Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genotyping Techniques: Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.JapanCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.BrazilViral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.IndiaAge of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.TaiwanPapillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).PakistanGene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).ItalyMutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.ArgentinaHapMap Project: A coordinated international effort to identify and catalog patterns of linked variations (HAPLOTYPES) found in the human genome across the entire human population.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.TurkeyDrug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.EuropePapillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.MexicoVitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Scrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Blood DonorsSwine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

Sulfhydryl compounds in melanocytes of yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a), and agouti (A/A) mice. (1/50503)

CLEFFMANN (1953, 1963a,b) has reported that yellow but not black melanocytes of agouti (A/A) rabbits contained reducing sulfhydryl compounds. We have attempted to repeat CLEFFMANN's observations in mouse melanocytes of the lethal yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a) and agouti (A/A) genotypes. Our results contradict those of CLEFFMANN and reveal that yellow and black melanocytes, regardless of genotype, possess equivalent amounts of histochemically detectable sulfhydryl compounds. These results do not support the hypothesis that agouti-locus genes act by controlling the sulfhydryl metabolism of pigment cells.  (+info)

JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. (2/50503)

Lack of JunB, an immediate early gene product and member of the AP-1 transcription factor family causes embryonic lethality between E8.5 and E10.0. Although mutant embryos are severely retarded in growth and development, cellular proliferation is apparently not impaired. Retardation and embryonic death are caused by the inability of JunB-deficient embryos to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulation due to multiple defects in extra-embryonic tissues. The onset of the phenotypic defects correlates well with high expression of junB in wild-type extra-embryonic tissues. In trophoblasts, the lack of JunB causes a deregulation of proliferin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression, resulting in a defective neovascularization of the decidua. As a result of downregulation of the VEGF-receptor 1 (flt-1), blood vessels in the yolk sac mesoderm appeared dilated. Mutant embryos which escape these initial defects finally die from a non-vascularized placental labyrinth. Injection of junB-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells into tetraploid wild-type blastocysts resulted in a partial rescue, in which the ES cell-derived fetuses were no longer growth retarded and displayed a normal placental labyrinth. Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system.  (+info)

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (3/50503)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

Hereditary juvenile haemochromatosis: a genetically heterogeneous life-threatening iron-storage disease. (4/50503)

Juvenile haemochromatosis is a rare inborn error of iron metabolism with clinical manifestations before 30 years of age. Unlike adult haemochromatosis which principally affects men, juvenile haemochromatosis affects the sexes equally; it causes early endocrine failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and joint disease. We report four patients (two of each sex) from three pedigrees affected by juvenile haemochromatosis with a mean onset at 22 years (range 14-30). All had endocrine deficiency with postpubertal gonadal failure secondary to pituitary disease; two suffered near-fatal cardiomyopathy with heart failure. Mean time to diagnosis from the first clinical signs of disease was 9.8 years (range 0.5-20) but general health and parameters of iron storage responded favourably to iron-depletion therapy. A 24-year-old man listed for heart transplantation because of cardiomyopathy [left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction 16%] responded to intravenous iron chelation with desferrioxamine combined with phlebotomy (ejection fraction 31%). A 27-year-old woman with subacute biventricular heart failure refractory to medication required orthotopic cardiac transplantation before the diagnosis was established (LV ejection fraction 25%). Genetic studies showed that these two patients with cardiomyopathy from unrelated families were heterozygous for the HFE 845G-->A (C282Y) mutation and wild-type at the H63D locus: complete sequencing of the intron-exon boundaries and entire coding sequence of the HFE gene failed to identify additional lesions. Two siblings in a pedigree without cardiomyopathy were wild-type at the HFE C282Y locus; although the brother harboured a single copy of the 187C-->G (H63D) allele, segregation analysis showed that in neither sibling was the iron-storage disease linked to MHC Class I markers on chromosome 6p. Juvenile haemochromatosis is thus a genetically heterogenous disorder distinct from the common adult variant.  (+info)

Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: analysis of person-to-person transmission by genotyping. (5/50503)

Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These data suggest that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis may occur from infected to susceptible immunosuppressed patients with close contact within hospital environments. However direct transmission between patients did not account for the majority of cases within the clusters, suggesting that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis infection may be a relatively infrequent event and does not constitute the major route of transmission in man.  (+info)

Structure of cag pathogenicity island in Japanese Helicobacter pylori isolates. (6/50503)

BACKGROUND: cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is reported to be a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. AIM: To characterise cagA and the cag PAI in Japanese H pylori strains. METHODS: H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. cagA negative strains from Western countries were also studied. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: All Japanese strains retained cagA. Fifty nine of 63 (94%) strains had all the cag PAI genes. In the remaining four, cag PAI was partially deleted, lacking cagA transcripts and not producing CagA protein. Details of the PAI of these strains were checked; three lacked cagB to cagQ (cagI) and continuously cagS to cag13 (cagII), and the remaining one lacked cagB to cag8. Western cagA negative strains completely lacked cag PAI including cagA. Nucleotide sequence analysis in one strain in which the cag PAI was partially deleted showed that the partial deletion contained 25 kb of cag PAI and the cagA promoter. Interleukin-8 induction was lower with the cag PAI partial deletion strains than with the intact ones. All Japanese cag PAI deleted strains were derived from patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, whereas 41 of 59 (70%) CagA-producing strains were from patients with peptic ulcers or gastric cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most Japanese H pylori strains had the intact cag PAI. However, some lacked most of the cag PAI in spite of the presence of cagA. Thus the presence of the cagA gene is not an invariable marker of cag PAI related virulence in Japanese strains.  (+info)

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (7/50503)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

Ovine MHC class II DRB1 alleles associated with resistance or susceptibility to development of bovine leukemia virus-induced ovine lymphoma. (8/50503)

For the further characterization of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-induced leukemogenesis, we investigated the association between polymorphism of ovine leukocyte antigen (OLA)-DRB1 gene and tumor development after infection of sheep with BLV. We infected 28 sheep with BLV and cloned exon 2 of the OLA-DRB1 gene from asymptomatic animals and from animals with lymphoma Sequence analysis revealed that, among 12 healthy sheep without any evidence of tumor, ten (83.3%) carried DRB1 alleles encoding Arg-Lys (RK) at positions beta70/71 as compared with only 6 (37.5%) of the 16 sheep with lymphoma, which suggested that alleles encoding the RK motif might protect against development of tumors after infection by BLV. By contrast, alleles encoding Ser-Arg (SR) at positions beta70/71 were present at a significantly elevated frequency in sheep with lymphoma as compared with the healthy carriers, which indicated that OLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the SR motif might be positively related to susceptibility to tumor development. The two amino acids in these motifs line a pocket that accommodates the side chain of a bound peptide according to a model of the crystal structure of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1. To analyze immunoreactions of sheep with alleles that encoded RK or SR at beta70/71, we selected sheep with either the RK/SR genotypes or the SR/SR genotypes and immunized them with a mixture of multiple synthetic antigenic peptides that corresponded to T-helper, T-cytotoxic, and B-cell epitopes of the BLV envelope glycoprotein gp51. Two weeks after the last immunization, all of the sheep were challenged with BLV. Sheep with the RK/SR genotype produced neutralizing antibodies against BLV; they eliminated BLV completely within 28 weeks of the BLV challenge, and they gave strong lymphocyte-proliferative responses to the peptides used for immunization. Moreover, such animals did not develop lymphoma. By contrast, sheep with the SR/SR genotype continued to produce BLV throughout the experimental period and developed terminal disease. Our results indicate that the differences in immunoresponse were due to differences in major histocompatibility complex class II alleles and reflected the risk of BLV-induced leukemogenesis. In addition, it appears that susceptibility to tumor development may be determined to some extent by polymorphic residues binding to antigenic peptides directly within the binding cleft of the OLA-DR molecule.  (+info)

