiency in case-control studies of candidate genes and gene-environment interactions: basic family ... possible gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, and statistical power was inadequately addressed. We recognize the ... gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, statistical power and multiple statistical comparisons. Issues regarding the ... Genotype relative risks: methods for design and analysis of candidate-gene association studies. American Journal of Human ...
2013 Genotype-environment interactions reveal causal pathways that mediate genetic effects on phenotype. PLoS Genet. 9: ... Such genes are candidate sex-determining genes. However, differential expression alone does not reveal whether genes (1) are ... magnitude of gene effects, allele frequencies, allelic effects, and interactions among sex-determining genes). ... we used genotype frequencies within families to infer parental genotypes. Most clutches (n = 14) exhibited genotype frequencies ...
DNA sequence analysis of the QTL intervals revealed 29 candidate defense-related genes (CDRGs), and two of them contain domains ... DNA sequence analysis of the QTL intervals revealed 29 candidate defense-related ... ... Genotype by environment analysis detected three QTL by environment interactions and the broad sense heritability for Xam318 and ... Genotype by environment analysis detected three QTL by environment interactions and the broad sense heritability for Xam318 and ...
One QTL had a large effect on dormancy across all three environments and colocalized with the candidate gene DOG1. Our results ... adaptation, Arabidopsis thaliana, genotype-by-environment interactions, maternal effects, quantitative trait loci mapping, seed ... and interactions between seed genotype and maternal environment have been reported. Consequently, the genetic basis of dormancy ... and the maternal field environments induced higher dormancy levels compared to the greenhouse environment in both genotypes. ...
Genotype, environment and GE interaction effect on soybean oil composition  Oliva, Martin Lisandro (University of Missouri-- ... Genetic engineering of soybean using candidate genes to improve drought tolerance  Guttikonda, Satish Kumar (University of ... The effect of environment on seed composition of tofu and natto soybean cultivars  Brown, Sabrina L. (University of Missouri-- ... Agronomic and pest interactions in no-till corn and soybean wih fall versus spring herbicide applications  Monnig, Nicholas ( ...
Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator) Title: Personalized smoking ... Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator) Title: A large-scale candidate gene association study of age ... Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array.. NHGRI GWA Catalog. NHGRI ... Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE ...
... and study genotype-environment interactions. To identify candidate genes underlying complex traits we perform mutation analysis ... Publication: Gene-environment and protein-degradation signatures characterize genomic and phenotypic diversity in wild ... Next to this we investigate the underlying mechanisms of C. elegans - virus interactions. ...
Interestingly, the linked QTLs differed in their epistases, degree of dominance, and genotype x environment interactions. The ... Molecular dissection suggested that the tandemly duplicated FT-like genes (Hd3a and RFT1) could be the candidate genes for ... zygotes was controlled by the parental genotypes rather than by the genotype of the hybrid zygote itself since all three genes ... To identify the role of Ehd3 within the gene regulatory network for rice flowering, we compared the transcript levels of genes ...
... refers to the comparative performances of genotypes differing among environments, representing differences in genotype rankings ... candidate genes that regulate resin canal number in Pinus taeda stems by integrating genetic analysis across environments, ages ... Crossa J (2012) From genotype × environment interaction to gene × environment interaction. Current Genomics 13:225-244. doi: ... the environment and any interactions between genotype and environment (G×E interactions, or G×E). Such interactions are said to ...
... environment interactions than all other detected QTL.. Candidate gene mapping: The map positions of 18 candidate genes with ... These differences are apparent when comparing the extent of QTL verification between unrelated genotypes in agronomic crops and ... Candidate gene mapping: Candidate gene selection emphasized structural genes of phenylpropanoid metabolism involved in ... 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. Several candidate genes ...
M. Aguilera, B. Arias, M. Wichers et al., "Early adversity and 5-HTT/BDNF genes: new evidence of gene-environment interactions ... Network Based Integrated Analysis of Phenotype-Genotype Data for Prioritization of Candidate Symptom Genes. Xing Li,1 Xuezhong ... Y. Moreau and L. C. Tranchevent, "Computational tools for prioritizing candidate genes: boosting disease gene discovery," ... "Analysis of protein sequence and interaction data for candidate disease gene prediction," Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 34, no. ...
Stommel, J. R., Whitaker, B. D., Haynes, K. G., and Prohens, J. (2015). Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for ... by means of a candidate gene approach on the basis of the already identified genes in tomato and potato). ... It has been demonstrated that the growing environment and its interaction with the genotype influences phenolic acid content; ... and was then extended across both environments to identify any QTL x environment interactions present. QTL effects were ...
Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator) Title: Personalized smoking ... Identification of RASSF8 as a candidate lung tumor suppressor gene. Falvella FS, et al. Oncogene, 2006 Jun 29. PMID 16462760 ... cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.. * Observational study of gene- ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ...
Gene-by-environment interaction effects were not replicable across the two samples. Conclusions: This unexpected finding might ... Children with the Val/Met genotype showed higher disorganization scores (combined effect size d =.22, CI =.10-.34, p ,.001). ... we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems (DRD4, DRD2 ... Attachment, G × E, Strange Situation Procedure, candidate genes, parenting, sensitivity Persistent URL ...
The data suggest that at least 998 genes are responsible for some of the measurable variation found, including candidate genes ... Recently published data indicates that the interaction between a flys genome and its environment plays a substantial role in ... Researchers have also uncovered a genotype by diet interaction that drives phenotypic variation. ... "Genotype-by-Diet Interactions Drive Metabolic Phenotype Variation in Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 185 (3): 1009-1019. ...
... by experiments showing epistatic effects of this major locus on flowering time and expression pattern of the candidate gene. ... and Genotype-by-Environment Interaction: QTL by Genomic Background by Environment Interaction of Flowering Time in Download PDF ... and Genotype-by-Environment Interaction: QTL by Genomic Background by Environment Interaction of Flowering Time in ... and Genotype-by-Environment Interaction: QTL by Genomic Background by Environment Interaction of Flowering Time in ...
... association tests to identify candidate genes underlying the observed phenotypes and genotype-by-environment interactions. Of ... 2014 Genotype-by-environment interaction and plasticity: exploring genomic responses of plants to the abiotic environment. Annu ... 2008 Gene-environment interaction in yeast gene expression. PLoS Biol. 6: e83. ... Candidate genes. Prior to association mapping, we created a list of 132 a priori candidate genes known to be functionally ...
... gene-environment interactions modulating expression of an associated genotype; or (6) differences in measurement methods and ... Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness in relation to three candidate genes in a Caucasian population. J Hypertens. 2002; ... Tabara Y, Kohara K, Nakura J, Miki T. Risk factor-gene interaction in carotid atherosclerosis: effect of gene polymorphisms of ... 92 Only 1 possible gene-environment interaction was reported, for the AGT M235T polymorphism, with TT homozygotes shown to have ...
This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental ... and data from CLHLS were successfully used in prior published studies on candidate genes and gene-environment interactions ... However, such long-term and complete follow-up GWAS or candidate gene genotype data for the members of the same birth cohort at ... centenarians and middle-age controls may serve as candidates for further studies on effects of gene-environment interactions on ...
... and the interaction of genotypes and environments. GSTM1 and GSTT1 represent only two of numerous potential candidate CMM ... The etiology of CMM is complex and likely involves multiple low penetrance susceptibility genes, interactions among these genes ... Interaction of Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Genotypes and Malignant Melanoma. Peter A. Kanetsky, Robin Holmes, Amy ... A biological interaction between GST genotype and hair color is quite plausible. Persons with lighter hair color, i.e., red and ...
The accessions were genotyped using 1536 SNP markers developed from phenology candidate genes and from genes previously ... offering the opportunity to assess the impact of genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) on trait-marker associations. Field ... The rare homozygous genotype exhibited 0.4-1.0 lower bud burst scores than the other genotype classes on a five-grade scale. ... Association mapping in Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae) - identification of candidate genes associated with growth and phenology ...
... environment and management by using all kinds of different techniques and databases. Therefore database development, ... The group focuses on research aimed at understanding the interaction between genotype, ... The group focuses on research aimed at understanding the interaction between genotype, environment and management by using all ... these genomic regions lists of genes that are present there and narrowing down to the more likely candidate genes using gene ...
What is shared by these candidate genes is an involvement in gene-environment interactions, allowing an individual to suffer ... A similar theory is François Schächters Compensatory Adaptation, which suggests that centenarians have a genotype which allows ... The best candidates are mitochondrial genes; the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in cellular respiration; and ... Either they avoid these stresses, which is unlikely, or, more likely, they have a particular mix of genes (their genotype) that ...
Many biological candidate genes and polymorphisms have been examined in their relation with PE. We will discuss the most ... evaluation of interaction between genes, genes and environment, and the contribution of paternal and embryonic genotypes. ... "Candidate-gene association study of mothers with pre-eclampsia, and their infants, analyzing 775 SNPs in 190 genes," Human ... They detected six genes with a significative maternal-fetal genotype interaction related to PE in IGF1, IL4R, IGF2R, GNB3, CSF1 ...
Population stratification also has the potential to confound inferences about gene-environment or gene-gene interactions, ... even more than population controls for a recessive gene), but the requirement that parents be available for genotyping limits ... Asymptotic bias and efficiency in case-control studies of candidate genes and gene-environment interactions: basic family ... although surprisingly the use of sibling controls generally improves efficiency for gene-environment interactions (57 , 59) . ...
