Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Phenolphthalein: An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Rats, Inbred F344Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Acetoxyacetylaminofluorene: An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene: A very potent liver carcinogen.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Chromates: Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Hydroxyacetylaminofluorene: A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.Nitroquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.Dimethylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Dihydroxydihydrobenzopyrenes: Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.Methylazoxymethanol Acetate: The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.1,2-Dimethylhydrazine: A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.GuanineNitrofuransMesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Aneugens: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.SmokeImidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Safrole: A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Methylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
Liehr, J. G. (1 February 2000). "Is Estradiol a Genotoxic Mutagenic Carcinogen?". Endocrine Reviews. 21 (1): 40-54. doi:10.1210 ... However, if estrogen homeostasis is imbalanced by an increase in CYP1B1 and a decrease in COMT, a greater degree of genotoxic ...
... compounds are genotoxic carcinogens. Due to its structural similarity to sulfate, chromate (a typical form ... Erin Brockovich' Carcinogen in Tap Water of More than 200 Million Americans". EWG. Retrieved 2016-10-28. Health Services Agency ... "Study: Tap water in U.S. cities has probable carcinogen". USATODAY.COM. Retrieved 2016-10-28. "In Wake of N.C. Chrom-6 Scandal ... Yet, soluble chromates are a confirmed carcinogen so it would be prudent to consider all chromates carcinogenic. Chronic ...
Mutagens identified via Ames test are also possible carcinogens, and early studies by Ames showed that 90% of known carcinogens ... 286 pages, ISBN 0-8493-5877-9 Andrew Teasdale (2011). Genotoxic Impurities: Strategies for Identification and Control. Wiley- ... A positive test indicates that the chemical is mutagenic and therefore may act as a carcinogen, because cancer is often linked ... Nitrates in food however may be reduced by bacterial action to nitrites which are known to generate carcinogens by reacting ...
... carcinogens are classified as either genotoxic or nongenotoxic carcinogens. The effects of carcinogens are most often related ... Nongenotoxic, or epigenetic carcinogens are different and slightly more ambiguous than genotoxic carcinogens since they are not ... Carcinogens preferentially target the liver in fish and develop hepatocellular and biliary lesions. Genotoxic carcinogens ... Discrimination of Genotoxic from Non-genotoxic Carcinogens by Gene Expression Profiling. Carcinogenesis. 25:1265-1276.. ...
It has also been classified as genotoxic and a possible human carcinogen. Pigs raised in northern and central Europe develop ...
The Question of Threshold for Genotoxic Carcinogens. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved July 20, 2015. ... Helmut Greim; Richard J. Albertini (2012). The Cellular Response to the Genotoxic Insult: ...
However, some (non-genotoxic) carcinogens may exhibit a threshold whereby doses lower than the threshold do not invoke a ... When evaluating cancer risks of genotoxic carcinogens, theoretically an effect threshold cannot be estimated. For chemicals ... This toxicity of carcinogens is referred to as being "non-threshold" because there is believed to be essentially no level of ... A = Human carcinogen B1 = indicates that limited human data are available. B2 = indicates sufficient evidence in animals and ...
"The association of in utero exposure to such carcinogens and the subsequent development of cancer has been reported for all ... These compounding factors illustrate the basis for this heightened cellular sensitivity to genotoxic agents. For example, it ... Fetal cells are most sensitive to carcinogens during the early stages of gestation. Notably, early in the gestational period, ... is a series of genotypic and/or phenotypic changes in the cells of a fetus due to in utero exposure to carcinogens. ...
... "likely human carcinogen". The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified TCDD as a human carcinogen (class 1) ... These compounds have also not been shown to have any direct mutagenic or genotoxic activity. Their main action in causing ... Dioxins are well established carcinogens in animal studies, although the precise mechanistic role is not clear. Dioxins are not ... mutagenic or genotoxic.[citation needed] The United States Environmental Protection Agency has categorised dioxin, and the ...
Using zinc chromate as a standard, it was discovered that barium chromate is both genotoxic and cytotoxic. The cytotoxicity was ... Chromates, when pulverized and inhaled, are carcinogens. Hauff, Phoebe L; Foord, Eugene E; Rosenblum, Sam; and Hakki, Walid. ( ...
Azoxymethane (AOM) is a genotoxic colonic carcinogen and is routinely used to induce colon tumours in mice. The AOM-induced ...
"Discrimination for genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens by gene expression profiling in primary mouse hepatocytes improves ...
... and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of DNA-damaging agents (e.g., acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens ... Alcohol as a carcinogen and cocarcinogenEdit. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (Centre International de ... This evidence may suggest that there is a cocarcinogenic interaction between alcohol and tobacco-related carcinogens.[19][20] ... Alcoholic beverages are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen ( ...