© 2014 The Authors. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exhibits high genetic diversity, characterized by regional variations in genotype prevalence. This poses a challenge to the improved development of vaccines and pan-genotypic treatments, which require the consideration of global trends in HCV genotype prevalence. Here we provide the first comprehensive survey of these trends. To approximate national HCV genotype prevalence, studies published between 1989 and 2013 reporting HCV genotypes are reviewed and combined with overall HCV prevalence estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project. We also generate regional and global genotype prevalence estimates, inferring data for countries lacking genotype information. We include 1,217 studies in our analysis, representing 117 countries and 90% of the global population. We calculate that HCV genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, comprising 83.4 million cases (46.2% of all HCV cases), approximately one-third of which are in East Asia. Genotype 3 is
The diagnosis of mixed genotype hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is rare and information on incidence in the UK, where genotypes 1a and 3 are the most prevalent, is sparse. Considerable variations in the efficacies of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the HCV genotypes have been documented and the ability of DAAs to treat mixed genotype HCV infections remains unclear, with the possibility that genotype switching may occur.. In order to estimate the prevalence of mixed genotype 1a/3 infections in Scotland, a cohort of 512 samples was compiled and then screened using a genotype-specific nested PCR assay. Mixed genotype 1a/3 infections were found in 3.8% of samples tested, with a significantly higher prevalence rate of 6.7% (p,0.05) observed in individuals diagnosed with genotype 3 infections than genotype 1a (0.8%). An analysis of the samples using genotypic-specific qPCR assays found that in two-thirds of samples tested, the minor strain contributed ,1% of the total viral load. The potential ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and other host and viral factors influence treatment outcome in chronic HCV infection. We evaluated the effect of race and genotype on interferon and ribavirin treatment outcome in 70 Southeast Asian (SEA) and 50 white patients. Genotype was based on the 5 untranslated region (5UTR) with a commonly used line probe assay (INNO-LiPA HCV II) that may mistype genotype 7, 8, or 9 as 1b. HCV core region sequencing resulted in reclassification of 8 genotype 1 and 25 genotype 1b SEA subjects as genotype 7, 8, or 9. Twenty-six SEA genotype 7, 8, and 9 (79%) and 10 SEA true genotype 1b (59%) patients achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) compared with 15 (34%) white genotype 1b patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that SEA patients with genotype 7, 8, or 9 were more likely to achieve a SVR than white genotype 1b patients (OR 16.56; 95%CI 4.16, 65.91) as were SEA true genotype 1b patients compared with white genotype 1b patients (OR 4.63; 95%CI 1.19, ...
The goal of the present study was to examine the hypothesis of the physical association of multiple genotypes in a single OB for the maintenance of virus diversity. Previous studies have demonstrated that during the systemic phase of infection, single cells in an insect can be co-infected by multiple BV particles, each carrying a single genotype (Godfray et al. 1997; Bull et al. 2001). To maintain genetic diversity during between-host transmission, it is necessary that the larva acquire different genotypes at the moment of primary infection. As the number of OBs required to kill a larva is usually low, the occurrence of multiple genotype infection would be improbable for highly susceptible larvae that can be infected by a single or very few OBs. Under these conditions, maintaining diversity within a larva could be compromised if genotypes are segregated among different OBs, except perhaps during the course of an epizootic, when unusually high densities of OBs may be present briefly in the ...
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PCR-Based Genotyping Methods. An introduction to PCR-RFLP/CAPS, and dCAPS. Common PCR-based Genotyping Methods for SNP Analysis. SNPs can have up to 4 alleles (A/C/G/T), but two alleles are most common . These methods can only positively detect one allele. PCR -RFLP / CAPS Slideshow 6726805 by tatiana-stanley
Background: Hepatic steatosis in HCV patients has been postulated as a risk factor associated with a higher frequency of fibrosis and cirrhosis. A single genetic variant, PNPLA3 I148M, has been widely associated with increased hepatic steatosis. Previous studies of the PNPLA3 I148M sequence variant in HCV infected individuals have reported an association between this variant and prevalence of steatosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. To evaluate the impact of PNPLA3 I148M variant on metabolic traits and treatment response in HCV genotype 2 and 3 infected patients.. Methods. Three hundred and eighty-two treatment naïve HCV genotype 2 or 3 infected patients were included in a phase III, open label, randomized, multicenter, investigator-initiated trial (the NORDynamIC study), in which pretreatment liver biopsies were mandatory. PNPLA3I148M genotyping was performed in a total of 359 Caucasian patients.. Results: In HCV genotype 2 infected patients carrying the PNPLA3 148M allele, there was significantly ...
For example, there is 70% penetrance if only 700 individuals express red phenotype out of 1,000 HairredHairred individuals. If penetrance of a phenotype is not 100%, then it has reduced penetrance. Mechanisms of reduced penetrance are not always clear. Expressivity is another important concept in describing genotype-phenotype correlation. Expressivity describes the severity of a phenotype among individuals with the same genotype. For example, if a condition has variable expressivity then one individual might have mild symptoms while another might have severe symptoms (although they have the same genotype). If a trait has constant expressivity then individuals with the same genotype will have the same degree of symptoms.. Mechanisms of variable expressivity are not always clear. Although there is typically a clear genotype-phenotype correlation that associates a specific allele with a specific phenotype, this link is frequently muddled. Even individuals with identical genotypes can have different ...
Of the 170 million patients who are chronically infected with HCV worldwide, approximately half have HCV genotypes other than genotype 1, including about one third of patients with HCV in the United States.17 Currently approved regimens of direct-acting antiviral agents are not equally effective across all genotypes, which means that testing to determine genotype and subtype is required before treatment can be initiated.6,7 A single combination regimen that is effective in all patients regardless of HCV genotype would obviate the need for pretreatment testing, which is an obstacle to treatment in resource-limited settings and may limit treatment uptake outside of specialty clinics.18 In this international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study, treatment with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6, including those with cirrhosis and those who had received previous treatment and ...
The single-nucleotide polymorphism SLC39A6 rs1050631 is strongly implicated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, leading us to question whether it may also play a role in gastric adenocarcima (GA). We genotyped the SLC39A6 rs1050631 in 512 patients who underwent GA resection. All study subjects lived in an area of China with high GA incidence. Genotypes were examined for possible correlation with survival and recurrence. The potential involvement of SLC39A6 in gastric cancer was explored in clinical samples and cell culture studies. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with the CT + TT genotype at SLC39A6 rs1050631 were at greater risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, HR 1.387, p = 0.004) and death (HR 1.429, p = 0.002) than patients with CC genotype. Median recurrence-free and overall survival were significantly shorter in patients with the CT + TT genotype (20, 27 months) than in patients with the CC genotype (36, 43 months, p = 0.001, p | 0.001). Patients with the CT + TT genotype who were male
Supplement The genotype refers to the entire set of genes in a cell, an organism, or an individual. A gene for a particular character or trait may exist in two allelic forms; one is dominant (e.g. A) and the other is recessive (e.g. a). Based on this, there could be three possible genotypes for a particular character. For instance, a genotype of AA delineates homozygous dominance whereas a genotype of Aa is an example of heterozygous dominance. A genotype of aa is an instance of homozygous recessive. The genotype is a major factor that determines the phenotype of an organism. For example, the genotype determines the color of the petal of a pea plant. ...
The shared genotyping facility is expected to increase throughput ten-fold and reduce costs by about 75-80% in comparison to current procedures. Lowering the genotyping cost will enable CGIAR and other public sector breeders to utilize marker-based selection in forward breeding and also change their current breeding procedures to take advantage of low-cost genotyping. It will be then possible to generate several-fold higher numbers of lines and select them with diagnostic markers for key traits before phenotyping, increasing selection intensity for yield and selection accuracy for other traits. This will accelerate genetic gains in CGIAR mandate crops. The genotyping data demand across from all/leading CGIAR Centers can be aggregated, the costs can be brought down in the range of US$ 1-5 per sample (with 10-100 markers). ...
RESULTS: We found that the most prevalent genotype was Apo Eε3/3, followed in order by Apo Eε3/4 and Apo Eε2/2. The estimated ApoE allelic frequencies in individuals with SD were 0.095, 0.560, and 0.345 for ε2, ε3, and ε4, respectively. In controls, the corresponding Apo E allelic frequencies were 0.146, 0.699, and 0.155. The percentage of ε4 allele carriers in SD group was significantly higher than that in control group ( ...
22 Genome-wide association studies of complex traits are often complicated by relatedness 23 among individuals. Ignoring or inappropriately accounting for relatedness often results in 24 inflated type I error rates. Either genotype or pedigree data can be used to estimate relat25 edness for use in mixed-models when undertaking QTL mapping. We performed simulations 26 to investigate methods for controlling type I error and optimizing power considering both 27 full and partial pedigrees and, similarly, both sparse and dense marker coverage; we also ex28 amined real data sets. 1) When marker density was low, estimating relatedness by genotype 29 data alone failed to control the type I error rate; 2) this was resolved by combining both 30 genotype and pedigree data. 3) When sufficiently dense marker data was used to estimate 31 relatedness, type I error was well controlled and power increased; however, 4) this was only 32 true when the relatedness was estimated using genotype data that excluded genotypes on
lane 1 represents homozygous CC genotypes, lane 2 and 5 represents heterozygous AC genotypes and lane 3, 4, 6, and 7 represents homozygous AA genotypes of A20C
Recently with the rapid improvements in high-throughout genotyping techniques, researchers are facing the very challenging task of analyzing large-scale genetic associations, especially at the whole-genome level, without an optimal solution. genotype data, it does not require any computationally rigorous phasing program to account for uncertain haplotype phase. Background Currently, with Artesunate the availability of large-scale genotyping technologies, the genotyping cost of genome-wide association (GWA) studies has been largely reduced and a boom of large-scale GWA studies is underway. Nevertheless, the success of most association studies is based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the functional mutations and markers in a local region of the genome. Varieties of statistical methods that rely on LD pattern have been developed to map functional variants (Spielman et al. 1993; Olson et al. 1994; Rannala and Reeve 2001; Ardlie et al. 2002). The most straightforward approach of LD-based ...