Hu Y, Li WC, Xu YQ, Li GJ, Liao Y, Fu FL (2009) Differential expression of candidate genes for lignin biosynthesis under ... Tai GCC (2007) The canon of potato science: 7. Genotype-by-environment interaction. Potato Res 50:231-234CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Bach S (2012) Genotype by environment interaction effects on starch, fibre and agronomic traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L ... Genotype by environment interaction (GEI) and stability analysis were conducted with SAS and GGE Biplot software. Significant ...
... and this study suggest SLC2A9 and WDR1 should be considered as candidate genes for CP. ... markers in SLC2A9 and the neighboring WDR1 on chromosome 4p16.1 gave suggestive evidence of gene-environment interaction with ... in a test for GxETS interaction. SNPs rs3733585 and rs12508991 in SLC2A9 yielded P = 2.26×10−7 in a test for GxETS interaction ... SNPs rs6820756 and rs7699512 in WDR1 also yielded P = 1.79×10−7 and P = 1.98×10−7 in a 1 df test for GxE interaction. Although ...
Role of Gene-Environment Interactions in Preterm Birth : The increasing prevalence of preterm birth in the United States is a ... Testing of Multiple Genes. The testing of multiple genes is almost inevitable in large-scale studies of candidate genes that ... Hybridization of those sequences with the gene sequence to be tested can be used to determine the genotypes of the test gene. ... the environment, and gene-gene and gene-environment interactions to complex human diseases, including preterm birth. This ...
  • Many biological candidate genes and polymorphisms have been examined in their relation with PE. (
  • All polymorphisms were genotyped in 65 PTSD patients as well as in 34 victims of violence without PTSD and in a community control group ( n = 335). (
  • We found significant evidence of gene-traffic interactions in MESA, with polymorphisms in AGTR1 and ALOX15, genes important in vascular function and inflammation/oxidative stress, associated with substantial alterations in the association between traffic proximity and LVM. (
  • Polymorphisms in the tryptophan hydroxylase gene was found to be tentatively associated with suicidal behavior. (
  • Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes that activate tobacco lung carcinogens may be associated with inter-individual differences in lung cancer risk. (
  • Previous analyses from case-control studies have limitations due to modest sample sizes, limited exposure characterization, and a focus on a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. (
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the coding sequences of 19 candidate genes allowed their chromosomal location and accurate map position on two reference consensus maps to be determined. (
  • Additionally, genomic information from diverse plant species was used to isolate partial nucleotide sequences of eight putative genes coding for carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and perform candidate gene analysis. (
  • Mapping parent analyses detected 64 SSR polymorphisms, seven SNP using cucumber EST and four SNP in putative carotenoid candidate genes, and these markers were used to create a moderately saturated 256-point RIL-based map [104 SSR, 7 CAPS, 4 SNP, 140 dominant markers and one morphological trait (a) spanning 12 linkage groups (LG)] for ßeta-carotene QTL analysis. (
  • A set of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 candidate genes involved in the TGFβ signaling pathway and several environmental factors including sex, age, smoking and drinking were examined by random forest (RF) to capture the potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in stage 1 of the study with 443 CRC patients and 480 controls. (
  • A research team in the UK and USA found multiple polymorphisms in the ADAM33 gene , which were associated significantly with an increased risk of asthma but no for atopy [Eerdewegh et al, 2002]. (
  • Like many polymorphisms associated with complex diseases, the one investigated in these studies does not fall within a gene--this particular variant falls hundreds of thousands of bases away from the nearest gene. (
  • Evaluation of vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway target genes reveals UGT2A1/2 and EGFR polymorphisms associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in African American Women Cancer Med. (
  • Genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair genes seem to determine the DNA repair capacity, which in turn may affect the risk of breast cancer. (
  • To evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in breast cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of Korean women. (
  • A number of studies have evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk, but only a few studies evaluated the association between genetic variants in DSBR genes and breast cancer risk ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • Another study suggested that there is an interaction between polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and family history of breast cancer or plasma α-carotene level in the etiology of breast cancer ( 9 ). (
  • Association between Two Resistin Gene Polymorphisms and Metabolic Syndrome in Jilin, Northeast China: A Case-Control Study. (
  • Up to 70% of the variation in circulating resistin levels can be explained by genetic factors, and several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the RETN gene have been described so far [11,12]. (
  • One of the most frequently studied polymorphisms, RETN rs1862513, was reported to be associated with the regulation of RETN gene expression and serum resistin level [13-15]. (
  • As single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of genes can affect gene expression and disease susceptibility [21], the rs3745368 SNP in the 3'UTR of the resistin gene might have an influence on resistin gene expression and thus influences the risk for the development of diabetes and hypertension [22]. (
  • There is a pronounced interindividual and interethnic variability in CYP2A6 levels and activity, and much of this can be attributed to polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene, where a few inactivating mutations as well as gene deletions have been described. (
  • As discussed below, a lot of the CYP2A6 variability can be attributed to polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene, but CYP2A6 activity is also modified by certain drugs and environmental factors. (
  • On the basis of previous findings, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FKBP5 gene were selected for genotyping.While the authors did not observe genetic main effects, they found interactions between the five SNPs and traumatic (but not separation) events, with the strongest effect for severe trauma. (
  • Correlation between tag single nucleotide polymorphisms of microRNA regulatory genes and the genetic susceptibility of primary liver cancer]. (
  • This study aimed to understand the correlation between tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNP) of microRNA regulatory genes and the gentic susceptibility of primary liver cancer. (
  • Gene-environment interaction analysis was performed for 445 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms that have previously been associated with chronotype. (
  • Genotyping of the selected polymorphisms was carried out by real-time PCR. (
  • crystallization inhibition) associate with polymorphisms in selected candidate genes in the GENOA cohort, adjusting for dietary factors, and determine if gene-environment and gene-gene interactions are present. (
  • It has been found that toll-like receptor (TLR) gene polymorphisms are important determinants of susceptibility to asthma and allergy. (
  • All subjects were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) and the s/l 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. (
  • Epistatic effects of polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels. (
  • PMID 22198647 ] Do ACE (rs4646994) and alphaADDUCIN (rs4961) gene polymorphisms predict the recurrence of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage? (
  • Relationships between selected gene polymorphisms and blood pressure sensitivity to weight loss in elderly persons with hypertension. (
  • PMID 23477969 ] Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphisms and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. (
  • 0.05), and B2B2 genotype of CETP Taq1B showed significant association with higher HDL-C levels than other genotypes ( F = 5.598, P = 0.004), while -250 G/A polymorphisms had no significant effect on HDL-C. In total population, subjects carrying ABCA1219K allele or LIPC-250A allele obtained higher MMSE or WMS scores than non-carriers, however, no significant association was observed in AD group or controls. (
  • Using a case-control design, we assessed the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5)/rs143383 gene and interaction with environments and knee osteoarthritis (KOA). (
  • The phenotype of an individual is controlled by its genotype, the environment and any interactions between genotype and environment (G×E interactions, or G×E). Such interactions are said to exist when the comparative performances of genotypes vary according to the environment. (
  • Recently published data indicates that the interaction between a fly's genome and its environment plays a substantial role in determining the phenotype. (
  • The search for genes related to the cause of common complex disorders such as cardiovascular disease has been frustrating, partly because of the many factors known to contribute to cardiovascular disease and the potential "distance" of cardiovascular disease as a phenotype from genes and gene products. (
  • Ultrasonographic measures of the carotid artery may thus provide a useful intermediate phenotype for the identification of atherosclerosis-related genes. (
  • Current activities include combined data analysis of molecular markers, gene expression and metabolomics data and phenotype (e.g. disease resistance or product quality) scored on segregating populations of crosses. (
  • One goal within plant breeding is to find the causal gene(s) explaining a given phenotype. (
  • Like the more recent dubious breastfeeding-IQ-genetics story (led by the same group, it should be noted), the authors identified a phenotype they wished to study (depression), an environmental factor that plays a role in the phenotype (traumatic events), genotyped a couple markers in a gene they thought might reasonably be expected to play a role in that phenotype (seratonin), and found a "statistically significant" interaction. (
  • Candidate genes in this region are being studied to identify the gene or genes responsible for this phenotype. (
  • The combination of crop modeling and modeling based on quantitative genetics enables us to predict the phenotype of selection candidates under various environmantal conditions. (
  • 2005) when fetal immunity is least well developed, we considered whether genes that encode molecules that play a role in developmental processes in the eye or the brain could provide another avenue to identify candidate genes that contribute to clinical phenotype observed in the child. (
  • The outward expression of the disease, or the disease phenotype, is in part the product of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. (
  • The outward expression of a disease (the phenotype) is consequent to gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. (
  • Sequence analysis of the chloroplast DNA-encoded psbA gene and further studies based on the effect of inhibitors of cytochrome 450 monooxygenases suggested that non-target-site detoxification mechanisms may be responsible for the metribuzin tolerance phenotype. (
  • An allele/haplotype transmission disequilibrium test was used to evaluate the possible genotype-phenotype association. (
  • While Ehdl is functional, but the two parents did not expressed the phenotype of Ehdl, a key gene in rice photoperiod flowering pathway. (
  • In the simplified example below (equation adopted from Pedersen NL, [ 1 ]) the phenotype of Twin A is predicted from the phenotype of Twin B plus the environment, plus the interaction of these 2 main effects. (
  • 2 The "distance" between genotype and phenotype potentially contributes heterogeneity, obscuring the identity of causative disease variants. (