... is still regarded by FDA to be a weak carcinogen in rats. However, according to a 1977 study of the metabolites of ... The European Commission on Health and consumer protection assumes safrole to be genotoxic and carcinogenic. It occurs naturally ... "Human cytochrome p450 enzyme specificity for bioactivation of safrole to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxysafrole". Chemical ...
The result of the test detects the majority of genotoxic carcinogens and genetic changes; the types of mutations detected are ... Genotoxic chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with the use of one or more genotoxic drugs. The treatment is traditionally ... This table depicts different genotoxic-based cancer treatments along with examples. Cancer Carcinogen Carcinogenesis ... While genotoxicity is often confused with mutagenicity, all mutagens are genotoxic, whereas not all genotoxic substances are ...
Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or mutations by ... Common carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogens are agents that pose a risk of cancer in several ... Major carcinogens implicated in the four most common cancers worldwideEdit. In this section, the carcinogens implicated as the ... Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens ...
It is considered likely to be a human carcinogen although the majority of studies suggest it is not directly genotoxic. DDE ... "reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen" and by the EPA classified DDT, DDE and DDD as class B2 "probable" carcinogens; these ...
The positive genotoxic results are explained with limited evidence to be due to a secondary auto-oxidative mechanism from ... Ractopamine is not considered to be a carcinogen and not listed by IARC, NTP, ACGIH, or OSHA. The observation benign leiomyomas ...
It is used in risk assessment to determine the dangerousness of substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic. This ... Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Przybylski, Maria C.; Rehm, Jürgen (15 September 2012). "Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in ... approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48: S2-S24. doi:10.1016/j. ... by both the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority for the evaluation of the risk of carcinogens. ...
Cytochrome P450 in the hepatocytes is responsible for secreting the hydrolyzing enzymes that convert β-asarone into genotoxic ... a derivative which is not a carcinogen.[49] ...
Pontel, L. B.; Patel, KJ (2015). "Endogenous Formaldehyde Is a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Genotoxin and Metabolic Carcinogen". Mol ... Garaycoechea, J. I.; Patel, KJ (2012). "Genotoxic consequences of endogenous aldehydes on mouse haematopoietic stem cell ...
... expression is induced by the non-genotoxic carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the rat liver, but this ...
In the studies, it was confirmed that Tg-rasH2 mice are sensitive to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic human carcinogens and ... show no response to non-carcinogens. As a consequence, the Tg-rasH2 mice have been accepted as a short-term carcinogenicity ...
While not itself a strong carcinogen, cacodylic acid does promote tumors in the presence of carcinogens in organs such as the ... It has been shown to be genotoxic in human cells, causing apoptosis and also decreased DNA production and shorter DNA strands. ...
... has concluded that there is insufficient evidence to prove that hydrogen peroxide is a carcinogen to humans.[64] Recently, the ... genotoxic potential of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated. The results indicated that the oral health products that contain or ...
A few carcinogens commonly found in tar include benzene, acrylamide and acrylonitrile. Smoking exposes delicate cells inside ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), for example, are genotoxic via epoxidation.[2]. Cigarette companies in the United ...
Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation brings together current opinion and research activities from ... Japan, the US, and Europe on the subject of genotoxic thresholds. In re ... download and read Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens ebook online in EPUB or PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer ... and Europe on the subject of genotoxic thresholds. In regulation, it is an adage that genotoxic carcinogens have no thresholds ...
What is genotoxic carcinogens? Meaning of genotoxic carcinogens medical term. What does genotoxic carcinogens mean? ... Looking for online definition of genotoxic carcinogens in the Medical Dictionary? genotoxic carcinogens explanation free. ... genotoxic carcinogens. genotoxic carcinogens. cancer-causing agents that can alter deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. ... Genotoxic carcinogens , definition of genotoxic carcinogens by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
... News Oct 05, 2012 ... We use a rodent model of non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure using the drug phenobarbital.. Results. Exposure to phenobarbital ... Induction and promotion of liver cancer by exposure to non-genotoxic carcinogens coincides with epigenetic perturbations, ... Title : Non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure induces defined changes in the 5-hydroxymethylome. Journal: Genome Biology. http:// ...
... an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens ... is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not ... The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of ... international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. ...
Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances (usually chemicals) that can cause cancer without directly affecting genes - the ... For consumers, the way a substance causes cancer - whether its genotoxic or non-genotoxic - usually wont matter. ... For consumers, the way a substance causes cancer-whether genotoxic or non-genotoxic-may not matter. ...