Mean age of patients was 78±6.7 years with a baseline VA of 51±17 ETDRS letter scores. Mean change in VA was +6.8±12.3, +5.1±13.4 and 3.3±14.9 letters at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Patients received 4.2±1.1 and 6.4±2.3 injections in the first 6 and over 12 months, respectively. The AA genotype at rs11200638 (HTRA1 promoter SNP) predicted a better outcome of +7 and +9 letters after 6 (p= 0.003) and 12 months (p,0.0001), respectively. Similarly, the CC genotype at rs3793917 (LOC387715/ARMS2) was associated with increased VA outcome of +7 letters after 6 (p=0.006) and 12 months (p=0.001), whereas the TT genotype at rs10490924 (LOC387715/ARMS2) predicted a poorer VA response of -7 and -8 letters at 6 (p=0.004) and 12 months (p=0.001).. ...
8. Subjects must have an eligible CFTR genotype as noted below. If the screening CFTR genotype result is not received before the Run-in Period (Part 2) or randomization (Parts 1 and 3), a previous CFTR genotype laboratory report may be used to establisheligibility. Subjects who have been enrolled and whose screening genotype does not confirm study eligibility must be discontinued from the study ...
6.Lab 6 - "If youve seen differences in the distribution of phenotypes in Tm4 over-expressing B35 cells versus control B35 cells, describe these differences. Formulate a hypothesis with regards to what changes on the molecular level may have occurred due to the over-expression of Tm4 that lead to morphological changes that you have observed" Genotype A corresponded to the tm4 over-expressing B35, while Genotype B corresponded to the wildtype control B35 cells. Between these two genotypes differences in their distribution of phenotypes was observed through total cell counts. In the control B35 cells, the majority of cells were of stumped or prolonged phenotypes, with all other phenotypes,(besides fan phenotype with nearly no cells), receiving an equal distribution of remaining cells. However, changes were seen when observing the phenotypes of the Tm4 over-expressing B35 cells, with the majority of cells falling into prolonged and stringed phenotype groups, followed by the stumped phenotype. The ...
As most commonly used within SNPedia, genotype refers to the pair of SNPs inherited at a given chromosomal position, one inherited from Dad, one inherited from Mom. Example: rs1234(A;C) is how we indicate someone with a (A;C) genotype at snp rs1234. However, this definition of genotype varies a bit from the one intended when it first introduced over 100 years ago [10.1126/science.35.896.340], and even from the most common usage in genetics textbooks. Although genotype can refer to an individuals genetic constitution (as a whole), the most typical usage is to refer to the pair of alleles carried by an individual at a given locus (or gene). Alleles are classically defined by their protein products and mode of inheritance (e.g. dominant, recessive, etc.), but at a molecular level, alleles may also be defined by one or more co-inherited SNPs. See also Magnitude and Repute Notable genotypes ...
As most commonly used within SNPedia, genotype refers to the pair of SNPs inherited at a given chromosomal position, one inherited from Dad, one inherited from Mom. Example: rs1234(A;C) is how we indicate someone with a (A;C) genotype at snp rs1234. However, this definition of genotype varies a bit from the one intended when it first introduced over 100 years ago [10.1126/science.35.896.340], and even from the most common usage in genetics textbooks. Although genotype can refer to an individuals genetic constitution (as a whole), the most typical usage is to refer to the pair of alleles carried by an individual at a given locus (or gene). Alleles are classically defined by their protein products and mode of inheritance (e.g. dominant, recessive, etc.), but at a molecular level, alleles may also be defined by one or more co-inherited SNPs. See also Magnitude and Repute Notable genotypes ...
The impact of the common alleles at structural loci coding for apolipoprotein (apos) A-IV, E, and H on 12 quantitative risk factors for cardiovascular disease (apos A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, and E; total cholesterol; triglycerides; high density lipoprotein cholesterol; systolic blood pressure; diastolic blood pressure; and red blood cell sodium-lithium countertransport) was estimated in 453 unrelated individuals (227 men and 226 women) aged 26-63 years from the Rochester Family Heart Study, who were not using medications affecting lipid levels or blood pressure. Each risk factor was adjusted for concomitants (assay date, age, age, squared, height, weight and smoking status) before the genotypic effects on mean levels and variances were estimated. Allele frequencies were the same in men and women and were similar to those observed in other studies of US Caucasians. There were very different gender-specific estimates of the relative contribution of concomitants, measured genetic effects, and ...
Exploring the structure of genomes and analysing their evolution is essential to understand the ecological adaptation of organisms. However, with the large amounts of data being produced by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), computational challenges arise in terms of storage, search, sharing, analysis, and visualisation. This is particularly true regarding genomic variation studies that are currently lacking scalable and user-friendly data exploration solutions. Here we present Gigwa, a web-based tool which provides an easy and intuitive way to explore large amounts of genotyping data by filtering the latter based not only on variant features, including functional annotations, but also on genotype patterns. The data storage relies on MongoDB, which offers good scalability perspectives. Gigwa can handle multiple databases and may be deployed in either single or multi-user mode. Finally, it provides a wide range of popular export formats. The Gigwa application is suitable to manage large amounts of
qPCRBIO Genotyping Mix is a kit designed for use in TaqMan® and other dual-labelled probe-based genotyping assays. This fast, accurate and reliable mix gives highly reproducible allelic discrimination and is able to accurately call class I to class IV mutations. The mix is compatible with LNA and PNA probes, which offer more stringent allele calling.. SNP detection can be particularly challenging when targets have a high GC or AT content. qPCRBIO Genotyping Mix has been optimised to give tight fluorescence clusters and more accurate allele calling compared to other mixes, even for challenging targets. The mix uses antibody-mediated hot start technology to give improved reaction sensitivity and specificity with the benefit of excellent room temperature stability, ideal for high-throughput genotyping studies.. ...
We redesigned Phytophthora-ID from the ground up in version 2.0 so it is now faster and more stable. We have also developed a new tool for multilocus genotyping of P. ramorum and P. infestans. We hope you enjoy the current implementation.. The sequence based identification module of Phytophthora-ID was created by the Grünwald lab in collaboration with Everett Hansen and Frank Martin, with funding from the Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA-ARS and the US Forest Service.. The genotype identification module of Phytophthora-ID was created by the Grünwald lab in collaboration with Howard Judelson, Bill Fry, Chris Smart, and Jean Ristaino, with funding from USDA-NIFA and USDA-ARS.. If you use Phytophthora-ID for species identification please cite the following references:. ...
Various genetic markers such as for example IS-elements DR-elements adjustable number tandem repeats (VNTR) solitary nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in housekeeping genes and additional sets of genes are being utilized for genotyping. of genes of the sort II TA systems from 173 sequenced genomes of was performed. Several genes of type II TA systems had been found to transport SNPs that correlate with particular genotypes. We propose a minimally adequate group of genes of TA systems for parting of strains at nine fundamental genotype as well as for additional department into subtypes. Applying this group of genes we genotyped a series comprising 62 medical isolates of [1] but also people that have revised virulence transmissibility and pathogenicity. Several researches discovered a relationship between genotypes and their virulence and inclination to acquire medication level of resistance [2 3 The genus and strain identification is of great importance for the proper treatment assignment and SMAD2 ...
The combined risk genotypes distribution in gastric cancer familial relatives. A. The prevalences of the ITGA5-1160/ ITGB1-1949/ITGB1 + 31804 as T-carrier/A-
Although it has been well established that DNA repair plays critical roles in human carcinogenesis, limited data are available on the association between DNA repair and CaP risk. In this study, we provide direct evidence that an amino acid substitution variant in the ADPRT gene may contribute to decreased cellular repair function and be able to serve as a marker for CaP susceptibility. Intriguingly, both associations follow an allele dosage-dependent manner, the AA genotype is associated with a significantly higher CaP risk and lower enzyme activity, and the VA genotype carriers have a slight but not significantly increased CaP risk and decreased enzyme activity. Because this variant allele is relatively common in the general population (5-33%), our findings have biological and public health significance.. The genotype distribution of our Caucasian control population was comparable with that seen in a previous study of Caucasians (13) . In this study, the ADPRT 762 AA genotype was seen only in ...
There are several genotypes of HCV. Genotype distribution varies by geography. For example, the most common genotype in the US is genotype 1; in Egypt it is genotype 4. All can cause liver...
Dear GATK support team, Multi-sample variant calling files made with GATK4 have both genotype, genotype phase and genotype phase block information.
In humans, the ability to see colors depends on three gens (Red, Green, Blue). Gens R and G are on the same sexual chromosome X while B is autosomal. The lost of any of this gens result in Daltonism (result of an homozygous genotype or hemizygous recessive). A daltonic man marries a non daltonic woman and they have 4 girls and 4 boys. All the boys are sick while none of the girls are. What are the most probable genotypes for the parents and all the possible genotypes for the children? (r,g,b, are the mutant recessive forms of the gens ...
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an antitumor and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an inflammatory cytokine, are immunomodulatory products that play important roles in responses in cancers and inflammation. We tested the association between two polymorphisms of IL-12(1188A>C; rs3212227) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) and the risk of bladder cancer in 261 patients and 251 healthy individuals. We also investigated the possible association of these SNPs in patients with high-risk jobs and smoking habits with the incidence of bladder cancer. The genotype distributions of IL-6 (-174 C/G) genotype were similar between the cases and the control groups; however, among patients with smoking habits, the association between IL-6 gene polymorphism and incidence of bladder cancer was significant. After a control adjustment for age and sex, the following results were recorded: CC genotype (OR= 2.11, 95%CI=1.56-2.87, p=0.007), GC genotype (OR=2.18, 95%CI=1.16-4.12, p=0.014) and GC+ CC (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.43-4.47, p=0.011). A significant ...
Hello, I found that GenotypeGVCFs in GVCF mode can lead to an unexpected homozygous or heterozygous genotypes when one SNP is called within an indel.
What is the difference between Genotype and Phenotype? Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual and phenotype is the visible characteristics of the..