  • The analysis of genotype data on SNPs may aid in the identification of DNA alterations that result in or contribute to disease states. (
  • Multiple SNPs in these two genes were associated with increased risk of nonsyndromic CP if the mother was exposed to ETS during the peri-conceptual period (3 months prior to conception through the first trimester). (
  • SNPs rs3733585 and rs12508991 in SLC2A9 yielded P = 2.26×10 −7 in a test for GxETS interaction. (
  • SNPs rs6820756 and rs7699512 in WDR1 also yielded P = 1.79×10 −7 and P = 1.98×10 −7 in a 1 df test for GxE interaction. (
  • We analyzed 25 SNPs, 21 of which not previously studied, and gene expression data from six phase I metabolic genes, including cytochrome P450s, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and myeloperoxidase. (
  • We performed joint SNP and haplotype analyses to test the combined effect of multiple SNPs on lung cancer and on gene expression. (
  • Results were supported by differential gene expression analysis with down-regulation of CYP1A1 expression in never smokers and up-regulation in smokers from CYP1A1/A2 SNPs. (
  • The genome-wide association study based on genotyping a tetraploid wheat collection with 81,587 gene-associated SNPs validated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously detected in biparental populations and discovered new QTLs for grain colour-related traits. (
  • Three promising SNPs (SMAD7 rs11874392, TGFBR1 rs10988706 and rs6478972) selected by the RF method were genotyped in stage 2 comprising 351 cases and 360 controls for validation. (
  • In those studies, SNPs of DSBR genes such as XRCC2, XRCC4, XRCC6 , and LIG4 have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer. (
  • Therefore, a large number of SNPs of these genes remain to be evaluated for their association with risk of breast cancer. (
  • In this study, we investigated the associations between additional 12 SNPs of six selected DSBR genes (i.e. (
  • Methods We examined HT by genotype interactions for 392 SNPs selected from candidate gene studies, and 2,371 SNPs associated with changes in blood protein concentrations after hormone therapy, in analyses that included 2,045 postmenopausal women who developed stroke during WHI clinical trial and observational study follow-up and one-to-one matched controls. (
  • A two-stage procedure was implemented where SNPs passing the first stage screening based on marginal association with stroke risk were tested in the second stage for interaction with HT using case-only analysis. (
  • Further analyses showed significant stroke risk interaction between these F13A1 SNPs and estrogen plus progestin (E+P) treatment for ischemic stroke and for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke combined, and suggested interactions between PCSK9 SNPs with either E+P or estrogen-alone treatment. (
  • We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G×E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ = 0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ = 0.236 for BMI) compared to all SNPs. (
  • SNPs (600,000) were genotyped in 958 ADHD proband-parent trios. (
  • The observed interactions in SLC1A1 and NRG3 SNPs represent reasonable candidate genes for further investigation given their previous association with several psychiatric illnesses. (
  • Methodology: We applied a genome-wide approach with an integrated bioinformatics analysis to publicly available datasets of both genotypes (the HapMap project) and methylation patterns in B lymphocyte cell line (the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project) to explore the relationship between SNPs and DNA methylation patterns. (
  • We analyzed 20 SNPs of 7 neuronal genes in chromosome 18. (
  • We sought to test the association between subclinical atherosclerosis measured by IMT and ≈50 000 SNPs, densely mapping ≈2100 genes found on the gene-centric Illumina cardiovascular disease beadchip in a multi-ethnic population-based sample. (
  • We started with pathway analysis of SNPs that are in genes and pathways having known mechanistic roles in colorectal cancer, then focused on genes within the pathways that evidenced association with CRC, and finally assessed individual SNPs within the genes that evidenced association. (
  • We use quantitative genetic approaches to map complex traits, including the transcriptome, and study genotype-environment interactions. (
  • To identify candidate genes underlying complex traits we perform mutation analysis and genome editing in combination with natural genetic variation in natural populations. (
  • Variation in these quantitative, or complex, traits is influenced by multiple genetic loci with relatively small effects coupled with environmental and epistatic interactions. (
  • Using the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana , we looked for genes underlying phenotypes as well as genotype-by-environment interactions in four germination traits under two light and two nutrient conditions. (
  • Of the four germination traits examined, only two showed significant genotype-by-environment interactions. (
  • Together, our results show that, at least for traits with major signal integrator genes such as flowering time, the genetic control of single-trait variability and multi-trait relationships may have a common underlying mechanism that may be generalizable to other genes or pathways, mediated by interaction among major loci, genomic backgrounds, and surrounding environments. (
  • Within the same major environment (where V E and V GxE can be ignored) canalized traits exhibit little phenotypic variation ( V P ) [6] , and causes of phenotypic canalization can be environmental or genetic. (
  • Identification of genes influencing complex clinically manifest traits such as myocardial infarction and stroke has been difficult, in part because of the many interacting factors known to contribute to these traits and the large conceptual, physiological, and temporal distance between gene variation and clinical manifestation of adult disease. (
  • The case-control design is a widely used approach for investigating associations between candidate genes and dichotomous disease traits. (
  • Developments in high-throughput analyses of phenotypic traits, genotype in terms of DNA sequence data and molecular markers, RNA transcripts, proteins and primary and secondary metabolites all provide new opportunities for better prediction of plant phenotypes and discovery of the features (genes, proteins, metabolites) underlying genetic variation. (
  • Plant breeding has a strong link with quantitative genetics, statistics and bioinformatics, for example in identifying regions on crop genomes that are associated with observed variation in phenotypic traits, and in identifying candidate genes for these genomic regions. (
  • Association mapping using genes functional in carbohydrate metabolism as markers has discovered alleles of invertases and starch phosphorylases that are associated with tuber quality traits. (
  • The phenotyping of five yield-related traits allowed us to select one genotype that exhibits highly stable yield performances in different environmental conditions. (
  • The position on the tomato map of genes affected by moderate and high impact mutations was also compared with that of known markers/QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) associated with reproductive and yield-related traits. (
  • The candidate genes/QTLs regulating heat tolerance in the selected landrace E42 could be further investigated to better understand the genetic mechanisms controlling traits for high and stable yield trait under high temperatures. (
  • Aspects of the genetic underpinnings of complex traits can be represented as simplified gene networks on which human orthologues can be superimposed to provide blueprints for subsequent studies on analogous traits in human populations. (
  • A total of 96 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions were identified across all measured traits, the majority of which co-localize with known major genes controlling flowering time (Ppd-H2, HvCEN, HvGI, VRN-H1, and VRN-H3) and spike morphology (VRS3, VRS1, VRS4, and INT-C) in barley. (
  • Fourteen QTL hotspots, with at least three traits coinciding, were also identified, several of which co-localize with barley orthologues of genes controlling grain dimensions in rice. (
  • This study shows the existence of beneficial alleles for yield-related traits in exotic barley germplasm and provides candidate alleles for future improvement of these traits by the breeder. (
  • A number of candidate genes underlying adaptive traits have been identified in studies by using QTL analysis or forward genetic approaches ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Determining the adaptive value of candidate genes is further complicated by the fact that the relationship between genotype and fitness is complex and results from the combination and/or interaction of multiple traits and genes. (
  • Abstract: Background: Evidence has been steadily accumulating to document gene-by-environment (G×E) interactions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) related traits. (
  • 8) Two-way ANOVA showed that genotype by environment and QTL by environment interactions for these traits were highly significant (P0.0001). (
  • Genotypes combining five positive marker alleles performed on average better than genotypes with four negative alleles and one positive allele. (
  • To investigate the frequencies of polymorphic allele and genotypes for the LT-α gene, position +252 (rs909253), in Brazilian women with preeclampsia. (
  • Most of the allele effects are specific to geographical location and/or exotic parental genotype. (
  • A total 12 polymorphic sites in these nine genes were selected based on the consideration of their relatively high allele frequencies (i.e., at least 5% of the variant allele containing genotypes) and previous association studies conducted in Caucasian populations ( 6 , 7 , 10 , 13 - 17 ). (
  • In contrast, a relatively high allele frequency (15-20%) of the CYP2A6 gene deletion has been found in Asians, resulting in a generally reduced activity in these populations. (
  • PCR-RFLP or Allele specific PCR was applied for genotyping of the subjects. (
  • Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between individuals with and without caries experience. (
  • These data suggest that the human 5q11.2 breast cancer risk allele marked by rs889312 is mammary gland autonomous, and MIER3 is a candidate breast cancer susceptibility gene. (
  • The s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR exerted its negative impact on mental health after childhood abuse only in the presence of the BDNF Val/Val genotype but not in the presence of the BDNF Met allele. (
  • Our results point to a gene-gene-environment interaction that relevantly impacts on the role of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR in childhood abuse: Depending on the BDNF background (Val/Val versus Met allele) the s/s genotype showed either protective or risk properties with regard to depressive symptoms. (
  • The ultimate expression of that allele will depend on the combined effect including enzymes, transcription factors, genes, and signaling pathways. (
  • For non-smoking group, there were significant differences between case group and control group, and for smoker, significance level was found in TT compared with CC and allele gene models. (
  • The number and location of chromosomal regions affecting trait variation and the magnitude of their effects can be determined by associating genotypes with phenotypes in a segregating population. (
  • Identifying and understanding the genes underlying phenotypes in different environments is important for making advances in fields ranging from evolution to medicine to agriculture. (
  • We then performed genome-wide association tests to identify candidate genes underlying the observed phenotypes and genotype-by-environment interactions. (
  • Selection for different characteristics can result in at least two outcomes: adaptive plasticity ( Via and Conner 1995 ) or local adaptation due to genotype-by-environment interactions (G×E). In the case of adaptive plasticity, selection operates such that a single genotype produces different, adaptive phenotypes depending on the environment. (