Developing novel and accurate tests for carcinogens in vitro (cell based) will allow reduced reliance on animals i... ... Currently there are no validated in vitro tests to detect non-DNA reactive (non-genotoxic) carcinogens. Consequently, the 2- ... Developing an in vitro repeat-dose approach to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens. *Full cost of UK/EU tuition fees, plus a ... year rodent carcinogenicity test is the only validated approach to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGCs), which account for ...
Lee, YJ, Choi, IK, Sheen, YY, Park, SN & Kwon, HJ 2012, Moesin is a biomarker for the assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in ... Moesin is a biomarker for the assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in mouse lymphoma. Molecules and cells. 2012 Feb 1;33(2):203- ... Moesin is a biomarker for the assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in mouse lymphoma. In: Molecules and cells. 2012 ; Vol. 33, ... Moesin is a biomarker for the assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in mouse lymphoma. / Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In Kwon; Sheen, ...
Genotoxic carcinogens. Non-genotoxic carcinogens. Carcinogens that directly interact with DNA. Carcinogens that indirectly ... WHAT ARE GENOTOXIC AND NON-GENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS?. The term "genotoxic carcinogens" was coined in the late 1980s based on the ... 1. Models for dose-response curves of non-genotoxic and genotoxic carcinogens. Non-genotoxic carcinogens like as other toxic ... genotoxic carcinogens, and the latter, non-genotoxic carcinogens (Table 1) (10). It is widely recognized that genotoxic ...
keywords = "Carcinogenesis, Genotoxic carcinogens",. author = "A. Verdina and R. Zito and A. Federico and G. Falasca and R. ... Divergent synergic effects in carcinogenesis initiation by simultaneous exposure to two genotoxic carcinogens. In Vivo. 2000;14 ... This first preliminary result showed that the pattern of the interaction between genotoxic carcinogens is more complex that was ... This first preliminary result showed that the pattern of the interaction between genotoxic carcinogens is more complex that was ...
Definition of non-genotoxic carcinogen and genotoxic carcinogens and whether there are any thresholds for carcinogens from a ... Definition of Non-genotoxic and Genotoxic Carcinogen. The key to differentiate a non-genotoxic carcinogen from a genotoxic ... A carcinogen can be further classified into non-genotoxic carcinogen and genotoxic carcinogen.The threshold is the level of ... In this article, we will summarize the definition of non-genotoxic carcinogen and genotoxic carcinogens and try to give you a ...
... identification and exposure monitoring of genotoxic carcinogens. Download. Ball1997.pdf (38.80Mb) ...
OECD looking for assays for Non-Genotoxic Carcinogens AltTox.org is a website dedicated to advancing non-animal methods of ... OECD looking for assays for Non-Genotoxic Carcinogens. Home / Community Blog / OECD looking for assays for Non-Genotoxic ... used within the context of an Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment to assess a chemicals potential for non-genotoxic ...
... holding the download thresholds of genotoxic that snapped him from going where Miles boarded below him so he could produce the ... download thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens from mechanisms to regulation 2016 But as I contact killed on not, is like 100 ... download thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens from gas; 1996 - 2018 AbeBooks Inc. You can voice a web restaurant and stand your ... download thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens from mechanisms people of masks two words for FREE! und countries of Usenet cadets ...
... that polymorphisms in metabolism and repair pathways may play a role in modulating the effects of exposure to the carcinogen ... Gene-environment interactions between DNA repair polymorphisms and exposure to the carcinogen vinyl chloride.. ... Genotoxic-effects; Genotoxicity; Humans; Mutation; Oncogenic-agents; Oncogenicity Statistical-analysis; Author Keywords: Gene- ... that polymorphisms in metabolism and repair pathways may play a role in modulating the effects of exposure to the carcinogen ...
Non-threshold based genotoxic carcinogens as a pdf (1.75 MB)Download WES review - Non-threshold based genotoxic carcinogens as ...
... is a genotoxic or a non-genotoxic carcinogen. This was undertaken to facilitate the risk assessment of human exposure to this ... Is Phenylbutazone a Genotoxic Carcinogen? A Weight-of-Evidence Assessment. Home/ATLA 41, 2013/ATLA 41.3, July 2013/Is ... Is Phenylbutazone a Genotoxic Carcinogen? A Weight-of-Evidence Assessment. Robert D. Combes. ... it was concluded that PBZ behaves like a genotoxic carcinogen with a threshold dose. This conclusion is based mainly on the ...
Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens Product Type: Book. Edition: 1. First Published: 2016 ...
Carcinogen A carcinogen is a substance that causes a normal cell to change into a cancerous cell, resulting in uncontrolled ... Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic carcinogen. Other carcinogens may change how DNA expresses its information without changing ... Carcinogen Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CARCINOGEN. A carcinogen is an agent that can ... Carcinogen UXL Encyclopedia of Science COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group, Inc.. Carcinogen. A carcinogen is a substance that causes ...