In a human population of 1000 people at a blood locus there are two alleles M and N. The observed genotype frequencies at this locus are f(MM) = 0.26, f(MN) = 0.35, and f(NN) = 0.39. a. What is the frequency of each allele in.
Hi everybody, lets assume I hypothesize: H1: A direct effect of X1 on Y H2: A direct effect of X2 on Y H3: A two-way interaction between X1 and X2 H4: A three-way interaction between X1, X2 and X3 H5: A three-way interaction between X1, X2 and X4 and run the following OLS regressions to test ...
This service entails the provision of accurate, high throughput genotyping of mice housed within the APF as well as from external animal facilities.
Consulting service offered by GeneTyper include: design a PCR genotyping strategy as an alternative to Southern blotting; locate GeneTraps and determine the zygosity of a trapped allele; assay tissue specific Cre; and optimize difficult PCRs.
q,/sup, mutation. I found various strains that are supposed to have this mutation: [[E. coli genotypes#D1210 , D1210]], [[E. coli genotypes#JM109 , JM109]], [[E. coli genotypes#BW26434, CGSC Strain # 7658 , BW26434]]. Then, since I was getting some anomalous experimental results, Tom suggested that I sequence verify the fact that my strains were lacI,sup,q,/sup,. So I did and lo and behold, none of my sequences had the lacI,sup,q,/sup, mutation on the genome. Now based on my anomalous experimental results (which are no longer so anomalous) and reading of some papers, I think that [[E. coli genotypes#D1210 , D1210]] really is lacI,sup,q,/sup, but that it just has lacI,sup,q,/sup, on the F plasmid rather than on the genome. But [[E. coli genotypes#JM109 , JM109]] and [[E. coli genotypes#BW26434, CGSC Strain # 7658 , BW26434]] ... or at least the versions that I sequenced ... are not lacI,sup,q,/sup, as documented. I dont understand how people use these strains without having correct genotype ...
https://www.ted.com/talks/stephen_friend_the_hunt_for_unexpected_genetic_heroes?language=en The results of Stephen Friends ambitious study was finally published online in Nature Biotechnology on 11 Apr. From sequence and genotype results of 589,306 healthy individuals gathered from various sources such as 23andMe, 1000 Genomes, the Childrens Hopsital of Philadelphia and more, researchers looked at mutations in 874 genes believed to cause 584 distinct severe Mendelian childhood disorders.…
After genotyping is done on your DNA sequence, what happens next? If the data tells us that you are genetically predisposed to certain diseases, that gives us two important pieces of information. First, you and your doctor will know about other symptoms that you should be vigilant in watching for. Second, it lets us know if there are any diet or lifestyle changes that you can make to prevent the onset of the disease.. Here is a specific example. If a woman has a family history of breast cancer, genotyping can let us know whether she has the BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 mutations. About one in five women with these mutations will never develop breast or ovarian cancer in her lifetime, but the other four will. Therefore, if the mutations are located, she will want to have regular mammograms to detect the cancer early.. ...
Evaluating the possibility of detecting evidence of positive selection across Asia with sparse genotype data from the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
It is capable of multiple chromosome visualisation for the comparison of multiple accessions from a single dataset. It extracts information from VCF file and does a parallel comparison between two or more lines within that VCF file plotting the location of these differences on the chromosome for visualization. One can, for example, plot the differences between progeny and its parents to identify which regions are inherited from which parents. (More information and a video tutorial about GCViT is at GitHub and SoyBase) We need your feedback on the usage of this tool and will appreciate it if you could let us know about your experience via Contact us. ...
Increased knowledge of the gene-disease associations contributing to common cancer development raises the prospect of population stratification by genotype and other risk factors. Individual risk assessments could be used to target interventions such as screening, treatment and health education. Genotyping neonates, infants or young children as part of a systematic programme would improve coverage and uptake, and facilitate a screening package that maximises potential benefits and minimises harms including overdiagnosis. This paper explores the potential justifications and risks of genotyping children for genetic variants associated with common cancer development within a personalised screening programme. It identifies the ethical and legal principles that might guide population genotyping where the predictive value of the testing is modest and associated risks might arise in the future, and considers the standards required by population screening programme validity measures (such as the Wilson and
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SXTestPlate 1.0.0 :: DESCRIPTION SXTestPlate is a Windows program for evaluating the performance of a SNPlex™ genotyping platform by analyzing a test plate, which was typed with a control pool. ::DEVELOPER I
The genetics terms genotype and phenotype are connected but have different definitions. Genotype determines the phenotype of an individual.
rs2682826, allelic P-value = 0.980, genotypic P-value = 0.045 in Danish sample.. The allele and genotype frequencies were very similaramongcases and controls in the total and in the British sample. In the Danish sample, we believe that the slight difference in genotype frequencies is due to chance. it is still possible that other polymorphisms in the NOS1 gene could have a role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder ...
Were sorry but the genotype matrix is currently not available.. We are diligently working on a new and much improved version that will be significantly faster and have additional features such as being able to indicate regions of the genome you are interested in.. ~The KnowPulse Team. ...
CAROT will advise investigators on steps that can be taken to obtain genetic diagnoses for various ophthalmic conditions on either a research basis or as a clinically certified test. Additional discussions will relate to establishing connections between genotype and phenotype.. ...
... December 30/Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week -- Nutrition is known to interact with genotype in human metabolic syndromes, obesity and diabetes, and also in Drosophila metabolism.
An example of using a Punnett square for blood typing would be predicting a childs possible genotypes based on the blood types of his parents. The filled-in Punnett squares would show all the...
The packages takes in data from Tassel, Stacks, Samtools, Freebayes, GATK, GBS-SNP-CROP and converts them from allele genotypes to lmxll or nnxnp as required by Joinmap.
A genotype is the collection of genes that all living things, including you and everyone you know, carry. Learn more at Ancestry®!
Infer parental genotypes based on low-coverage population sequencing data and thus can genotype mapping populations and construct ultra-high density linkage map in a parent-independent manner. Weibo Xie et al. (2010) ,doi:10.1073/pnas.1005931107,.. ...
1) To better understand the relationship between the phenotype and genotype of ALS and related diseases, including PLS, HSP, PMA, and FTD. (2) To develop biomarkers that might be useful in aiding therapy development for this group of disorders.. (3) To explore the gene-environment relationship in ALS and related disorders. ...
Journal Question  18 Dec 2012  Describe the relationship between:     DNA Chromosomes Genes, and Traits DOG DNA  You will assigned a partner.  You will need:      1 paper bag with 8 gene strips Tape Construction paper Markers Trait Map Background  Every organism inherits a unique combination of traits.  DNA is a set of instructions that specifies the traits of an organism.  Information in the DNA molecule is divided into segments (called genes).  Variations in the DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits.  Determine the first trait of your dog (body shape) by randomly picking a piece of dog DNA out of the envelope.  Look at the symbols on the DNA strip you have chosen. Match the pattern to one you see on the Dog Traits Key for body shape.  Write this genotype on the back of your construction paper.  Select the next strip. This strip will be for the head shape. Record the genotype on the back of the construction paper. Tape ...
An organisms genotype is the entire set of genes that it carries in its genome, and its phenotype is the observable effect of those genes on the body and behavior of the organism. Biologists draw a...
Get an answer for What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Also, I am open to suggestions of pictures to use in future GtG posts, but to help me keep things straight, please e-mail them to me at [email protected] with the subject "Guess the Genotype Suggestion." Please include the dogs name, gender (if not easily determined due to coat or other factors), and the name you would like me to use when crediting your photos. Im especially interested in any particularly unusual looking individuals ...
Can Two People With AS Genotype Marry? ➡ This Page Contains ★ 69 Answers ★ on Recently Asked Question > OR Browse MORE Q&As | on ASK.NAIJ
The basis of the genotyping assay is derived from the worldwide data which suggested that the pharmacologic effects of Clopidogrel vary based on CYP2C19 genotype.
Color Palette for Tile Plot (must have at least as many colors as the maximum number of alleles for a marker; separate with commas ...
Collection of articles on how your genetic variants influence which foods you should include in your diet. Learn how to check your genetic raw data.
The main claimed benefits of internalism are that it results in a unique memetic substrate, something like a unique memetic code and it features a clean division between genotype and phenotype. However, internalism suffers from many problems. In particular computers do a lot of copying these days. Audio files spread contagiously through peer-to-peer networks today, but most of the information that is inherited when they are copied never gets into brains. Instead, brains receive a pale shadow of the information that is actually copied. The copying process is performed by machines, although it is usually still triggered by humans. Expanding internalism to include computers (as well as brains) would negate most of its claimed benefits. Internalism also features a curious stage in which genotypes are recreated from phenotypes - and it features ubiquitous Lamarckian inheritance - none of which looks very much like organic genetics. An externalist perspective arises naturally from an ...
difference between the regression coefficients of two sub samples. "The Chow test is used to examine the effect of structural change due to price or policy alteration on a regression model involving time series data" (Gujarati, 2003). If there are two sub-samples (say, based on two time periods) we find the Residual Sum of Squares for each sample. Let the Residual Sum of Squares of the first sample be RSS1, Residual Sum of Squares of the second sample be RSS2. Now let the Residual Sum of Squares be RSS. Then the F ratio is defined as ((RSS - RSS1 - RSS2 )/k) / ((RSS1+RSS2+…+RSSk)/(n1+n2-2k)) which follows F distribution with k, n1+n2 - 2k df... Chow test Chow test is used to find the significant ...
That is, for sure not a forgotten lyrics of blowing in the wind, but a pretty frequent question : How many sires should be genotyped in order to compute phases (and maybe do some imputation) ? In fact, most of the time the question is biased because every body would like to hear genotype one…
I am lost. Find the spectrum for a 0.1 second sample of a 50 Hz sinusoidal voltage wave. All I can get out of this question so far that:...
The detector sphere comprises a 60mm Spectralon detector sphere contained in a snap-in module which fits into the second sample compartment position.
Note: For some SNPs, testing providers detect the genotype from the opposite strand of DNA, so that the genotypes listed on openSNP dont appear here. In those cases, please replace "A" by "T" or "G" by "C" (and vice-versa ...