  • Populations with two or more genotypes may become locally adapted to multiple habitats by these means or by simply having genotypes with different, unvarying phenotypes that are selectively favored in different environments. (
  • Because annual plants are usually unable to change location after germination, selection for local adaptation of germination via phenotypic plasticity or G×E may be common, as it would produce germination phenotypes appropriate in the home environment. (
  • U01- HG004446) in data cleaning and preparation for submission to the Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). (
  • Species display a range of plastic phenotypes that presumably have evolved as a result of adaptation to heterogeneous environments. (
  • However, identifying causal links between DNA sequence variants and variation in phenotypes is challenging in human populations, due to large blocks of linkage disequilibrium in the genome and heterogeneous developmental histories, lifestyles, and social and physical environments. (
  • In addition, many candidate genes have been associated with asthma phenotypes, such as the genes in the IL-4/IL-13 pathway. (
  • Thus, after identification of specific genotype implicated in ADHD risk in the Colombian population, in a subset of already recruited individuals, phenotyping will include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H MRS) to detect biochemical phenotypes which may be correlated with genetic markers for ADHD. (
  • Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. (
  • These phenotypes were significantly different from susceptible genotype littermates (7.8 ± 3.1 mean mammary carcinomas per rat ± SD, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0413, respectively). (
  • the strong significant effect of DD genotype was observed in the phenotypes of extreme obesity with the highest carbohydrate intake. (
  • The basis of this evaluation will be identification of the allelic variants of human genes, description of the frequency of these variants in different populations, identification of diseases influenced by these variants and assessment of the magnitude of the associated risk, and identification of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. (
  • For example, the associations between a number of gene variants whose products are thought to influence the metabolism of folate and related nutrients and colorectal neoplasia have been investigated, because of the roles of folate in methylation and DNA synthesis ( 14 ). (
  • Variants in the Gene EBF2 Are Associated with Kawasaki Disease in a Korean Population. (
  • EBF2 gene variants can contribute to KD [ Kawasaki disease]in the Korean population. (
  • Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (
  • This information will be especially useful when it is combined with reliable, cost-effective, high-through-put methods that can be used to genotype these variants in large population samples (Shi, 2002). (
  • Genetic variants and prostate cancer risk: candidate replication and exploration of viral restriction genes. (
  • While we have estimated that genetic factors explain a large proportion of variance in many of these diseases, current strategies using only the genotyped common variants (CVs) have failed to explain all of this heritability. (
  • We use these tests to study how rare variants (RVs) rather than CVs may explain a larger proportion of the disease risk and apply our methods to a candidate gene study of obesity that has sequenced CVs and RVs. (
  • To improve power to detect gene-environment interactions for variants within a candidate gene in studies with unrelated or related subjects, we extend the sequential algorithm for the model selection test for genetic main effects to instead test for these interactions. (
  • In general, FBATs are less powerful than their population‐based counterparts, given the same amount of genotyping required, but in some circumstances, for example for rare variants, and in testing for gene-environment interactions, they can be more powerful. (
  • Statistical analyses will be conducted to determine whether gene variants interact with environmental food cues to influence dietary patterns and indicators of cardiometabolic health (e.g. body mass index, waist circumference, LDL cholesterol). (
  • A comprehensive gene-environment interaction analysis in Ovarian Cancer using genome-wide significant common variants Int J Cancer. (
  • Evaluating genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk in high and moderate-penetrance genes in Asians Carcinogenesis. (
  • Therefore, in principle, the interaction model could shed light over which variants have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for G×E. The data set and the scripts required to reproduce the analysis are publicly available as Supporting Information. (
  • Interaction of FKBP5 gene variants and adverse life events in predicting depression onset: results from a 10-year prospective community study. (
  • The authors explored gene-environment interactions between FKBP5 gene variants and adverse life events in predicting the first occurrence of a major depressive episode.The analyses were based on 884 Caucasians in a 10-year prospective community study. (
  • IMT has also been recognized as a quantitative measure of cardiovascular disease progression in asymptomatic individuals, and many candidate gene association studies have attempted to identify genetic variants associated with interindividual differences in IMT with limited success. (
  • We hypothesized that by studying ≈50 000 genetic variants from ≈2100 genes implicated in cardiovascular physiology, we would be able to identify and replicate associations with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by IMT in a multi-ethnic sample of 898 individuals. (
  • Because of low frequency (low statistical power), less-common variants are best analyzed using SNP-set methods such as gene-set or pathway-based analyses. (
  • We also detected two novel candidate CRC risk variants (rs13075948 and rs17025857) in TGFBR2 , a gene known to be associated with CRC risk. (
  • Prevalence in the United States of selected candidate gene variants: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1991-1994. (
  • Therefore, this preliminary study showed that the gene variants of ABCA1R219K and LIPC-250 G/A might influence AD susceptibility in South Chinese Han population, but the polymorphism of CETPTaq1B didn't show any association in despite of being a significant determinant of HDL-C. (
  • To expand the catalogue of longevity-associated loci and gain a better understanding of the influences of genes and biological pathways on longevity, we performed a GWAS using the samples derived from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) (section M1 of Methods). (
  • Quantitative trait locus analysis has been applied to levels of gene expression enabling the identification of genomic loci controlling the observed variation in gene expression (eQTLs). (
  • The introduction of resistance loci against pathogenic fungi from the wild into the cultivated gene pool (Steffenson et al. (
  • 2007) demonstrates that the wild barley gene pool contains potentially useful alleles that are currently not being used, but it is less clear that loci directly promoting increased yield are available for exploitation. (
  • Enrichment of putative PAX8 target genes at serous epithelial ovarian cancer susceptibility loci Br J Cancer. (
  • Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions. (
  • We conclude that some loci with strong marginal effects may be good candidates for G×E, and variance-based prioritization can be used to identify them. (
  • We identified 67 suggestively significant genomic loci that have genotype-ageing interaction and 25 genomic loci that may have genotype-season of birth interaction in determining chronotype. (
  • This unique population allows the estimation of FRI effects independent of any linkage association with other loci due to demographic processes or to coadapted genes. (
  • Consequently, understanding the relationship between molecular variation and fitness requires an understanding of the patterns of the pleiotropic effects of alleles of candidate genes and how these effects depend on epistatic interactions with other loci. (
  • 5 ] reported that the inheritance of tolerance to metribuzin in durum wheat ( T. turgidum L.) is a complex character involving many genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL). (
  • 7 ] reported two independent semi-dominant gene loci ( Mt3 and Mt5 ) having additive effects. (
  • Therefore, in this grant we determine if specific genetic loci or candidate genes associate with kidney stone risk factors in a well-studied population for whom vast amounts of genetic data are already available, the Olmsted County GENOA cohort. (
  • Most risk loci contain either no or multiple potential candidate genes. (
  • Apart from identifying complex disease risk-associated genetic variation, human studies alone are limited in pinpointing candidate genes and functional characterization of susceptibility associated loci. (
  • A candidate gene approach was utilized to explore the potential mechanistic role that DNA methylation plays in significant G×E interactions at CVD-related loci, including APOE, IL6, ABCA1, APOA5, PCSK9, HMGCR and HNF1A. (
  • Analysis with methylation in GOLDN and gene expression in ENCODE suggested that the genotype-dependent methylation of CpG site cg14019050 (P = 3.51×10-18 and 0.007 for association and interaction analysis, respectively) and cg04406254 (P = 0.008 and 0.009 for association and interaction analysis, respectively) may be mechanistically linked to the observed interactions of loci of ABCA1 and APOE, respectively. (
  • Researchers have also uncovered a genotype by diet interaction that drives phenotypic variation. (
  • The phenotypic value of a given trait is the result of genetic heritage (genotype) of the animal in addition to environmental effects and the effects of the genotype/environment interaction. (
  • Where Yij is the phenotypic value of body weight, u is the population mean for body weight, gi is the fixed effect of ith genotype (i = 1-3) and eij counts the residual effects associated with jth observation of ith genotype. (
  • Single markers with two character states will be tested for significant phenotypic differences between genotype groups by the t test for each trait, and Mann-Whitney U test for chip quality. (
  • The phenotypic data were related to genotype scores for 5398 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. (
  • Zebularine treatment affected the within-generation response to nutrient stress, pointing at a role of DNA methylation in phenotypic plasticity to nutrient environments. (
  • Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G×E) or gene-gene interactions. (
  • Thus, to improve our understanding of the mechanism of adaptive evolution, it is important to determine ( i ) the overall phenotypic effects of candidate genes, including epistatic and pleiotropic effects, and ( ii ) the mechanism's interaction with the environment. (
  • In this chapter, we present a more detailed overview of issues in the critical appraisal of studies of genotype prevalence, gene-disease associations, and gene-environment interactions, based in large part on the deliberations of an expert panel workshop convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health in January 2001 ( 4 , 13 ). (
  • Issues that are particularly important in the appraisal of studies of genotype prevalence and gene-disease associations include the analytical validity of genotyping, selection of subjects, confounding (especially as a result of population stratification), gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, statistical power and multiple statistical comparisons. (
  • While no single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) achieved genome-wide significance when considered alone, markers in SLC2A9 and the neighboring WDR1 on chromosome 4p16.1 gave suggestive evidence of gene-environment interaction with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among 259 Asian trios when the models included a term for GxE interaction. (
  • Gordon D and Ott J (2001) Assessment and management of single nucleotide polymorphism genotype errors in genetic association analysis. (