... non-genotoxic carcinogens; immortalization and transformation of cells; and the role of cell production, cell function, and ...
Gene expression profile induced by genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in the rat kidney cells. Year: 2010 ... NGTX carcinogens induced more gene changes and deregulated more pathways than GTX carcinogens, implicated a more diverse ... Normal Rat Kideny cell line (NRK-52E) was exposed individually to 5 genotoxic (GTX) or 5 non-genotoxic (NGTX) rat renal ... the carcinogenic potential of compounds to the kidney and help to discriminate between genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens ...
Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens From Mechanisms to Regulation. * Quick look Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens From ...
An in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) is useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs); however, it does ... N2 - An in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) is useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs); however, it ... AB - An in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) is useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs); however, it ... abstract = "An in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) is useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs); ...
DOSE-RESPONSE STUDIES OF GENOTOXIC RODENT CARCINOGENS: THRESHOLDS, HOCKEY STICKS, HORMESIS OR STRAIGHT LINES? Kirk Kitchin and ...
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
  • Abstract: Dr Cherry was invited in June 2000 by a group of European Parliament MPs to present evidence at a European Parliament Conference if there was any evidence that electromagnetic radiation was a genotoxic any epidemiological evidence showing what exposure levels could be safe. (scribd.com)
  • Coined by Paracelsus, who was a 15th century Swiss scientist, physician, alchemist, and mysterious thinker ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_dose_makes_the_poison ), he is known as "the father of toxicology" because of this famous phrase. (toxicolres.org)
  • He is also an internationally recognised researcher in the field of Genetic Toxicology (DNA damage), being at the forefront of research efforts to improve in vitro (cell-based) assessment of genotoxic risks from chemical exposure. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Carcinogens may increase the risk of getting cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells , which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division ultimately. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Kligerman, A.D. (1982) Fishes as biological detectors of the effects of genotoxic agents. (springer.com)
  • Genotoxic carcinogens can attack biological macromolecules such as DNA and RNA either directly or indirectly through metabolism, resulting in the formation of adducts with these macromolecules. (genome.jp)
  • The right to a high level of protection of the health and safety at work, as well as to a working environment adapted to the professional needs of workers and which enables them to prolong their participation in the labour market includes also protection from carcinogens and mutagens at the workplace. (europa.eu)
  • The right to a high level of protection of the health and safety at work, as well as to a working environment adapted to the professional needs of workers also includes protection from carcinogens and mutagens at the workplace , irrespective of the arrangements for or duration of the employment or the exposure. (europa.eu)
  • A consistent level of protection from the risks related to carcinogens and mutagens is provided for in Directive 2004/37/EC by a framework of general principles to enable Member States to ensure the consistent application of the minimum requirements. (europa.eu)
  • Rapid induction of more malignant tumors by various genotoxic carcinogens in transgenic mice harboring a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene than in control non-transgenic mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Induction of micronuclei following exposure to methylene di-phenyl diisocyanate: potential genotoxic metabolites. (cdc.gov)
  • Re: Yang, J. and Duerksen-Hughes, P. (1998) A new approach to identifying genotoxic carcinogens: p53 induction as an indicator of genotoxic damage. (oup.com)
  • abstract = "1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. (elsevier.com)
  • At least," he says, "there is a contrast with tobacco smoke, where genotoxic carcinogens are clearly present and involved along with other types of effects, and carcinogen-DNA adducts have been observed in the breast tissue of exposed women. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This evidence may suggest that there is a cocarcinogenic interaction between alcohol and tobacco-related carcinogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • As far back as the 1930s, Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzo[ a ]pyrene , tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine , and reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde , which is also a hazard in embalming and making plastics . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genotoxic effects in the lung fibroblast (V79) cell line were examined using two complementary assays: the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. (cdc.gov)
  • This first preliminary result showed that the pattern of the interaction between genotoxic carcinogens is more complex that was foreseen, even at the stage of DNA adducts formation. (elsevier.com)
  • There also is a responsibility on behalf of society to identify cancer-causing agents, doing assessments for them, implementing laws to remove potential carcinogens, and providing educational programs to warn the public, despite the high costs of such efforts. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • More than 50,000 workers in the United States are exposed to roofing asphalt fumes that may pose genotoxic and potential carcinogenic hazards. (cdc.gov)
  • CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation ( alpha , beta , gamma , or neutron and the radioactive strength), its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, and the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of contaminants which are considered to be genotoxic carcinogens or in cases where current exposure of the population or of vulnerable groups in the population is close to or exceeds the tolerable intake, maximum levels should be set at a level which is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (europa.eu)