Note: For some SNPs, testing providers detect the genotype from the opposite strand of DNA, so that the genotypes listed on openSNP dont appear here. In those cases, please replace "A" by "T" or "G" by "C" (and vice-versa ...
Get an answer for What is a gene? Genes exist in pairs in cells. where did each member of pair of genes originate? What is the genotype of these offspring?dna and principles of inheritance and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Learn the latest NGS genotyping techniques with our hands-on training. We also have several workshops featuring HLA typing and antibody detection workshops to choose from.
Learn the latest NGS genotyping techniques with our hands-on training. We also have several workshops featuring HLA typing and antibody detection workshops to choose from.
System:. Parameters f(x,y) - centre flexible point , Grid x(0,1), y(0,1), λ1, λ2 - curve If f(x)= x(1) y(0). then λ1 = 0, λ2=1. ...
I really enjoy the top images; showing an organic object in space. It would be interesting to see how you could develop/design the entire interior (with floor, walls, stairs, etc) in a similar way; connecting all objects/spaces. ...
We welcome your input and comments. Please use this form to recommend updates to the information in ZFIN. We appreciate as much detail as possible and references as appropriate. We will review your comments promptly ...
இப்பக்கம் கடைசியாக 31 சனவரி 2019, 12:54 மணிக்குத் திருத்தப்பட்டது ...
EFFECTIVE_T3_OLD=selective EFFECTIVE_T3_NEW=selective PREDOTAR_ANIMAL_OR_PLANT=a PROTEINS=INPUT PROTEINS MODUS=genome RUN_PREDOTAR=T RUN_EFFECTIVE_T3=T RUN_T4SEpre=0.5 RUN_EFFECTIVE_CCBD=T RUN_EFFECTIVE_ELD=4 CheckM_COMPLETENESS= RUN_EffectiveS346=T GENOTYPE=COG Profile EMAIL ...
EFFECTIVE_T3_OLD=selective EFFECTIVE_T3_NEW=selective PREDOTAR_ANIMAL_OR_PLANT=a PROTEINS=INPUT PROTEINS MODUS=genome RUN_PREDOTAR=T RUN_EFFECTIVE_T3=T RUN_T4SEpre=0.5 RUN_EFFECTIVE_CCBD=T RUN_EFFECTIVE_ELD=4 CheckM_COMPLETENESS= RUN_EffectiveS346=T GENOTYPE=COG Profile EMAIL ...
摘 要:γδT细胞是一群异质细胞,人和小鼠不同组织部位的γδT细胞亚群表型多变、功能丰富。γδT细胞经过胸腺选择,形成IL-17+γδT细胞、IFN-γ+γδT细胞或IL-4+γδT细胞,它的分化受到很多因素的调控。γδT细胞是炎症介质IL-17的重要来源,IL-17+γδT细胞可以参与多种疾病的诱发和发展,如过敏、自身免疫性疾病,甚至恶性肿瘤。此外,它们也在宿主防御中发挥保护作用,防治传染病和诱导细胞毒性T淋巴细胞对癌症的反应。就IL-17+γδT细胞的发育、分化和调节机制以及在各种疾病中的作用进行综述 ...
For a particular characteristic if two genes are identical the genotype of those to genes is called homozygous. When an individual has two of the same alle
The present investigation was undertaken to study the genetic polymorphism of the DRB3 exon 2 in 75 crossbred cattle by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Five genotypes i.e. HaeIII-a, HaeIII-b, HaeIII-e, HaeIII-ab and HaeIII-ae were observed when the 284 bp PCR products were digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. The corresponding frequencies of these patterns were 0.53, 0.04, 0.01, 0.38 and 0.04, respectively. Digestion with RsaI restriction enzyme resolved 24 different restriction patterns. The frequencies of these patterns ranged from 0.013 (RsaI-f, RsaI-k and RsaI-c/n) to 0.120 (RsaI-n). The results revealed that the crossbred cows belonged to the RsaI patterns namely b, k, l, a/l, d/s, l/n, l/o and m/n, whose corresponding frequencies were 0.027, 0.013, 0.040, 0.027, 0.040, 0.067, 0.027 and 0.067, respectively. Digestion of the 284 bp PCR product of DRB3.2 gene with PstI in the crossbred cattle did not reveal any restriction site. ...
Read "Associations between three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs266729, rs2241766, and rs1501299) of ADIPOQ and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis, Lipids in Health and Disease" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Genome‐wide association studies have successfullyidentified many novel genetic loci for various human complex diseases and quantitative traits
To assess percentages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in infected Lebanese patients referred to St. George Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon, 77 infected cases were studied. Of those, 27 were hemodialysis patients. Genotyping was performed by nested PCR of the HCV core-region with specific primers, followed by DNA enzyme-immunoassay using HCV type and subtype-specific probes. Single genotype infections were detected in 52 patients (67.5%). In these cases, types 1, 2, 3 and 4 were detected in 19.5%, 32.5%, 5.1% and 10.4% of the cases respectively. Twenty-five (32.5%) samples showed mixed genotype infections. Single genotype distribution was significantly different among dialysis and non-dialysis patients. In the dialysis group, genotype 2 was predominant (80%, p , 0.001). In single HCV genotype-infected patients, subtype 1b was frequently detected in nondialysis cases (34.4%) whereas this genotype was found in only 5% of dialysis cases. Genotypes 5 and 6 were not detected in any of the cases ...
Gillihan, S. J., Rao, H., Wang, J., Detre, J., Breland, J., … Farah, M. J. (2010). Serotonin transporter genotype modulates amygdala activity during mood recovery. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 1-10.. ...
A multilocational evaluation of 20 soybean genotypes was conducted in two distinct locations (Nsukka in Derived Savanna agro-ecology and Jalingo in northern Guinea Savanna) of Nigeria in 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons. The main objective of this study was to assess the genotype-by-environment interaction (G x E) for specific traits such as number of pods, pod weight, seed yield and yield stability. The results revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes and locations for all the traits except for seed yield. Genotype by environment interaction was not significant for all the traits except for days to 50% flowering indicating relative consistency in time of flowering among the genotypes across the locations and year. The genotype, Ashuku produced the highest yield in the two locations. However, the most stable genotypes across the locations were Dadinkowa and Vom while the ideal environments were Jalingo 2016 (ENV2) and Nsukka 2016 (ENV4) which produced 14.0 and 14.5 g, respectively.
Chickpea is the major pulse crop cultivated in Ethiopia. However, its production is constrained due to genotype instability and environmental variability.  This research was carried out to examine the magnitude of environmental effect on yield of chickpea genotypes and to investigate the stability and adaptability of genotypes under different agro-ecologies.  Twelve genotypes evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications in three locations for two continuative years. Various stability indices used to assess stability and genotype by environment performances. Combined analysis of variance for yield and yield components revealed highly significant (P≤0.01) differences for genotypes, environments and their interaction. Growing years do not show difference. The significant interaction showed genotypes respond differently across environments.  At Guduru, Hareto and Gitilo, top performing genotype in grain yield were genotype 229961 (2.33ton/ha), genotype 225887 (3
Background: Interleukin (IL)-23 has an important role in tumor immune regulation. Objective: To investigate the possible association of interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) gene variants rs1884444, rs10889677 and rs11209026 with development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods: The IL23R variants were studied in 164 ALL patients and compared to 175 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationship between these variants and clinical and laboratory features of the patients and response to therapy were evaluated. Results: No significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies existed between patients and controls. The rs1884444TG genotype was significantly lower in patients who relapsed (24.2%) compared to those without relapse (55.9%, p=0.006). Fewer patients who relapsed had evidence of the G allele (P=0.034). The TG genotype was associated with a longer complete remission at1804±116 days compared to other genotypes (|1217 days, p=0.028
To increase tolerance to abiotic stresses in breeding programmes, typically families and collections of genotypes are evaluated in series of trials (environments) representing different levels of stress. The statistical analysis of the data from such trials concentrates on modelling the phenotypic behaviour of the genotypes across the set of environments. This phenotypic behaviour can be modelled in the form of genotype-specific linear and non-linear response curves in relation to environmental characterizations. Non-parallelism of the response curves indicates genotype × environment interaction. Identification of the genetic basis of the parameters determining the response curves will help in the development of breeding programmes for improving abiotic stress tolerance and understanding genotype × environment interaction. In this paper we present two strategies for locating quantitative trait loci for response-curve parameters and estimation of their allele effects. The procedures are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of Abbott RealTime genotype II, GeneMatrix restriction fragment mass polymorphism and Sysmex HISCL HCV Gr assays for hepatitis C virus genotyping. AU - Han, Mi Soon. AU - Park, Yongjung. AU - Kim, Hyonsuk. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is a predictive marker for treatment response. We sequentially evaluated the performances of two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and one serology assay for HCV genotype: Abbott RealTime genotype II (RealTime II), GeneMatrix restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP), and Sysmex HISCL HCV Gr (HISCL Gr). We examined 281 clinical samples with three assays. The accuracy was assessed using the HCV Genotype Performance Panel PHW204 (SeraCare Life Sciences) for two NAATs. Discrepant cases were re-genotyped by the Versant HCV v.2.0 (line probe 2.0) assay. With the RealTime II assay, clinic samples were analyzed as follows: genotypes 1b (43.1%), 2 (40.2%), 1 subtypes other than 1a and 1b (12.5%), ...
1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes in hypertensive patients were studied in order to delineate their cardiovascular risk due to the ACE gene. We hypothesized that the distribution of ACE genotypes may change with age because of the risk of myocardial infarction associated with the homozygous deletional (DD) genotype. 2. A total of 223 subjects were recruited from the Hypertension Outpatient Clinic of the Sai Ying Pun Hospital with consent. They consisted of 75 patients with newly diagnosed or documented hypertension, 46 patients with ischaemic heart disease and 102 normal controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leucocytes and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Insertion (I) or deletion (D) alleles were identified after electrophoresis. The frequencies of ACE genotypes and alleles were measured in three age groups: | 50 years, 50-59 years and | or = 60 years. 3. A significant correlation between ACE genotype and age was found (P = 0.03). The relative frequency of the D
Aim: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of GSTP1 codon 105 polymorphism, alone and in combination with GSTM1-deletion polymorphism, on erythrocyte GST activity in 196 Han Chinese. Methods: GST activity was measured in healthy Chinese by a spectrophotometric method (n = 196; 101 males and 95 females; age range 21-81 years; median 43.5 years). GSTM1 polymorphisms were analyzed by a PCR-Multiplex procedure, whereas GSTP1 polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results: The frequency of GSTM1 null genotype was 56.1% and the frequency of I/I, I/V, and V/V genotypes was 60.7%, 35.2% and 4.1%, respectively, in Han Chinese. The mean erythrocyte GST enzyme activity for I/V genotype group(3.53 ± 0.63 U · g-1 Hb) was significantly lower than that for I/I genotypes (4.25 ± 1.07 U · g-1 Hb, P = 0.000), while significantly higher than that for V/V genotypes (2.44 ± O. 67 U · g-1 Hb, P = 0.004). In GSTM1 (-) group, the GST activity of carriers of GSTM1 (-)/ GSTP1 - I/I is ...