  • The goal of this research project is to find susceptibility genes and molecular mechanisms of lung cancer. (
  • A Transcriptome-Wide Association Study Among 97,898 Women to Identify Candidate Susceptibility Genes for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk Cancer Res. (
  • Achieving P 2df = 10 −6 , GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. (
  • Despite major progress in utilizing genome-wide scans in patient cohorts and mouse models to identify new susceptibility genes for chronic inflammatory diseases, some aspects of their genetics remain unclear. (
  • For example, Annotex and Marker2sequence are two applications developed by Plant Breeding, which rely on this semantic web technology to integration genes, proteins, metabolites, pathways, and literature. (
  • This strategy integrates the information on biological processes shared by genes, the canonical pathways to which they belong and the biological knowledge related to the environment in the gene selection process. (
  • Our filtering strategy leads to a list of 28 pathways involving 182 genes for further GxE investigation. (
  • In this paper, we propose a strategy for obtaining a large gene set that integrates the information on biological processes shared by genes, the canonical pathways to which they belong and the biological knowledge related to the environmental exposure studied in the gene selection process. (
  • Furthermore, they act primarily through complex mechanisms that involve interactions with environmental factors, or with other genes through pathways or networks. (
  • The approximate physical localization of the QTL revealed the presence of five candidate genes (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, oxidoreductase ( rbcS ), glycosyltransferase, serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and phosphotransferase) with a direct role in photosynthesis and/or metabolic detoxification pathways. (
  • and is therefore likely to be a highly complex trait, involving numerous genes and pathways ( Brummell and Harpster, 2001 ). (
  • Individual genes demonstrating the strongest associations were TGFBR2 in the TGF-β pathway and SMAD7 (which is involved in both the TGF-β and WNT pathways). (
  • This view is supported by experiments showing epistatic effects of this major locus on flowering time and expression pattern of the candidate gene. (
  • In addition to the complex biology of genotype - environment interactions, epistatic (gene × gene) interactions, are also environmentally influenced via the epigenome. (
  • Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus. (
  • Epistatic interactions in genetic regulation of t-PA and PAI-1 levels in a Ghanaian population. (
  • 3 The most common genetic variation in RAAS is the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene, 4 and its association with BP has been reported to be dependent on sex and race/ethnicity. (
  • The LT-α gene polymorphism, position +252 (rs909253), seems not to be an important candidate for the development of preeclampsia. (
  • Allelic and genotype frequencies of the polymorphism in MMP9 were similar in caries-affected and caries-free individuals. (
  • Based on biological interactions between the serotonergic system and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), BDNF is a plausible candidate for a gene-gene-environment interaction moderating the interaction between the s/l- promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and childhood abuse. (
  • Two different exposures (e.g., diet and smoking) may have influences on the gene expression of a single polymorphism that are mutually antagonistic or synergistic. (
  • The effect likely results from the distinct thresholds required by its different alleles to trigger flowering, which can be explained by the interaction among this major locus, the variable genomic backgrounds, and the distinct environments. (
  • Application of DNA-based markers early in the breeding cycle, which are diagnostic for superior alleles of genes that control natural variation of tuber quality, will reduce the number of clones to be evaluated in field trials. (
  • To facilitate MAS, user-friendly PCR assays were developed for specific candidate gene alleles. (
  • In a multi-parental population of advanced breeding clones, genotypes were selected for having different combinations of five positive and the corresponding negative marker alleles. (
  • The effect of trauma on incident major depressive episodes was evident among subjects homozygous for the minor alleles but not subjects with other genotypes. (
  • Combined effects of multigene alleles and multi-locus genotype may have a synergistic role in the carcinogenesis of liver cancer. (
  • Multiplex primer combinations will be used for evaluating the resistance locus or candidate gene, and all markers will be scored in a given genotype. (
  • Even though a mutation in a single gene may play a predominant role in the development of a Mendelian disorder, individuals with identical genotypes at that locus may display considerable variation in the prevalence, severity, and clinical symptoms of the disorder. (
  • 6 Mating studies between the SHRSP and normotensive Wistar rats indicate that a single gene locus confers increased susceptibility to cerebral infarction (CI) in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. (
  • A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol. (
  • TT genotype in rs14035 locus (OR=2.54, 95%CI: 1.19-6.32) and GA genetype in rs1045491 locus (OR=1.74, 95%CI: 1.08-2.66) were susceptible genotype of primary liver cancer, whereas GT (OR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.43-0.75) and TT genotype (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.46-0.86) in rs2291778 locus were protective genotype. (
  • Genotypes of TT in rs14035 locus, and GA in rs1045491 locus may be susceptible genotypes of liver cancer carcinogenesis. (
  • A meta-analysis was performed to examine the association among maternal cigarette smoking, infant genotype at the Taq1 site in the transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) locus, and risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts, both cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P). Five published case-control studies were included in the meta-analyis. (
  • At the IL6 locus, erythrocyte N3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) interact with the promoter SNP rs2961298 to modulate the methylation of a promoter CpG site cg01770232 (P = 0.02), which was suggested as a potentially functional methylation site based on its consistent correlation with IL6 gene expression in ENCODE (P = 0.0005) and plasma concentration of IL6 in GOLDN (P = 0.03). (
  • 2014) Evidence of Gene−Environment Interaction for Two Genes on Chromosome 4 and Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Controlling the Risk of Nonsyndromic Cleft Palate. (
  • This interaction was validated in human AD, familial frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) caused by mutations in MAPT (R406W & P301L) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) postmortem brain tissues as well as human cell lines. (
  • Ten carotenoid genes mapped in chromosome regions underlying pigment content QTLs indicating possible functional relationships between candidate genes and the trait. (
  • Several genes (elements of the chromosome that hold genetic information) were identified which control ß-carotene in fruit and are related to the color of the fruit. (
  • A clear exception to this is cystic fibrosis , which results from a variety of mutations in a single gene located on chromosome 7q that encodes the CFTR protein. (
  • In a CF mouse model, a modifier gene was detected on mouse chromosome 7 that contributed to fatal intestinal disease. (
  • RETN, the gene coding for human resistin, is located on chromosome 19p13.3.6 [7]. (
  • The design strengths of the study include the extraction of participants without consanguinity, the use of stratified analyses to test the existence of an interaction effect and a comparison of the interaction exploration results from two models. (
  • While genome-wide association analyses did not identify any markers or genes explicitly linked to genotype-by-environment interactions, we did identify a total of 55 markers and 71 genes associated with germination differences. (
  • Linkage disequilibrium mapping of AGTR1 and ALOX15 in these analyses suggests that regions near to tagSNPs rs6801836 on AGTR1 and rs2664593 on ALOX15 are responsible for the interactions seen in this study. (
  • Additionally, gene-smoking interactions for rs11874392, rs10988706 and rs6478972 were also found to enhance the risk of CRC at both stages, with P for multiplicative interaction equal to 1.162×10-6, 8.574×10-8 and 9.410×10-8 in combined analyses, respectively. (
  • The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. (
  • Genetic linkage and association analyses will control for diet and other environmental factors, and assess potential gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. (
  • Tobit regression analyses revealed a three-way-interaction between the three genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and the BDNF genotypes and overall childhood abuse for the BDI-II score (p = 0.02). (
  • In the search to uncover the missing heritability of complex human diseases [ 1 , 2 ], agnostic analyses of genome-wide SNP array or sequencing data are giving way to SNP-set or gene-set analyses using methods such as burden tests and kernel association tests. (
  • A Gene Block Causing Cross-incompatibility Hidden in Wild and Cultivated Rice Genetics. (
  • We aimed to address these issues in 2101 primary lung cancer cases and 2120 age, sex, and residence-matched population controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study. (
  • For years, this has been the poster-child example of gene-environment interactions (for whatever reason, finding significant interaction terms like this is the Holy Grail of human genetics for some). (
  • These sorts of candidate gene association studies were/are used in all fields, but in my mind are lent the most credence in psychiatric genetics (the place where they should probably be given the least credence, IMO). (
  • Both genetics and the environment play an important role in health and disease. (
  • However, studies that have investigated the relationship between genes and diet-related chronic diseases often report low effects of genetics. (
  • It is therefore likely that the interaction between genetics and environmental factors has the largest impact. (
  • The recent progress in the field of CYP2A6 genetics and the development of more specific genotyping methods will facilitate molecular epidemiological studies aimed at clarifying these important issues. (
  • Of the 71 genes, four-ZIGA4, PS1, TOR, and TT12-appear to be strong candidates for further study of germination variation under different environments. (
  • However, these studies have been limited to identifying broad chromosomal regions containing tens to hundreds of genes and to regions where genetic variation existed between the mapping parents. (
  • The data suggest that at least 998 genes are responsible for some of the measurable variation found, including candidate genes CrebB-17A, rutabaga, Shaker and the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor have all been implicated in other studies as being involved in sleep behavior. (
  • Using an integrative root phenotyping approach, genes that underlie natural variation in root architecture across populations were shown to control plasticity responses within an individual. (
  • A 2003 study proposed that a gene-environment interaction (GxE) may explain why life stress is a predictor for depressive episodes in some individuals, but not in others, depending on an allelic variation of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR). (
  • In 2003, Avshalom Caspi and colleagues published an influential article (Google Scholar lists it as having almost 2000 citations in 6 years) claiming that genetic variation in the seratonin transposter gene influences how people respond to traumatic events--the particular, in terms of risk of depression. (
  • To understand this variation and to exploit it as a target for therapy, it is important to identify genes or other factors that contribute to this variation. (