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a common respiratory childhood disease that results from an interaction between genetic, environmental and immunologic factors. The implication of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain 1 and 2 (NOD1/CARD4, NOD2/CARD15) was highlighted in many inflammatory diseases.. METHODS: In this case-control study, we analyzed the association of three NOD2 polymorphisms and one NOD1 variant, in 338 Tunisian asthmatic children and 425 healthy Controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. We also assessed NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and ELISA techniques.. RESULTS: The homozygous AA genotype of rs2075820 was a risk factor for asthma (OR 2.39). The influence of the E266K variant in the presence of the heterozygous AG genotype was higher in male than female groups. The homozygous AA genotype was a risk factor associated with asthma, for patients aged between 6 and 18 years OR 2.39, IC95% (1.04-5.49) p , ...
Of all the lesions, HPV 16 was the most frequent genotype. This finding is in accordance with many other studies carried out worldwide [20]. In our study, this genotype was present in 35.3% of total lesions. However, in a previous study carried in our hospital from 1993 to 2000, the HPV 16 presence in the total number of lesions was somewhat higher than at present (39%) [21]. Also, in a recent study carried in a southern region of Spain from 2006 to 2007, this presence was even lower than ours (21.2%) [17].. As expected, HPV16 presence increased in accordance with the grade of the lesion (15.8% in benign lesions, 26.1% in CIN1 cases, 56.3% in CIN2-3 cases and 71.4% in ICC).. HPV 31 was the second most frequent genotype in CIN1 lesions and in CIN2-3 lesions. In a study carried in an eastern region of Spain, HPV 31 was also the second most frequent genotype in HSIL lesions and the presence found in these (10.8%) was very similar to the presence obtained in our study (10.8%) [19]. Previous ...
Background: Knowledge of HBV genotype is very important for clinical treatment. Studies have suggested possible pathogenic and therapeutic differences among HBV genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine HBV subtypes and genotypes in HBV-infected patients in our region (southeast Brazil) and to correlate results with clinical and histopathological data. Methods: One hundred and thirty-nine HBsAg-positive patients were included in the study. All patients were anti-HCV and anti-HIV negative (64% male; mean age 42 ± 14.5 years; range 7-80 years; 84% Caucasian) and were followed up at the University Hospital. A method for genotyping and subtyping HBV by partial HBsAg gene sequencing with primers common to all known genotypes was used. The viral load was measured by Amplicor Monitor assay (Roche). Results: HBV genotype A was the most prevalent (55%), while genotypes C, D and F were found in 3%, 38% and 4% of HBV-infected patients, respectively. Among the patients infected by genotype A, 18.3% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and its association with bipolar disorder across different ethnic groups in Malaysia. AU - Mohamed Saini, Suriati. AU - Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei. AU - Sidi, Hatta. AU - Midin, Marhani. AU - Mohd Radzi, Azizah. AU - Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Objectives The risk variants have been shown to vary substantially across populations and a genetic study in a heterogeneous population might shed a new light in the disease mechanism. This preliminary study aims to determine the frequency of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia and its association with bipolar disorder. Methods This is a candidate gene association study of randomly selected forty five unrelated bipolar disorder probands and sixty six controls. Diagnosis was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The control group consisted of healthy volunteers without ...
Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of one or more units of the nail caused by dermatophytes, or mold and nondermatophytes yeast. Investigations are needed to establish the diagnosis of onychomycosis before starting treatment. Several investigations methods for diagnosing onychomycosis such as microscopic examination with 20% KOH, fungal culture, histopathology examination with PAS staining (Periodic acid Schiff) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), for culture methods require a long time about 4 weeks to identify fungal that cause onychomycosis. A molecular technology such as PCR is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of a variety of microorganisms including fungal pathogens. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a method with the addition of the enzyme after PCR amplification allowing more specific results. Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism ...
The identification of copy number aberration in the human genome is an important area in cancer research. We develop a model for determining genomic copy numbers using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarrays. The method is based on a Bayesian spatial normal mixture model with an unknown number of components corresponding to true copy numbers. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to implement the model and perform posterior inference. The performance of the algorithm is examined on both simulated and real cancer data, and it is compared with the popular CNAG algorithm for copy number detection. We demonstrate that our Bayesian mixture model performs at least as well as the hidden Markov model based CNAG algorithm and in certain cases does better. One of the added advantages of our method is the flexibility of modeling normal cell contamination in tumor samples.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptosporidium parvum mixed genotypes detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. AU - Reed, C.. AU - Sturbaum, G. D.. AU - Hoover, P. J.. AU - Sterling, Charles R. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Combinations of 10 Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, with various ratios of genotype I to genotype II, were isolated and subjected to PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Amplification of both genotypes in these samples ranged from 31 to 74% and yielded no information about the genotype proportions. In addition, since both genotypes were not always detected, amplification of a single genotype is not conclusive evidence that the sample contains only a single genotype.. AB - Combinations of 10 Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, with various ratios of genotype I to genotype II, were isolated and subjected to PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Amplification of both genotypes in these samples ranged from 31 to 74% and yielded no information ...
Graves' (GD) hyperthyroidism induces accelerated bone turnover that leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The role of the VDR gene in predisposition to primary osteoporosis has been recognized. Recent studies show associations between the VDR gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Here we analyzed if VDR gene polymorphisms: BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, and FokI may predispose women with Graves' hyperthyroidism to BMD reduction or to disease development. The subjects were 75 premenopausal female Polish patients with GD and 163 healthy women. The genotyping was performed by the use of the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). We studied the association of the VDR polymorphisms and their haplotypes with patients' BMD and also SNPs and haplotypes association with Graves' disease. We found a strong linkage disequilibrium for the BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI polymorphims that formed three most frequent haplotypes in Graves' women: baT (47.9%), ...
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D DD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D£ D£ ï ïï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï Ç Phy Qal Pgr Pgr Pgr Qtg3 Qtg3 Pgr Pgr Qtg3 Qtg3 Pgr Pgr Pgr Pgr Qtg3 Pgr Qal Pgr Qtg4 Qtg4 Qtg4 Phy Phy Qal Qtg3 Phy Phy Qtg1 Phy Phy Ph Pgr Qtg2 Qtg2 Phy Pgr Qal Phy Phy Phy Phy Qtg4 Qtg4 ...
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent meta-analyses have identified over 25 SNPs at 18 loci, together accounting for ,15% of the genetic susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT). To identify further common SNPs associated with TGCT, here we report a three-stage experiment, involving 4098 cases and 18 972 controls. Stage 1 comprised previously published GWAS analysis of 307 291 SNPs in 986 cases and 4946 controls. In Stage 2, we used previously published customised Illumina iSelect genotyping array (iCOGs) data across 694 SNPs in 1064 cases and 10 082 controls. Here, we report new genotyping of eight SNPs showing some evidence of association in combined analysis of Stage 1 and Stage 2 in an additional 2048 cases of TGCT and 3944 controls (Stage 3). Through fixed-effects meta-analysis across three stages, we identified a novel locus at 3q25.31 (rs1510272) demonstrating association with TGCT [per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase α (ACC-alpha) is considered as the key regulatory enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. ACC-alpha gene is located on Caprine chromosome 11 and is polymorphic in many goat breeds. In the current study, we aimed to find possible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exon 1 region of the ACC-alpha gene in Iranian Mahabadi goat breed. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 150 Mahabadi does. The exon 1 region of the ACC-alpha gene was amplified to produce a 390 bp fragment. The PCR products were analyzed by both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) techniques. RFLP was performed utilizing HinfI endonuclease enzyme. No polymorphism was observed after digestion of the PCR products using HinfI. However, SSCP of the PCR products revealed two conformation patterns at the exon 1 region of goat ACC-alpha gene with frequencies of 86% and 14%,
Novel genotypes[edit]. This diagram illustrates how sex might create novel genotypes more rapidly. Two advantageous alleles A ... Sex could be a method by which novel genotypes are created. Because sex combines genes from two individuals, sexually ... Sex will act to recombine these genotypes, creating some individuals with fewer deleterious mutations, and some with more. ... Sexual reproduction derives from recombination, where parent genotypes are reorganized and shared with the offspring. This ...
Genotype and phenotype[edit]. Main article: Genotype-phenotype distinction. Natural selection acts on an organism's phenotype, ... The fitness of a particular genotype corresponds to the average effect on all individuals with that genotype.[61] A distinction ... While genotypes can slowly change by random genetic drift, natural selection remains the primary explanation for adaptive ... Phenotype is determined by an organism's genetic make-up (genotype) and the environment in which the organism lives. When ...
Serotypes and genotypes[edit]. The virus is divided into four major serotypes (adr, adw, ayr, ayw) based on antigenic epitopes ... Genotypes differ by at least 8% of their sequence and were first reported in 1988 when six were initially described (A-F).[50] ... Kramvis A, Kew M, François G (March 2005). "Hepatitis B virus genotypes". Vaccine. 23 (19): 2409-23. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ... Interferon treatment may produce an e antigen seroconversion rate of 37% in genotype A but only a 6% seroconversion in type D. ...
Genotyping studies[edit]. In genotyping studies where DNA is directly assayed for positions of variance (see SNP), concordance ... Concordance can therefore be used as a method of assessing the accuracy of a genotyping assay platform. ...
High-throughput genotyping techniques[edit]. Recently high-throughput genotyping techniques are developed which allows marker ... The cost of genotyping (an example of a molecular marker assay) is reducing while the cost of phenotyping is increasing[ ... The term 'marker' is still appropriate to use when directly assaying the gene of interest, because the test of genotype is an ... A distinction can be made between selectable markers (which eliminate certain genotypes from the population) and screenable ...
Fitnesses of different genotypes[edit]. The fitnesses of different genotypes in an African region where there is intense ... The Duffy-blood-group genotype, FyFy". N Engl J Med. 295 (6): 302-4. doi:10.1056/NEJM197608052950602. PMID 778616.. ... Genotyping indicated that multiple P. vivax strains were invading the red cells of Duffy-negative people. The authors suggest ... The existence of these genotypes is likely due to evolutionary pressure exerted by parasites of the genus Plasmodium which ...
A DNA test, which uses hair with the root intact, has been developed to test for the Extension and Agouti genotypes. However, ...
Genotype Result X Y Unaffected man Xd Y Affected man X X Unaffected woman ...
Genotype. Base color. Any. Modifying genes. Graying gene (G) dominant when single allele present. ...
It would also be possible to designate the two alleles as W and w, and the three genotypes WW, Ww, and ww, the first two of ... aa), p = 1 − q, and from those the frequency of the carrier genotype can be derived: f. (Aa) = 2pq. ... Now, if A is completely dominant to a then the frequency of the carrier genotype Aa cannot be directly observed (since it has ... Complementary epistasis in contrast produces an unpigmented plant if and only if the genotype is cc and dd, and the ...
Horses with the normal agouti gene have the genotype A/A or A/a. Horses without a normal agouti gene have the genotype a/a, and ... Horses capable of producing eumelanin in the hair may have a genotype of either E/E or E/e. Horses without the ability to ... Horses with the homozygous recessive genotype (C/C) are not affected by cream. Heterozygotes (CCr/C) have one cream allele and ... Horses with the dominant CH allele (CH/CH or CH/ch genotype) exhibit hypomelanism of the body coat, such that phaeomelanin is ...
Kindelan JD, Rysiecki G, Childs WP (1998). "Hypodontia: genotype or environment? A case report of monozygotic twins". Br J ...
... beskriver hvilke gener/genvarianter en organisme bærer på (genotype), og hva som kommer til uttrykk ( ... Termene «genotype» og «fenotype» ble først tatt i bruk av Wilhelm Johannsen i 1911. ... Hentet fra «https://no.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Genotype_og_fenotype&oldid=17724490» ...
Again, however, correlates between TAS2R38 genotype and the taste of alcohol were not significant: the TAS2R38 genotype could ... It appears that while TAS2R38 genotypes determine a threshold of PROP tasting abilities, the genotypes cannot account for the ... and because TAS2R38 genotypes associate with PROP-tasting phenotypes, it has been proposed that TAS2R38 genotypes may have a ... TAS2R38 is a bitter taste receptor; varying genotypes of TAS2R38 influence the ability to taste both 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP ...
"Genotype definition - Medical Dictionary definitions". Medterms.com. 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2013-10-02.. ... Agrawal, AF (September 2006). "Evolution of sex: why do organisms shuffle their genotypes?". Current Biology. 16 (17): R696-704 ... and the complete assemblage of this information in an organism is called its genotype.[35] ...
A population of a distylous plant contains only two SI genotypes: ss and Ss. Fertilization is possible only between genotypes; ... each genotype cannot fertilize itself.[31] This restriction maintains a 1:1 ratio between the two genotypes in the population; ... In sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI), the SI phenotype of the pollen is determined by the diploid genotype of the anther ( ... SI is one of the most important means of preventing inbreeding and promoting the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it ...
"Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) Genotype". Mayo Medical Laboratories. June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. ... "Effects of St John's wort and CYP2C9 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gliclazide". British Journal of ...
genome . genotype . gizzard . guanine . gular Of or pertaining to the throat. Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ... artificial selection Professionals study the genotype and phenotype of parent organisms in the hope of producing a hybrid that ...
Whereas genotype 2 remains less commonly detected than other genotypes, genetic evolutionary analyses suggest that genotypes 1 ... Genotype 1 can be further subclassified into five subtypes,[34] genotype 2 into two subtypes,[34]pg 10 and genotypes 3 and 4 ... Genotype 2 has been isolated from Mexico, Nigeria, and Chad.[39]. *Genotype 3 has been isolated almost worldwide including Asia ... Hepatitis E (genotype 1 and, to a lesser extent genotype 2) is endemic and can cause outbreaks in Southeast Asia, northern and ...
"Genotype to phenotype: a complex problem". Science. 328 (5977): 469. Bibcode:2010Sci...328..469D. doi:10.1126/science.1189015 ...
Effects of donor's age, tissue, and genotype". Laboratory Investigation. 23 (1): 86-92. PMID 5431223.. ... "Xeroderma pigmentosum, trichothiodystrophy and Cockayne syndrome: A complex genotype-phenotype relationship". Neuroscience ...
Carrington M, O'Brien SJ (2003). "The influence of HLA genotype on AIDS". Annual Review of Medicine. 54: 535-51. doi:10.1146/ ...
White, Désirée; Rabago-Smith, Montserrat (2011). "Genotype-phenotype associations and human eye color". Journal of Human ... "Phenotypes and Genotypes for human eye colors." Athro Limited website. Retrieved 10 May 2006. ... Blue-eyed non-white cats of unknown genotype also occur at random in the cat population. ... "Eye color and the prediction of complex phenotypes from genotypes". Current Biology. 19 (5): R192-R193. doi:10.1016/j.cub. ...
Gerlai R (May 1996). "Gene-targeting studies of mammalian behavior: is it the mutation or the background genotype?". Trends in ...
Berkhoffii Genotype III". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 46 (5): 1858-60. doi:10.1128/JCM.02456-07. PMC 2395075 . PMID ...
Stadler, Peter F.; Stadler, Bärbel M. R. (2015-04-14). "Genotype-Phenotype Maps". Biological Theory. 1 (3): 268-279. doi: ... Line-Cross Analysis Genotype-Phenotype Maps The Rise of Genetic Architecture. ... Genetic architecture is sometimes studied using a genotype-phenotype map, which graphically depicts the relationship between ... the genotype and the phenotype. Genetic architecture is incredibly important for understanding evolutionary theory because it ...
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches provide low-cost, high-density genotype information. However, GBS has unique ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ...
Main article: Genotyping. Genotyping is the process of elucidating the genotype of an individual with a biological assay. Also ... The genotype of an organism is the inherited map it carries within its genetic code. Not all organisms with the same genotype ... Conversely, some phenotypes could be the result of multiple genotypes. The genotype is commonly mixed up with the phenotype ... Likewise, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype. Ones genotype differs subtly from ones ...
The genotype-phenotype distinction is drawn in genetics. "Genotype" is an organisms full hereditary information, even if not ... The mapping of a set of genotypes to a set of phenotypes is sometimes referred to as the genotype-phenotype map. ... in which case it is not possible to exactly predict the genotype from knowledge of the phenotype (i.e. the genotype-phenotype ... The genotype represents its exact genetic makeup - the particular set of genes it possesses. Two organisms whose genes differ ...
Genotype,, the genetic constitution of an organism. The genotype determines the hereditary potentials and limitations of an ... Genotype, the genetic constitution of an organism. The genotype determines the hereditary potentials and limitations of an ... each, is called the organisms genotype. The genotype is contrasted to the phenotype, which is the organisms outward ... to invent some hypothetical ancestral genotype, such as A. A. b. b. c. c. D. D. E. E. , and an "evolved" derivative, such as a ...
Blood Type Diet What Is The Genotype Diet Genotype Diet Different Diets What Is The Blood Type Diet ... The Genotype approach emphasizes what you CAN eat, not what you cant. The focus is not on self-denial, but self-knowledge. ... I believe the work of figuring out your Genotype is worth it. And this goes back to my first rule of good health: "Knowledge is ... But wait: This article is titled "What is the Genotype Diet?". Let me explain. Peter DAdamo, N.D., (ND stands for " ...
To find the genotype frequencies we simply count the numbers of individual with each genotype. Thus:. frequency of AA = 3/8 = ... Genotype frequency. Genotype frequency and gene frequency are closely related variables, and both are easy to measure. The ... Each individual has a genotype made up of two genes at the locus and a population can be symbolized like this:. Aa AA aa aa AA ... simplest case is one genetic locus with two alleles (A and a) and three genotypes (AA, Aa, and aa). ...
The word genotype was coined circa,c. 1898 by Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen in reference to Gregor Mendels work involving pea ... but unknown genotype at a given locus with an organism of recessive genotype at that locus in order to determine the genotype ... The word genotype was coined c. 1898 by Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen in reference to Gregor Mendels work involving pea plants (see ... Genotype can be difficult to uncover (unless youre really into genome sequencing, that is) because of the fact that multiple ...
Optimizing Low-Cost Genotyping and Imputation Strategies for Genomic Selection in Atlantic Salmon Smaragda Tsairidou, Alastair ... Imputation of Missing Genotypes From Sparse to High Density Using Long-Range Phasing ... Quality Control of Genotypes Using Heritability Estimates of Gene Content at the Marker ... Application of Low Coverage Genotyping by Sequencing in Selectively Bred Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Christos ...
CDC Tuberculosis Genotyping Laboratory Proceduresplus icon *Science behind Tuberculosis Genotyping. *Description of Genotyping ... TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS). The TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) is a secure ... Tuberculosis Genotyping Case Studiesplus icon *Investigation of a Genotyping Cluster in a Low-Incidence State ... Why use TB genotyping?. TB genotyping results, when combined with epidemiologic data, help identify persons with TB disease ...
Genotypes and Phenotypes Paul Andersen explains how changes in the genotype of an individual can affect the phenotype. He ... 033 - Genotypes and Phenotypes. Paul Andersen explains how changes in the genotype of an individual can affect the phenotype. ... He begins with genotype:phenotype::letters:story analogy. He explains how mutations can be neutral, beneficial or harmful. He ...
Genotype definition, the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, ... Word Origin and History for genotype Expand. n. "genetic constitution of an individual," 1910, from German Genotypus (Wilhelm ... genotype definition. A combination of alleles situated on corresponding chromosomes that determines a specific trait. ... Corresponding closely in general characters with S. macroceros (Grube), the genotype. Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Vol. ...
Genotype og fenotype beskriver hvilke gener/genvarianter en organisme bærer på (genotype), og hva som kommer til uttrykk ( ... Termene «genotype» og «fenotype» ble først tatt i bruk av Wilhelm Johannsen i 1911. ... Hentet fra «https://no.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Genotype_og_fenotype&oldid=17724490» ...
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... namy namy at lovelace.infobiogen.fr Thu Mar 14 10:24:57 EST 1996 *Previous message: REQ: Sacchromyces ...
Our strategy enables immediate intraoperative genotyping and local application of a genotype-specific treatment in surgical ... Genotype-targeted local therapy of glioma. Ganesh M. Shankar, Ameya R. Kirtane, Julie J. Miller, Hormoz Mazdiyasni, Jaimie ... Genotype-targeted local therapy of glioma. Ganesh M. Shankar, Ameya R. Kirtane, Julie J. Miller, Hormoz Mazdiyasni, Jaimie ... Genotype-targeted local therapy of glioma. Ganesh M. Shankar, Ameya R. Kirtane, Julie J. Miller, Hormoz Mazdiyasni, Jaimie ...