  • Here we investigate the importance of pleiotropy and epistasis in determining the adaptive value of a candidate gene using the gene FRI (FRIGIDA), which is thought to be the major gene controlling flowering time variation in Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • The probability of happening on the proper combination of genotype and environmental exposure when sampling one environmental exposure (out of an infinite number) and a few gene markers (out of millions) is miniscule--the statistical burden of proof should be much higher than a simple p-value cutoff of 0.05. (
  • 0.05 based on interaction tests. (
  • Researchers have since identified many genes that display differential expression at male- vs. female-producing temperatures. (
  • However, differential expression alone does not reveal whether genes (1) are involved in sex determination per se , (2) are downstream effectors involved in differentiation of ovaries and testes, or (3) are thermo-sensitive but unrelated to sex determination or gonad differentiation. (
  • Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects, and to predict QTL expression at a given age or in a particular environment. (
  • Genotype by environment interaction (G×E) refers to the comparative performances of genotypes differing among environments, representing differences in genotype rankings or differences in the level of expression of genetic differences among environments. (
  • We discuss the importance of level-of-expression interaction, relative to rank-change interaction, as being greater than in many past reports, especially for deployment decisions. (
  • and (2) level-of-expression interaction, 1 whereby the expression of genotypic differences (e.g. the spread of the breeding values) varies across environments, not necessarily with any change in the order of the genotype rankings. (
  • While level-of-expression interaction is generally less important for breeding, it may be of major interest for helping to decide what genetic material is chosen for deployment in particular growing environments and for particular end-products. (
  • In the natural world, genotype expression is influenced by an organism's environment. (
  • O-GlcNAcylation is essential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression through its action on Polycomb and Trithorax and COMPASS complexes. (
  • Linkage studies and genome-wide searches have identified a number of potential candidate genes for asthma and atopy [Anderson & Morrison, 1998] but no single gene accounts for a major part of the expression of the disease. (
  • It appears most likely that other genetic factors are involved in modifying the expression of the gene, although some environmental factors may play a role. (
  • Although several important genes of iron transport have been identified in recent years, there may be others not yet discovered that impact on the expression of hemochromatosis. (
  • Correction to: Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer Hum Genet. (
  • We divide the field of genomics into genotyping (focused on the genome sequence), transcriptomics (focused on genomic expression) and epigenomics (focused on epigenetic regulation of genome expression). (
  • Although the field of OMICS is ever expanding (eg, see ), currently five different OMICS fields are well established: genotyping, gene expression profiling, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. (
  • This paper reviews the published literature on gene expression associated with HCV infection (HCV infection, fibrosis progression), and also according to response to treatment. (
  • There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. (
  • The observed differences in gene expression among S. yangi populations are consistent with the hypothesis that the host plant shift and habitat adaptation in the HL population was facilitated by differential regulation of genes related to digestion, detoxification, oxidation-reduction, stress response, water-deprivation response and osmoregulation. (
  • Biological functions of these genes suggest that epigenetic regulation of gene expression and neural development may have roles in these processes. (
  • Quantitative trait genes will be identified and confirmed using established methods e.g. haplotype sharing analysis, expression profiling, sequencing, and transgenics. (
  • Epigenetic mechanisms, responding to numerous internal and external cues in a dynamic ongoing exchange, play a key role in mediating environmental influences on gene expression and tumor development. (
  • Gene expression and function can vary based on the surrounding micro environment, which varies in response to multiple internal and external cues. (
  • What differentiates one tissue or organ from another is gene expression. (
  • Just as gene expression varies between organs, it can also respond and adapt to multiple environmental cues - dietary nutrients, smoking, other toxicant exposure, and psychosocial stress. (
  • Gene expression is dynamic. (
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. (
  • Gene association studies (whether case-control or cohort) can be used either in an "indirect" manner as a tool for mapping genes using linkage disequilibrium or in a "direct" manner for evaluating associations with postulated causal ("candidate") genes. (
  • False-positive associations with markers that are in linkage disequilibrium with a causal gene, as can easily arise in recently admixed populations for example, will often not be replicated in different populations but are nevertheless "interesting" as an indication that a causal gene may be in the general region. (
  • Following careful phenotyping, DNA from blood samples from these two genetically different groups will be analyzed through a genomewide scan for linkage and positional candidate approach to search for genes associated with ADHD. (
  • A key and unique resource of our application is the Rochester, MN cohort of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA), which has conducted genome-wide linkage and association studies to identify genes influencing blood pressure and end-organ complications of hypertension (HTN). (
  • The familial nature of pre-eclampsia has been known for many years and, as such, extensive genetic research has been carried out in this area using strategies that include candidate gene studies and linkage analysis. (
  • While model misspecification may have a more limited impact in single SNP-association analysis, this can result in biased estimation of the interaction term in GxE analysis 3 . (
  • Estimation of genotype relative risks from pedigree data by retrospective likelihoods. (
  • We investigate the effects of estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multimodal modeling using parents and their offspring with schizophrenia in Korean population. (
  • We used EMIM analysis program for the estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multimodal modeling. (
  • There are also many quantitative aspects in analysis and handling of genotype x environment interaction, and in improving results and efficiency of selection. (
  • Gauderman WJ (2003) Candidate gene association analysis for a quantitative trait. (
  • 600 × G4 progeny (fourth generation mixed genomes) have recently been phenotyped and genotyped to identify major QTLs controlling spontaneous lupus and arthritis, pancreatitis and EBA development. (
  • Then, genetic regions responsible for VW resistance will be sequenced and compared among different genotypes using haplotyping and comparative genomics approaches. (
  • Twenty-four candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carotenoid compounds have been identified in wheat by comparative genomics. (
  • The project ARCHI is a pilot of the PRECINOMICS project, which aims to demonstrate the feasibility of building an informatics data platform for the integration of health and genomics data of diverse sources to conduct precision medicine research in a secure environment. (
  • This paper presents recommendations regarding considerations that should be addressed when conducting, analyzing, and reporting studies of genotype prevalence and gene-disease associations, both for individual investigations and for systematic reviews. (
  • Exposure to microbial agents in a swine-confinement environment is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), accelerated lung function decline, and neutrophil-mediated inflammation, 2 , 4 without IgE-mediated sensitization against swine and food allergens. (
  • A low prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma has been found in studies of children 5 and young adults 6 born and raised on a farm, 6 as well as in adult farmers exposed to the same environment. (
  • For a long time it was believed that the relationship between genes and environmental factors was essentially additive, i.e., that genotypes explained a certain fixed amount of the population variance in disease prevalence and that when environmental factors were added to genotype, heredity and environment summed to 100 percent. (
  • Genotype by environment analysis detected three QTL by environment interactions and the broad sense heritability for Xam 318 and Xam 681 were 20 and 53%, respectively. (
  • DNA sequence analysis of the QTL intervals revealed 29 candidate defense-related genes (CDRGs), and two of them contain domains related to plant immunity proteins, such as NB-ARC-LRR and WRKY. (
  • Other areas of interest are modelling genotype x environment interaction, mapping and QTL analysis in single segregating populations, multiple populations or collections of germplasm. (
  • Stratified analysis among trios with different ancestries was performed to test for GxE interactions with common maternal exposures using conditional logistic regression models. (
  • Genotype by environment interaction (GEI) and stability analysis were conducted with SAS and GGE Biplot software. (
  • GGE biplot analysis found no significant mega-environments for fibre components. (
  • A meta analysis of 182 case controlled genetic studies published in 2008 found Apolipoprotein E verepsilon 2 to be protective, and GNB3 825T, MTHFR 677T, SLC6A4 44bp insertion or deletions, and SLC6A3 40 bpVNTR 9/10 genotype to confer risk. (
  • Dudbridge F (2008) Likelihood‐based association analysis for nuclear families and unrelated subjects with missing genotype data. (
  • Peripheral blood was collected, and DNA was extracted, followed by genotyping, using specific primers and restriction analysis. (
  • Moreover, the potential interactions between SMAD7 rs11874392, TGFBR1 rs10988706 and rs6478972 were indicated consistently in both stages of the study by using pair-wise interaction and multilocus genotype pattern analysis. (
  • Additional analysis for potential genetic-environment interactions will be done to compare isolated populations in different environments. (
  • Here we use G x E analysis in the context of a genome-wide association scan to identify novel genes whose effects on ADHD symptoms and comorbid conduct disorder are moderated by high maternal expressed emotion (EE). (
  • Gene-environment interaction was also assessed by using the pooled data in a case-only analysis and polytomous logistic regression. (
  • Meta-analysis with 7 cohorts in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium was conducted to explore the G×E interactions for blood lipids. (
  • Meta-analysis with 7 cohorts in the CHARGE consortium found nominal interactions between circulating eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and the ABCA1 promoter SNP rs2246293 for blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (P = 0.006), and between circulating alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and APOE promoter SNP rs405509 for plasma triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.01). (
  • Our present study also concentrated on fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of novel plant height gene ph1 detected from the introgression lines of ZS97 and Pokkali. (
  • An association analysis of Alzheimer disease candidate genes detects an ancestral risk haplotype clade in ACE and putative multilocus association between ACE, A2M, and LRRTM3. (
  • I found that both the level and the genetic basis of seed dormancy were affected by the maternal environment. (
  • One major-effect QTL was identified in all maternal environments, which overlaps with the dormancy gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) . (