... what a genotype test is and what a phenotype test is? I understand that they test for different things. Regards, Rog from UK... ... A genotype is literally based on your HIV virus genetic structure. It is a description of the sequence of amino acids in the ... Genotype tests occassionally will show a mutation that initially is without evidence of any impact on viral loads, but which ... While the genotype and phenotype measure different aspects of resistance, they are providing similar types of information. In ...
My Genotype is 1b with hcv quantitation 847,000. SGOT 44, SGPT 54 and I was also positvie for Hept which is the first time the ... All I know at this point is my Genotype is 1. I dont remember if that is the better of the Genotype as far as a cure rate or ... All I know at this point is my Genotype is 1. I dont remember if that is the better of the Genotype as far as a cure rate or ... My genotype. I got more lab results.. My Genotype is 1b with hcv quantitation 847,000. SGOT 44, SGPT 54 and I was also positvie ...
http://www.cs.mun.ca/~blangdon/gpu_gp_slides/pi2_movie.html Each frame of the animation contains 512x400 = 204800 individual programs. The colour of each pix...
... platform approaches for SNP genotyping, and the analyses of these datasets for genotype-phenotype studies. The workshop will ... SNP Genotyping(6MB) (Debbie Nickerson, Ph.D.). Technology Platforms. Candidate Gene. Whole Genome Data. Quality Control ... SNP Workshop: Bioinformatics & Genotyping. Workshop Overview. January 30-31, 2006. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. ... This workshop will provide an overview of the latest approaches for identifying and genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms ...
TaqMan-based genotyping is most appropriate for projects of medium size (100-1000 samples) being genotyped for a small number ... About TaqMan-based SNP Genotyping. Taq DNA polymerases 5-nuclease activity is used in the Taqman assay for SNP genotyping. ... TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay (PDF). To schedule an appointment or to discuss experimental design, send an email to Debbie Prusak ... The TaqMan service begins with a review of the list of SNPs to be genotyped as not all SNPs can be typed using the TaqMan ...
The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project.. GTEx Consortium1.. Collaborators (126). Lonsdale J, Thomas J, Salvatore M, ... Here we describe the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, which will establish a resource database and associated tissue ...
A genotype is the collection of genes that all living things, including you and everyone you know, carry. Learn more at ... What Is a Genotype?. A genotype is the collection of genes that all living things, including you and everyone you know, carry. ... Genotype vs. Phenotype. Genotype refers to all the genes that an individual carries. Phenotype is the term for all the ... The genotype corresponding to the phenotype of short coat length would be either LL or Ll, while the genotype for long coat ...
... genotype is the internal genetic makeup of an organism or cell. The genetic makeup of an organism determines its physical ... The term "genotype" is typically used in reference to a specific characteristic. Essentially, genotype refers to all of the ... The meaning of "genotype" is the internal genetic makeup of an organism or cell. The genetic makeup of an organism determines ...
  • Subjects with wild type MBL genotype (A/A) have the highest serum MBL levels, subjects with 1 variant allele (A/O) have intermediate levels and subjects with 2 variant alleles (O/O) have the lowest levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The vacA alleles, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes were determined by PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, this prospective and multicentre study was the first to be done in Tunisia and aimed to investigate the prevalence of the vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes of H. pylori isolates from Tunisian patients with peptic ulceration, gastric cancer, MALT lymphoma and gastritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For instance, there are three possible genotypes for the human albino gene, and it has two allelic forms, dominant A and recessive a. (bionity.com)
  • The likelihood of offspring having a particular genotype is known as the genotype ratio. (ancestry.com)
  • A phenotype is the result of a particular genotype. (enotes.com)
  • Genotype refers to all the genes that an individual carries. (ancestry.com)
  • In other words, the genotype refers to the genetic information, while the phenotype refers to the observable characteristics, including traits. (ancestry.com)
  • Genotype x environmental interaction (GxE) refers to the modification of genetic factors by environmental factors, and to the role of genetic factors in determining the performance of genotypes in different environments. (scirp.org)
  • Paul Andersen explains how changes in the genotype of an individual can affect the phenotype. (youtube.com)
  • Rahimi R (2018) The effect of CYP1A2 genotype on the ergogenic properties of caffeine during resistance exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. (springer.com)
  • We developed an Rlanguage program (RGxE) that computes univariate stability statistics, descriptive statistics, pooled ANOVA, genotype F ratio across location and environment, cluster analysis for location, and location correlation with average location performance. (scirp.org)
  • The genotype is commonly mixed up with the phenotype which describes the end result of both the genetic and the environmental factors giving the observed expression (e.g. blue eyes, hair color, or various hereditary diseases). (wikipedia.org)
  • The distinction between genotype and phenotype is commonly experienced when studying family patterns for certain hereditary diseases or conditions, for example, hemophilia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Genotype " is an organism's full hereditary information, even if not expressed. (princeton.edu)
  • The genotype determines the hereditary potentials and limitations of an individual from embryonic formation through adulthood. (britannica.com)
  • It is a generally accepted theory that inherited genotype, transmitted epigenetic factors, and non- hereditary environmental variation contribute to the phenotype of an individual. (bionity.com)
  • Genotype describes the genetic constitution of an individual, that is the specific allelic makeup of an individual, usually with reference to a specific character under consideration . (bionity.com)
  • In the The methods used by the Centers for Disease Control same way, TB genotyping helps distinguish between and Prevention (CDC) contract genotyping laboratories persons whose TB disease is the result of TB infection will not genotype Mycobacterium avium or other non- that was acquired in the past, as compared to recently tuberculous mycobacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the Centers from Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , at least six distinct HCV genotypes, and more than 50 subtypes, have been identified. (healthline.com)
  • In some formulations, the recommended doses of ribavirin and pegylated interferon (PEG) are for people with specific HCV genotypes. (healthline.com)
  • Standard treatment for genotypes 1, 2 and 3 include medications such as ribavirin, interferon and an antiviral drug, according to Everyday Health. (reference.com)
  • Those with genotype 1b randomly received 30 milligrams a day of Bristol-Myers Squibb's NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir and 150 mg a day of Janssen's Olysio, with or without ribavirin. (poz.com)
  • All of the participants with genotype 1a took daclatasvir, Olysio and ribavirin for 24 weeks. (poz.com)
  • A simple example to illustrate genotype as distinct from phenotype is the flower colour in pea plants (see Gregor Mendel ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The word genotype was coined c. 1898 by Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen in reference to Gregor Mendel 's work involving pea plants ( see below ). (everything2.com)
  • The concept of phenotype , which corresponds to the observable attributes of an individual, was coined in opposition to the genotype , the inherited material transmitted by gametes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. (nih.gov)
  • Genotype 5 is present almost exclusively in South Africa. (healthline.com)
  • Findings published in Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, indicate that genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, with over 83 million patients infected of which one-third reside in East Asia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Genotype 3 is especially prevalent in South Asia and in South Asian populations in the United Kingdom, but these patients tend to have more advanced disease. (aidsmap.com)
  • The app performs repetitive calculations by converting fragment size to repeat length so users no longer have to transfer data from genotyping platforms to spreadsheets, saving time and eliminating the potential for error in making such transfers. (genomeweb.com)
  • Additionally, we will also try to get people genotyped who are currently under-represented in publicly available data sets. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Genotypes exist in the form of genetic data such as DNA or RNA . (wisegeek.com)
  • Mapping genotypic data on phenotypic descriptions of subjects is the core of genotype-phenotype modelling. (nbic.nl)
  • The genotype-phenotype modelling programme aims to design and implement bioinformatics methods that enable integration of multiple heterogeneous data sources. (nbic.nl)
  • To advance the clinical use of precision medicine, big data cohort for genotype/phenotype research and multidisciplinary team approaches are necessary. (bioscience.org)
  • Some authors suggest that the term multilocus genotype should only be applied to phased multilocus data while others apply it to unphased multilocus data as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key component of Inhibitor Resistant Genotyping PCR ReadyMix is an ultra-pure, highly processive thermostable DNA polymerase that is combined with high avidity monoclonal antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Platinum® GenoType Tsp DNA Polymerase is designed and qualified specifically for amplification of dinucleotide repeat markers in PCR-based genotyping applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • One unit of Platinum® GenoType Tsp DNA Polymerase has been functionally determined to be equivalent to one unit of Taq DNA Polymerase in amplification of dinucleotide repeats using standard Taq DNA polymerase reaction conditions. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the same way, TB genotyping helps distinguish between persons whose TB disease is the result of TB infection that was acquired in the past, as compared to recently or newly acquired infection with development of TB disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Since TB prevention and control efforts directed at preventing TB transmission are fundamentally different from efforts to prevent activation of latent TB infection, genotyping offers a powerful tool to help direct the application of appropriate efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the remaining people in the United States with HCV infection carry genotypes 2 or 3. (healthline.com)
  • Victrelis is for adult patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Inhibitor Resistant Genotyping PCR Readymix is a 2X concentrated ready-to-use reaction cocktail for PCR amplification of DNA templates that overcomes inhibitors often present in crude samples extracted from environmental specimens, plant tissues, or animal tissues. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • If the haplotypes are determined the multilocus genotype is referred to as a phased genotype, otherwise it is referred to as unphased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genotypes are often studied in the fields of biology, biochemistry, and medicine. (wisegeek.com)
  • Genotypes are often studied in the fields of biology , biochemistry , and medicine because of their links to heredity. (wisegeek.com)