  • TGFA genotype did not increase risk to CL/P, regardless of maternal smoking status. (
  • While maternal smoking was a consistent risk factor for both CL/P and CP across all studies, the suggestive evidence for gene-env. (
  • A popular design for the investigation of such effects, including effects of parent-of-origin (imprinting), maternal genotype, and maternal-fetal genotype interactions, is to collect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from affected offspring and their mothers and to compare with an appropriate control sample. (
  • Interactions between fetal and maternal genotypes, the effect of environmental factors, and epistasis will also be considered. (
  • Maternal and fetal genes may have independent or interactive effects on the risk of pre-eclampsia. (
  • Early adversity and 5-HTT/BDNF genes: new evidence of gene-environment interactions on depressive symptoms in a general population," Psychological Medicine , vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1425-1432, 2009. (
  • Conclusions Genotype by environment interaction information may help to define genomic regions relevant to stroke risk. (
  • The genetic basis of seed dormancy, a key life history trait important for adaptive evolution in plant populations, has yet been studied only using seeds produced under controlled conditions in greenhouse environments. (
  • The gene FRI (FRIGIDA) is an ideal candidate with which to investigate adaptive evolution because it is thought to be the major genetic factor determining flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana ( 14 - 16 ), a trait expected to be under strong selection. (
  • Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. (
  • Significant progress has been made with the identification of gene mutations by studying syndromic cleft palate lately [ 2 ]. (
  • It is clear that mutations in these genes may contribute to a proportion of the non-syndromic cleft cases [ 3 ]. (
  • It has become clear that the missing ovarian cancer risk genes are most likely due to rarer mutations. (
  • Most patients with the disease have been shown to have mutations in the HFE gene with the predominant mutation being a missense mutation, C282Y. (
  • Mutations in this gene were also reported in families with Van der Woude syndrome. (
  • Organisms are often adapted to their local environment, but the role of early life stages in adaptive differentiation among populations remains poorly known. (
  • However, given that findings are not unequivocal, we discuss the need to address several factors that may resolve inconsistencies in the extant literature (gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, study populations, gene-environment correlations, and epigenetic mechanisms). (
  • In addition comparison of genetic-environment interactions will be done on these two different populations. (
  • However, only 183 DEGs were identified between the HC and FX populations, including two genes related to detoxification, two genes related to stress response, and one gene presumably associated with osmoregulation. (
  • Because of the importance of CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism, it has been suggested that the CYP2A6 genotype influences the interindividual differences in smoking behavior as well as lung cancer susceptibility. (
  • We found significant differences among the genotype distributions of these three genes in AD patients when compared with controls. (
  • Significant differences were also observed in other gene models. (
  • This study is unique in combining the two largest attachment cohorts with molecular genetic and observed rearing environment data to date. (
  • We will test statistic models by using the majority of the training population to create a prediction model, which is then used to predict a Genomic Estimated Breeding Value (GEBV) for each of the remaining individuals in the training population based only on their genotype data. (
  • We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. (
  • We used the M×E model to analyze three CIMMYT wheat data sets (W1, W2, and W3), where more than 1000 lines were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and evaluated at CIMMYT's research station in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, under simulated environmental conditions that covered different irrigation levels, sowing dates and planting systems. (
  • Longitudinal sleep timing and genotype data from 1449 participants were collected for up to 27 years. (
  • The vast experience and infrastructure of GENOA investigators and use of pre-existing genotyping data will allow completion of these studies at a fraction of the cost otherwise required. (
  • It is characterized by great genetic heterogeneity, involving hundreds of genes. (
  • While the spectrum of the relationship between genes and disease is very broad, ranging from single gene disorders to multifactorial conditions, many common methodological issues apply throughout this spectrum ( 4 ). (
  • With the availability of genome-wide genetic-marker datasets, it is possible to look for genes that interact with the environment. (
  • This project was part of the Gene, Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) Consortium funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) to enhance communication and collaboration among researchers conducting genome-wide studies of complex diseases. (
  • These limitations are reflected in the fact that no candidate gene has reached genome-wide significance. (
  • The growing sample size of genome-wide association studies has facilitated the discovery of gene-environment interactions (GxE). (
  • Until now, GxE interactions have been investigated by candidate approaches examining a small number of genes, or agnostically at the genome wide level. (
  • In a genome-wide search, we discovered that variations in the glutamate-receptor gene GRIN2A modulate the risk of developing PD in heavy coffee drinkers. (
  • The study was hypothesis-free, that is, we cast a net across the entire genome allowing statistical significance to point us to a genetic variant, regardless of whether it fell in a genomic desert or an important gene. (
  • Our finding is important for three reasons: First, it is a proof of concept that studying genes and environment on the whole-genome scale is feasible, and this approach can identify important genes that are missed when environmental exposures are ignored. (
  • Second, a genomic prediction model is built to predict the parameters of the crop model based on the genome-wide marker genotype. (
  • 2 3 The HGP demonstrated that a relatively limited number of genes could be identified in the human genome, which substantiated the theory that complex biological processes were regulated on other levels than DNA sequence alone. (
  • In this review we define the field of occupational and environmental health (OEH) research as the study of interactions between the following domains: environment (the exposome), 4 individual (genetic) susceptibility (the (epi)genome), and biological outcomes (the responsome) 5 ( figure 1 ). (
  • Genomic selection (GS) models use genome-wide genetic information to predict genetic values of candidates of selection. (
  • We collected 8 further cohorts (N = 17,102) for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) on total cholesterol (TC) with a combined P-value of 4.79×10(-9). (
  • No G x E interactions reached genome-wide significance. (
  • This is one of the few studies to explore the interaction of ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension and is also the first such study in Chinese Kazakhs. (
  • Studies in mouse suggest that this gene may be involved in the differentiation of osteoblasts. (
  • Point: Population Stratification: A Problem for Case-Control Studies of Candidate-Gene Associations? (
  • Several candidate gene association studies are commonly cited as examples of population stratification. (
  • Two other studies (4 , 8) genotyped GSTM1 using PCR and reported no significant difference in the proportion of those homozygous for the GSTM1 deletion ( GSTM1 null ) between CMM patients and controls. (
  • Although further replication studies are critical to confirming these findings, these results illustrate how genetic associations for nonsyndromic CP can be missed if potential GxE interaction is not taken into account, and this study suggest SLC2A9 and WDR1 should be considered as candidate genes for CP. (
  • reasons to examine gene-environment interactions, there are a limited number of published studies. (
  • Historically, candidate gene studies have been a major focus of study. (
  • Candidate genes studies frequently possess a number of flaws, including frequent genotyping errors and being statistically underpowered. (
  • All these methods, however, require that the environment be measured (accurately), whereas in most studies only some of the relevant environmental variables are reported. (
  • For studies with unrelated subjects, we extend the sequential algorithm to create summary measures for either the genetic main effect or the interaction and show that these tests are often valid under realistic scenarios. (
  • This is just an additional cautionary tale: the vast majority of associations found through small candidate gene studies, even ones with functional work, plausibility, and the status of publication in a high-profile journal-- MAOA and social problems , FADS and IQ (actually, any study published to date on IQ), NPY and stress --are likely wrong. (
  • Other inflammatory genes should be researched, and studies involving gene-environment interactions should be performed, in order to reach a better understanding of the etiology of the preeclampsia. (
  • Until recently, gene by environment (GxE) interaction studies were performed by means of candidate approaches including only a small number of genes. (
  • Recent studies have achieved an important step in the understanding of the genes involve in lung cancer development. (
  • Additionally, one of the studies shows that the genomic region containing the SNP loops over and makes physical contact with the nearest gene (MYC, a known oncogene ), supporting the hypothesis that the SNP affects its regulation. (
  • For example, previous studies suggest that genes affecting immune response, including HLA (Mack et al. (
  • Studies of gene x environment (G x E) interaction in ADHD have previously focused on known risk genes for ADHD and environmentally mediated biological risk. (
  • Although a number of studies have shown that the rate of synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution in candidate genes is compatible with natural selection ( 6 - 8 ), demographic dynamics also can cause departure from the neutral expectation ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Although these effects are of paramount importance with respect to understanding evolutionary processes, they have been mostly neglected in studies of the adaptive value of candidate-genes. (
  • Large population-based studies have provided important information concerning trends in morbidity and mortality, and have helped identify genotypes, behaviors, and environmental factors associated with multiple chronic diseases. (
  • These studies suggest that many cell wall activities are involved in texture changes, including multiple members of the same gene family. (
  • Methods being used are procedures such as random forest for classification or multiple regression in cases where the number of predictor variables (e.g. molecular markers, genes, metabolites) is much larger than the number of samples in which they have been measured (plants, tissues). (
  • Validation of candidate gene markers for marker-assisted selection of potato cultivars with improved tuber quality. (
  • Characterizing associations and SNP-environment interactions for GWAS-identified prostate cancer risk markers--results from BPC3. (
  • Flanking sequences for the significant SNP markers will be used for designing specific primers for array-based genotyping platforms (KASP or Taqman). (
  • The availability of linked, candidate gene-based markers can facilitate breeding wheat cultivars with desirable levels of carotenoids. (
  • So far, few gene-disease associations have been replicated ( 5-7 ). (
  • Brief checklists or guidelines for reporting gene-disease associations have been proposed ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Associations between several genes and a disease can be tested according to a priori hypotheses based, for example, on a documented biologic mechanism of these genes in determining the disease. (
  • Han Chinese centenarians may be more likely to have longevity-associated and/or disease-preventive genes than their centenarian counterparts in the West since they survived the brutal mortality regimes of the past when famine, wars, and starvation operated on birth cohorts of many millions. (
  • O. Vanunu and R. Sharan, "A propagation based algorithm for inferring gene-disease associations," in Proceedings of the German Conference on Bioinformatics on Bioinformatics (GCB '08) , pp. 54-63, Gesellschaft für Informatik, 2008. (
  • Genotyping services were provided by the Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR). (
  • Thus, gene-environment interactions may explain why we are not able to identify genes that cause disease. (
  • By integrating the environment into the gene selection process, we expect that our strategy will improve the ability to identify the joint effects and interactions of environmental and genetic factors in disease. (
  • The identification of this modifier gene could lead to better understanding of the factors underlying the clinical heterogeneity in CF. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common Mendelian diseases in humans and a major cause of renal failure. (
  • Modifier genes may contribute to the variable age of onset seen in this disease. (
  • Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). (
  • Parkinson's disease (PD), like most common disorders, involves interactions between genetic make-up and environmental exposures that are unique to each individual. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that propensity for T. gondii to cause eye disease is associated with genes previously implicated in congenital or juvenile onset ocular disease. (
  • Considering that not all the exposed workers develop the disease, a gene-environment interaction model has been proposed, which tries to explain the genetic predisposition that some individuals have and others have not to develop occupational asthma. (
  • These include gene-gene and gene-environment interactions as well as epigenetic contributions to disease susceptibility. (
  • To define environment interactions, we will test the influence of different dietary regimens: high fat diet, energy restriction and methionine- reduced diet on disease progression in the parental strains, mapping common and disease-specific QTL for spontaneous chronic inflammatory diseases. (
  • Gene by Diet Interactions on Epigenetic Changes Modulating Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. (
  • Cancer is a complex disease that involves a sequence of gene-environment interactions in a progressive process that cannot occur without dysfunction in multiple systems, including DNA repair, apoptotic and immune functions. (
  • Based on this knowledge, it has become increasingly evident that the chronic diseases responsible for the greatest mortality, e.g., cardiovascular disease and cancer, occur in a context of interaction between multiple genes, environmental risk factors and epigenetic changes. (
  • A pilot study of gene/gene and gene/environment interactions in Alzheimer disease. (
  • There is no evidence for an interaction between genotype at the seratonin receptor and trauma on risk of depression. (
  • This research will evaluate the interaction between environmental food cues and genes involved in human behavior, taste perception, and obesity risk on nutrition and health outcomes using one of the largest population cohorts in Canada. (
  • Women who inherit a genetic mutation resulting in loss of function of BRCA genes have a significantly higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. (
  • Moreover, identifying new risk genes is challenged by the relative rarity of familial ovarian cancer cases not due to BRCA genes. (
  • Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10 −3 ), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10 −13 ). (
  • Because defects in DNA repair genes involved in double strand break repair (DSBR) such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are implicated in familial breast cancer, overall DNA repair capacity may have an effect on the risk of sporadic breast cancer as well ( 3 ). (
  • 8 ) found that the combined genotypes of nonhomologous end-joining DSBR genes were associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer in Taiwanese women. (
  • XRCC4, XRCC6, LIG4, XRCC2, RAD51 , and RAD52 ), one base excision repair gene ( LIG1 ), one nucleotide excision repair gene ( ERCC1 ), and one mismatch repair gene ( hMLH1 ) and breast cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study of a Korean population. (
  • The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial found increased stroke risk with postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and provides an efficient setting for evaluating genotype-HT interaction on stroke risk. (
  • The findings were replicated in the U.K. Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study.These hypothesis-driven results suggest that an interaction between FKBP5 genotype and trauma is involved in the onset of depression. (
  • Our results revealed a possible genetic association between GDF5 and KOA, and the TT genotype of rs143383 increased the risk of KOA in Chinese Han population. (
  • The interaction between GDF5 gene and drinking, smoking, and obesity further increased the risk of KOA. (
  • Taking into consideration that diabetes mellitus and obesity are major characteristics of MetS, the resistin gene was considered as a potential candidate gene for MetS in this study. (
  • Hypertension is a complex disorder resulting from an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. (
  • This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity. (
  • However, most of these methods assume that the genetic marker(s) and the interacting environmental factor have been measured without noise, and often require that the outcome and/or environment be binary. (
  • We apply our test to a twin study to identify significant interactions between the CVs of candidate genes and a set of environmental factors that influence alcohol consumption. (
  • The aetiology is complex and is thought to involve both major and minor genetic influences with variable interactions from environmental factors. (
  • Host factors including genes gender age developmental stage ethnicity and social conditions will modify the effects of environmental exposure . (
  • This points towards an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. (
  • This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify genes that are missed in GWAS. (
  • Originally, these models were developed without considering genotype × environment interaction(G×E). Several authors have proposed extensions of the single-environment GS model that accommodate G×E using either covariance functions or environmental covariates. (
  • Additionally, 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. (
  • This hypothesis was widely-discussed in both the scientific literature and popular media, where it was dubbed the "Orchid gene," but has conclusively failed to replicate in much larger samples, and the observed effect sizes in earlier work are not consistent with the observed polygenicity of depression. (
  • The eye disorder gene hypothesis? (
  • We tested the hypothesis of a three-way interaction with respect to depressive symptoms. (
  • Z. Wu, X. Zhou, B. Liu, and J. Chen, "Text mining for finding functional community of related genes using TCM knowledge," in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases , pp. 459-470, Springer, 2004. (
  • The STRING database in 2011: functional interaction networks of proteins, globally integrated and scored," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 39, no. 1, pp. (
  • For experiments across several different major environments, 'plasticity' consists of V E and V GxE . (
  • Main outcome measures Association between ACE genotype and hypertension, association between salt intake and hypertension, and interaction of ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension in two models. (
  • The cross-sectional design cannot realise an investigation of the causal pathway of the association between the ACE genotype and salt intake interaction with hypertension, although possible mechanisms were suggested for the interaction effect on hypertension. (
  • We evaluated the main effects of genotype and genotype-smoking interactions in association with lung cancer overall and major histology subtypes. (
  • Moreover, the association between CYP1A1/rs2606345 genotype and lung cancer was significantly modified by intensity of cigarette smoking, suggesting that a dose-response mechanism might underlie the smoking-mediated association between CYP1A1 and lung cancer. (
  • Next to this we investigate the underlying mechanisms of C. elegans - virus interactions. (
  • Genotype-dependent methylation may account, in part, for the mechanisms underlying observed G×E interactions in APOE, IL6, and ABCA1. (
  • The mechanisms responsible for these variations in response to the surrounding environment are the epigenome in conjunction with cis -regulating mechanisms. (
  • The role of candidate genes on past adaptive evolution is then often investigated by looking at rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution for evidence of past selection. (
  • 001). Gene-by-environment interaction effects were not replicable across the two samples. (
  • Genotype by environment interaction effects on fibre components in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L. (
  • These effects are compounded by the usual assessment of genes without regard for gene-gene interactions. (
  • We study two such hypotheses by extending a sequential algorithm that was initially proposed to test for genetic main effects of a candidate gene. (
  • We show that this test can be more powerful than the previous test when there are a mix of positive and negative interaction effects. (
  • The M×E model decomposes marker effects and genomic values into components that are stable across environments (main effects) and others that are environment-specific (interactions). (
  • Effects differed between apomictic genotypes and were not always consistently observed between different experiments, especially in the case of parental nutrient stress. (
  • We find evidence for the role of EE in moderating the effects of genes on ADHD severity and comorbid conduct disorder, implicating both novel and established candidates. (
  • Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. (
  • dsRNA which is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, is recognised by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) ( fig 1 ). (
  • Although the occurrence of epistasis and pleiotropy is widely accepted at the molecular level, its effect on the adaptive value of fitness-related genes is rarely investigated in plants. (
  • Knowledge of these features of a gene is critical to understand the molecular basis of adaptive evolution. (
  • The problem with this approach is that linear equations do not accurately reflect the complexity of nonlinear interactions at a molecular level. (
  • In order to unravel the molecular circuits controlling texture changes, efforts have concentrated on silencing cell wall-related genes in transgenic tomatoes ( Brummell and Harpster, 2001 ). (
  • Comparative genomic or transcriptomic approaches to identify positively selected genes involved in species divergence can help to generate hypotheses on the driving forces behind speciation. (
  • 5) Comparative sequencing of photoperiod genes showed that Hdl and Ghd7 didn't function in the parents. (
  • Identifying QTLs linked to carotenoid pigmentation can contribute to understanding genes underlying carotenoid accumulation in the wheat kernels. (
  • However, as the identified QTLs encode for several hundred genes, further intercrossing is required (and ongoing) to allow additional crossing-over and thus fine-mapping of the QTLs. (
  • Genotypic sex determination (GSD) occurs at fertilization and is governed by an individual's genotype. (